c. glutamicum cells Search Results


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  • 99
    ATCC c glutamicum atcc 13032 cells
    Detection of CdporA of C. diphtheriae on the cell wall surface using an ELISA. Intact cells of C. diphtheriae ATCC 11913 and C. <t>glutamicum</t> <t>ATCC</t> 13032 were immobilized and incubated with anti-PorA (dilution, 1:100), preimmune serum (dilution, 1:1,000),
    C Glutamicum Atcc 13032 Cells, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 124 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC c glutamicum atcc 31831 cells
    Effect of araE gene disruption on aerobic growth of C. <t>glutamicum</t> <t>ATCC</t> 31831 in medium containing l -arabinose as the sole carbon source. The wild-type strain (circles) and araE deletion mutant CRA14 (triangles) were grown aerobically to late log phase
    C Glutamicum Atcc 31831 Cells, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 9 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    ATCC c glutamicum atcc 14751 cells
    Southern blot of chromosomal DNA from various corynebacterial strains hybridized with IS 14751 as the probe. (A) Lanes 1 and 7, λ HindIII molecular weight marker; lanes 2 to 6, SmaI-digested chromosomal DNA of C. <t>glutamicum</t> R, ATCC 14751, ATCC
    C Glutamicum Atcc 14751 Cells, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC glucose grown c glutamicum atcc 17965 cells
    Southern blot of chromosomal DNA from various corynebacterial strains hybridized with IS 14751 as the probe. (A) Lanes 1 and 7, λ HindIII molecular weight marker; lanes 2 to 6, SmaI-digested chromosomal DNA of C. <t>glutamicum</t> R, ATCC 14751, ATCC
    Glucose Grown C Glutamicum Atcc 17965 Cells, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    ATCC c glutamicum f
    Transformation assays of FA and VAN. C. <t>glutamicum</t> <t>strain</t> F was cultured in BHI medium at 30 °C for 24 h, and 0.1 mL of each culture was transferred to 5 mL of AR medium containing 2 mM each of FA or VAN with 25 μg/mL of Km in 5 mL tubes. The biotransformation of a FA and b VAN was performed at 30 °C with agitation at 180 rpm for 72 h. The concentrations of extracellular FA ( squares ), VA ( triangles ), VAN ( diamonds ) and PCA ( circles ) were monitored every 24 h. Data represent the mean and standard error from three independent experiments
    C Glutamicum F, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 14 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    ATCC c glutamicum atcc 21526
    Mass isotopomer distributions of the carbon skeletons of glucose-6-phosphate (A) and lysine (B) during cultivation of C. <t>glutamicum</t> <t>ATCC</t> 21526 on [1- 13 C Fru ]sucrose, [1- 13 C Glc ]sucrose, and [ 13 C 6 Fru ]sucrose, respectively. The data were calculated from GC-MS measurements of the m/z 361 ion cluster of trimethylsilyl-derivatized trehalose, corresponding to the carbon skeleton of glucose-6-phosphate, and of the m/z 431 ion cluster of t ).
    C Glutamicum Atcc 21526, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 28 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC lysine producing mutants c glutamicum atcc 13287
    Impact of strain optimization of lysine-producing strains of C. <t>glutamicum</t> on NADPH metabolism. NADPH demand (A) and supply (B) are expressed as molar fluxes related to the glucose uptake flux in five successive generations of a genealogy of lysine producers estimated via metabolic network analysis. The strain numbers represent the different generations C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 (1), <t>ATCC</t> 13287 (2), ATCC 21253 (3), ATCC 21526 (4), and ATCC 21543 (5). ICD, isocitrate dehydrogenase.
    Lysine Producing Mutants C Glutamicum Atcc 13287, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC c glutamicum ps2 s layer cspb gene
    Impact of strain optimization of lysine-producing strains of C. <t>glutamicum</t> on NADPH metabolism. NADPH demand (A) and supply (B) are expressed as molar fluxes related to the glucose uptake flux in five successive generations of a genealogy of lysine producers estimated via metabolic network analysis. The strain numbers represent the different generations C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 (1), <t>ATCC</t> 13287 (2), ATCC 21253 (3), ATCC 21526 (4), and ATCC 21543 (5). ICD, isocitrate dehydrogenase.
    C Glutamicum Ps2 S Layer Cspb Gene, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Detection of CdporA of C. diphtheriae on the cell wall surface using an ELISA. Intact cells of C. diphtheriae ATCC 11913 and C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 were immobilized and incubated with anti-PorA (dilution, 1:100), preimmune serum (dilution, 1:1,000),

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    Article Title: Corynebacterium diphtheriae: Identification and Characterization of a Channel-Forming Protein in the Cell Wall ▿

    doi: 10.1128/JB.00864-07

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Detection of CdporA of C. diphtheriae on the cell wall surface using an ELISA. Intact cells of C. diphtheriae ATCC 11913 and C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 were immobilized and incubated with anti-PorA (dilution, 1:100), preimmune serum (dilution, 1:1,000),

    Article Snippet: This strain was routinely grown in 500-ml Erlenmeyer flasks containing 250 ml brain heart infusion medium (Difco Laboratories) broth at 36 ± 1°C using a New Brunswick shaker at 120 rpm for 24 h. C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 cells were routinely grown in brain heart infusion medium as described previously in detail ( ).

    Techniques: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Incubation

    Amino acid sequence of CdporA of C. diphtheriae NCTC 13129 and comparison with the amino acid sequences of CdporA of C. diphtheriae ATCC 11913, PorA of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032, and hypothetical PorA protein of C. efficiens AJ12310 using Pole Bioinformatique

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    Article Title: Corynebacterium diphtheriae: Identification and Characterization of a Channel-Forming Protein in the Cell Wall ▿

    doi: 10.1128/JB.00864-07

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Amino acid sequence of CdporA of C. diphtheriae NCTC 13129 and comparison with the amino acid sequences of CdporA of C. diphtheriae ATCC 11913, PorA of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032, and hypothetical PorA protein of C. efficiens AJ12310 using Pole Bioinformatique

    Article Snippet: This strain was routinely grown in 500-ml Erlenmeyer flasks containing 250 ml brain heart infusion medium (Difco Laboratories) broth at 36 ± 1°C using a New Brunswick shaker at 120 rpm for 24 h. C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 cells were routinely grown in brain heart infusion medium as described previously in detail ( ).

    Techniques: Sequencing

    Effect of fermentation time on l -lysine production by immobilized cells of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032

    Journal: 3 Biotech

    Article Title: Comparative studies for the biotechnological production of l-Lysine by immobilized cells of wild-type Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 and mutant MH 20-22 B

    doi: 10.1007/s13205-015-0275-8

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of fermentation time on l -lysine production by immobilized cells of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032

    Article Snippet: Effect of pH on l -lysine production by immobilized cells C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 and MH 20-22 B The pH is very important process parameter strongly influences the microbial fermentation.

    Techniques:

    Comparative transcriptome analysis of l -lactate- and pyruvate-grown C. glutamicum ATCC 13032.

    Journal:

    Article Title: Characterization of a Corynebacterium glutamicum Lactate Utilization Operon Induced during Temperature-Triggered Glutamate Production †

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.71.10.5920-5928.2005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparative transcriptome analysis of l -lactate- and pyruvate-grown C. glutamicum ATCC 13032.

    Article Snippet: We compared the transcriptomes of pyruvate- and l -lactate-grown cultures to test whether l -lactate-grown C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 cells showed high lldD mRNA levels and to determine whether NCgl2816 and lldD were the only genes specifically induced by l -lactate.

    Techniques:

    Properties and carbon source-dependent regulation of quinone-dependent l -lactate dehydrogenase from C. glutamicum ATCC 13032.

    Journal:

    Article Title: Characterization of a Corynebacterium glutamicum Lactate Utilization Operon Induced during Temperature-Triggered Glutamate Production †

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.71.10.5920-5928.2005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Properties and carbon source-dependent regulation of quinone-dependent l -lactate dehydrogenase from C. glutamicum ATCC 13032.

    Article Snippet: We compared the transcriptomes of pyruvate- and l -lactate-grown cultures to test whether l -lactate-grown C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 cells showed high lldD mRNA levels and to determine whether NCgl2816 and lldD were the only genes specifically induced by l -lactate.

    Techniques:

    7-AAD staining and FACS analysis of THP-1 cells infected with C. ulcerans . THP-1 cells were infected with the non-pathogenic C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 and pathogenic C. ulcerans strains 809 and BR-AD22 at MOI 50, uninfected cells were carried along as

    Journal: Virulence

    Article Title: The killing of macrophages by Corynebacterium ulcerans

    doi: 10.1080/21505594.2015.1125068

    Figure Lengend Snippet: 7-AAD staining and FACS analysis of THP-1 cells infected with C. ulcerans . THP-1 cells were infected with the non-pathogenic C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 and pathogenic C. ulcerans strains 809 and BR-AD22 at MOI 50, uninfected cells were carried along as

    Article Snippet: Cells were infected for 20 hours with viable and UV-killed C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 and C. ulcerans strains 809 and BR-AD22 at an MOI of 1 and 10.

    Techniques: Staining, FACS, Infection

    Fluorescence microscopy of C. ulcerans and THP-1 cells. THP-1 cells were infected with C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 pEPR1p45 gfp, C. ulcerans 809 pEPR1p45 gfp and C. ulcerans BR-AD22 pEPR1p45 gfp at an MOI of 10 for 30 min. Extracellular bacteria were

    Journal: Virulence

    Article Title: The killing of macrophages by Corynebacterium ulcerans

    doi: 10.1080/21505594.2015.1125068

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Fluorescence microscopy of C. ulcerans and THP-1 cells. THP-1 cells were infected with C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 pEPR1p45 gfp, C. ulcerans 809 pEPR1p45 gfp and C. ulcerans BR-AD22 pEPR1p45 gfp at an MOI of 10 for 30 min. Extracellular bacteria were

    Article Snippet: Cells were infected for 20 hours with viable and UV-killed C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 and C. ulcerans strains 809 and BR-AD22 at an MOI of 1 and 10.

    Techniques: Fluorescence, Microscopy, Infection

    Labeling and tracking of acidic organelles in THP-1 cells infected with C. ulcerans . THP-1 cells were incubated with LysoTracker ® Red DND-99 for 120 min before cells were infected with C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 pEPR1p45 gfp, C. ulcerans

    Journal: Virulence

    Article Title: The killing of macrophages by Corynebacterium ulcerans

    doi: 10.1080/21505594.2015.1125068

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Labeling and tracking of acidic organelles in THP-1 cells infected with C. ulcerans . THP-1 cells were incubated with LysoTracker ® Red DND-99 for 120 min before cells were infected with C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 pEPR1p45 gfp, C. ulcerans

    Article Snippet: Cells were infected for 20 hours with viable and UV-killed C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 and C. ulcerans strains 809 and BR-AD22 at an MOI of 1 and 10.

    Techniques: Labeling, Infection, Incubation

    Two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography (2D-TLC) analysis of [ 14 C]-labeled polar lipids from Corynebacterium glutamicum cells grown in glucose (A-F) or myo -inositol (G-H). (A) and (G) C. glutamicum ATCC 13032, (B) and (H) ATCC 13032 Δ ipsA, (C) ATCC 13032 Δ ipsA pAN6-cg3323 , (D) ATCC 13032 Δ ipsA ::pK18int-ipsA , (E) ATCC 13032 Δ ipsA pAN6-DIP1969 and (F) ATCC 13032 Δ ipsA pAN6-Rv3575. The cells were cultured in CGXII with either glucose (A-F) or myo -inositol (G, H) . PI, phosphatidylinositol; TMCM, trehalose monocorynomycolate; GMCM, glucose monocorynomycolate; Ac 1 PIM 2 , monoacylated phosphatidyl myo -inositol dimannoside; GlcAGroAc 2 , 1,2-di- O -C 16 /C 18:1 -(α- d -glucopyranosyluronic acid)-(1→3)-glycerol (GL-A); ManGlcAGroAc 2 1,2-di- O- C 16 /C 18:1 -(α- d -mannopyranosyl)-(1→4)-(α- d -glucopyranosyluronic acid)-(1→3)-glycerol (GL-X).

    Journal: BMC Biology

    Article Title: IpsA, a novel LacI-type regulator, is required for inositol-derived lipid formation in Corynebacteria and Mycobacteria

    doi: 10.1186/1741-7007-11-122

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography (2D-TLC) analysis of [ 14 C]-labeled polar lipids from Corynebacterium glutamicum cells grown in glucose (A-F) or myo -inositol (G-H). (A) and (G) C. glutamicum ATCC 13032, (B) and (H) ATCC 13032 Δ ipsA, (C) ATCC 13032 Δ ipsA pAN6-cg3323 , (D) ATCC 13032 Δ ipsA ::pK18int-ipsA , (E) ATCC 13032 Δ ipsA pAN6-DIP1969 and (F) ATCC 13032 Δ ipsA pAN6-Rv3575. The cells were cultured in CGXII with either glucose (A-F) or myo -inositol (G, H) . PI, phosphatidylinositol; TMCM, trehalose monocorynomycolate; GMCM, glucose monocorynomycolate; Ac 1 PIM 2 , monoacylated phosphatidyl myo -inositol dimannoside; GlcAGroAc 2 , 1,2-di- O -C 16 /C 18:1 -(α- d -glucopyranosyluronic acid)-(1→3)-glycerol (GL-A); ManGlcAGroAc 2 1,2-di- O- C 16 /C 18:1 -(α- d -mannopyranosyl)-(1→4)-(α- d -glucopyranosyluronic acid)-(1→3)-glycerol (GL-X).

    Article Snippet: The C. glutamicum type strain ATCC 13032 was used as wild-type.

    Techniques: Thin Layer Chromatography, Labeling, Cell Culture

    Biosensor-based online monitoring of L-valine production in PDHC-deficient C. glutamicum strains. ( A ) Growth and ( B ) Lrp-sensor output (eYFP fluorescence) of the sensor strains C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 wild type (stars), ΔaceE (diamonds), ΔaceE Δpqo (circles), ΔaceE Δpqo Δpgi (triangles), and ΔaceE Δpqo Δpgi Δpyc (squares) cultivated in CGXII minimal medium containing 222 mM glucose and 154 mM acetate. Data represent average values of three independent cultivations. The transition of the producer strains into the stationary and production phase is highlighted by the grey area. ( C ) EYFP fluorescence of respective strains at the beginning of the production phase (black bars) and twelve hours after the initiation of L-valine production (grey bars). L-valine concentration (mM) in the supernatant of the respective strain 25 h after beginning of cultivation as measured by HPLC is indicated above the grey bars.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Application of a Genetically Encoded Biosensor for Live Cell Imaging of L-Valine Production in Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex-Deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum Strains

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085731

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Biosensor-based online monitoring of L-valine production in PDHC-deficient C. glutamicum strains. ( A ) Growth and ( B ) Lrp-sensor output (eYFP fluorescence) of the sensor strains C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 wild type (stars), ΔaceE (diamonds), ΔaceE Δpqo (circles), ΔaceE Δpqo Δpgi (triangles), and ΔaceE Δpqo Δpgi Δpyc (squares) cultivated in CGXII minimal medium containing 222 mM glucose and 154 mM acetate. Data represent average values of three independent cultivations. The transition of the producer strains into the stationary and production phase is highlighted by the grey area. ( C ) EYFP fluorescence of respective strains at the beginning of the production phase (black bars) and twelve hours after the initiation of L-valine production (grey bars). L-valine concentration (mM) in the supernatant of the respective strain 25 h after beginning of cultivation as measured by HPLC is indicated above the grey bars.

    Article Snippet: Occurrence of non-fluorescent cells during the production phase of the C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 ΔaceE Δpqo Δpgi sensor strain. (WMV) Click here for additional data file.

    Techniques: Fluorescence, Concentration Assay, High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Live cell imaging of L-valine production strains using microfluidic monolayer cultivation chambers . ( A ) Illustration of the microfluidic cultivation chambers. The system consists of several arrays of picoliter sized monolayer cultivation chambers. ( B ) Fluorescence emission of three entire microcolonies (average eYFP signal per colony area) of the ΔaceE sensor strain (triangles) and the ΔaceE Δpqo Δpgi sensor strain (diamonds) over time. Fluorescence was measured every 2.5 h. ( C ) Growth (t 1 –t 2 ) and production phase (t 3 –t 5 ) of isogenic microcolonies of the ΔaceE sensor strain (upper row) and the ΔaceE Δpqo Δpgi sensor strain (lower row). ( D ) Histograms illustrating fluorescence distribution within a representative microcolony of the ΔaceE sensor strain (left) and the ΔaceE Δpqo Δpgi sensor strain (right). The eYFP signal of single cells was measured at t = 19 h (red), t = 26 h (green), t = 34 h (purple), and t = 46 h (blue). Average fluorescence values are indicated above the respective peaks. All cultivations were performed in microfluidic chambers shown in (A) in CGXII minimal medium containing 154 mM acetate and 222 mM glucose during growth phase or CGXII with 222 mM glucose during the production phase, respectively.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Application of a Genetically Encoded Biosensor for Live Cell Imaging of L-Valine Production in Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex-Deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum Strains

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085731

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Live cell imaging of L-valine production strains using microfluidic monolayer cultivation chambers . ( A ) Illustration of the microfluidic cultivation chambers. The system consists of several arrays of picoliter sized monolayer cultivation chambers. ( B ) Fluorescence emission of three entire microcolonies (average eYFP signal per colony area) of the ΔaceE sensor strain (triangles) and the ΔaceE Δpqo Δpgi sensor strain (diamonds) over time. Fluorescence was measured every 2.5 h. ( C ) Growth (t 1 –t 2 ) and production phase (t 3 –t 5 ) of isogenic microcolonies of the ΔaceE sensor strain (upper row) and the ΔaceE Δpqo Δpgi sensor strain (lower row). ( D ) Histograms illustrating fluorescence distribution within a representative microcolony of the ΔaceE sensor strain (left) and the ΔaceE Δpqo Δpgi sensor strain (right). The eYFP signal of single cells was measured at t = 19 h (red), t = 26 h (green), t = 34 h (purple), and t = 46 h (blue). Average fluorescence values are indicated above the respective peaks. All cultivations were performed in microfluidic chambers shown in (A) in CGXII minimal medium containing 154 mM acetate and 222 mM glucose during growth phase or CGXII with 222 mM glucose during the production phase, respectively.

    Article Snippet: Occurrence of non-fluorescent cells during the production phase of the C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 ΔaceE Δpqo Δpgi sensor strain. (WMV) Click here for additional data file.

    Techniques: Live Cell Imaging, Fluorescence

    Occurrence of non-fluorescent cells during the production phase. ( A ) Microcolony and lineage tree of the ΔaceE Δpqo Δpgi sensor strain. Different types of non-fluorescent cells are illustrated in B. ( B ) (I+II) Lysing cells and (III) dormant/or dead cell, which do not switch from growth to production. (IV) Leaky cell that shows decreasing fluorescence signal over time, potentially caused by a permeabilized cell membrane. (V * ) Cells showing slow growth, but no production. Images marked with an asterisk show cells of another microcolony of the ΔaceE Δpqo Δpgi sensor strain, not shown in this figure.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Application of a Genetically Encoded Biosensor for Live Cell Imaging of L-Valine Production in Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex-Deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum Strains

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085731

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Occurrence of non-fluorescent cells during the production phase. ( A ) Microcolony and lineage tree of the ΔaceE Δpqo Δpgi sensor strain. Different types of non-fluorescent cells are illustrated in B. ( B ) (I+II) Lysing cells and (III) dormant/or dead cell, which do not switch from growth to production. (IV) Leaky cell that shows decreasing fluorescence signal over time, potentially caused by a permeabilized cell membrane. (V * ) Cells showing slow growth, but no production. Images marked with an asterisk show cells of another microcolony of the ΔaceE Δpqo Δpgi sensor strain, not shown in this figure.

    Article Snippet: Occurrence of non-fluorescent cells during the production phase of the C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 ΔaceE Δpqo Δpgi sensor strain. (WMV) Click here for additional data file.

    Techniques: Fluorescence

    Viability of bacteria transferred by aerosols. ( a ) Colonies of three kinds of soil bacteria, C. glutamicum , P. syringae and B. subtilis , cultured on agar plates for 2 days after they were aerosolized by raindrops on sandy-clay soil (Sandy clay-A in Table 1 ). The inner black circles indicate the location where raindrops hit on the soil. The yellow dots indicate the colonies where bacteria grew. The scale bars represent 10 mm. ( b ) Viability test with respect to the duration of drying the aerosols collected on the sampling plates. The time, displayed in the images, indicate the drying duration. Aerosols were generated from TLC plates (TLC-C in Table 1 ) pre-permeated with C. glutamicum . The colonies were cultured on agar plates for 2 days after the aerosolization. The scale bars indicate 10 mm. ( c ) Average number of colony-forming units from a single raindrop when the aerosols, collected on the sampling plates, were transferred to the agar plates immediately after aerosolization. The error bars represent±1 s.d. resulting from nine drop impingements. The impact velocity was 1.4 m s −1 , the drop diameter of 2.8 mm, and the surface temperature 20 °C for all cases. ( d ) Viability of bacteria with respect to time after aerosolization. The viability is the ratio of the number of colonies on the agar plate to the number of aerosols containing bacteria collected on the sampling plate. For more details, see ‘Methods' section.

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Bioaerosol generation by raindrops on soil

    doi: 10.1038/ncomms14668

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Viability of bacteria transferred by aerosols. ( a ) Colonies of three kinds of soil bacteria, C. glutamicum , P. syringae and B. subtilis , cultured on agar plates for 2 days after they were aerosolized by raindrops on sandy-clay soil (Sandy clay-A in Table 1 ). The inner black circles indicate the location where raindrops hit on the soil. The yellow dots indicate the colonies where bacteria grew. The scale bars represent 10 mm. ( b ) Viability test with respect to the duration of drying the aerosols collected on the sampling plates. The time, displayed in the images, indicate the drying duration. Aerosols were generated from TLC plates (TLC-C in Table 1 ) pre-permeated with C. glutamicum . The colonies were cultured on agar plates for 2 days after the aerosolization. The scale bars indicate 10 mm. ( c ) Average number of colony-forming units from a single raindrop when the aerosols, collected on the sampling plates, were transferred to the agar plates immediately after aerosolization. The error bars represent±1 s.d. resulting from nine drop impingements. The impact velocity was 1.4 m s −1 , the drop diameter of 2.8 mm, and the surface temperature 20 °C for all cases. ( d ) Viability of bacteria with respect to time after aerosolization. The viability is the ratio of the number of colonies on the agar plate to the number of aerosols containing bacteria collected on the sampling plate. For more details, see ‘Methods' section.

    Article Snippet: In this work, we used three species of soil bacteria: Corynebacterium glutamicum (C. glutamicum ATCC 13032), Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis JMA222) and Pseudomonas syringae (P. syringae ATCC 55389), and six kinds of soil: two different types of clay, sandy-clay and sand ( ).

    Techniques: Cell Culture, Sampling, Generated, Thin Layer Chromatography

    Bioaerosol generation by raindrops. ( a – d ) Aerosols generated by drop impingement on a reference surface, which maximized the aerosol generation (a TLC plate (TLC-C) in Table 1 ). The TLC plates served as an ideal soil-like surface. The white lines are the trajectories of aerosols ejected from the initial droplet after impact over a period of 400 ms. Due to air flow above the droplet, the trajectories of the ejected aerosols are curved. The scale bars indicate 1 mm. For more details, see Supplementary Movie 1 . ( e ) Schematic illustration of the experimental procedure for drop impingement on soil and aerosol collection. ( f ) Confocal microscopy images of C. glutamicum on the surface of clay soil with the cell density of 250 cells mm −2 . ( g , h ) Fluorescent microscopy images of aerosols generated by drop impingement on clay soil pre-permeated with C. glutamicum . The red circles and the yellow dots indicate aerosols and C. glutamicum , respectively. The scale bars indicate 200, 50 and 25 μm in f – h , respectively.

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Bioaerosol generation by raindrops on soil

    doi: 10.1038/ncomms14668

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Bioaerosol generation by raindrops. ( a – d ) Aerosols generated by drop impingement on a reference surface, which maximized the aerosol generation (a TLC plate (TLC-C) in Table 1 ). The TLC plates served as an ideal soil-like surface. The white lines are the trajectories of aerosols ejected from the initial droplet after impact over a period of 400 ms. Due to air flow above the droplet, the trajectories of the ejected aerosols are curved. The scale bars indicate 1 mm. For more details, see Supplementary Movie 1 . ( e ) Schematic illustration of the experimental procedure for drop impingement on soil and aerosol collection. ( f ) Confocal microscopy images of C. glutamicum on the surface of clay soil with the cell density of 250 cells mm −2 . ( g , h ) Fluorescent microscopy images of aerosols generated by drop impingement on clay soil pre-permeated with C. glutamicum . The red circles and the yellow dots indicate aerosols and C. glutamicum , respectively. The scale bars indicate 200, 50 and 25 μm in f – h , respectively.

    Article Snippet: In this work, we used three species of soil bacteria: Corynebacterium glutamicum (C. glutamicum ATCC 13032), Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis JMA222) and Pseudomonas syringae (P. syringae ATCC 55389), and six kinds of soil: two different types of clay, sandy-clay and sand ( ).

    Techniques: Generated, Thin Layer Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry, Flow Cytometry, Confocal Microscopy, Microscopy

    Effect of araE gene disruption on aerobic growth of C. glutamicum ATCC 31831 in medium containing l -arabinose as the sole carbon source. The wild-type strain (circles) and araE deletion mutant CRA14 (triangles) were grown aerobically to late log phase

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Identification and Functional Analysis of the Gene Cluster for l-Arabinose Utilization in Corynebacterium glutamicum ▿ ▿ †

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.02912-08

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of araE gene disruption on aerobic growth of C. glutamicum ATCC 31831 in medium containing l -arabinose as the sole carbon source. The wild-type strain (circles) and araE deletion mutant CRA14 (triangles) were grown aerobically to late log phase

    Article Snippet: Total RNA was extracted from C. glutamicum ATCC 31831 cells using RNeasy Protect bacterial kits (Qiagen) as previous described ( ).

    Techniques: Mutagenesis

    Simultaneous utilization of l -arabinose and d -glucose by aerobically growing cells of wild-type strain ATCC 31831 (A) and araR deletion mutant CRA15 of C. glutamicum ATCC 31831 (B). d -Glucose (○), l -arabinose (□), and cell (▴)

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Identification and Functional Analysis of the Gene Cluster for l-Arabinose Utilization in Corynebacterium glutamicum ▿ ▿ †

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.02912-08

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Simultaneous utilization of l -arabinose and d -glucose by aerobically growing cells of wild-type strain ATCC 31831 (A) and araR deletion mutant CRA15 of C. glutamicum ATCC 31831 (B). d -Glucose (○), l -arabinose (□), and cell (▴)

    Article Snippet: Total RNA was extracted from C. glutamicum ATCC 31831 cells using RNeasy Protect bacterial kits (Qiagen) as previous described ( ).

    Techniques: Mutagenesis

    Physical and genetic map of the ara region (A) and G+C content (B) of the chromosome of C. glutamicum ATCC 31831. The locations and direction of transcription of the six ORFs ( araA , araB , araD , araE , araR , and galM ) predicted from the analysis

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Identification and Functional Analysis of the Gene Cluster for l-Arabinose Utilization in Corynebacterium glutamicum ▿ ▿ †

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.02912-08

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Physical and genetic map of the ara region (A) and G+C content (B) of the chromosome of C. glutamicum ATCC 31831. The locations and direction of transcription of the six ORFs ( araA , araB , araD , araE , araR , and galM ) predicted from the analysis

    Article Snippet: Total RNA was extracted from C. glutamicum ATCC 31831 cells using RNeasy Protect bacterial kits (Qiagen) as previous described ( ).

    Techniques: Acetylene Reduction Assay

    Aerobic growth on either l -arabinose or d -glucose of wild-type and mutant strains of C. glutamicum ATCC 31831 and a recombinant of C. glutamicum R. The results for wild-type strain ATCC 31831 (○ and •), araA mutant CRA11 (▵),

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Identification and Functional Analysis of the Gene Cluster for l-Arabinose Utilization in Corynebacterium glutamicum ▿ ▿ †

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.02912-08

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Aerobic growth on either l -arabinose or d -glucose of wild-type and mutant strains of C. glutamicum ATCC 31831 and a recombinant of C. glutamicum R. The results for wild-type strain ATCC 31831 (○ and •), araA mutant CRA11 (▵),

    Article Snippet: Total RNA was extracted from C. glutamicum ATCC 31831 cells using RNeasy Protect bacterial kits (Qiagen) as previous described ( ).

    Techniques: Mutagenesis, Recombinant

    Changes in expression levels of araB (A), araD (B), araA (C), araE (D), galM (E), and araR (F) in response to l -arabinose. The C. glutamicum ATCC 31831 wild-type strain was grown in nutrient-rich A medium for 4 h, and exponentially growing cells were

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    Article Title: The LacI-Type Transcriptional Regulator AraR Acts as an l-Arabinose-Responsive Repressor of l-Arabinose Utilization Genes in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 31831

    doi: 10.1128/JB.01655-14

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Changes in expression levels of araB (A), araD (B), araA (C), araE (D), galM (E), and araR (F) in response to l -arabinose. The C. glutamicum ATCC 31831 wild-type strain was grown in nutrient-rich A medium for 4 h, and exponentially growing cells were

    Article Snippet: C. glutamicum ATCC 31831 wild-type cells were cultured in nutrient-rich A medium for 4 h, and exponentially growing cells were then supplemented with l -arabinose or d -glucose to a final concentration of 2% (wt/vol).

    Techniques: Expressing

    Effects of d -glucose on l -arabinose-dependent upregulation of araA (A) and araE (B). The C. glutamicum ATCC 31831 wild-type strain was grown in nutrient-rich A medium for 4 h, and exponentially growing cells were then supplemented with d -glucose (white

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    Article Title: The LacI-Type Transcriptional Regulator AraR Acts as an l-Arabinose-Responsive Repressor of l-Arabinose Utilization Genes in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 31831

    doi: 10.1128/JB.01655-14

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of d -glucose on l -arabinose-dependent upregulation of araA (A) and araE (B). The C. glutamicum ATCC 31831 wild-type strain was grown in nutrient-rich A medium for 4 h, and exponentially growing cells were then supplemented with d -glucose (white

    Article Snippet: C. glutamicum ATCC 31831 wild-type cells were cultured in nutrient-rich A medium for 4 h, and exponentially growing cells were then supplemented with l -arabinose or d -glucose to a final concentration of 2% (wt/vol).

    Techniques:

    Effects of disruption of l -arabinose catabolic genes on l -arabinose-inducible gene expression. The C. glutamicum ATCC 31831 wild-type (white bars), araA (gray bars), araB (dark gray bars), and araD (black bars) deletion mutant strains were grown in nutrient-rich

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    Article Title: The LacI-Type Transcriptional Regulator AraR Acts as an l-Arabinose-Responsive Repressor of l-Arabinose Utilization Genes in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 31831

    doi: 10.1128/JB.01655-14

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of disruption of l -arabinose catabolic genes on l -arabinose-inducible gene expression. The C. glutamicum ATCC 31831 wild-type (white bars), araA (gray bars), araB (dark gray bars), and araD (black bars) deletion mutant strains were grown in nutrient-rich

    Article Snippet: C. glutamicum ATCC 31831 wild-type cells were cultured in nutrient-rich A medium for 4 h, and exponentially growing cells were then supplemented with l -arabinose or d -glucose to a final concentration of 2% (wt/vol).

    Techniques: Expressing, Mutagenesis

    Effects of araR disruption on expression of araB (A), araE (B), and galM (C). The C. glutamicum ATCC 31831 wild-type strain (WT) and the araR deletion mutant strain (Δ araR ) were grown in nutrient-rich A medium for 4 h, and exponentially growing

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    Article Title: The LacI-Type Transcriptional Regulator AraR Acts as an l-Arabinose-Responsive Repressor of l-Arabinose Utilization Genes in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 31831

    doi: 10.1128/JB.01655-14

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of araR disruption on expression of araB (A), araE (B), and galM (C). The C. glutamicum ATCC 31831 wild-type strain (WT) and the araR deletion mutant strain (Δ araR ) were grown in nutrient-rich A medium for 4 h, and exponentially growing

    Article Snippet: C. glutamicum ATCC 31831 wild-type cells were cultured in nutrient-rich A medium for 4 h, and exponentially growing cells were then supplemented with l -arabinose or d -glucose to a final concentration of 2% (wt/vol).

    Techniques: Expressing, Mutagenesis

    Effects of araE disruption on l -arabinose-dependent upregulation of araB (A), araE (B), and araR (C). The C. glutamicum ATCC 31831 wild-type (WT) and araE deletion mutant (Δ araE ) strains were grown in nutrient-rich A medium for 4 h, and exponentially

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    Article Title: The LacI-Type Transcriptional Regulator AraR Acts as an l-Arabinose-Responsive Repressor of l-Arabinose Utilization Genes in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 31831

    doi: 10.1128/JB.01655-14

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of araE disruption on l -arabinose-dependent upregulation of araB (A), araE (B), and araR (C). The C. glutamicum ATCC 31831 wild-type (WT) and araE deletion mutant (Δ araE ) strains were grown in nutrient-rich A medium for 4 h, and exponentially

    Article Snippet: C. glutamicum ATCC 31831 wild-type cells were cultured in nutrient-rich A medium for 4 h, and exponentially growing cells were then supplemented with l -arabinose or d -glucose to a final concentration of 2% (wt/vol).

    Techniques: Mutagenesis

    Cluster of l -arabinose utilization genes on the chromosome of C. glutamicum ATCC 31831. (A) The locations and directions of transcription of the six genes ( araA , araB , araD , araE , araR , and galM ), are shown, and the fragments

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    Article Title: The LacI-Type Transcriptional Regulator AraR Acts as an l-Arabinose-Responsive Repressor of l-Arabinose Utilization Genes in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 31831

    doi: 10.1128/JB.01655-14

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Cluster of l -arabinose utilization genes on the chromosome of C. glutamicum ATCC 31831. (A) The locations and directions of transcription of the six genes ( araA , araB , araD , araE , araR , and galM ), are shown, and the fragments

    Article Snippet: C. glutamicum ATCC 31831 wild-type cells were cultured in nutrient-rich A medium for 4 h, and exponentially growing cells were then supplemented with l -arabinose or d -glucose to a final concentration of 2% (wt/vol).

    Techniques:

    Southern blot of chromosomal DNA from various corynebacterial strains hybridized with IS 14751 as the probe. (A) Lanes 1 and 7, λ HindIII molecular weight marker; lanes 2 to 6, SmaI-digested chromosomal DNA of C. glutamicum R, ATCC 14751, ATCC

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Isolation and Characterization of a Native Composite Transposon, Tn14751, Carrying 17.4 Kilobases of Corynebacterium glutamicum Chromosomal DNA

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.71.1.407-416.2005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Southern blot of chromosomal DNA from various corynebacterial strains hybridized with IS 14751 as the probe. (A) Lanes 1 and 7, λ HindIII molecular weight marker; lanes 2 to 6, SmaI-digested chromosomal DNA of C. glutamicum R, ATCC 14751, ATCC

    Article Snippet: C. glutamicum ATCC 14751 cells were transformed with plasmid pMV5 (Fig. ), which harbors the B. subtilis sacB gene ( ).

    Techniques: Southern Blot, Molecular Weight, Marker

    Transformation assays of FA and VAN. C. glutamicum strain F was cultured in BHI medium at 30 °C for 24 h, and 0.1 mL of each culture was transferred to 5 mL of AR medium containing 2 mM each of FA or VAN with 25 μg/mL of Km in 5 mL tubes. The biotransformation of a FA and b VAN was performed at 30 °C with agitation at 180 rpm for 72 h. The concentrations of extracellular FA ( squares ), VA ( triangles ), VAN ( diamonds ) and PCA ( circles ) were monitored every 24 h. Data represent the mean and standard error from three independent experiments

    Journal: AMB Express

    Article Title: Biotransformation of ferulic acid to protocatechuic acid by Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 21420 engineered to express vanillate O-demethylase

    doi: 10.1186/s13568-017-0427-9

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Transformation assays of FA and VAN. C. glutamicum strain F was cultured in BHI medium at 30 °C for 24 h, and 0.1 mL of each culture was transferred to 5 mL of AR medium containing 2 mM each of FA or VAN with 25 μg/mL of Km in 5 mL tubes. The biotransformation of a FA and b VAN was performed at 30 °C with agitation at 180 rpm for 72 h. The concentrations of extracellular FA ( squares ), VA ( triangles ), VAN ( diamonds ) and PCA ( circles ) were monitored every 24 h. Data represent the mean and standard error from three independent experiments

    Article Snippet: Genomic DNA was prepared from C. glutamicum strain F (ATCC 21420) grown in 5 mL of BHI medium using a Wizard Gnomic DNA Purification Kit (Promega, Madison, WI, USA).

    Techniques: Transformation Assay, Cell Culture

    Biotransformation of VA to PCA by C. glutamicum expressing vanillate O -demethylase (Van). a C. glutamicum strain F ( open symbols ) as a control and b strain FVan ( closed symbols ) were cultured in BHI medium at 30 °C for 24 h, and 0.5 mL of each culture was transferred to 25 mL of AR medium containing 2.5 mM VA. The bioconversion was performed at 30 °C for 48 h with agitation at 180 rpm. Extracellular VA ( triangles ) and PCA ( circles ) were analyzed every 24 h. OD 600 ( diamonds ) was monitored simultaneously. Data represent the mean and standard error of three independent experiments

    Journal: AMB Express

    Article Title: Biotransformation of ferulic acid to protocatechuic acid by Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 21420 engineered to express vanillate O-demethylase

    doi: 10.1186/s13568-017-0427-9

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Biotransformation of VA to PCA by C. glutamicum expressing vanillate O -demethylase (Van). a C. glutamicum strain F ( open symbols ) as a control and b strain FVan ( closed symbols ) were cultured in BHI medium at 30 °C for 24 h, and 0.5 mL of each culture was transferred to 25 mL of AR medium containing 2.5 mM VA. The bioconversion was performed at 30 °C for 48 h with agitation at 180 rpm. Extracellular VA ( triangles ) and PCA ( circles ) were analyzed every 24 h. OD 600 ( diamonds ) was monitored simultaneously. Data represent the mean and standard error of three independent experiments

    Article Snippet: Genomic DNA was prepared from C. glutamicum strain F (ATCC 21420) grown in 5 mL of BHI medium using a Wizard Gnomic DNA Purification Kit (Promega, Madison, WI, USA).

    Techniques: Expressing, Cell Culture

    Mass isotopomer distributions of the carbon skeletons of glucose-6-phosphate (A) and lysine (B) during cultivation of C. glutamicum ATCC 21526 on [1- 13 C Fru ]sucrose, [1- 13 C Glc ]sucrose, and [ 13 C 6 Fru ]sucrose, respectively. The data were calculated from GC-MS measurements of the m/z 361 ion cluster of trimethylsilyl-derivatized trehalose, corresponding to the carbon skeleton of glucose-6-phosphate, and of the m/z 431 ion cluster of t ).

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Metabolic Fluxes in Corynebacterium glutamicum during Lysine Production with Sucrose as Carbon Source

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.70.12.7277-7287.2004

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mass isotopomer distributions of the carbon skeletons of glucose-6-phosphate (A) and lysine (B) during cultivation of C. glutamicum ATCC 21526 on [1- 13 C Fru ]sucrose, [1- 13 C Glc ]sucrose, and [ 13 C 6 Fru ]sucrose, respectively. The data were calculated from GC-MS measurements of the m/z 361 ion cluster of trimethylsilyl-derivatized trehalose, corresponding to the carbon skeleton of glucose-6-phosphate, and of the m/z 431 ion cluster of t ).

    Article Snippet: From a biotechnological point of view, C. glutamicum ATCC 21526 cultured on sucrose revealed lysine production characteristics similar to those previously observed for cultivation on glucose.

    Techniques: Gas Chromatography, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Impact of strain optimization of lysine-producing strains of C. glutamicum on NADPH metabolism. NADPH demand (A) and supply (B) are expressed as molar fluxes related to the glucose uptake flux in five successive generations of a genealogy of lysine producers estimated via metabolic network analysis. The strain numbers represent the different generations C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 (1), ATCC 13287 (2), ATCC 21253 (3), ATCC 21526 (4), and ATCC 21543 (5). ICD, isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Genealogy Profiling through Strain Improvement by Using Metabolic Network Analysis: Metabolic Flux Genealogy of Several Generations of Lysine-Producing Corynebacteria

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.68.12.5843-5859.2002

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Impact of strain optimization of lysine-producing strains of C. glutamicum on NADPH metabolism. NADPH demand (A) and supply (B) are expressed as molar fluxes related to the glucose uptake flux in five successive generations of a genealogy of lysine producers estimated via metabolic network analysis. The strain numbers represent the different generations C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 (1), ATCC 13287 (2), ATCC 21253 (3), ATCC 21526 (4), and ATCC 21543 (5). ICD, isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    Article Snippet: For the wild-type strain, C. glutamicum ATCC 13032, the anabolic demand for precursors in the PPP and the upper glycolysis was equal to 7.5% of the total glucose entering the cell, while the corresponding demand in the lysine-producing mutants C. glutamicum ATCC 13287, ATCC 21253, ATCC 21526, and ATCC 21543 was only between 5.0 and 5.5% (Table ).

    Techniques: