citrobacter rodentium Search Results


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    ATCC citrobacter rodentium
    Activation of intracellular NF-kB and Smad 7 in mouse epithelial cells. (a) Confluent CMT93 (p23) cells were incubated with <t>Citrobacter</t> <t>rodentium</t> (Cr, 2.5 × 10 7 CFU per well) in a six-well plate for 1 h. Cells were subsequently washed in PBS and
    Citrobacter Rodentium, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 176 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 95 stars, based on 176 article reviews
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    citrobacter rodentium - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
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    92
    ATCC wt citrobacter rodentium atcc 51116
    Effect of TNF- α antagonist on P450 protein expression following <t>Citrobacter</t> <t>rodentium</t> infection. Upper panels : Representative Western blots for Cyp3a, Cyp4a, and Cpr. Equal amounts of protein were loaded in each lane. Lower panels: Quantitative analyses of the data. Cyp3a and Cyp4a protein band intensities were normalized to the intensity of Cpr, used here as a loading control. Protein levels are expressed relative to the levels in uninfected mice without XPro1595 treatment, which was arbitrarily set at 1. Values represent mean ± SEM. *Significantly different from uninfected animals in same XPro1595 treatment group, P
    Wt Citrobacter Rodentium Atcc 51116, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/wt citrobacter rodentium atcc 51116/product/ATCC
    Average 92 stars, based on 5 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    wt citrobacter rodentium atcc 51116 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
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    Image Search Results


    Activation of intracellular NF-kB and Smad 7 in mouse epithelial cells. (a) Confluent CMT93 (p23) cells were incubated with Citrobacter rodentium (Cr, 2.5 × 10 7 CFU per well) in a six-well plate for 1 h. Cells were subsequently washed in PBS and

    Journal: FEMS immunology and medical microbiology

    Article Title: Early administration of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus and/or prebiotic inulin attenuates pathogen-mediated intestinal inflammation and Smad 7 cell signaling

    doi: 10.1111/j.1574-695X.2012.00978.x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Activation of intracellular NF-kB and Smad 7 in mouse epithelial cells. (a) Confluent CMT93 (p23) cells were incubated with Citrobacter rodentium (Cr, 2.5 × 10 7 CFU per well) in a six-well plate for 1 h. Cells were subsequently washed in PBS and

    Article Snippet: Impaired resistance and enhanced pathology during infection with a noninvasive, attaching-effacing enteric bacterial pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium , in mice lacking IL-12 or IFN-gamma.

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Incubation

    Experimental timeline. Three in vivo experiments were conducted in which 3-day-old mice along with lactating dams were randomly assigned to treatment groups of 7–10 mice pups per treatment. Group A (nontreated controls), group B ( Citrobacter rodentium

    Journal: FEMS immunology and medical microbiology

    Article Title: Early administration of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus and/or prebiotic inulin attenuates pathogen-mediated intestinal inflammation and Smad 7 cell signaling

    doi: 10.1111/j.1574-695X.2012.00978.x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Experimental timeline. Three in vivo experiments were conducted in which 3-day-old mice along with lactating dams were randomly assigned to treatment groups of 7–10 mice pups per treatment. Group A (nontreated controls), group B ( Citrobacter rodentium

    Article Snippet: Impaired resistance and enhanced pathology during infection with a noninvasive, attaching-effacing enteric bacterial pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium , in mice lacking IL-12 or IFN-gamma.

    Techniques: In Vivo, Mouse Assay

    Early administration of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus (La) and/or prebiotic inulin reduces Citrobacter rodentium (Cr)-induced morbidity in mice. (a) Body weight changes of noninfected control mice (○) and mice pretreated with a combination

    Journal: FEMS immunology and medical microbiology

    Article Title: Early administration of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus and/or prebiotic inulin attenuates pathogen-mediated intestinal inflammation and Smad 7 cell signaling

    doi: 10.1111/j.1574-695X.2012.00978.x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Early administration of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus (La) and/or prebiotic inulin reduces Citrobacter rodentium (Cr)-induced morbidity in mice. (a) Body weight changes of noninfected control mice (○) and mice pretreated with a combination

    Article Snippet: Impaired resistance and enhanced pathology during infection with a noninvasive, attaching-effacing enteric bacterial pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium , in mice lacking IL-12 or IFN-gamma.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Representative histopathology of colonic tissues at 2 weeks post-Cr infection. Three independent experiments showing similar results with ≈ 7–10 mice per treatment. (a and d) Mice that were infected with Citrobacter rodentium only. (b)

    Journal: FEMS immunology and medical microbiology

    Article Title: Early administration of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus and/or prebiotic inulin attenuates pathogen-mediated intestinal inflammation and Smad 7 cell signaling

    doi: 10.1111/j.1574-695X.2012.00978.x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Representative histopathology of colonic tissues at 2 weeks post-Cr infection. Three independent experiments showing similar results with ≈ 7–10 mice per treatment. (a and d) Mice that were infected with Citrobacter rodentium only. (b)

    Article Snippet: Impaired resistance and enhanced pathology during infection with a noninvasive, attaching-effacing enteric bacterial pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium , in mice lacking IL-12 or IFN-gamma.

    Techniques: Histopathology, Infection, Mouse Assay

    Pretreatment with probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus (La), prebiotic inulin, or synbiotics alters cytokine responses in the MLN of mice. Cells from the MLN were isolated from mice 2 weeks post- Citrobacter rodentium infection of each treatment and exposed

    Journal: FEMS immunology and medical microbiology

    Article Title: Early administration of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus and/or prebiotic inulin attenuates pathogen-mediated intestinal inflammation and Smad 7 cell signaling

    doi: 10.1111/j.1574-695X.2012.00978.x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Pretreatment with probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus (La), prebiotic inulin, or synbiotics alters cytokine responses in the MLN of mice. Cells from the MLN were isolated from mice 2 weeks post- Citrobacter rodentium infection of each treatment and exposed

    Article Snippet: Impaired resistance and enhanced pathology during infection with a noninvasive, attaching-effacing enteric bacterial pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium , in mice lacking IL-12 or IFN-gamma.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Isolation, Infection

    Probiotic La pretreatment attenuates Smad 7 and NF-kB activation post-Citrobacter rodentium exposure in the colon of mice pups. BALB/c ByJ mice were inoculated bi-weekly after birth with, probiotic La, prebiotic inulin, or a combination of both (synbiotic)

    Journal: FEMS immunology and medical microbiology

    Article Title: Early administration of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus and/or prebiotic inulin attenuates pathogen-mediated intestinal inflammation and Smad 7 cell signaling

    doi: 10.1111/j.1574-695X.2012.00978.x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Probiotic La pretreatment attenuates Smad 7 and NF-kB activation post-Citrobacter rodentium exposure in the colon of mice pups. BALB/c ByJ mice were inoculated bi-weekly after birth with, probiotic La, prebiotic inulin, or a combination of both (synbiotic)

    Article Snippet: Impaired resistance and enhanced pathology during infection with a noninvasive, attaching-effacing enteric bacterial pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium , in mice lacking IL-12 or IFN-gamma.

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Mouse Assay

    Bacterial burden in female C3H/HeJ mice after infection with Cpx TCS mutant strains of Citrobacter rodentium . Female C3H/HeJ mice were infected as described previously, and fecal bacterial burden was assessed at day 3 (A) , 6 (B) , and 9 (C) post infection by plating on MacConkey agar and counting Colony Forming Units (CFU). At day 9 post infection, due to significant illness manifestation, in the absence of fecal matter, colon was homogenized and plated on MacConkey agar. A Mann-Whitney test was used to determine significance between each mutant strain and wild-type (** p

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: The Virulence Effect of CpxRA in Citrobacter rodentium Is Independent of the Auxiliary Proteins NlpE and CpxP

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2018.00320

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Bacterial burden in female C3H/HeJ mice after infection with Cpx TCS mutant strains of Citrobacter rodentium . Female C3H/HeJ mice were infected as described previously, and fecal bacterial burden was assessed at day 3 (A) , 6 (B) , and 9 (C) post infection by plating on MacConkey agar and counting Colony Forming Units (CFU). At day 9 post infection, due to significant illness manifestation, in the absence of fecal matter, colon was homogenized and plated on MacConkey agar. A Mann-Whitney test was used to determine significance between each mutant strain and wild-type (** p

    Article Snippet: Draft genome sequence of Citrobacter rodentium DBS100 (ATCC 51459), a primary model of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli virulence .

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Infection, Mutagenesis, MANN-WHITNEY

    In vivo localization of wild-type and Cpx TCS mutant strains of Citrobacter rodentium in the intestine of C3H/HeJ mice. Localization of C. rodentium wild-type and Cpx TCS mutant strains in distal colon samples of day 9 infected C3H/HeJ mice. Sections stained with DAPI (blue) and anti- Citrobacter LPS (green). White boxes on 10X images denote the area of the 20X higher magnification image. Representative images shown from n = 3–4 biological replicates. Scale bars 100 μm.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: The Virulence Effect of CpxRA in Citrobacter rodentium Is Independent of the Auxiliary Proteins NlpE and CpxP

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2018.00320

    Figure Lengend Snippet: In vivo localization of wild-type and Cpx TCS mutant strains of Citrobacter rodentium in the intestine of C3H/HeJ mice. Localization of C. rodentium wild-type and Cpx TCS mutant strains in distal colon samples of day 9 infected C3H/HeJ mice. Sections stained with DAPI (blue) and anti- Citrobacter LPS (green). White boxes on 10X images denote the area of the 20X higher magnification image. Representative images shown from n = 3–4 biological replicates. Scale bars 100 μm.

    Article Snippet: Draft genome sequence of Citrobacter rodentium DBS100 (ATCC 51459), a primary model of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli virulence .

    Techniques: In Vivo, Mutagenesis, Mouse Assay, Infection, Staining

    In vitro adherence of wild-type and Cpx TCS mutant strains of Citrobacter rodentium on HeLa cells. HeLa cells were infected with wild-type C. rodentium or a Cpx TCS mutant strain for 8 hrs. The samples were fixed and stained with DAPI and anti- Citrobacter LPS. Samples were imaged on a Zeiss Axiovert 200M microscope. Total number of bacteria per HeLa cell were counted. The 3 biological replicates for each strain are color-coded. Each replicate consists of 10 fields of view. A non-parametric one-way ANOVA was used to determine statistical significance (**** P

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: The Virulence Effect of CpxRA in Citrobacter rodentium Is Independent of the Auxiliary Proteins NlpE and CpxP

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2018.00320

    Figure Lengend Snippet: In vitro adherence of wild-type and Cpx TCS mutant strains of Citrobacter rodentium on HeLa cells. HeLa cells were infected with wild-type C. rodentium or a Cpx TCS mutant strain for 8 hrs. The samples were fixed and stained with DAPI and anti- Citrobacter LPS. Samples were imaged on a Zeiss Axiovert 200M microscope. Total number of bacteria per HeLa cell were counted. The 3 biological replicates for each strain are color-coded. Each replicate consists of 10 fields of view. A non-parametric one-way ANOVA was used to determine statistical significance (**** P

    Article Snippet: Draft genome sequence of Citrobacter rodentium DBS100 (ATCC 51459), a primary model of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli virulence .

    Techniques: In Vitro, Mutagenesis, Infection, Staining, Microscopy

    Survival of susceptible mice after infection with Cpx TCS mutant strains of Citrobacter rodentium . (A) TCSs are used by bacteria in order to sense environmental stress. The membrane bound histidine kinase (CpxA) is activated by an external signal and propagates a cascade of phosphorylation leading to a transcriptional response by the cytoplasmic response regulator (CpxR). The Cpx TCS has a reported upstream outer membrane sensor, NlpE, and a periplasmic inhibitor, CpxP. (B) Female C3H/HeJ mice were infected by oral gavage with 2–3 × 10 8 colony forming units of wild-type C. rodentium , or a TCS mutant strain. Survival was monitored for 30 days post infection. The log-rank (Mantel-Cox) method was used to determine statistical significance. (PG - peptidoglycan), (** P

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: The Virulence Effect of CpxRA in Citrobacter rodentium Is Independent of the Auxiliary Proteins NlpE and CpxP

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2018.00320

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Survival of susceptible mice after infection with Cpx TCS mutant strains of Citrobacter rodentium . (A) TCSs are used by bacteria in order to sense environmental stress. The membrane bound histidine kinase (CpxA) is activated by an external signal and propagates a cascade of phosphorylation leading to a transcriptional response by the cytoplasmic response regulator (CpxR). The Cpx TCS has a reported upstream outer membrane sensor, NlpE, and a periplasmic inhibitor, CpxP. (B) Female C3H/HeJ mice were infected by oral gavage with 2–3 × 10 8 colony forming units of wild-type C. rodentium , or a TCS mutant strain. Survival was monitored for 30 days post infection. The log-rank (Mantel-Cox) method was used to determine statistical significance. (PG - peptidoglycan), (** P

    Article Snippet: Draft genome sequence of Citrobacter rodentium DBS100 (ATCC 51459), a primary model of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli virulence .

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Infection, Mutagenesis

    Dynamics of Citrobacter rodentium infection in SPF and germ-free wild-type mice. ( A ) Schematic of possible routes of epithelial infection shaping A/E lesion development and renewal in the face of continuous epithelial regeneration. Black arrows indicate direction of epithelial cell migration and luminal exfoliation. Green arrows indicate possible routes of bacterial infection, with or without luminal planktonic stage. ( B-D ) Luminal colonization quantitated by bacterial plating from feces of SPF mice (panel B; n = 12–21 per group and time point) and germ-free mice (panel C; n = 3–15 per group and time point) following inoculation with 10 10 (red squares) and 10 4 (blue circles) CFU/mouse, respectively. (D) Early colonization in mice (n = 4 per group) sampled every hour during the first 12 hours after gavage. Fitted exponential curves were used to extrapolate the time to reach levels of 2.5x10 9 CFU/g in the animals inoculated with 10 4 CFU. The average of these 4 values is represented by the vertical dotted line (at 15.5 h). ( E-H ) Representative fluorescent microscopy images of distal colon cross sections of SPF (E and G) and germ-free (F and H) mice infected with 10 10 (E and F) and 10 4 (G and H) CFU/mouse of C . rodentium analyzed on day 7 post infection. All individual mice depicted were infected with a 1:1 mixture of bacteria carrying a mCherry (red) or GFP (green) fluorescent protein expression plasmid. Grey, F-actin stained with phalloidin; green, GFP-expressing C . rodentium ; red, mCherry-expressing C . rodentium . Inset indicates area shown in higher magnification panel. Scale bars: 100 μm. ( I ) Numbers of A/E microcolonies in the distal colon of SPF mice infected with either 10 4 (blue circles) or 10 10 (red squares) CFU of C . rodentium quantified over a time course of 10 days (n = 3–6 per group and time point, data pooled from 2 independent experiments). Connecting lines indicate means. ( J ) Numbers of A/E microcolonies in the distal colon of germ-free mice infected with either 10 4 (blue circles) or 10 10 (red squares) CFU of C . rodentium quantified over a time course of 22 days (n = 2–6 per group and time point, data pooled from 3 independent experiments). Connecting lines connect means; horizontal dotted lines indicate detection limit; ****, p

    Journal: PLoS Pathogens

    Article Title: Innate immunity restricts Citrobacter rodentium A/E pathogenesis initiation to an early window of opportunity

    doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006476

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Dynamics of Citrobacter rodentium infection in SPF and germ-free wild-type mice. ( A ) Schematic of possible routes of epithelial infection shaping A/E lesion development and renewal in the face of continuous epithelial regeneration. Black arrows indicate direction of epithelial cell migration and luminal exfoliation. Green arrows indicate possible routes of bacterial infection, with or without luminal planktonic stage. ( B-D ) Luminal colonization quantitated by bacterial plating from feces of SPF mice (panel B; n = 12–21 per group and time point) and germ-free mice (panel C; n = 3–15 per group and time point) following inoculation with 10 10 (red squares) and 10 4 (blue circles) CFU/mouse, respectively. (D) Early colonization in mice (n = 4 per group) sampled every hour during the first 12 hours after gavage. Fitted exponential curves were used to extrapolate the time to reach levels of 2.5x10 9 CFU/g in the animals inoculated with 10 4 CFU. The average of these 4 values is represented by the vertical dotted line (at 15.5 h). ( E-H ) Representative fluorescent microscopy images of distal colon cross sections of SPF (E and G) and germ-free (F and H) mice infected with 10 10 (E and F) and 10 4 (G and H) CFU/mouse of C . rodentium analyzed on day 7 post infection. All individual mice depicted were infected with a 1:1 mixture of bacteria carrying a mCherry (red) or GFP (green) fluorescent protein expression plasmid. Grey, F-actin stained with phalloidin; green, GFP-expressing C . rodentium ; red, mCherry-expressing C . rodentium . Inset indicates area shown in higher magnification panel. Scale bars: 100 μm. ( I ) Numbers of A/E microcolonies in the distal colon of SPF mice infected with either 10 4 (blue circles) or 10 10 (red squares) CFU of C . rodentium quantified over a time course of 10 days (n = 3–6 per group and time point, data pooled from 2 independent experiments). Connecting lines indicate means. ( J ) Numbers of A/E microcolonies in the distal colon of germ-free mice infected with either 10 4 (blue circles) or 10 10 (red squares) CFU of C . rodentium quantified over a time course of 22 days (n = 2–6 per group and time point, data pooled from 3 independent experiments). Connecting lines connect means; horizontal dotted lines indicate detection limit; ****, p

    Article Snippet: All Citrobacter rodentium strains used in this study are derivatives of the wild type strain ATCC51459 (ATCC, Manassas VA).

    Techniques: Infection, Mouse Assay, Migration, Microscopy, Expressing, Plasmid Preparation, Staining

    Ongoing A/E lesion induction in mice deficient for innate signaling through MyD88 and Trif. ( A ) Colonic colonization dynamics in MyD88 -/- Trif lps/lps germ-free mice consecutively infected, first with mCherry + Kan R Tet S C . rodentium wild type (WT) or an isogenic Δ ler mutant (10 10 CFU, red squares and triangles), and 18 hours later superinfected with mCherry - Kan S Tet R C . rodentium wild type (10 4 CFU, blue circles). Total C . rodentium counts are depicted as black symbols. Connecting lines connect means; error bars indicate standard deviation; horizontal dotted lines indicate detection limit. ( B and C ) Representative fluorescent microscopy images of distal colon of MyD88 -/- Trif lps/lps mice shown in panel A pre-infected with wild type (B) and Δ ler (C) C . rodentium , respectively. Grey, F-actin/phalloidin; green, anti- Citrobacter O-antigen antibody (pre-infection strain and superinfecting strain); red, mCherry-expressing C . rodentium (pre-infection strain only; none detectable). Scale bars: 50 μm.

    Journal: PLoS Pathogens

    Article Title: Innate immunity restricts Citrobacter rodentium A/E pathogenesis initiation to an early window of opportunity

    doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006476

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Ongoing A/E lesion induction in mice deficient for innate signaling through MyD88 and Trif. ( A ) Colonic colonization dynamics in MyD88 -/- Trif lps/lps germ-free mice consecutively infected, first with mCherry + Kan R Tet S C . rodentium wild type (WT) or an isogenic Δ ler mutant (10 10 CFU, red squares and triangles), and 18 hours later superinfected with mCherry - Kan S Tet R C . rodentium wild type (10 4 CFU, blue circles). Total C . rodentium counts are depicted as black symbols. Connecting lines connect means; error bars indicate standard deviation; horizontal dotted lines indicate detection limit. ( B and C ) Representative fluorescent microscopy images of distal colon of MyD88 -/- Trif lps/lps mice shown in panel A pre-infected with wild type (B) and Δ ler (C) C . rodentium , respectively. Grey, F-actin/phalloidin; green, anti- Citrobacter O-antigen antibody (pre-infection strain and superinfecting strain); red, mCherry-expressing C . rodentium (pre-infection strain only; none detectable). Scale bars: 50 μm.

    Article Snippet: All Citrobacter rodentium strains used in this study are derivatives of the wild type strain ATCC51459 (ATCC, Manassas VA).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Infection, Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation, Microscopy, Expressing

    Cysteamine increases bacterial killing. A) Summed end-point analysis of 24h bacterial killing assay of cysteamine against multi-drug resistant B . cenocepacia (Bc), P . aeruginosa (Pa), Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and B . multivorans (Bm) in media devoid of human cells. NT = media alone, 3h = cysteamine added 3h after the start of culture, n = 3. B) Colony-forming units (CFU) for bacteria during 1A conditions, n = 4. C) Summed end-point analysis of 24h direct bacterial killing assays of cysteamine against enteric pathogens in media: Escherichia coli ( E . coli ), Salmonella typhimurium ( S . typhimurium ), Citrobacter rodentium ( C . rodentium ), Porphyromonas gingivalis ( P . gingivalis ), Bifidobacterium animalis ( B . animalis ), and Lactobacillus reuteri ( L . reuteri ), n = 3. “*” denotes a p value

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Cysteamine-mediated clearance of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in human cystic fibrosis macrophages

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0186169

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Cysteamine increases bacterial killing. A) Summed end-point analysis of 24h bacterial killing assay of cysteamine against multi-drug resistant B . cenocepacia (Bc), P . aeruginosa (Pa), Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and B . multivorans (Bm) in media devoid of human cells. NT = media alone, 3h = cysteamine added 3h after the start of culture, n = 3. B) Colony-forming units (CFU) for bacteria during 1A conditions, n = 4. C) Summed end-point analysis of 24h direct bacterial killing assays of cysteamine against enteric pathogens in media: Escherichia coli ( E . coli ), Salmonella typhimurium ( S . typhimurium ), Citrobacter rodentium ( C . rodentium ), Porphyromonas gingivalis ( P . gingivalis ), Bifidobacterium animalis ( B . animalis ), and Lactobacillus reuteri ( L . reuteri ), n = 3. “*” denotes a p value

    Article Snippet: Enteric strains used in the bacterial killing assay were grown for 24h and included Escherichia coli K12 (aerobic conditions, no C02, Fisher BioReagents™ Microbiology Media: LB Broth, Miller), Salmonella typhimurium JSG 210 (LB Broth, aerobic, no CO2), Citrobacter rodentium DBS210 (LB broth, no CO2), Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277m (LB broth, no CO2, no shaking), Bifidobacterium animalis Align (LB broth, CO2, no shaking), and Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 23272 (MRS broth, Difco Laboratories).

    Techniques:

    Strikingly reduced tissue pathology following Citrobacter rodentium infection in SFB + IL-21R deficient mice. a , IL-21 mRNA levels in the distal colon of naïve mice and mice orally inoculated with C. rodentium (~2 × 10 9 CFU) at day 14 post-infection (pi). b , C. rodentium burden in the feces on day 7 (D7) and 14 (D14) pi. c , C. rodentium burden in the distal colon and spleen on D14 pi. NC stands for no colonies observed. d , Colon length on D14 pi. e , Histology score of distal colon on D14 pi. f , A representative H E staining of distal colon. g , h , Expression of various cytokine mRNAs by real-time RT-PCR in the distal colon on D14 pi. Data were compiled from 2 independent experiments ( n =8) and represented as mean ± SEM.

    Journal: Mucosal immunology

    Article Title: Defective IgA response to atypical intestinal commensals in IL-21 receptor deficiency reshapes immune cell homeostasis and mucosal immunity

    doi: 10.1038/s41385-018-0056-x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Strikingly reduced tissue pathology following Citrobacter rodentium infection in SFB + IL-21R deficient mice. a , IL-21 mRNA levels in the distal colon of naïve mice and mice orally inoculated with C. rodentium (~2 × 10 9 CFU) at day 14 post-infection (pi). b , C. rodentium burden in the feces on day 7 (D7) and 14 (D14) pi. c , C. rodentium burden in the distal colon and spleen on D14 pi. NC stands for no colonies observed. d , Colon length on D14 pi. e , Histology score of distal colon on D14 pi. f , A representative H E staining of distal colon. g , h , Expression of various cytokine mRNAs by real-time RT-PCR in the distal colon on D14 pi. Data were compiled from 2 independent experiments ( n =8) and represented as mean ± SEM.

    Article Snippet: Citrobacter rodentium strain DBS100 was purchased from ATCC and used for all inoculations.

    Techniques: Infection, Mouse Assay, Staining, Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR

    DOCK2 mediates resistance to Citrobacter dissemination into systemic organs. ( A – C ) WT and Dock2 −/− mice were orally infected with 1 × 10 10 CFU of C. rodentium . The bacterial load was determined in the liver, MLNs and spleen 14 days post-infection. ( D , E ) The weight of the MLNs and spleen on Days 0 and 14 post-infection. Each symbol represents an individual mouse. Data are representative of two independent experiments (mean and SEM). Two-tailed t-test. *P

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: DOCK2 confers immunity and intestinal colonization resistance to Citrobacter rodentium infection

    doi: 10.1038/srep27814

    Figure Lengend Snippet: DOCK2 mediates resistance to Citrobacter dissemination into systemic organs. ( A – C ) WT and Dock2 −/− mice were orally infected with 1 × 10 10 CFU of C. rodentium . The bacterial load was determined in the liver, MLNs and spleen 14 days post-infection. ( D , E ) The weight of the MLNs and spleen on Days 0 and 14 post-infection. Each symbol represents an individual mouse. Data are representative of two independent experiments (mean and SEM). Two-tailed t-test. *P

    Article Snippet: Infection Citrobacter rodentium (ATCC #51459) was grown in pre-warmed LB broth for 9 h at 37 °C with shaking.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Infection, Two Tailed Test

    NKCC1 is required for enteric C rodentium infection clearance. NKCC1 WT/WT , NKCC1 WT/DFX , and NKCC1 DFX/DFX mice were infected with 10 9 colony forming units of a kanamycin-resistant strain of C rodentium . Feces were collected every day, eluted, plated, and bacteria were enumerated. ( A ) Percentage of NKCC1 WT/WT , NKCC1 WT/DFX , and NKCC1 DFX /DFX mice with positive C rodentium shedding in feces over the 9-day period. ( B ) Bacteria plated on a kanamycin-containing plate show colonization or delay clearance in NKCC1 WT/DFX and NKCC1 DFX/DFX mice. ( C ) Inflammatory cytokine production in the serum of NKCC1 WT/WT , NKCC1 WT/DFX , and NKKCC1 DFX/DFX mice after 9 days postinfection (n = 3–5 mice per group, the experiment was repeated twice). hets, heterozygotes; homos, homozygotes; IL, interleukin; INF, interferon.

    Journal: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology

    Article Title: Novel Human NKCC1 Mutations Cause Defects in Goblet Cell Mucus Secretion and Chronic Inflammation

    doi: 10.1016/j.jcmgh.2019.10.006

    Figure Lengend Snippet: NKCC1 is required for enteric C rodentium infection clearance. NKCC1 WT/WT , NKCC1 WT/DFX , and NKCC1 DFX/DFX mice were infected with 10 9 colony forming units of a kanamycin-resistant strain of C rodentium . Feces were collected every day, eluted, plated, and bacteria were enumerated. ( A ) Percentage of NKCC1 WT/WT , NKCC1 WT/DFX , and NKCC1 DFX /DFX mice with positive C rodentium shedding in feces over the 9-day period. ( B ) Bacteria plated on a kanamycin-containing plate show colonization or delay clearance in NKCC1 WT/DFX and NKCC1 DFX/DFX mice. ( C ) Inflammatory cytokine production in the serum of NKCC1 WT/WT , NKCC1 WT/DFX , and NKKCC1 DFX/DFX mice after 9 days postinfection (n = 3–5 mice per group, the experiment was repeated twice). hets, heterozygotes; homos, homozygotes; IL, interleukin; INF, interferon.

    Article Snippet: C rodentium (ATCC 51459) were grown overnight at 37°C in Luria Broth medium.

    Techniques: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Chemical and infectious colitis both promote enteric neurogenesis. DSS colitis (n = 8) and Citrobacter rodentium colitis (n = 8) were induced in 4 month-old mice and the colons processed for immunohistochemistry using Hu antibody to label enteric neurons. Significantly more neurons are present throughout the colon in both DSS ( a , b ) and Citrobacter rodentium ( f , g ) models. This increased neuronal density is associated with an increase in the proportion of Hu+ neurons that label with Sox2 (c-e and h-j, arrows point to Hu + Sox2+ neurons in ( d , e and j ). *p

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Colitis promotes neuronal differentiation of Sox2+ and PLP1+ enteric cells

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-02890-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Chemical and infectious colitis both promote enteric neurogenesis. DSS colitis (n = 8) and Citrobacter rodentium colitis (n = 8) were induced in 4 month-old mice and the colons processed for immunohistochemistry using Hu antibody to label enteric neurons. Significantly more neurons are present throughout the colon in both DSS ( a , b ) and Citrobacter rodentium ( f , g ) models. This increased neuronal density is associated with an increase in the proportion of Hu+ neurons that label with Sox2 (c-e and h-j, arrows point to Hu + Sox2+ neurons in ( d , e and j ). *p

    Article Snippet: Citrobacter rodentium colitis C. rodentium (strain DBS100, ATCC) was grown in Luria broth (LB), resuspended in PBS (0.5 ml/mouse, 5 × 108 CFU of C. rodentium ) and fed to 4 month-old C57BL/6 mice .

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Immunohistochemistry

    S. Typhimurium down-regulates PPARγ while inducing colitis in C57BL/6 mice. (A, B, and C) Groups of 8–10-week-old streptomycin-pretreated C57BL/6 mice were mock- (Con) or S. Typhimurium-infected (Sal) and sacrificed after 24 h (10 mice per group). PPARγ expression in colonic scrapings was analyzed by real-time PCR (A) and by immunoblotting (B). (C) Electromobility shift assay of PPARγ activity in the nuclear extracts of colonic scrapings. (D and E) Age-matched, streptomycin-pretreated TLR4 −/− mice were mock- or S. Typhimurium-infected and sacrificed after 24 h (5 mice per group). Colonic expression of PPARγ was analyzed by real-time PCR (D) or immunoblotting (E). (F) Metronidazole-pretreated C57BL/6 mice were mock- or Citrobacter rodentium -infected, sacrificed 6 days after infection, and PPARγ expression in the colon was analyzed by real-time PCR. (G) HT-29 cells were mock- or S. Typhimurium-infected for 6 h, incubated for another 18 h without the pathogen, and PPARγ expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. (H) Macroscopic image of whole cecum after mock or S. Typhimurium infection in C57BL/6 (WT), PPARγVillinCre− (Cre−), or PPARγVillinCre+ (Cre+) mice. (I) Quantitation of colon lengths in the respective mouse groups. Recovery of S. Typhimurium from cecum tissue (J) and spleen (K) 24 h after infection. Error bars depict ± standard error of the mean. *p

    Journal: PLoS Pathogens

    Article Title: Absence of Intestinal PPAR? Aggravates Acute Infectious Colitis in Mice through a Lipocalin-2-Dependent Pathway

    doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003887

    Figure Lengend Snippet: S. Typhimurium down-regulates PPARγ while inducing colitis in C57BL/6 mice. (A, B, and C) Groups of 8–10-week-old streptomycin-pretreated C57BL/6 mice were mock- (Con) or S. Typhimurium-infected (Sal) and sacrificed after 24 h (10 mice per group). PPARγ expression in colonic scrapings was analyzed by real-time PCR (A) and by immunoblotting (B). (C) Electromobility shift assay of PPARγ activity in the nuclear extracts of colonic scrapings. (D and E) Age-matched, streptomycin-pretreated TLR4 −/− mice were mock- or S. Typhimurium-infected and sacrificed after 24 h (5 mice per group). Colonic expression of PPARγ was analyzed by real-time PCR (D) or immunoblotting (E). (F) Metronidazole-pretreated C57BL/6 mice were mock- or Citrobacter rodentium -infected, sacrificed 6 days after infection, and PPARγ expression in the colon was analyzed by real-time PCR. (G) HT-29 cells were mock- or S. Typhimurium-infected for 6 h, incubated for another 18 h without the pathogen, and PPARγ expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. (H) Macroscopic image of whole cecum after mock or S. Typhimurium infection in C57BL/6 (WT), PPARγVillinCre− (Cre−), or PPARγVillinCre+ (Cre+) mice. (I) Quantitation of colon lengths in the respective mouse groups. Recovery of S. Typhimurium from cecum tissue (J) and spleen (K) 24 h after infection. Error bars depict ± standard error of the mean. *p

    Article Snippet: Naturally occurring naldixic acid-resistant Citrobacter rodentium , DBS100 (ATCC 51459) was also used for mouse infection.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Infection, Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Electro Mobility Shift Assay, Activity Assay, Incubation, Quantitation Assay

    NleB enhances glucose metabolism-associated genes known to be downstream of HIF-1α in vivo . (A) Slc2a1 ( Glut1 ) and Pkm2 were enhanced by NleB in mouse colon. Male C57BL/6 mice (5–6 weeks old; 17–19 g/mouse) were orally gavaged with the wild-type C . rodentium DBS100 strain, Δ nleB strain, or were uninfected; the mutant strain was complemented with a plasmid expressing wild-type NleB (pNleBc) or the GlcNAc transferase-deficient D221A/D223A mutant (pNleBc-DXD). After 8 days, total RNA was extracted from colons (n = 5 mice for each group), and the expressions of Slc2a1 ( Glut1 ) and Pkm2 were examined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. (B) Knocking-down HIF-1α by PX-478 rescued the enhancement of Slc2a1 ( Glut1 ) and Pkm2 by NleB in mouse colon. Male C57BL/6 mice (5–6 weeks old; 17–19 g/mouse) were injected intraperitoneally with PX-478 (30 μg/g) or PBS control for 48 h, followed by oral gavage with the indicated C . rodentium strains or were uninfected. After 8 days, total RNA was extracted from colons (n = 5 mice for each group), and the expressions of Slc2a1 ( Glut1 ) and Pkm2 were examined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. P-values were calculated using 2-way ANOVA. (C) Protein levels of Ldha, Pkm2, and Vegf were enhanced by NleB in mouse colon. Male C57BL/6 mice (5–6 weeks old; 17–19 g/mouse) were orally gavaged with the wild-type C . rodentium DBS100 strain or Δ nleB strain. After 8 days, the protein levels of Ldha, Pkm2, and Vegf were examined by western blot (n = 3 mice for each group). (D) Slc2a1 (Glut1) expression was enhanced by NleB in mouse colon. Male C57BL/6 mice (5–6 weeks old; 17–19 g/mouse) were orally gavaged with the wild-type C . rodentium DBS100 strain, Δ nleB strain, or were uninfected. After 8 days, the expression of Slc2a1 (Glut1) was detected by immunofluorescent staining.

    Journal: PLoS Pathogens

    Article Title: A pathogen-derived effector modulates host glucose metabolism by arginine GlcNAcylation of HIF-1α protein

    doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007259

    Figure Lengend Snippet: NleB enhances glucose metabolism-associated genes known to be downstream of HIF-1α in vivo . (A) Slc2a1 ( Glut1 ) and Pkm2 were enhanced by NleB in mouse colon. Male C57BL/6 mice (5–6 weeks old; 17–19 g/mouse) were orally gavaged with the wild-type C . rodentium DBS100 strain, Δ nleB strain, or were uninfected; the mutant strain was complemented with a plasmid expressing wild-type NleB (pNleBc) or the GlcNAc transferase-deficient D221A/D223A mutant (pNleBc-DXD). After 8 days, total RNA was extracted from colons (n = 5 mice for each group), and the expressions of Slc2a1 ( Glut1 ) and Pkm2 were examined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. (B) Knocking-down HIF-1α by PX-478 rescued the enhancement of Slc2a1 ( Glut1 ) and Pkm2 by NleB in mouse colon. Male C57BL/6 mice (5–6 weeks old; 17–19 g/mouse) were injected intraperitoneally with PX-478 (30 μg/g) or PBS control for 48 h, followed by oral gavage with the indicated C . rodentium strains or were uninfected. After 8 days, total RNA was extracted from colons (n = 5 mice for each group), and the expressions of Slc2a1 ( Glut1 ) and Pkm2 were examined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. P-values were calculated using 2-way ANOVA. (C) Protein levels of Ldha, Pkm2, and Vegf were enhanced by NleB in mouse colon. Male C57BL/6 mice (5–6 weeks old; 17–19 g/mouse) were orally gavaged with the wild-type C . rodentium DBS100 strain or Δ nleB strain. After 8 days, the protein levels of Ldha, Pkm2, and Vegf were examined by western blot (n = 3 mice for each group). (D) Slc2a1 (Glut1) expression was enhanced by NleB in mouse colon. Male C57BL/6 mice (5–6 weeks old; 17–19 g/mouse) were orally gavaged with the wild-type C . rodentium DBS100 strain, Δ nleB strain, or were uninfected. After 8 days, the expression of Slc2a1 (Glut1) was detected by immunofluorescent staining.

    Article Snippet: Deletion of the gene encoding NleBc in C . rodentium strain DBS100 (ATCC51459; ATCC) and its derivatives were provided by Feng Shao ( ).

    Techniques: In Vivo, Mouse Assay, Mutagenesis, Plasmid Preparation, Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Injection, Western Blot, Staining

    iNOS suppress effector DC differentiation in vivo WT or iNOS −/− mice were fed orally with Citrobacter Rodentium. Colon tissues with H E staining were showed as A, B. Body weights of WT or iNOS −/− mice which were fed orally with Citrobacter Rodentium were balanced every two days. C. Maturation markers in CD11b + CD11c + cells of mesenteric lymph node of WT or iNOS −/− mice which were fed orally with Citrobacter Rodentium as in (A) and were analyzed by FACS. D. Effector/stimulatory DC markers in CD11b + CD11c + cells of mesenteric lymph node of WT or iNOS −/− mice which were fed orally with Citrobacter Rodentium as in (A) and were analyzed by FACS. E. T cell activation marker CD25 expression in CD4 + T cells of mesenteric lymph node of WT or iNOS −/− mice which were fed orally with Citrobacter Rodentium as in (A) were analyzed by FACS. Data represent mean ± SD. * P

    Journal: Oncotarget

    Article Title: Dendritic cell-derived nitric oxide inhibits the differentiation of effector dendritic cells

    doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.11361

    Figure Lengend Snippet: iNOS suppress effector DC differentiation in vivo WT or iNOS −/− mice were fed orally with Citrobacter Rodentium. Colon tissues with H E staining were showed as A, B. Body weights of WT or iNOS −/− mice which were fed orally with Citrobacter Rodentium were balanced every two days. C. Maturation markers in CD11b + CD11c + cells of mesenteric lymph node of WT or iNOS −/− mice which were fed orally with Citrobacter Rodentium as in (A) and were analyzed by FACS. D. Effector/stimulatory DC markers in CD11b + CD11c + cells of mesenteric lymph node of WT or iNOS −/− mice which were fed orally with Citrobacter Rodentium as in (A) and were analyzed by FACS. E. T cell activation marker CD25 expression in CD4 + T cells of mesenteric lymph node of WT or iNOS −/− mice which were fed orally with Citrobacter Rodentium as in (A) were analyzed by FACS. Data represent mean ± SD. * P

    Article Snippet: Bacterial infection of mice Citrobacter rodentium strain DBS100 (ATCC 51459) was prepared by overnight shaking at 37°C in Luria-Bertani broth.

    Techniques: In Vivo, Mouse Assay, Staining, FACS, Activation Assay, Marker, Expressing

    Effect of TNF- α antagonist on P450 protein expression following Citrobacter rodentium infection. Upper panels : Representative Western blots for Cyp3a, Cyp4a, and Cpr. Equal amounts of protein were loaded in each lane. Lower panels: Quantitative analyses of the data. Cyp3a and Cyp4a protein band intensities were normalized to the intensity of Cpr, used here as a loading control. Protein levels are expressed relative to the levels in uninfected mice without XPro1595 treatment, which was arbitrarily set at 1. Values represent mean ± SEM. *Significantly different from uninfected animals in same XPro1595 treatment group, P

    Journal: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives

    Article Title: Selective effects of a therapeutic protein targeting tumor necrosis factor-alpha on cytochrome P450 regulation during infectious colitis: implications for disease-dependent drug–drug interactions

    doi: 10.1002/prp2.27

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of TNF- α antagonist on P450 protein expression following Citrobacter rodentium infection. Upper panels : Representative Western blots for Cyp3a, Cyp4a, and Cpr. Equal amounts of protein were loaded in each lane. Lower panels: Quantitative analyses of the data. Cyp3a and Cyp4a protein band intensities were normalized to the intensity of Cpr, used here as a loading control. Protein levels are expressed relative to the levels in uninfected mice without XPro1595 treatment, which was arbitrarily set at 1. Values represent mean ± SEM. *Significantly different from uninfected animals in same XPro1595 treatment group, P

    Article Snippet: Bacteria Citrobacter rodentium wild-type strain (51116) was received from the American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA), and grown overnight in Luria broth at 37°C without shaking.

    Techniques: Expressing, Infection, Western Blot, Mouse Assay

    Effect of TNF- α antagonist on upregulated P450 mRNAs following Citrobacter rodentium infection. Relative levels of mRNA were measured by RT-qPCR with normalization to GAPDH mRNA, and are expressed relative to the levels in uninfected mice without XPro1595 treatment, which was arbitrarily set at 1. Values represent mean ± SEM. ( n = 6). *Significantly different from uninfected animals in same XPro1595 treatment group P

    Journal: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives

    Article Title: Selective effects of a therapeutic protein targeting tumor necrosis factor-alpha on cytochrome P450 regulation during infectious colitis: implications for disease-dependent drug–drug interactions

    doi: 10.1002/prp2.27

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of TNF- α antagonist on upregulated P450 mRNAs following Citrobacter rodentium infection. Relative levels of mRNA were measured by RT-qPCR with normalization to GAPDH mRNA, and are expressed relative to the levels in uninfected mice without XPro1595 treatment, which was arbitrarily set at 1. Values represent mean ± SEM. ( n = 6). *Significantly different from uninfected animals in same XPro1595 treatment group P

    Article Snippet: Bacteria Citrobacter rodentium wild-type strain (51116) was received from the American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA), and grown overnight in Luria broth at 37°C without shaking.

    Techniques: Infection, Quantitative RT-PCR, Mouse Assay

    Effect of TNF- α antagonist on downregulated P450 and Fmo3 mRNAs following Citrobacter rodentium infection. Relative levels of mRNA were measured by RT-qPCR with normalization to GAPDH mRNA, and are expressed relative to the levels in uninfected mice without XPro1595 treatment, which was arbitrarily set at 1. Values represent mean ± SEM. ( n = 6). *Significantly different from uninfected animals in same XPro1595 treatment group, P

    Journal: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives

    Article Title: Selective effects of a therapeutic protein targeting tumor necrosis factor-alpha on cytochrome P450 regulation during infectious colitis: implications for disease-dependent drug–drug interactions

    doi: 10.1002/prp2.27

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of TNF- α antagonist on downregulated P450 and Fmo3 mRNAs following Citrobacter rodentium infection. Relative levels of mRNA were measured by RT-qPCR with normalization to GAPDH mRNA, and are expressed relative to the levels in uninfected mice without XPro1595 treatment, which was arbitrarily set at 1. Values represent mean ± SEM. ( n = 6). *Significantly different from uninfected animals in same XPro1595 treatment group, P

    Article Snippet: Bacteria Citrobacter rodentium wild-type strain (51116) was received from the American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA), and grown overnight in Luria broth at 37°C without shaking.

    Techniques: Infection, Quantitative RT-PCR, Mouse Assay