carboxymethylcellulose Search Results


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  • 95
    Millipore carboxymethylcellulose
    Effects of famotidine on damage and repair at luminal pH 7. Prior to surgery, mice were injected with 0.5% <t>carboxymethylcellulose</t> (CMC) or famotidine (fam; 30 mg/kg intraperitoneally). After surgery, the exposed gastric tissue was superfused with pH 7 solution, and then (A) gastric surface pH (pH o ), (B) maximal damage size and (C) epithelial repair were quantified. Data are presented as mean±SE and analysed using (A) two-way ANOVA or (B and C) unpaired t test. *p
    Carboxymethylcellulose, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 2092 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore carboxymethylcellulose sodium
    The ExpA RsmA double mutant exhibits cellulase and pectolytic enzyme activities similar to those of the RsmA mutant. Bacteria were grown to stationary phase on liquid minimal medium supplemented with 0.4% PGA. Cells were subsequently pelleted, and the supernatant was diluted 2, 3, and 5 times. The different dilutions were pipetted onto LB plates containing polygalacturonic acid to test for pectolytic enzyme activity (A) or <t>carboxymethylcellulose</t> to test for cellulase activity (B) in 20-μl drops. In the assay, we used five replicate drops per dilution per strain. (C) The diameters of cleared circles on the plates were measured and compared between strains.
    Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 147 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    GE Healthcare carboxymethylcellulose
    Molar mixtures of Cbh1 and CelD, result in a combinatorial effort to attack crystalline substrates . Panel A crystalline forms of cellulose, Avicel (AV), cotton cellulose (CC), filter paper (FP) and Panel B, partially hydrated phosphoric acid swollen Avicel (PASC) and soluble <t>carboxymethylcellulose</t> (CMC). 2X and 4X molar excess of Cbh1 and CelD were incubated with various forms of cellulosic substrates and the degree of synergy (ab/a + b) determined [ 20 ]. Equimolar Cbh1/CelD mixtures had no combinatorial effect (DS ≤1) on cellulose breakdown. Excess of Cbh1 over CelD resulted in a combinatorial effort (up to 345%) to attack crystalline ( A ) forms of cellulose while less crystalline forms remained unchanged ( B ). Excess of CelD over Cbh1 resulted in little or no gain of synergy (DS up to 1.91) for crystalline ( A ) substrates (except 1:4 FP) and activity was inhibited with less crystalline ( B ) substrates. For details on activity and degree of synergy, see Additional file 3 : Figure S 2 and Methods.
    Carboxymethylcellulose, supplied by GE Healthcare, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 35 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Bio-Rad carboxymethylcellulose
    Molar mixtures of Cbh1 and CelD, result in a combinatorial effort to attack crystalline substrates . Panel A crystalline forms of cellulose, Avicel (AV), cotton cellulose (CC), filter paper (FP) and Panel B, partially hydrated phosphoric acid swollen Avicel (PASC) and soluble <t>carboxymethylcellulose</t> (CMC). 2X and 4X molar excess of Cbh1 and CelD were incubated with various forms of cellulosic substrates and the degree of synergy (ab/a + b) determined [ 20 ]. Equimolar Cbh1/CelD mixtures had no combinatorial effect (DS ≤1) on cellulose breakdown. Excess of Cbh1 over CelD resulted in a combinatorial effort (up to 345%) to attack crystalline ( A ) forms of cellulose while less crystalline forms remained unchanged ( B ). Excess of CelD over Cbh1 resulted in little or no gain of synergy (DS up to 1.91) for crystalline ( A ) substrates (except 1:4 FP) and activity was inhibited with less crystalline ( B ) substrates. For details on activity and degree of synergy, see Additional file 3 : Figure S 2 and Methods.
    Carboxymethylcellulose, supplied by Bio-Rad, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Nacalai carboxymethylcellulose
    Molar mixtures of Cbh1 and CelD, result in a combinatorial effort to attack crystalline substrates . Panel A crystalline forms of cellulose, Avicel (AV), cotton cellulose (CC), filter paper (FP) and Panel B, partially hydrated phosphoric acid swollen Avicel (PASC) and soluble <t>carboxymethylcellulose</t> (CMC). 2X and 4X molar excess of Cbh1 and CelD were incubated with various forms of cellulosic substrates and the degree of synergy (ab/a + b) determined [ 20 ]. Equimolar Cbh1/CelD mixtures had no combinatorial effect (DS ≤1) on cellulose breakdown. Excess of Cbh1 over CelD resulted in a combinatorial effort (up to 345%) to attack crystalline ( A ) forms of cellulose while less crystalline forms remained unchanged ( B ). Excess of CelD over Cbh1 resulted in little or no gain of synergy (DS up to 1.91) for crystalline ( A ) substrates (except 1:4 FP) and activity was inhibited with less crystalline ( B ) substrates. For details on activity and degree of synergy, see Additional file 3 : Figure S 2 and Methods.
    Carboxymethylcellulose, supplied by Nacalai, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 13 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    FUJIFILM carboxymethylcellulose
    Molar mixtures of Cbh1 and CelD, result in a combinatorial effort to attack crystalline substrates . Panel A crystalline forms of cellulose, Avicel (AV), cotton cellulose (CC), filter paper (FP) and Panel B, partially hydrated phosphoric acid swollen Avicel (PASC) and soluble <t>carboxymethylcellulose</t> (CMC). 2X and 4X molar excess of Cbh1 and CelD were incubated with various forms of cellulosic substrates and the degree of synergy (ab/a + b) determined [ 20 ]. Equimolar Cbh1/CelD mixtures had no combinatorial effect (DS ≤1) on cellulose breakdown. Excess of Cbh1 over CelD resulted in a combinatorial effort (up to 345%) to attack crystalline ( A ) forms of cellulose while less crystalline forms remained unchanged ( B ). Excess of CelD over Cbh1 resulted in little or no gain of synergy (DS up to 1.91) for crystalline ( A ) substrates (except 1:4 FP) and activity was inhibited with less crystalline ( B ) substrates. For details on activity and degree of synergy, see Additional file 3 : Figure S 2 and Methods.
    Carboxymethylcellulose, supplied by FUJIFILM, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 32 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Merck & Co carboxymethylcellulose
    Molar mixtures of Cbh1 and CelD, result in a combinatorial effort to attack crystalline substrates . Panel A crystalline forms of cellulose, Avicel (AV), cotton cellulose (CC), filter paper (FP) and Panel B, partially hydrated phosphoric acid swollen Avicel (PASC) and soluble <t>carboxymethylcellulose</t> (CMC). 2X and 4X molar excess of Cbh1 and CelD were incubated with various forms of cellulosic substrates and the degree of synergy (ab/a + b) determined [ 20 ]. Equimolar Cbh1/CelD mixtures had no combinatorial effect (DS ≤1) on cellulose breakdown. Excess of Cbh1 over CelD resulted in a combinatorial effort (up to 345%) to attack crystalline ( A ) forms of cellulose while less crystalline forms remained unchanged ( B ). Excess of CelD over Cbh1 resulted in little or no gain of synergy (DS up to 1.91) for crystalline ( A ) substrates (except 1:4 FP) and activity was inhibited with less crystalline ( B ) substrates. For details on activity and degree of synergy, see Additional file 3 : Figure S 2 and Methods.
    Carboxymethylcellulose, supplied by Merck & Co, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 54 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    BioShop carboxymethylcellulose
    Molar mixtures of Cbh1 and CelD, result in a combinatorial effort to attack crystalline substrates . Panel A crystalline forms of cellulose, Avicel (AV), cotton cellulose (CC), filter paper (FP) and Panel B, partially hydrated phosphoric acid swollen Avicel (PASC) and soluble <t>carboxymethylcellulose</t> (CMC). 2X and 4X molar excess of Cbh1 and CelD were incubated with various forms of cellulosic substrates and the degree of synergy (ab/a + b) determined [ 20 ]. Equimolar Cbh1/CelD mixtures had no combinatorial effect (DS ≤1) on cellulose breakdown. Excess of Cbh1 over CelD resulted in a combinatorial effort (up to 345%) to attack crystalline ( A ) forms of cellulose while less crystalline forms remained unchanged ( B ). Excess of CelD over Cbh1 resulted in little or no gain of synergy (DS up to 1.91) for crystalline ( A ) substrates (except 1:4 FP) and activity was inhibited with less crystalline ( B ) substrates. For details on activity and degree of synergy, see Additional file 3 : Figure S 2 and Methods.
    Carboxymethylcellulose, supplied by BioShop, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Fluka Chemie carboxymethylcellulose
    Molar mixtures of Cbh1 and CelD, result in a combinatorial effort to attack crystalline substrates . Panel A crystalline forms of cellulose, Avicel (AV), cotton cellulose (CC), filter paper (FP) and Panel B, partially hydrated phosphoric acid swollen Avicel (PASC) and soluble <t>carboxymethylcellulose</t> (CMC). 2X and 4X molar excess of Cbh1 and CelD were incubated with various forms of cellulosic substrates and the degree of synergy (ab/a + b) determined [ 20 ]. Equimolar Cbh1/CelD mixtures had no combinatorial effect (DS ≤1) on cellulose breakdown. Excess of Cbh1 over CelD resulted in a combinatorial effort (up to 345%) to attack crystalline ( A ) forms of cellulose while less crystalline forms remained unchanged ( B ). Excess of CelD over Cbh1 resulted in little or no gain of synergy (DS up to 1.91) for crystalline ( A ) substrates (except 1:4 FP) and activity was inhibited with less crystalline ( B ) substrates. For details on activity and degree of synergy, see Additional file 3 : Figure S 2 and Methods.
    Carboxymethylcellulose, supplied by Fluka Chemie, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Millipore carboxymethlycellulose
    Molar mixtures of Cbh1 and CelD, result in a combinatorial effort to attack crystalline substrates . Panel A crystalline forms of cellulose, Avicel (AV), cotton cellulose (CC), filter paper (FP) and Panel B, partially hydrated phosphoric acid swollen Avicel (PASC) and soluble <t>carboxymethylcellulose</t> (CMC). 2X and 4X molar excess of Cbh1 and CelD were incubated with various forms of cellulosic substrates and the degree of synergy (ab/a + b) determined [ 20 ]. Equimolar Cbh1/CelD mixtures had no combinatorial effect (DS ≤1) on cellulose breakdown. Excess of Cbh1 over CelD resulted in a combinatorial effort (up to 345%) to attack crystalline ( A ) forms of cellulose while less crystalline forms remained unchanged ( B ). Excess of CelD over Cbh1 resulted in little or no gain of synergy (DS up to 1.91) for crystalline ( A ) substrates (except 1:4 FP) and activity was inhibited with less crystalline ( B ) substrates. For details on activity and degree of synergy, see Additional file 3 : Figure S 2 and Methods.
    Carboxymethlycellulose, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Millipore carboxymethylcellullose
    Molar mixtures of Cbh1 and CelD, result in a combinatorial effort to attack crystalline substrates . Panel A crystalline forms of cellulose, Avicel (AV), cotton cellulose (CC), filter paper (FP) and Panel B, partially hydrated phosphoric acid swollen Avicel (PASC) and soluble <t>carboxymethylcellulose</t> (CMC). 2X and 4X molar excess of Cbh1 and CelD were incubated with various forms of cellulosic substrates and the degree of synergy (ab/a + b) determined [ 20 ]. Equimolar Cbh1/CelD mixtures had no combinatorial effect (DS ≤1) on cellulose breakdown. Excess of Cbh1 over CelD resulted in a combinatorial effort (up to 345%) to attack crystalline ( A ) forms of cellulose while less crystalline forms remained unchanged ( B ). Excess of CelD over Cbh1 resulted in little or no gain of synergy (DS up to 1.91) for crystalline ( A ) substrates (except 1:4 FP) and activity was inhibited with less crystalline ( B ) substrates. For details on activity and degree of synergy, see Additional file 3 : Figure S 2 and Methods.
    Carboxymethylcellullose, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    Millipore carboxymethycellulose
    Molar mixtures of Cbh1 and CelD, result in a combinatorial effort to attack crystalline substrates . Panel A crystalline forms of cellulose, Avicel (AV), cotton cellulose (CC), filter paper (FP) and Panel B, partially hydrated phosphoric acid swollen Avicel (PASC) and soluble <t>carboxymethylcellulose</t> (CMC). 2X and 4X molar excess of Cbh1 and CelD were incubated with various forms of cellulosic substrates and the degree of synergy (ab/a + b) determined [ 20 ]. Equimolar Cbh1/CelD mixtures had no combinatorial effect (DS ≤1) on cellulose breakdown. Excess of Cbh1 over CelD resulted in a combinatorial effort (up to 345%) to attack crystalline ( A ) forms of cellulose while less crystalline forms remained unchanged ( B ). Excess of CelD over Cbh1 resulted in little or no gain of synergy (DS up to 1.91) for crystalline ( A ) substrates (except 1:4 FP) and activity was inhibited with less crystalline ( B ) substrates. For details on activity and degree of synergy, see Additional file 3 : Figure S 2 and Methods.
    Carboxymethycellulose, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 32 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Megazyme cmc carboxymethylcellulose
    Molar mixtures of Cbh1 and CelD, result in a combinatorial effort to attack crystalline substrates . Panel A crystalline forms of cellulose, Avicel (AV), cotton cellulose (CC), filter paper (FP) and Panel B, partially hydrated phosphoric acid swollen Avicel (PASC) and soluble <t>carboxymethylcellulose</t> (CMC). 2X and 4X molar excess of Cbh1 and CelD were incubated with various forms of cellulosic substrates and the degree of synergy (ab/a + b) determined [ 20 ]. Equimolar Cbh1/CelD mixtures had no combinatorial effect (DS ≤1) on cellulose breakdown. Excess of Cbh1 over CelD resulted in a combinatorial effort (up to 345%) to attack crystalline ( A ) forms of cellulose while less crystalline forms remained unchanged ( B ). Excess of CelD over Cbh1 resulted in little or no gain of synergy (DS up to 1.91) for crystalline ( A ) substrates (except 1:4 FP) and activity was inhibited with less crystalline ( B ) substrates. For details on activity and degree of synergy, see Additional file 3 : Figure S 2 and Methods.
    Cmc Carboxymethylcellulose, supplied by Megazyme, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 7 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Millipore carboxymethylcellulose column
    Molar mixtures of Cbh1 and CelD, result in a combinatorial effort to attack crystalline substrates . Panel A crystalline forms of cellulose, Avicel (AV), cotton cellulose (CC), filter paper (FP) and Panel B, partially hydrated phosphoric acid swollen Avicel (PASC) and soluble <t>carboxymethylcellulose</t> (CMC). 2X and 4X molar excess of Cbh1 and CelD were incubated with various forms of cellulosic substrates and the degree of synergy (ab/a + b) determined [ 20 ]. Equimolar Cbh1/CelD mixtures had no combinatorial effect (DS ≤1) on cellulose breakdown. Excess of Cbh1 over CelD resulted in a combinatorial effort (up to 345%) to attack crystalline ( A ) forms of cellulose while less crystalline forms remained unchanged ( B ). Excess of CelD over Cbh1 resulted in little or no gain of synergy (DS up to 1.91) for crystalline ( A ) substrates (except 1:4 FP) and activity was inhibited with less crystalline ( B ) substrates. For details on activity and degree of synergy, see Additional file 3 : Figure S 2 and Methods.
    Carboxymethylcellulose Column, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 7 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Effects of famotidine on damage and repair at luminal pH 7. Prior to surgery, mice were injected with 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) or famotidine (fam; 30 mg/kg intraperitoneally). After surgery, the exposed gastric tissue was superfused with pH 7 solution, and then (A) gastric surface pH (pH o ), (B) maximal damage size and (C) epithelial repair were quantified. Data are presented as mean±SE and analysed using (A) two-way ANOVA or (B and C) unpaired t test. *p

    Journal: Gut

    Article Title: Inhibitors of acid secretion can benefit gastric wound repair independent of luminal pH effects on the site of damage

    doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2011-300420

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of famotidine on damage and repair at luminal pH 7. Prior to surgery, mice were injected with 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) or famotidine (fam; 30 mg/kg intraperitoneally). After surgery, the exposed gastric tissue was superfused with pH 7 solution, and then (A) gastric surface pH (pH o ), (B) maximal damage size and (C) epithelial repair were quantified. Data are presented as mean±SE and analysed using (A) two-way ANOVA or (B and C) unpaired t test. *p

    Article Snippet: Omeprazole was suspended via sonication in 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC; Sigma), while famotidine was suspended in 0.5% CMC without sonication.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Injection

    The ExpA RsmA double mutant exhibits cellulase and pectolytic enzyme activities similar to those of the RsmA mutant. Bacteria were grown to stationary phase on liquid minimal medium supplemented with 0.4% PGA. Cells were subsequently pelleted, and the supernatant was diluted 2, 3, and 5 times. The different dilutions were pipetted onto LB plates containing polygalacturonic acid to test for pectolytic enzyme activity (A) or carboxymethylcellulose to test for cellulase activity (B) in 20-μl drops. In the assay, we used five replicate drops per dilution per strain. (C) The diameters of cleared circles on the plates were measured and compared between strains.

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: The Global Response Regulator ExpA Controls Virulence Gene Expression through RsmA-Mediated and RsmA-Independent Pathways in Pectobacterium wasabiae SCC3193

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.03829-13

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The ExpA RsmA double mutant exhibits cellulase and pectolytic enzyme activities similar to those of the RsmA mutant. Bacteria were grown to stationary phase on liquid minimal medium supplemented with 0.4% PGA. Cells were subsequently pelleted, and the supernatant was diluted 2, 3, and 5 times. The different dilutions were pipetted onto LB plates containing polygalacturonic acid to test for pectolytic enzyme activity (A) or carboxymethylcellulose to test for cellulase activity (B) in 20-μl drops. In the assay, we used five replicate drops per dilution per strain. (C) The diameters of cleared circles on the plates were measured and compared between strains.

    Article Snippet: For assaying cellulase activity, carboxymethylcellulose sodium (Sigma-Aldrich) was used as the substrate, while polygalacturonic acid sodium salt (Sigma-Aldrich) was used as the substrate for pectinase activity.

    Techniques: Mutagenesis, Activity Assay

    Mean plasma and tissue (heart, lung, liver, and kidney) concentrations of amiodarone and mono- N -desethylamiodarone (MDEA) obtained, at 24 h after dose, from rats simultaneously treated in single dose with Paullinia cupana extract (821 mg/kg, p.o.), or vehicle (0.5% carboxymethylcellulose aqueous solution), and amiodarone (50 mg/kg, p.o.) by oral gavage. Data are expressed as the mean values ± standard error of the mean (SEM) of six determinations ( n = 6). * P

    Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM

    Article Title: Herb-Drug Interaction of Paullinia cupana (Guarana) Seed Extract on the Pharmacokinetics of Amiodarone in Rats

    doi: 10.1155/2012/428560

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mean plasma and tissue (heart, lung, liver, and kidney) concentrations of amiodarone and mono- N -desethylamiodarone (MDEA) obtained, at 24 h after dose, from rats simultaneously treated in single dose with Paullinia cupana extract (821 mg/kg, p.o.), or vehicle (0.5% carboxymethylcellulose aqueous solution), and amiodarone (50 mg/kg, p.o.) by oral gavage. Data are expressed as the mean values ± standard error of the mean (SEM) of six determinations ( n = 6). * P

    Article Snippet: Carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt for the preparation of extract suspension was obtained from Sigma (St. Louis, MO, USA).

    Techniques:

    Mean plasma concentration-time profiles of amiodarone and mono- N -desethylamiodarone (MDEA) obtained, over a period of 24 h, from rats submitted to a 14-day pretreatment period with Paullinia cupana extract (821 mg/kg/day, p.o.), or vehicle (0.5% carboxymethylcellulose aqueous solution), and treated on the 15th day with a single dose of amiodarone (50 mg/kg, p.o.) by oral gavage ( n = 6). Symbols represent the mean values ± standard error of the mean (SEM) of six determinations per time point ( n = 6).

    Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM

    Article Title: Herb-Drug Interaction of Paullinia cupana (Guarana) Seed Extract on the Pharmacokinetics of Amiodarone in Rats

    doi: 10.1155/2012/428560

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mean plasma concentration-time profiles of amiodarone and mono- N -desethylamiodarone (MDEA) obtained, over a period of 24 h, from rats submitted to a 14-day pretreatment period with Paullinia cupana extract (821 mg/kg/day, p.o.), or vehicle (0.5% carboxymethylcellulose aqueous solution), and treated on the 15th day with a single dose of amiodarone (50 mg/kg, p.o.) by oral gavage ( n = 6). Symbols represent the mean values ± standard error of the mean (SEM) of six determinations per time point ( n = 6).

    Article Snippet: Carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt for the preparation of extract suspension was obtained from Sigma (St. Louis, MO, USA).

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    Mean plasma concentration-time profiles of amiodarone and mono- N -desethylamiodarone (MDEA) obtained, over a period of 24 h, from rats simultaneously treated in single dose with Paullinia cupana extract (821 mg/kg, p.o.), or vehicle (0.5% carboxymethylcellulose aqueous solution), and amiodarone (50 mg/kg, p.o.) by oral gavage. Symbols represent the mean values ± standard error of the mean (SEM) of six determinations per time point ( n = 6). * P

    Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM

    Article Title: Herb-Drug Interaction of Paullinia cupana (Guarana) Seed Extract on the Pharmacokinetics of Amiodarone in Rats

    doi: 10.1155/2012/428560

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mean plasma concentration-time profiles of amiodarone and mono- N -desethylamiodarone (MDEA) obtained, over a period of 24 h, from rats simultaneously treated in single dose with Paullinia cupana extract (821 mg/kg, p.o.), or vehicle (0.5% carboxymethylcellulose aqueous solution), and amiodarone (50 mg/kg, p.o.) by oral gavage. Symbols represent the mean values ± standard error of the mean (SEM) of six determinations per time point ( n = 6). * P

    Article Snippet: Carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt for the preparation of extract suspension was obtained from Sigma (St. Louis, MO, USA).

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    Mean plasma and tissue (heart, lung, liver and kidney) concentrations of amiodarone and mono- N -desethylamiodarone (MDEA) obtained, at 24 h after dose, from rats submitted to a 14-day pretreatment period with Paullinia cupana extract (821 mg/kg/day, p.o.), or vehicle (0.5% carboxymethylcellulose aqueous solution), and treated on the 15th day with a single dose of amiodarone (50 mg/kg, p.o.) by oral gavage. Data are expressed as the mean values ± standard error of the mean (SEM) of six determinations ( n = 6).

    Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM

    Article Title: Herb-Drug Interaction of Paullinia cupana (Guarana) Seed Extract on the Pharmacokinetics of Amiodarone in Rats

    doi: 10.1155/2012/428560

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mean plasma and tissue (heart, lung, liver and kidney) concentrations of amiodarone and mono- N -desethylamiodarone (MDEA) obtained, at 24 h after dose, from rats submitted to a 14-day pretreatment period with Paullinia cupana extract (821 mg/kg/day, p.o.), or vehicle (0.5% carboxymethylcellulose aqueous solution), and treated on the 15th day with a single dose of amiodarone (50 mg/kg, p.o.) by oral gavage. Data are expressed as the mean values ± standard error of the mean (SEM) of six determinations ( n = 6).

    Article Snippet: Carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt for the preparation of extract suspension was obtained from Sigma (St. Louis, MO, USA).

    Techniques:

    Effects on the body weight of the rats induced by the subchronic treatment (14-day period) with Paullinia cupana extract (821 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and vehicle (0.5% carboxymethylcellulose aqueous solution) by oral gavage ( n = 6). * P

    Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM

    Article Title: Herb-Drug Interaction of Paullinia cupana (Guarana) Seed Extract on the Pharmacokinetics of Amiodarone in Rats

    doi: 10.1155/2012/428560

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects on the body weight of the rats induced by the subchronic treatment (14-day period) with Paullinia cupana extract (821 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and vehicle (0.5% carboxymethylcellulose aqueous solution) by oral gavage ( n = 6). * P

    Article Snippet: Carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt for the preparation of extract suspension was obtained from Sigma (St. Louis, MO, USA).

    Techniques:

    Ratios for the main plasma pharmacokinetic parameters ( C max⁡ , AUC 0– t and AUC 0–∞ ) estimated for amiodarone in rats simultaneously treated in single dose with Paullinia cupana extract (821 mg/kg, p.o.), or vehicle (0.5% carboxymethylcellulose aqueous solution), and amiodarone (50 mg/kg, p.o.) by oral gavage.

    Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM

    Article Title: Herb-Drug Interaction of Paullinia cupana (Guarana) Seed Extract on the Pharmacokinetics of Amiodarone in Rats

    doi: 10.1155/2012/428560

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Ratios for the main plasma pharmacokinetic parameters ( C max⁡ , AUC 0– t and AUC 0–∞ ) estimated for amiodarone in rats simultaneously treated in single dose with Paullinia cupana extract (821 mg/kg, p.o.), or vehicle (0.5% carboxymethylcellulose aqueous solution), and amiodarone (50 mg/kg, p.o.) by oral gavage.

    Article Snippet: Carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt for the preparation of extract suspension was obtained from Sigma (St. Louis, MO, USA).

    Techniques:

    Ratios for the main plasma pharmacokinetic parameters ( C max⁡ , AUC 0– t and AUC 0–∞ ) estimated for amiodarone in rats submitted to a 14-day pretreatment period with Paullinia cupana extract (821 mg/kg/day, p.o.), or vehicle (0.5% carboxymethylcellulose aqueous solution), and treated on the 15th day with a single dose of amiodarone (50 mg/kg, p.o.) by oral gavage.

    Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM

    Article Title: Herb-Drug Interaction of Paullinia cupana (Guarana) Seed Extract on the Pharmacokinetics of Amiodarone in Rats

    doi: 10.1155/2012/428560

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Ratios for the main plasma pharmacokinetic parameters ( C max⁡ , AUC 0– t and AUC 0–∞ ) estimated for amiodarone in rats submitted to a 14-day pretreatment period with Paullinia cupana extract (821 mg/kg/day, p.o.), or vehicle (0.5% carboxymethylcellulose aqueous solution), and treated on the 15th day with a single dose of amiodarone (50 mg/kg, p.o.) by oral gavage.

    Article Snippet: Carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt for the preparation of extract suspension was obtained from Sigma (St. Louis, MO, USA).

    Techniques:

    Intrinsic resistance to BYL719 correlates with persistent mTORC1 activity

    Journal: Science translational medicine

    Article Title: mTORC1 Inhibition Is Required for Sensitivity to PI3K p110? Inhibitors in PIK3CA-Mutant Breast Cancer

    doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3005747

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Intrinsic resistance to BYL719 correlates with persistent mTORC1 activity

    Article Snippet: Animals were treated daily with BYL719 [25 or 50 mg/kg in 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt (CMC) (Sigma) in water] and/or RAD001 (0.5 or 0.1 mg/kg, freshly dissolved in water, and mixed in CMC or BYL719 in CMC solution).

    Techniques: Activity Assay

    Effects of IGF1 and NRG1 in limiting tumor cell sensitivity to BYL719

    Journal: Science translational medicine

    Article Title: mTORC1 Inhibition Is Required for Sensitivity to PI3K p110? Inhibitors in PIK3CA-Mutant Breast Cancer

    doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3005747

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of IGF1 and NRG1 in limiting tumor cell sensitivity to BYL719

    Article Snippet: Animals were treated daily with BYL719 [25 or 50 mg/kg in 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt (CMC) (Sigma) in water] and/or RAD001 (0.5 or 0.1 mg/kg, freshly dissolved in water, and mixed in CMC or BYL719 in CMC solution).

    Techniques:

    Correlation between mTORC1 activity and sensitivity to BYL719 in vitro

    Journal: Science translational medicine

    Article Title: mTORC1 Inhibition Is Required for Sensitivity to PI3K p110? Inhibitors in PIK3CA-Mutant Breast Cancer

    doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3005747

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Correlation between mTORC1 activity and sensitivity to BYL719 in vitro

    Article Snippet: Animals were treated daily with BYL719 [25 or 50 mg/kg in 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt (CMC) (Sigma) in water] and/or RAD001 (0.5 or 0.1 mg/kg, freshly dissolved in water, and mixed in CMC or BYL719 in CMC solution).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, In Vitro

    Sustained activation of mTORC1 in resistant cells after BYL719 treatment in vivo

    Journal: Science translational medicine

    Article Title: mTORC1 Inhibition Is Required for Sensitivity to PI3K p110? Inhibitors in PIK3CA-Mutant Breast Cancer

    doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3005747

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Sustained activation of mTORC1 in resistant cells after BYL719 treatment in vivo

    Article Snippet: Animals were treated daily with BYL719 [25 or 50 mg/kg in 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt (CMC) (Sigma) in water] and/or RAD001 (0.5 or 0.1 mg/kg, freshly dissolved in water, and mixed in CMC or BYL719 in CMC solution).

    Techniques: Activation Assay, In Vivo

    Correlation between pS6(240/4) inhibition and clinical response to BYL719 in breast cancer patients

    Journal: Science translational medicine

    Article Title: mTORC1 Inhibition Is Required for Sensitivity to PI3K p110? Inhibitors in PIK3CA-Mutant Breast Cancer

    doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3005747

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Correlation between pS6(240/4) inhibition and clinical response to BYL719 in breast cancer patients

    Article Snippet: Animals were treated daily with BYL719 [25 or 50 mg/kg in 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt (CMC) (Sigma) in water] and/or RAD001 (0.5 or 0.1 mg/kg, freshly dissolved in water, and mixed in CMC or BYL719 in CMC solution).

    Techniques: Inhibition

    Antitumor effects of combined mTORC1 (RAD001) and p110α (BYL719) inhibition

    Journal: Science translational medicine

    Article Title: mTORC1 Inhibition Is Required for Sensitivity to PI3K p110? Inhibitors in PIK3CA-Mutant Breast Cancer

    doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3005747

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Antitumor effects of combined mTORC1 (RAD001) and p110α (BYL719) inhibition

    Article Snippet: Animals were treated daily with BYL719 [25 or 50 mg/kg in 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt (CMC) (Sigma) in water] and/or RAD001 (0.5 or 0.1 mg/kg, freshly dissolved in water, and mixed in CMC or BYL719 in CMC solution).

    Techniques: Inhibition

    Molar mixtures of Cbh1 and CelD, result in a combinatorial effort to attack crystalline substrates . Panel A crystalline forms of cellulose, Avicel (AV), cotton cellulose (CC), filter paper (FP) and Panel B, partially hydrated phosphoric acid swollen Avicel (PASC) and soluble carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). 2X and 4X molar excess of Cbh1 and CelD were incubated with various forms of cellulosic substrates and the degree of synergy (ab/a + b) determined [ 20 ]. Equimolar Cbh1/CelD mixtures had no combinatorial effect (DS ≤1) on cellulose breakdown. Excess of Cbh1 over CelD resulted in a combinatorial effort (up to 345%) to attack crystalline ( A ) forms of cellulose while less crystalline forms remained unchanged ( B ). Excess of CelD over Cbh1 resulted in little or no gain of synergy (DS up to 1.91) for crystalline ( A ) substrates (except 1:4 FP) and activity was inhibited with less crystalline ( B ) substrates. For details on activity and degree of synergy, see Additional file 3 : Figure S 2 and Methods.

    Journal: Biotechnology for Biofuels

    Article Title: Two structurally discrete GH7-cellobiohydrolases compete for the same cellulosic substrate fiber

    doi: 10.1186/1754-6834-5-21

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Molar mixtures of Cbh1 and CelD, result in a combinatorial effort to attack crystalline substrates . Panel A crystalline forms of cellulose, Avicel (AV), cotton cellulose (CC), filter paper (FP) and Panel B, partially hydrated phosphoric acid swollen Avicel (PASC) and soluble carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). 2X and 4X molar excess of Cbh1 and CelD were incubated with various forms of cellulosic substrates and the degree of synergy (ab/a + b) determined [ 20 ]. Equimolar Cbh1/CelD mixtures had no combinatorial effect (DS ≤1) on cellulose breakdown. Excess of Cbh1 over CelD resulted in a combinatorial effort (up to 345%) to attack crystalline ( A ) forms of cellulose while less crystalline forms remained unchanged ( B ). Excess of CelD over Cbh1 resulted in little or no gain of synergy (DS up to 1.91) for crystalline ( A ) substrates (except 1:4 FP) and activity was inhibited with less crystalline ( B ) substrates. For details on activity and degree of synergy, see Additional file 3 : Figure S 2 and Methods.

    Article Snippet: The cellulosic substrates used throughout were carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), cotton linters, SigmaCel50 (CC) crystalinity index (CI) of 91.2, Avicel PH-101 91.7 CI as determined by the x-ray diffraction method [ ], phosphoric acid swollen-Avicel (PASC) and filter paper, Whatman #3 (FP).

    Techniques: Incubation, Activity Assay

    Structural overview of Cbh1 and CelD catalytic homologs active on cellulosic substrates. Panel A SDS–PAGE comassie-blue (CB) protein and carboxymethylcellulose congo-red (CR) enzyme activity staining of secreted Cbh1 and CelD proteins recovered from two-day shake-flask cultures. Cbh1 showed a strong activity against CMC while CelD showed lesser activity on CMC. Restraint-based modeling of Cbh1 and CelD identified a flexible catalytic loop and a lid-like loop obstructing the substrate tunnel. Panel B , cartoon representation of CelD, colored by secondary structure elements. Disulphide bonds are shown in ball-and-stick representation. Panel C , CelD/Cbh1 catalytic domain structural overlay. The active-cleft residues are shown as stick carbon atoms in yellow. The flexible catalytic loop, common to all GH7 cellobiohydrolases is shown in red and the three-residue lid-type insertion within the 94–103 loops only present in Cbh1 is drawn as sticks with carbon atoms in green. CelD (Panel D ) and Cbh1 (Panel E ) surface model prediction highlighting the catalytic substrate tunnel in blue and the obstructing lid-type loop in green. For a clearer view of the substrate channel, some residues at the protein surface were omitted. Alignment of the 94–103 lid-like and flexible catalytic loops of GH7-cellobiohydrolases (Panel F ). All CelD like proteins with no CBD show a four amino acid deletion that opens the catalytic tunnel (shown in D and E ).

    Journal: Biotechnology for Biofuels

    Article Title: Two structurally discrete GH7-cellobiohydrolases compete for the same cellulosic substrate fiber

    doi: 10.1186/1754-6834-5-21

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Structural overview of Cbh1 and CelD catalytic homologs active on cellulosic substrates. Panel A SDS–PAGE comassie-blue (CB) protein and carboxymethylcellulose congo-red (CR) enzyme activity staining of secreted Cbh1 and CelD proteins recovered from two-day shake-flask cultures. Cbh1 showed a strong activity against CMC while CelD showed lesser activity on CMC. Restraint-based modeling of Cbh1 and CelD identified a flexible catalytic loop and a lid-like loop obstructing the substrate tunnel. Panel B , cartoon representation of CelD, colored by secondary structure elements. Disulphide bonds are shown in ball-and-stick representation. Panel C , CelD/Cbh1 catalytic domain structural overlay. The active-cleft residues are shown as stick carbon atoms in yellow. The flexible catalytic loop, common to all GH7 cellobiohydrolases is shown in red and the three-residue lid-type insertion within the 94–103 loops only present in Cbh1 is drawn as sticks with carbon atoms in green. CelD (Panel D ) and Cbh1 (Panel E ) surface model prediction highlighting the catalytic substrate tunnel in blue and the obstructing lid-type loop in green. For a clearer view of the substrate channel, some residues at the protein surface were omitted. Alignment of the 94–103 lid-like and flexible catalytic loops of GH7-cellobiohydrolases (Panel F ). All CelD like proteins with no CBD show a four amino acid deletion that opens the catalytic tunnel (shown in D and E ).

    Article Snippet: The cellulosic substrates used throughout were carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), cotton linters, SigmaCel50 (CC) crystalinity index (CI) of 91.2, Avicel PH-101 91.7 CI as determined by the x-ray diffraction method [ ], phosphoric acid swollen-Avicel (PASC) and filter paper, Whatman #3 (FP).

    Techniques: SDS Page, Activity Assay, Staining