collagenase type 2 Search Results


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  • 99
    Worthington Biochemical collagenase type2
    The role of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) in blunting autophagic signaling. Representative western blots showing Beclin-1 and LC3 protein in cardiomyocytes from non-diabetic (Con) and <t>type</t> 2 diabetic ( db/db ) under basal conditions and in response
    Collagenase Type2, supplied by Worthington Biochemical, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 629 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore type 2 collagenase
    The role of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) in blunting autophagic signaling. Representative western blots showing Beclin-1 and LC3 protein in cardiomyocytes from non-diabetic (Con) and <t>type</t> 2 diabetic ( db/db ) under basal conditions and in response
    Type 2 Collagenase, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 84 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Worthington Biochemical collagenase
    The role of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) in blunting autophagic signaling. Representative western blots showing Beclin-1 and LC3 protein in cardiomyocytes from non-diabetic (Con) and <t>type</t> 2 diabetic ( db/db ) under basal conditions and in response
    Collagenase, supplied by Worthington Biochemical, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 7707 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore collagenase type 2
    The role of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) in blunting autophagic signaling. Representative western blots showing Beclin-1 and LC3 protein in cardiomyocytes from non-diabetic (Con) and <t>type</t> 2 diabetic ( db/db ) under basal conditions and in response
    Collagenase Type 2, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 263 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    84
    Cedarlane collagenase type 2
    The role of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) in blunting autophagic signaling. Representative western blots showing Beclin-1 and LC3 protein in cardiomyocytes from non-diabetic (Con) and <t>type</t> 2 diabetic ( db/db ) under basal conditions and in response
    Collagenase Type 2, supplied by Cedarlane, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 84/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Thermo Fisher collagenase type 2
    Instability of the newly formed cartilage tissue and subchondral bone plate migration in small size defects (A): Representative SafO staining and immunohistochemical staining for <t>type</t> 2 collagen and type 1 collagen of small osteochondral defects at 16 weeks. (Bar = 500 μm. Yellow dot line in 0.9 mm group indicates subchondral bone plate. Black dotted line indicated the original defect borders) (B): Quantification of proportion of SafO positivity in which 100% indicated same size as native cartilage in the small defect size group until 16 weeks. (C): Quantification of the relative proportion of the subchondral bone area in which 100% indicated same size as the drilling size in the 0.9 mm group until 16 weeks. (D): Quantification for areas of subchondral bone plate distance in which 0 mm indicated same depth as native subchondral bone plate depth in the 0.9 mm group until 16 weeks. ( n = 4, * P
    Collagenase Type 2, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 105 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    FUJIFILM collagenase type 2
    Instability of the newly formed cartilage tissue and subchondral bone plate migration in small size defects (A): Representative SafO staining and immunohistochemical staining for <t>type</t> 2 collagen and type 1 collagen of small osteochondral defects at 16 weeks. (Bar = 500 μm. Yellow dot line in 0.9 mm group indicates subchondral bone plate. Black dotted line indicated the original defect borders) (B): Quantification of proportion of SafO positivity in which 100% indicated same size as native cartilage in the small defect size group until 16 weeks. (C): Quantification of the relative proportion of the subchondral bone area in which 100% indicated same size as the drilling size in the 0.9 mm group until 16 weeks. (D): Quantification for areas of subchondral bone plate distance in which 0 mm indicated same depth as native subchondral bone plate depth in the 0.9 mm group until 16 weeks. ( n = 4, * P
    Collagenase Type 2, supplied by FUJIFILM, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    86
    Roche collagenase type 2
    Instability of the newly formed cartilage tissue and subchondral bone plate migration in small size defects (A): Representative SafO staining and immunohistochemical staining for <t>type</t> 2 collagen and type 1 collagen of small osteochondral defects at 16 weeks. (Bar = 500 μm. Yellow dot line in 0.9 mm group indicates subchondral bone plate. Black dotted line indicated the original defect borders) (B): Quantification of proportion of SafO positivity in which 100% indicated same size as native cartilage in the small defect size group until 16 weeks. (C): Quantification of the relative proportion of the subchondral bone area in which 100% indicated same size as the drilling size in the 0.9 mm group until 16 weeks. (D): Quantification for areas of subchondral bone plate distance in which 0 mm indicated same depth as native subchondral bone plate depth in the 0.9 mm group until 16 weeks. ( n = 4, * P
    Collagenase Type 2, supplied by Roche, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore collagenase
    Instability of the newly formed cartilage tissue and subchondral bone plate migration in small size defects (A): Representative SafO staining and immunohistochemical staining for <t>type</t> 2 collagen and type 1 collagen of small osteochondral defects at 16 weeks. (Bar = 500 μm. Yellow dot line in 0.9 mm group indicates subchondral bone plate. Black dotted line indicated the original defect borders) (B): Quantification of proportion of SafO positivity in which 100% indicated same size as native cartilage in the small defect size group until 16 weeks. (C): Quantification of the relative proportion of the subchondral bone area in which 100% indicated same size as the drilling size in the 0.9 mm group until 16 weeks. (D): Quantification for areas of subchondral bone plate distance in which 0 mm indicated same depth as native subchondral bone plate depth in the 0.9 mm group until 16 weeks. ( n = 4, * P
    Collagenase, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 19125 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Fisher Scientific collagenase type 2
    Instability of the newly formed cartilage tissue and subchondral bone plate migration in small size defects (A): Representative SafO staining and immunohistochemical staining for <t>type</t> 2 collagen and type 1 collagen of small osteochondral defects at 16 weeks. (Bar = 500 μm. Yellow dot line in 0.9 mm group indicates subchondral bone plate. Black dotted line indicated the original defect borders) (B): Quantification of proportion of SafO positivity in which 100% indicated same size as native cartilage in the small defect size group until 16 weeks. (C): Quantification of the relative proportion of the subchondral bone area in which 100% indicated same size as the drilling size in the 0.9 mm group until 16 weeks. (D): Quantification for areas of subchondral bone plate distance in which 0 mm indicated same depth as native subchondral bone plate depth in the 0.9 mm group until 16 weeks. ( n = 4, * P
    Collagenase Type 2, supplied by Fisher Scientific, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    STEMCELL Technologies Inc collagenase type 2
    Instability of the newly formed cartilage tissue and subchondral bone plate migration in small size defects (A): Representative SafO staining and immunohistochemical staining for <t>type</t> 2 collagen and type 1 collagen of small osteochondral defects at 16 weeks. (Bar = 500 μm. Yellow dot line in 0.9 mm group indicates subchondral bone plate. Black dotted line indicated the original defect borders) (B): Quantification of proportion of SafO positivity in which 100% indicated same size as native cartilage in the small defect size group until 16 weeks. (C): Quantification of the relative proportion of the subchondral bone area in which 100% indicated same size as the drilling size in the 0.9 mm group until 16 weeks. (D): Quantification for areas of subchondral bone plate distance in which 0 mm indicated same depth as native subchondral bone plate depth in the 0.9 mm group until 16 weeks. ( n = 4, * P
    Collagenase Type 2, supplied by STEMCELL Technologies Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore collagenase iv
    Instability of the newly formed cartilage tissue and subchondral bone plate migration in small size defects (A): Representative SafO staining and immunohistochemical staining for <t>type</t> 2 collagen and type 1 collagen of small osteochondral defects at 16 weeks. (Bar = 500 μm. Yellow dot line in 0.9 mm group indicates subchondral bone plate. Black dotted line indicated the original defect borders) (B): Quantification of proportion of SafO positivity in which 100% indicated same size as native cartilage in the small defect size group until 16 weeks. (C): Quantification of the relative proportion of the subchondral bone area in which 100% indicated same size as the drilling size in the 0.9 mm group until 16 weeks. (D): Quantification for areas of subchondral bone plate distance in which 0 mm indicated same depth as native subchondral bone plate depth in the 0.9 mm group until 16 weeks. ( n = 4, * P
    Collagenase Iv, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 5430 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Boehringer Mannheim collagenase type 2
    Instability of the newly formed cartilage tissue and subchondral bone plate migration in small size defects (A): Representative SafO staining and immunohistochemical staining for <t>type</t> 2 collagen and type 1 collagen of small osteochondral defects at 16 weeks. (Bar = 500 μm. Yellow dot line in 0.9 mm group indicates subchondral bone plate. Black dotted line indicated the original defect borders) (B): Quantification of proportion of SafO positivity in which 100% indicated same size as native cartilage in the small defect size group until 16 weeks. (C): Quantification of the relative proportion of the subchondral bone area in which 100% indicated same size as the drilling size in the 0.9 mm group until 16 weeks. (D): Quantification for areas of subchondral bone plate distance in which 0 mm indicated same depth as native subchondral bone plate depth in the 0.9 mm group until 16 weeks. ( n = 4, * P
    Collagenase Type 2, supplied by Boehringer Mannheim, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Becton Dickinson type 2 collagenase
    Instability of the newly formed cartilage tissue and subchondral bone plate migration in small size defects (A): Representative SafO staining and immunohistochemical staining for <t>type</t> 2 collagen and type 1 collagen of small osteochondral defects at 16 weeks. (Bar = 500 μm. Yellow dot line in 0.9 mm group indicates subchondral bone plate. Black dotted line indicated the original defect borders) (B): Quantification of proportion of SafO positivity in which 100% indicated same size as native cartilage in the small defect size group until 16 weeks. (C): Quantification of the relative proportion of the subchondral bone area in which 100% indicated same size as the drilling size in the 0.9 mm group until 16 weeks. (D): Quantification for areas of subchondral bone plate distance in which 0 mm indicated same depth as native subchondral bone plate depth in the 0.9 mm group until 16 weeks. ( n = 4, * P
    Type 2 Collagenase, supplied by Becton Dickinson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 12 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Roche collagenase
    Instability of the newly formed cartilage tissue and subchondral bone plate migration in small size defects (A): Representative SafO staining and immunohistochemical staining for <t>type</t> 2 collagen and type 1 collagen of small osteochondral defects at 16 weeks. (Bar = 500 μm. Yellow dot line in 0.9 mm group indicates subchondral bone plate. Black dotted line indicated the original defect borders) (B): Quantification of proportion of SafO positivity in which 100% indicated same size as native cartilage in the small defect size group until 16 weeks. (C): Quantification of the relative proportion of the subchondral bone area in which 100% indicated same size as the drilling size in the 0.9 mm group until 16 weeks. (D): Quantification for areas of subchondral bone plate distance in which 0 mm indicated same depth as native subchondral bone plate depth in the 0.9 mm group until 16 weeks. ( n = 4, * P
    Collagenase, supplied by Roche, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 3241 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore collagenase type v
    Instability of the newly formed cartilage tissue and subchondral bone plate migration in small size defects (A): Representative SafO staining and immunohistochemical staining for <t>type</t> 2 collagen and type 1 collagen of small osteochondral defects at 16 weeks. (Bar = 500 μm. Yellow dot line in 0.9 mm group indicates subchondral bone plate. Black dotted line indicated the original defect borders) (B): Quantification of proportion of SafO positivity in which 100% indicated same size as native cartilage in the small defect size group until 16 weeks. (C): Quantification of the relative proportion of the subchondral bone area in which 100% indicated same size as the drilling size in the 0.9 mm group until 16 weeks. (D): Quantification for areas of subchondral bone plate distance in which 0 mm indicated same depth as native subchondral bone plate depth in the 0.9 mm group until 16 weeks. ( n = 4, * P
    Collagenase Type V, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 505 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    The role of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) in blunting autophagic signaling. Representative western blots showing Beclin-1 and LC3 protein in cardiomyocytes from non-diabetic (Con) and type 2 diabetic ( db/db ) under basal conditions and in response

    Journal: Life sciences

    Article Title: Cardiac O-GlcNAcylation blunts autophagic signaling in the diabetic heart

    doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2012.06.011

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The role of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) in blunting autophagic signaling. Representative western blots showing Beclin-1 and LC3 protein in cardiomyocytes from non-diabetic (Con) and type 2 diabetic ( db/db ) under basal conditions and in response

    Article Snippet: Briefly, hearts were rapidly excised from heparinized and anesthetized mice, perfused retrogradely with Ca2+ -free perfusion buffer consisting of (in mM) 0.6 KH2 PO4 , 0.6 Na2 HPO4 , 1.2 MgSO4 • 7H2 O, 0.032 phenol red, 12 NaHCO3 , 10 KHCO3 , 10 HEPES, 30 taurine, 10 2,3-butanedione monoxime, and 5.5 glucose, pH 7.46, followed by buffer containing 12.5 μM CaCl2 and 0.4 mg/ml collagenase type 2 (Worthington).

    Techniques: Western Blot

    The temporal progression of body weight (A) and survival (B) following either sham or trans-aortic constriction surgery to induce a pressure overload (PO) in non-diabetic (control), high fat-fed, or high fat-fed and STZ treated type 2 diabetic rats. †

    Journal: Life sciences

    Article Title: Cardiac O-GlcNAcylation blunts autophagic signaling in the diabetic heart

    doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2012.06.011

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The temporal progression of body weight (A) and survival (B) following either sham or trans-aortic constriction surgery to induce a pressure overload (PO) in non-diabetic (control), high fat-fed, or high fat-fed and STZ treated type 2 diabetic rats. †

    Article Snippet: Briefly, hearts were rapidly excised from heparinized and anesthetized mice, perfused retrogradely with Ca2+ -free perfusion buffer consisting of (in mM) 0.6 KH2 PO4 , 0.6 Na2 HPO4 , 1.2 MgSO4 • 7H2 O, 0.032 phenol red, 12 NaHCO3 , 10 KHCO3 , 10 HEPES, 30 taurine, 10 2,3-butanedione monoxime, and 5.5 glucose, pH 7.46, followed by buffer containing 12.5 μM CaCl2 and 0.4 mg/ml collagenase type 2 (Worthington).

    Techniques:

    A : Ca 2+ -sensitive binding of [ 3 H]ryanodine to type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) from sedentary control, sedentary STZ-diabetic, ExT control, and ExT STZ-diabetic rat hearts. Data are means ± SE from at least 5 different

    Journal: Journal of Applied Physiology

    Article Title: Exercise training during diabetes attenuates cardiac ryanodine receptor dysregulation

    doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.91280.2008

    Figure Lengend Snippet: A : Ca 2+ -sensitive binding of [ 3 H]ryanodine to type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) from sedentary control, sedentary STZ-diabetic, ExT control, and ExT STZ-diabetic rat hearts. Data are means ± SE from at least 5 different

    Article Snippet: Type 2 collagenase was obtained from Worthington Biomedical (Lakewood, NJ).

    Techniques: Binding Assay

    K/B.g7 cardiac valve inflammation and fibrosis requires CX3CR1 A, Cx3cr1-gfp mice contain an eGFP reporter construct in the endogenous Cx3cr1 locus; mice homozygous for the eGFP allele are Cx3cr1 -null ( Cx3cr1 -KO) whereas heterozygous mice retain Cx3cr1 expression. B, Top: Cx3cr1-eGFP + cells are seen throughout the MV interstitium of K/B.g7: Cx3cr1 gfp/wt mice (coronal sections, nuclear counter-staining with Hoechst 33342); bottom: Cx3cr1-eGFP + cells in inflamed K/B.g7 MVs exhibit a characteristic phagocyte morphology (whole-mount MVs from K/B.g7: Cx3cr1 gfp/wt mice, processed using tissue clearing methods and imaged en face ). C, MV thickness measurements from Cx3cr1- KO animals ( Cx3cr1 gfp/gfp ) relative Cx3cr1-replete controls ( Cx3cr1 gfp/wt ) (median MV thickness at 8 weeks: 132.9 μm [n=4] and 69.1 μm [n=10], Cx3cr1 gfp/wt and Cx3cr1 gfp/gfp , respectively); reference thicknesses for MVs from K/B.g7 and B.g7 control mice are provided. D, Flow cytometry on collagenase-2-DNAse-I-digested MVs from K/B.g7: Cx3cr1 gfp/wt mice demonstrating GFP + MNPs (CD45.2 + CD3e − B220/CD45R − Ly6G − CX3CR1 + ) uniformly display a phenotype consistent with macrophages (CD64/FcγRI + ), therein. Scale bars in B are equal to 50 microns. Asterisks (***) in C indicate statistically significant differences at p

    Journal: Circulation

    Article Title: CD301b/MGL2+ mononuclear phagocytes orchestrate autoimmune cardiac valve inflammation and fibrosis

    doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.033144

    Figure Lengend Snippet: K/B.g7 cardiac valve inflammation and fibrosis requires CX3CR1 A, Cx3cr1-gfp mice contain an eGFP reporter construct in the endogenous Cx3cr1 locus; mice homozygous for the eGFP allele are Cx3cr1 -null ( Cx3cr1 -KO) whereas heterozygous mice retain Cx3cr1 expression. B, Top: Cx3cr1-eGFP + cells are seen throughout the MV interstitium of K/B.g7: Cx3cr1 gfp/wt mice (coronal sections, nuclear counter-staining with Hoechst 33342); bottom: Cx3cr1-eGFP + cells in inflamed K/B.g7 MVs exhibit a characteristic phagocyte morphology (whole-mount MVs from K/B.g7: Cx3cr1 gfp/wt mice, processed using tissue clearing methods and imaged en face ). C, MV thickness measurements from Cx3cr1- KO animals ( Cx3cr1 gfp/gfp ) relative Cx3cr1-replete controls ( Cx3cr1 gfp/wt ) (median MV thickness at 8 weeks: 132.9 μm [n=4] and 69.1 μm [n=10], Cx3cr1 gfp/wt and Cx3cr1 gfp/gfp , respectively); reference thicknesses for MVs from K/B.g7 and B.g7 control mice are provided. D, Flow cytometry on collagenase-2-DNAse-I-digested MVs from K/B.g7: Cx3cr1 gfp/wt mice demonstrating GFP + MNPs (CD45.2 + CD3e − B220/CD45R − Ly6G − CX3CR1 + ) uniformly display a phenotype consistent with macrophages (CD64/FcγRI + ), therein. Scale bars in B are equal to 50 microns. Asterisks (***) in C indicate statistically significant differences at p

    Article Snippet: MVs were suspended in pre-warmed RPMI containing 3% FBS, 10 mM 2-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES), 500 U/mL collagenase-2 (Worthington Biochemical, ), 20 U/mL DNase I (Worthington Biochemical, ).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Construct, Expressing, Staining, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry

    Fully-penetrant, fibro-inflammatory cardiac valve pathology in K/B.g7 mice A , K/B.g7 mice develop systemic inflammation and auto-antibody production following activation of T lymphocytes bearing a transgenic T cell receptor (TCR, termed ‘KRN’) that recognizes a peptide derived from glucose-6-phosphate-isomese (GPI) presented in the context of the I-Ag7 major histocompatibility complex-II (MHC-II) expressed on professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). B , K/B.g7 mice develop fully-penetrant cardiac valve inflammation and fibrosis beginning at 3 weeks of age (evident histologically by the appearance of adherent inflammatory cells at the mitral valve (MV)-atrial interface, bottom left image, red arrowheads) and by 8 weeks of age, the MV becomes dramatically thickened and diffusely inflamed (bottom right image). C , Masson’s trichrome staining of coronal sections at 8 weeks of age shows that in non-inflamed B.g7 control mice that lack expression of the transgenic KRN TCR the MVs are homogeneous, thin, collagen-rich, and sparsely-cellular (top), whereas age-matched K/B.g7 MVs (bottom) demonstrate dramatic structural alterations resulting interstitial collagen deposition and diffuse infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells. D , The inflamed K/B.g7 MVs are thickened approximately 2.5-fold relative to the non-inflamed B.g7 control mice at both 8 weeks and 1 year of age (median MV thickness, 8-weeks: 68.1 μm [n=4] and 180.3 μm [n=4]; median MV thickness, 1-year: 66.4 μm [n=3] and 217.7 μm [n=3], in B.g7 and K/B.g7 mice, respectively) E , Quantifiably-elevated hydroxyproline (HYP) content (a measure of collagen) is present in K/B.g7 MVs, both at 8-weeks and also 1-year, relative to non-inflamed control mice (median MV HYP content, 8-weeks: 7.16 μg [n=5] and 10.3 μg [n=3]; median MV HYP content, 1-year: 4.6 μg [n=4] and 10.2 μg [n=4]; B.g7 and K/B.g7 mice, respectively). F , Flow cytometry of collagenase-2-DNAse-I-digested MVs from K/B.g7 mice demonstrates a leukocytic infiltrate (CD45.2 + fraction) dominated by mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs, e.g. macrophages and monocytes) while T and B lymphocytes and neutrophils are present less frequently (n=5). ‘LV’ and ‘LA’ denotes the left ventricle and left atrium, respectively. Scale bars in C are equal to 50 microns. Asterisks (*) in D and E indicate statistical significance at p

    Journal: Circulation

    Article Title: CD301b/MGL2+ mononuclear phagocytes orchestrate autoimmune cardiac valve inflammation and fibrosis

    doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.033144

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Fully-penetrant, fibro-inflammatory cardiac valve pathology in K/B.g7 mice A , K/B.g7 mice develop systemic inflammation and auto-antibody production following activation of T lymphocytes bearing a transgenic T cell receptor (TCR, termed ‘KRN’) that recognizes a peptide derived from glucose-6-phosphate-isomese (GPI) presented in the context of the I-Ag7 major histocompatibility complex-II (MHC-II) expressed on professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). B , K/B.g7 mice develop fully-penetrant cardiac valve inflammation and fibrosis beginning at 3 weeks of age (evident histologically by the appearance of adherent inflammatory cells at the mitral valve (MV)-atrial interface, bottom left image, red arrowheads) and by 8 weeks of age, the MV becomes dramatically thickened and diffusely inflamed (bottom right image). C , Masson’s trichrome staining of coronal sections at 8 weeks of age shows that in non-inflamed B.g7 control mice that lack expression of the transgenic KRN TCR the MVs are homogeneous, thin, collagen-rich, and sparsely-cellular (top), whereas age-matched K/B.g7 MVs (bottom) demonstrate dramatic structural alterations resulting interstitial collagen deposition and diffuse infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells. D , The inflamed K/B.g7 MVs are thickened approximately 2.5-fold relative to the non-inflamed B.g7 control mice at both 8 weeks and 1 year of age (median MV thickness, 8-weeks: 68.1 μm [n=4] and 180.3 μm [n=4]; median MV thickness, 1-year: 66.4 μm [n=3] and 217.7 μm [n=3], in B.g7 and K/B.g7 mice, respectively) E , Quantifiably-elevated hydroxyproline (HYP) content (a measure of collagen) is present in K/B.g7 MVs, both at 8-weeks and also 1-year, relative to non-inflamed control mice (median MV HYP content, 8-weeks: 7.16 μg [n=5] and 10.3 μg [n=3]; median MV HYP content, 1-year: 4.6 μg [n=4] and 10.2 μg [n=4]; B.g7 and K/B.g7 mice, respectively). F , Flow cytometry of collagenase-2-DNAse-I-digested MVs from K/B.g7 mice demonstrates a leukocytic infiltrate (CD45.2 + fraction) dominated by mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs, e.g. macrophages and monocytes) while T and B lymphocytes and neutrophils are present less frequently (n=5). ‘LV’ and ‘LA’ denotes the left ventricle and left atrium, respectively. Scale bars in C are equal to 50 microns. Asterisks (*) in D and E indicate statistical significance at p

    Article Snippet: MVs were suspended in pre-warmed RPMI containing 3% FBS, 10 mM 2-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES), 500 U/mL collagenase-2 (Worthington Biochemical, ), 20 U/mL DNase I (Worthington Biochemical, ).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Activation Assay, Transgenic Assay, Derivative Assay, Staining, Expressing, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry

    Instability of the newly formed cartilage tissue and subchondral bone plate migration in small size defects (A): Representative SafO staining and immunohistochemical staining for type 2 collagen and type 1 collagen of small osteochondral defects at 16 weeks. (Bar = 500 μm. Yellow dot line in 0.9 mm group indicates subchondral bone plate. Black dotted line indicated the original defect borders) (B): Quantification of proportion of SafO positivity in which 100% indicated same size as native cartilage in the small defect size group until 16 weeks. (C): Quantification of the relative proportion of the subchondral bone area in which 100% indicated same size as the drilling size in the 0.9 mm group until 16 weeks. (D): Quantification for areas of subchondral bone plate distance in which 0 mm indicated same depth as native subchondral bone plate depth in the 0.9 mm group until 16 weeks. ( n = 4, * P

    Journal: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage

    Article Title: Definition of a Critical Size Osteochondral Knee Defect and its Negative Effect on the Surrounding Articular Cartilage in the Rat

    doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2017.05.006

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Instability of the newly formed cartilage tissue and subchondral bone plate migration in small size defects (A): Representative SafO staining and immunohistochemical staining for type 2 collagen and type 1 collagen of small osteochondral defects at 16 weeks. (Bar = 500 μm. Yellow dot line in 0.9 mm group indicates subchondral bone plate. Black dotted line indicated the original defect borders) (B): Quantification of proportion of SafO positivity in which 100% indicated same size as native cartilage in the small defect size group until 16 weeks. (C): Quantification of the relative proportion of the subchondral bone area in which 100% indicated same size as the drilling size in the 0.9 mm group until 16 weeks. (D): Quantification for areas of subchondral bone plate distance in which 0 mm indicated same depth as native subchondral bone plate depth in the 0.9 mm group until 16 weeks. ( n = 4, * P

    Article Snippet: Isolation and culture of rat chondrocytes Intact cartilage (non-operated positive control) from rat knee joints was dissected and digested with 0.2% type 2 collagenase (Thermo Fisher Scientific) in DMEM/F12 for 3 h at 37°C.

    Techniques: Migration, Staining, Immunohistochemistry

    Immunohistochemical characterization and gene expression of the reparative tissues (A): Representative immunohistochemically staining of native cartilage and four different sizes of osteochondral defects for type 2 collagen at 4 and 8 weeks ( n = 4). (B): Representative immunohistochemically staining of native cartilage and four different size of osteochondral defects for type 1 collagen at 4 and 8 weeks ( n = 4). (C): Quantitative gene expression analysis the newly formed tissue in 1.4 mm osteochondral defects and non-operative native cartilage ( n = 3). (Bar = 500 μm).

    Journal: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage

    Article Title: Definition of a Critical Size Osteochondral Knee Defect and its Negative Effect on the Surrounding Articular Cartilage in the Rat

    doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2017.05.006

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Immunohistochemical characterization and gene expression of the reparative tissues (A): Representative immunohistochemically staining of native cartilage and four different sizes of osteochondral defects for type 2 collagen at 4 and 8 weeks ( n = 4). (B): Representative immunohistochemically staining of native cartilage and four different size of osteochondral defects for type 1 collagen at 4 and 8 weeks ( n = 4). (C): Quantitative gene expression analysis the newly formed tissue in 1.4 mm osteochondral defects and non-operative native cartilage ( n = 3). (Bar = 500 μm).

    Article Snippet: Isolation and culture of rat chondrocytes Intact cartilage (non-operated positive control) from rat knee joints was dissected and digested with 0.2% type 2 collagenase (Thermo Fisher Scientific) in DMEM/F12 for 3 h at 37°C.

    Techniques: Immunohistochemistry, Expressing, Staining