c. difficile strains Search Results


  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 99
    ATCC c difficile strain
    C Difficile Strain, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 38 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/c difficile strain/product/ATCC
    Average 99 stars, based on 38 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    c difficile strain - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Millipore ht29
    ( A ) Increase in RLUs (indicative of proliferation) compared with serum-free media in <t>HT29</t> cells 18 hours after treatment with 10% serum, 0.1 nmol/ L rhPG(1–80), CCD18Co-conditioned media 18 hours after rhPG(1–80) treatment, CCD 18Co-conditioned
    Ht29, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 299 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/ht29/product/Millipore
    Average 99 stars, based on 299 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    ht29 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    93
    Thermo Fisher c difficile strains
    ( A ) Increase in RLUs (indicative of proliferation) compared with serum-free media in <t>HT29</t> cells 18 hours after treatment with 10% serum, 0.1 nmol/ L rhPG(1–80), CCD18Co-conditioned media 18 hours after rhPG(1–80) treatment, CCD 18Co-conditioned
    C Difficile Strains, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 49 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/c difficile strains/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 93 stars, based on 49 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    c difficile strains - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    93/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    92
    Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute c difficile strains
    ( A ) Increase in RLUs (indicative of proliferation) compared with serum-free media in <t>HT29</t> cells 18 hours after treatment with 10% serum, 0.1 nmol/ L rhPG(1–80), CCD18Co-conditioned media 18 hours after rhPG(1–80) treatment, CCD 18Co-conditioned
    C Difficile Strains, supplied by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/c difficile strains/product/Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute
    Average 92 stars, based on 3 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    c difficile strains - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    92/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    83
    DSMZ c difficile strains
    ( A ) Increase in RLUs (indicative of proliferation) compared with serum-free media in <t>HT29</t> cells 18 hours after treatment with 10% serum, 0.1 nmol/ L rhPG(1–80), CCD18Co-conditioned media 18 hours after rhPG(1–80) treatment, CCD 18Co-conditioned
    C Difficile Strains, supplied by DSMZ, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 83/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/c difficile strains/product/DSMZ
    Average 83 stars, based on 2 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    c difficile strains - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    83/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    ATCC reference c difficile strains
    Kaplan-Meier survival plots of mice (exposed to antibiotic pretreatment for 3 days) challenged with C. difficile <t>VPI</t> 10463 and subsequently treated on different schedules. *, the line for the combination of vancomycin and berberine coincides with the
    Reference C Difficile Strains, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 79 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/reference c difficile strains/product/ATCC
    Average 99 stars, based on 79 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    reference c difficile strains - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    ATCC c difficile strain atcc 700057
    Kaplan-Meier survival plots of mice (exposed to antibiotic pretreatment for 3 days) challenged with C. difficile <t>VPI</t> 10463 and subsequently treated on different schedules. *, the line for the combination of vancomycin and berberine coincides with the
    C Difficile Strain Atcc 700057, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 24 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/c difficile strain atcc 700057/product/ATCC
    Average 99 stars, based on 24 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    c difficile strain atcc 700057 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    ATCC c difficile strains baa 1803
    Effects on toxin production by membrane-active agents and comparators. At bactericidal concentrations membrane-active agents decreased the total toxin in cultures of stationary-phase C. difficile <t>BAA-1803</t> within 24 h, compared with the protein synthesis
    C Difficile Strains Baa 1803, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/c difficile strains baa 1803/product/ATCC
    Average 99 stars, based on 2 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    c difficile strains baa 1803 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    ATCC c difficile strains baa 1875
    Effects of inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of surotomycin (SUR) on macromolecular biosynthesis in C. difficile . The effects against <t>BAA-1875</t> are shown for SUR (0.25 and 4 μg/ml). The control drugs and concentrations are as follows:
    C Difficile Strains Baa 1875, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/c difficile strains baa 1875/product/ATCC
    Average 99 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    c difficile strains baa 1875 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    ATCC growth conditions active toxin producing c difficile strains vpi 10463
    A schematic description of vaccine vector. a Linear depiction of the three major domains identified within C. difficile <t>TcdA</t> and TcdB. Note: ED; Enzymatic Domain; HD: Hydrophobic Translocation Domain; <t>RBD:</t> Receptor Binding Domain; IVS: Synthetic intron. b Schematic depiction of the vaccine gene sequence as inserted into the eukaryotic expression vector, pIRES. c Protein expression from vaccine vectors following transient transfection of COS7 cells. Immunoblot of COS7 cell lysates and supernatants following transient transfection with pTA (line1), pTB (line2) and pTAB (line3) for detection of expressed protein products. Supernatant was clarified at 18,000 × g for 30 min prior to the procedure. The expected size of TcdA-RBD is 35 kDa, TcdB-RBD is 60 kDa
    Growth Conditions Active Toxin Producing C Difficile Strains Vpi 10463, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 9 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/growth conditions active toxin producing c difficile strains vpi 10463/product/ATCC
    Average 99 stars, based on 9 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    growth conditions active toxin producing c difficile strains vpi 10463 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    ATCC c difficile strains atcc baa 1801
    A schematic description of vaccine vector. a Linear depiction of the three major domains identified within C. difficile <t>TcdA</t> and TcdB. Note: ED; Enzymatic Domain; HD: Hydrophobic Translocation Domain; <t>RBD:</t> Receptor Binding Domain; IVS: Synthetic intron. b Schematic depiction of the vaccine gene sequence as inserted into the eukaryotic expression vector, pIRES. c Protein expression from vaccine vectors following transient transfection of COS7 cells. Immunoblot of COS7 cell lysates and supernatants following transient transfection with pTA (line1), pTB (line2) and pTAB (line3) for detection of expressed protein products. Supernatant was clarified at 18,000 × g for 30 min prior to the procedure. The expected size of TcdA-RBD is 35 kDa, TcdB-RBD is 60 kDa
    C Difficile Strains Atcc Baa 1801, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/c difficile strains atcc baa 1801/product/ATCC
    Average 99 stars, based on 2 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    c difficile strains atcc baa 1801 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    84
    tgcBIOMICS c difficile strain vpi10463
    A schematic description of vaccine vector. a Linear depiction of the three major domains identified within C. difficile <t>TcdA</t> and TcdB. Note: ED; Enzymatic Domain; HD: Hydrophobic Translocation Domain; <t>RBD:</t> Receptor Binding Domain; IVS: Synthetic intron. b Schematic depiction of the vaccine gene sequence as inserted into the eukaryotic expression vector, pIRES. c Protein expression from vaccine vectors following transient transfection of COS7 cells. Immunoblot of COS7 cell lysates and supernatants following transient transfection with pTA (line1), pTB (line2) and pTAB (line3) for detection of expressed protein products. Supernatant was clarified at 18,000 × g for 30 min prior to the procedure. The expected size of TcdA-RBD is 35 kDa, TcdB-RBD is 60 kDa
    C Difficile Strain Vpi10463, supplied by tgcBIOMICS, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 84/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/c difficile strain vpi10463/product/tgcBIOMICS
    Average 84 stars, based on 5 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    c difficile strain vpi10463 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    84/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    93
    tgcBIOMICS c difficile 027 strain
    A schematic description of vaccine vector. a Linear depiction of the three major domains identified within C. difficile <t>TcdA</t> and TcdB. Note: ED; Enzymatic Domain; HD: Hydrophobic Translocation Domain; <t>RBD:</t> Receptor Binding Domain; IVS: Synthetic intron. b Schematic depiction of the vaccine gene sequence as inserted into the eukaryotic expression vector, pIRES. c Protein expression from vaccine vectors following transient transfection of COS7 cells. Immunoblot of COS7 cell lysates and supernatants following transient transfection with pTA (line1), pTB (line2) and pTAB (line3) for detection of expressed protein products. Supernatant was clarified at 18,000 × g for 30 min prior to the procedure. The expected size of TcdA-RBD is 35 kDa, TcdB-RBD is 60 kDa
    C Difficile 027 Strain, supplied by tgcBIOMICS, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 9 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/c difficile 027 strain/product/tgcBIOMICS
    Average 93 stars, based on 9 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    c difficile 027 strain - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    93/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    ATCC growth inhibitory activity against c difficile strains 630
    Subinhibitory concentrations of tigecycline inhibit C. difficile spore formation and toxin activity. (A and B) Growth of C. difficile <t>strain</t> 630 by OD 600 at 24 h (C) and 48 h (B) in BHI growth medium supplemented with 0, 0.03, or 0.06 μg/ml of
    Growth Inhibitory Activity Against C Difficile Strains 630, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 13 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/growth inhibitory activity against c difficile strains 630/product/ATCC
    Average 99 stars, based on 13 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    growth inhibitory activity against c difficile strains 630 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    84
    List Biological Laboratories c difficile strain vpi 10463
    Subinhibitory concentrations of tigecycline inhibit C. difficile spore formation and toxin activity. (A and B) Growth of C. difficile <t>strain</t> 630 by OD 600 at 24 h (C) and 48 h (B) in BHI growth medium supplemented with 0, 0.03, or 0.06 μg/ml of
    C Difficile Strain Vpi 10463, supplied by List Biological Laboratories, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 84/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/c difficile strain vpi 10463/product/List Biological Laboratories
    Average 84 stars, based on 3 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    c difficile strain vpi 10463 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    84/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    91
    ViroPharma nontoxigenic c difficile strain m3
    Subinhibitory concentrations of tigecycline inhibit C. difficile spore formation and toxin activity. (A and B) Growth of C. difficile <t>strain</t> 630 by OD 600 at 24 h (C) and 48 h (B) in BHI growth medium supplemented with 0, 0.03, or 0.06 μg/ml of
    Nontoxigenic C Difficile Strain M3, supplied by ViroPharma, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/nontoxigenic c difficile strain m3/product/ViroPharma
    Average 91 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    nontoxigenic c difficile strain m3 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    91/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    90
    TechLab Inc c difficile strain vpi 10463
    Subinhibitory concentrations of tigecycline inhibit C. difficile spore formation and toxin activity. (A and B) Growth of C. difficile <t>strain</t> 630 by OD 600 at 24 h (C) and 48 h (B) in BHI growth medium supplemented with 0, 0.03, or 0.06 μg/ml of
    C Difficile Strain Vpi 10463, supplied by TechLab Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/c difficile strain vpi 10463/product/TechLab Inc
    Average 90 stars, based on 2 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    c difficile strain vpi 10463 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    90/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    95
    DSMZ control strains c difficile 630
    Subinhibitory concentrations of tigecycline inhibit C. difficile spore formation and toxin activity. (A and B) Growth of C. difficile <t>strain</t> 630 by OD 600 at 24 h (C) and 48 h (B) in BHI growth medium supplemented with 0, 0.03, or 0.06 μg/ml of
    Control Strains C Difficile 630, supplied by DSMZ, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 14 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/control strains c difficile 630/product/DSMZ
    Average 95 stars, based on 14 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    control strains c difficile 630 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    95/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    ATCC 43603 c difficile strain
    Subinhibitory concentrations of tigecycline inhibit C. difficile spore formation and toxin activity. (A and B) Growth of C. difficile <t>strain</t> 630 by OD 600 at 24 h (C) and 48 h (B) in BHI growth medium supplemented with 0, 0.03, or 0.06 μg/ml of
    43603 C Difficile Strain, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/43603 c difficile strain/product/ATCC
    Average 99 stars, based on 4 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    43603 c difficile strain - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    86
    DSMZ c difficile type strain dsm 1296
    Subinhibitory concentrations of tigecycline inhibit C. difficile spore formation and toxin activity. (A and B) Growth of C. difficile <t>strain</t> 630 by OD 600 at 24 h (C) and 48 h (B) in BHI growth medium supplemented with 0, 0.03, or 0.06 μg/ml of
    C Difficile Type Strain Dsm 1296, supplied by DSMZ, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/c difficile type strain dsm 1296/product/DSMZ
    Average 86 stars, based on 4 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    c difficile type strain dsm 1296 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    86/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    ATCC c difficile strain atcc 43593
    Subinhibitory concentrations of tigecycline inhibit C. difficile spore formation and toxin activity. (A and B) Growth of C. difficile <t>strain</t> 630 by OD 600 at 24 h (C) and 48 h (B) in BHI growth medium supplemented with 0, 0.03, or 0.06 μg/ml of
    C Difficile Strain Atcc 43593, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 7 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/c difficile strain atcc 43593/product/ATCC
    Average 99 stars, based on 7 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    c difficile strain atcc 43593 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    91
    ATCC c difficile strain atcc 43594
    Subinhibitory concentrations of tigecycline inhibit C. difficile spore formation and toxin activity. (A and B) Growth of C. difficile <t>strain</t> 630 by OD 600 at 24 h (C) and 48 h (B) in BHI growth medium supplemented with 0, 0.03, or 0.06 μg/ml of
    C Difficile Strain Atcc 43594, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/c difficile strain atcc 43594/product/ATCC
    Average 91 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    c difficile strain atcc 43594 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    91/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    90
    ATCC c difficile reference strain atcc 43953
    Subinhibitory concentrations of tigecycline inhibit C. difficile spore formation and toxin activity. (A and B) Growth of C. difficile <t>strain</t> 630 by OD 600 at 24 h (C) and 48 h (B) in BHI growth medium supplemented with 0, 0.03, or 0.06 μg/ml of
    C Difficile Reference Strain Atcc 43953, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/c difficile reference strain atcc 43953/product/ATCC
    Average 90 stars, based on 3 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    c difficile reference strain atcc 43953 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    90/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    ATCC c difficile strain atcc 9689
    Production of Srl in C. difficile <t>ATCC</t> 9689 and clinical strains. (A) Whole-cell lysate and TCA-precipitated culture filtrate from C. difficile ATCC 9689 or C. novyi ATCC 17861 as the negative control were subjected to SDS-PAGE followed by silver staining.
    C Difficile Strain Atcc 9689, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 47 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/c difficile strain atcc 9689/product/ATCC
    Average 99 stars, based on 47 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    c difficile strain atcc 9689 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    ATCC reference strains c difficile atcc 43598 a b
    Production of Srl in C. difficile <t>ATCC</t> 9689 and clinical strains. (A) Whole-cell lysate and TCA-precipitated culture filtrate from C. difficile ATCC 9689 or C. novyi ATCC 17861 as the negative control were subjected to SDS-PAGE followed by silver staining.
    Reference Strains C Difficile Atcc 43598 A B, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/reference strains c difficile atcc 43598 a b/product/ATCC
    Average 99 stars, based on 5 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    reference strains c difficile atcc 43598 a b - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    ATCC c difficile strain atcc 43601
    Percentages of individual C. difficile spores that had lost DPA or became phase dark after HP treatment at 550 MPa. C. difficile <t>ATCC</t> 43601 spores were exposed to 550 MPa of HP for various times as described in Materials and Methods. Samples treated for various times were assayed for DPA release (○) by measuring either DPA released in germination supernatant fluid (A) or the percentage of individual spores that had lost DPA or spores that had become phase dark (B) (△). All values were corrected for the small percentage (≤2%) of phase-dark spores in the starting spores and the small percentage (
    C Difficile Strain Atcc 43601, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/c difficile strain atcc 43601/product/ATCC
    Average 99 stars, based on 2 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    c difficile strain atcc 43601 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    ATCC c difficile strain baa 1805
    Effect of oral administration of Ramizol on survival rate in the hamster C. difficile (strain <t>BAA-1805,</t> 027 ribotype) -induced colitis. The animals were orally inoculated with C. difficile (BAA- 1805) at a lethal LD90-100 inoculum size (1.35 × 10 5 spores per animal) in 0.5 ml PBS. Test substance was orally administered twice daily for 5 days starting 16 h after infection. Mortality was monitored for 28 days for all groups. The Fisher's exact test was used to determine the statistical significance compared with the untreated vehicle group at * P
    C Difficile Strain Baa 1805, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/c difficile strain baa 1805/product/ATCC
    Average 99 stars, based on 6 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    c difficile strain baa 1805 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    ATCC c difficile atcc 1875 strain
    Effect of oral administration of Ramizol on survival rate in the hamster C. difficile (strain <t>BAA-1805,</t> 027 ribotype) -induced colitis. The animals were orally inoculated with C. difficile (BAA- 1805) at a lethal LD90-100 inoculum size (1.35 × 10 5 spores per animal) in 0.5 ml PBS. Test substance was orally administered twice daily for 5 days starting 16 h after infection. Mortality was monitored for 28 days for all groups. The Fisher's exact test was used to determine the statistical significance compared with the untreated vehicle group at * P
    C Difficile Atcc 1875 Strain, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/c difficile atcc 1875 strain/product/ATCC
    Average 99 stars, based on 3 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    c difficile atcc 1875 strain - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    ATCC toxigenic atcc baa1870 c difficile strain
    Effect of oral administration of Ramizol on survival rate in the hamster C. difficile (strain <t>BAA-1805,</t> 027 ribotype) -induced colitis. The animals were orally inoculated with C. difficile (BAA- 1805) at a lethal LD90-100 inoculum size (1.35 × 10 5 spores per animal) in 0.5 ml PBS. Test substance was orally administered twice daily for 5 days starting 16 h after infection. Mortality was monitored for 28 days for all groups. The Fisher's exact test was used to determine the statistical significance compared with the untreated vehicle group at * P
    Toxigenic Atcc Baa1870 C Difficile Strain, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/toxigenic atcc baa1870 c difficile strain/product/ATCC
    Average 99 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    toxigenic atcc baa1870 c difficile strain - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    94
    Thermo Fisher c difficile
    Effect of oral administration of Ramizol on survival rate in the hamster C. difficile (strain <t>BAA-1805,</t> 027 ribotype) -induced colitis. The animals were orally inoculated with C. difficile (BAA- 1805) at a lethal LD90-100 inoculum size (1.35 × 10 5 spores per animal) in 0.5 ml PBS. Test substance was orally administered twice daily for 5 days starting 16 h after infection. Mortality was monitored for 28 days for all groups. The Fisher's exact test was used to determine the statistical significance compared with the untreated vehicle group at * P
    C Difficile, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 368 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/c difficile/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 94 stars, based on 368 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    c difficile - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    94
    Taxon Biosciences c difficile 2007855
    Effect of oral administration of Ramizol on survival rate in the hamster C. difficile (strain <t>BAA-1805,</t> 027 ribotype) -induced colitis. The animals were orally inoculated with C. difficile (BAA- 1805) at a lethal LD90-100 inoculum size (1.35 × 10 5 spores per animal) in 0.5 ml PBS. Test substance was orally administered twice daily for 5 days starting 16 h after infection. Mortality was monitored for 28 days for all groups. The Fisher's exact test was used to determine the statistical significance compared with the untreated vehicle group at * P
    C Difficile 2007855, supplied by Taxon Biosciences, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/c difficile 2007855/product/Taxon Biosciences
    Average 94 stars, based on 8 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    c difficile 2007855 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    Image Search Results


    ( A ) Increase in RLUs (indicative of proliferation) compared with serum-free media in HT29 cells 18 hours after treatment with 10% serum, 0.1 nmol/ L rhPG(1–80), CCD18Co-conditioned media 18 hours after rhPG(1–80) treatment, CCD 18Co-conditioned

    Journal: Gastroenterology

    Article Title: Progastrin-Induced Secretion of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2 From Colonic Myofibroblasts Stimulates Colonic Epithelial Proliferation in Mice

    doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2013.03.012

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ( A ) Increase in RLUs (indicative of proliferation) compared with serum-free media in HT29 cells 18 hours after treatment with 10% serum, 0.1 nmol/ L rhPG(1–80), CCD18Co-conditioned media 18 hours after rhPG(1–80) treatment, CCD 18Co-conditioned

    Article Snippet: RNA was extracted from CCD18Co, HT29, and AGSGR (a human gastric cancer cell line stably transfected with the gastrin/CCK-2R) cells using TRI Reagent (Sigma-Aldrich), purified using the RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen, Crawley, England) and reverse transcribed using the Transcriptor First-Strand cDNA Synthesis Kit (Roche).

    Techniques:

    Dot plot view for induction of apoptosis with various concentrations of γ-T (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200μM) using annexin V– CF647/7-AAD staining and flow cytometry in HT29 cell line for 48h and 72h. CF647-labeled annexin V was an early marker for phosphatidyl serine externalization over cell membrane (lower right quadrant) and late apoptosis was labeled with 7-AAD in the upper left quadrant. HT29 cells were grown in DMEM, exposed to specific agents and early apoptosis was determined by annexin V staining method. Cells in positive control group received 2μg/ml/2h anisomycin. A) Untreated cells. B, C, D and E are groups that received 25, 50, 100 and 200μM γ-T. F) Treated cells with anisomycin 2μgr/ml/2h.

    Journal: Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products

    Article Title: Gamma Tocopherol and Lovastatin Additively Induced Apoptosis in Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Line (HT29)

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Dot plot view for induction of apoptosis with various concentrations of γ-T (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200μM) using annexin V– CF647/7-AAD staining and flow cytometry in HT29 cell line for 48h and 72h. CF647-labeled annexin V was an early marker for phosphatidyl serine externalization over cell membrane (lower right quadrant) and late apoptosis was labeled with 7-AAD in the upper left quadrant. HT29 cells were grown in DMEM, exposed to specific agents and early apoptosis was determined by annexin V staining method. Cells in positive control group received 2μg/ml/2h anisomycin. A) Untreated cells. B, C, D and E are groups that received 25, 50, 100 and 200μM γ-T. F) Treated cells with anisomycin 2μgr/ml/2h.

    Article Snippet: Materials Cell culture materials including Dulbecco`s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) were obtained from Applichem, Penicillin-Stereptomycin, trypsin, and fetal bovine serum were obtained from Gibco, Dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO), Gamma tocopherol, Anisomycin, and phosphate buffer saline(Nacl, Kcl, Na2 HPO4 (2H2 O), KH2 PO4 ) were obtained from Sigma Chemicals, Lovastatin was purchased from Biocon, HT29 cell line was obtained from Pasture Institute, Tehran Iran, FLOWCellectTM , Annexin Red Kit was purchased from Millipore Co.

    Techniques: Staining, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Labeling, Marker, Positive Control

    Annexin V positive cells (early apoptosis) determined by annexinV–CF647 staining and flow cytometry in HT29 cell line with various concentrations of γ-T (A), Lovastatin (B) for 48h and 72h. HT29 cells were grown in DMEM, exposed to specific agents and early apoptosis was determined by annexin V staining method.

    Journal: Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products

    Article Title: Gamma Tocopherol and Lovastatin Additively Induced Apoptosis in Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Line (HT29)

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Annexin V positive cells (early apoptosis) determined by annexinV–CF647 staining and flow cytometry in HT29 cell line with various concentrations of γ-T (A), Lovastatin (B) for 48h and 72h. HT29 cells were grown in DMEM, exposed to specific agents and early apoptosis was determined by annexin V staining method.

    Article Snippet: Materials Cell culture materials including Dulbecco`s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) were obtained from Applichem, Penicillin-Stereptomycin, trypsin, and fetal bovine serum were obtained from Gibco, Dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO), Gamma tocopherol, Anisomycin, and phosphate buffer saline(Nacl, Kcl, Na2 HPO4 (2H2 O), KH2 PO4 ) were obtained from Sigma Chemicals, Lovastatin was purchased from Biocon, HT29 cell line was obtained from Pasture Institute, Tehran Iran, FLOWCellectTM , Annexin Red Kit was purchased from Millipore Co.

    Techniques: Staining, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry

    Induction of apoptosis with various concentrations of lovastatin (0, 10, 20, 40 and 100μM) using annexin V–CF647 staining and flow cytometry in HT29 cell line for 48h (A) and 72h (B). HT29 cells were grown in DMEM, exposed to specific agents and early apoptosis was determined by annexin V staining method. Cells in positive control group received 2μg/ml/2h anisomycin. * Significant difference in comparison with untreated group (P

    Journal: Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products

    Article Title: Gamma Tocopherol and Lovastatin Additively Induced Apoptosis in Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Line (HT29)

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Induction of apoptosis with various concentrations of lovastatin (0, 10, 20, 40 and 100μM) using annexin V–CF647 staining and flow cytometry in HT29 cell line for 48h (A) and 72h (B). HT29 cells were grown in DMEM, exposed to specific agents and early apoptosis was determined by annexin V staining method. Cells in positive control group received 2μg/ml/2h anisomycin. * Significant difference in comparison with untreated group (P

    Article Snippet: Materials Cell culture materials including Dulbecco`s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) were obtained from Applichem, Penicillin-Stereptomycin, trypsin, and fetal bovine serum were obtained from Gibco, Dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO), Gamma tocopherol, Anisomycin, and phosphate buffer saline(Nacl, Kcl, Na2 HPO4 (2H2 O), KH2 PO4 ) were obtained from Sigma Chemicals, Lovastatin was purchased from Biocon, HT29 cell line was obtained from Pasture Institute, Tehran Iran, FLOWCellectTM , Annexin Red Kit was purchased from Millipore Co.

    Techniques: Staining, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Positive Control

    Dot plot view for induction of apoptosis with various concentrations of lovastatin (0, 10, 20, 40 and 100μM) using annexin V– CF647/7-AAD staining and flow cytometry in HT29 cell line for 48h and 72h. CF647-labeled annexin V was an early marker for phosphatidyl serine externalization over cell membrane (lower right quadrant) and late apoptosis was labeled with 7-AAD in the upper left quadrant. HT29 cells were grown in DMEM, exposed to specific agents and early apoptosis was determined by annexin V staining method. Cells in positive control group received 2μg/ml/2h anisomycin. A Untreated cells. B, C, D and E are groups that received 10, 20, 40 and 100μM γ-T. F Treated cells with anisomycin 2μgr/ml/2h.

    Journal: Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products

    Article Title: Gamma Tocopherol and Lovastatin Additively Induced Apoptosis in Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Line (HT29)

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Dot plot view for induction of apoptosis with various concentrations of lovastatin (0, 10, 20, 40 and 100μM) using annexin V– CF647/7-AAD staining and flow cytometry in HT29 cell line for 48h and 72h. CF647-labeled annexin V was an early marker for phosphatidyl serine externalization over cell membrane (lower right quadrant) and late apoptosis was labeled with 7-AAD in the upper left quadrant. HT29 cells were grown in DMEM, exposed to specific agents and early apoptosis was determined by annexin V staining method. Cells in positive control group received 2μg/ml/2h anisomycin. A Untreated cells. B, C, D and E are groups that received 10, 20, 40 and 100μM γ-T. F Treated cells with anisomycin 2μgr/ml/2h.

    Article Snippet: Materials Cell culture materials including Dulbecco`s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) were obtained from Applichem, Penicillin-Stereptomycin, trypsin, and fetal bovine serum were obtained from Gibco, Dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO), Gamma tocopherol, Anisomycin, and phosphate buffer saline(Nacl, Kcl, Na2 HPO4 (2H2 O), KH2 PO4 ) were obtained from Sigma Chemicals, Lovastatin was purchased from Biocon, HT29 cell line was obtained from Pasture Institute, Tehran Iran, FLOWCellectTM , Annexin Red Kit was purchased from Millipore Co.

    Techniques: Staining, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Labeling, Marker, Positive Control

    Annexin V positive cells (early apoptosis) determined by annexinV– CF647 staining and flow cytometry in HT29 cell line. HT29 cells were grown in DMEM, exposed to specific agents and early apoptosis was determined by annexin V staining method. Far right group received 100μM γ-T and also lovastatin for 48h simultaneously. * significant difference compared with γ-T (100μM, 48h) and lovastatin (100μM, 48h) groups individually.

    Journal: Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products

    Article Title: Gamma Tocopherol and Lovastatin Additively Induced Apoptosis in Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Line (HT29)

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Annexin V positive cells (early apoptosis) determined by annexinV– CF647 staining and flow cytometry in HT29 cell line. HT29 cells were grown in DMEM, exposed to specific agents and early apoptosis was determined by annexin V staining method. Far right group received 100μM γ-T and also lovastatin for 48h simultaneously. * significant difference compared with γ-T (100μM, 48h) and lovastatin (100μM, 48h) groups individually.

    Article Snippet: Materials Cell culture materials including Dulbecco`s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) were obtained from Applichem, Penicillin-Stereptomycin, trypsin, and fetal bovine serum were obtained from Gibco, Dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO), Gamma tocopherol, Anisomycin, and phosphate buffer saline(Nacl, Kcl, Na2 HPO4 (2H2 O), KH2 PO4 ) were obtained from Sigma Chemicals, Lovastatin was purchased from Biocon, HT29 cell line was obtained from Pasture Institute, Tehran Iran, FLOWCellectTM , Annexin Red Kit was purchased from Millipore Co.

    Techniques: Staining, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry

    Late apoptosis positive cells determined by 7-AAD staining and flow cytometry in HT29 cell line. HT29 cells were grown in DMEM, exposed to specific agents and late apoptosis was determined by 7-AAD staining method. Far right group received 100μM γ-T and also lovastatin for 48h simultaneously. * significant difference compared with γ-T (100μM,48h) and lovastatin (100μM, 48h) groups individually.

    Journal: Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products

    Article Title: Gamma Tocopherol and Lovastatin Additively Induced Apoptosis in Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Line (HT29)

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Late apoptosis positive cells determined by 7-AAD staining and flow cytometry in HT29 cell line. HT29 cells were grown in DMEM, exposed to specific agents and late apoptosis was determined by 7-AAD staining method. Far right group received 100μM γ-T and also lovastatin for 48h simultaneously. * significant difference compared with γ-T (100μM,48h) and lovastatin (100μM, 48h) groups individually.

    Article Snippet: Materials Cell culture materials including Dulbecco`s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) were obtained from Applichem, Penicillin-Stereptomycin, trypsin, and fetal bovine serum were obtained from Gibco, Dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO), Gamma tocopherol, Anisomycin, and phosphate buffer saline(Nacl, Kcl, Na2 HPO4 (2H2 O), KH2 PO4 ) were obtained from Sigma Chemicals, Lovastatin was purchased from Biocon, HT29 cell line was obtained from Pasture Institute, Tehran Iran, FLOWCellectTM , Annexin Red Kit was purchased from Millipore Co.

    Techniques: Staining, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry

    Induction of apoptosis with various concentrations of γ-T (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200μM) using annexin V–CF647 staining and flow cytometry in HT29 cell line for 48h (A) and 72h (B). HT29 cells were grown in DMEM, exposed to specific agents and early apoptosis was determined by annexin V staining method. Cells in positive control group received 2μg/ml/2h anisomycin * Significant difference in comparison with untreated group (P

    Journal: Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products

    Article Title: Gamma Tocopherol and Lovastatin Additively Induced Apoptosis in Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Line (HT29)

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Induction of apoptosis with various concentrations of γ-T (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200μM) using annexin V–CF647 staining and flow cytometry in HT29 cell line for 48h (A) and 72h (B). HT29 cells were grown in DMEM, exposed to specific agents and early apoptosis was determined by annexin V staining method. Cells in positive control group received 2μg/ml/2h anisomycin * Significant difference in comparison with untreated group (P

    Article Snippet: Materials Cell culture materials including Dulbecco`s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) were obtained from Applichem, Penicillin-Stereptomycin, trypsin, and fetal bovine serum were obtained from Gibco, Dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO), Gamma tocopherol, Anisomycin, and phosphate buffer saline(Nacl, Kcl, Na2 HPO4 (2H2 O), KH2 PO4 ) were obtained from Sigma Chemicals, Lovastatin was purchased from Biocon, HT29 cell line was obtained from Pasture Institute, Tehran Iran, FLOWCellectTM , Annexin Red Kit was purchased from Millipore Co.

    Techniques: Staining, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Positive Control

    (A) Representative PET/CT images of HT-29 tumor–bearing mice ( n = 3) 40 min after 18 F-FDG injection (5–10 MBq/50 μL, intraperitoneally) and 27 h after the first 10-μL intratumoral injection of 1 mM succinate (right shoulder, red arrow), 1 mM fumarate (left shoulder, green arrow), or PBS (right hind limb, yellow arrow) every 6 h for 24 h, along with graph showing quantifications from 18 F-FDG small-animal PET/CT in tumors. ** P

    Journal: Journal of Nuclear Medicine

    Article Title: The Evolving Role of Succinate in Tumor Metabolism: An 18F-FDG–Based Study

    doi: 10.2967/jnumed.117.192674

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A) Representative PET/CT images of HT-29 tumor–bearing mice ( n = 3) 40 min after 18 F-FDG injection (5–10 MBq/50 μL, intraperitoneally) and 27 h after the first 10-μL intratumoral injection of 1 mM succinate (right shoulder, red arrow), 1 mM fumarate (left shoulder, green arrow), or PBS (right hind limb, yellow arrow) every 6 h for 24 h, along with graph showing quantifications from 18 F-FDG small-animal PET/CT in tumors. ** P

    Article Snippet: HT-29 cells, HUVECs, and primary human cardiac fibroblasts were transferred to 6-well flasks and pretreated for 24 h with 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, or 10 nmol of succinate (Sigma-Aldrich) or fumarate (Sigma-Aldrich) per microliter of culture medium.

    Techniques: Positron Emission Tomography, Mouse Assay, Injection

    Influence of succinate pretreatment on 18 F-FDG uptake in HUVECs (A, top), in HT-29 cells (B, top), and in primary cardiac fibroblasts (C, top) after pretreatment for 24 h with 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, or 10 nmol of succinate per μL of culture medium. * P

    Journal: Journal of Nuclear Medicine

    Article Title: The Evolving Role of Succinate in Tumor Metabolism: An 18F-FDG–Based Study

    doi: 10.2967/jnumed.117.192674

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Influence of succinate pretreatment on 18 F-FDG uptake in HUVECs (A, top), in HT-29 cells (B, top), and in primary cardiac fibroblasts (C, top) after pretreatment for 24 h with 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, or 10 nmol of succinate per μL of culture medium. * P

    Article Snippet: HT-29 cells, HUVECs, and primary human cardiac fibroblasts were transferred to 6-well flasks and pretreated for 24 h with 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, or 10 nmol of succinate (Sigma-Aldrich) or fumarate (Sigma-Aldrich) per microliter of culture medium.

    Techniques:

    Deltaflexin-1 selectively inhibits oncogenic K-Ras-driven cell proliferation and mammosphere formation. (A,B) Dose-dependent cell viability in response to 72 h treatment with Deltaflexin-1 at concentrations ranging from 0 to 20 μM in HCT116 cells (A) and HT-29 cells (B). Graphs show mean values ± SEM, n = 4. (C,D) Sphere formation efficiency (SFE) of MDA-MB-231 cells (C), n = 11, and Hs 578T cells (D), n = 7, cultured in suspension culture for 6 days, followed by a 72 h incubation with 5 μM Deltaflexin-1 or Deltarasin, 0.5 μM FTI or 0.1% DMSO control. Graphs show mean values ± SEM. (E) Deltaflexin-1 dose-dependent effect on SFE with the same protocol as in (C,D). Graphs show mean values ± SEM, n = 4. The SFE is significantly different between MDA-MB-231 and Hs 578T above 0.63 μM. (C–E) Statistical significance levels are annotated as ns, not significant; * p

    Journal: ACS Omega

    Article Title: PDE6D Inhibitors with a New Design Principle Selectively Block K-Ras Activity

    doi: 10.1021/acsomega.9b03639

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Deltaflexin-1 selectively inhibits oncogenic K-Ras-driven cell proliferation and mammosphere formation. (A,B) Dose-dependent cell viability in response to 72 h treatment with Deltaflexin-1 at concentrations ranging from 0 to 20 μM in HCT116 cells (A) and HT-29 cells (B). Graphs show mean values ± SEM, n = 4. (C,D) Sphere formation efficiency (SFE) of MDA-MB-231 cells (C), n = 11, and Hs 578T cells (D), n = 7, cultured in suspension culture for 6 days, followed by a 72 h incubation with 5 μM Deltaflexin-1 or Deltarasin, 0.5 μM FTI or 0.1% DMSO control. Graphs show mean values ± SEM. (E) Deltaflexin-1 dose-dependent effect on SFE with the same protocol as in (C,D). Graphs show mean values ± SEM, n = 4. The SFE is significantly different between MDA-MB-231 and Hs 578T above 0.63 μM. (C–E) Statistical significance levels are annotated as ns, not significant; * p

    Article Snippet: HEK293 EBNA, Hs 578T, HCT116, and HT-29 cell lines were maintained in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM, cat. no. D6171, Sigma-Aldrich, Helsinki, Finland), supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) (cat. no. S1810, Biowest, Nuaille, France) and 2 mM l -glutamine (cat. no. G7513, Sigma-Aldrich).

    Techniques: Multiple Displacement Amplification, Cell Culture, Incubation

    CEMOVIS of interphase nuclei of the human cell lines KE37 ( A, B and D ) and HT29 ( C and E ). (A) Local view of a nucleus limited by the NE. An NPC is visible. (B) A chromatin-dense region (*), delineated by the white dotted line, coexists with a less dense region. (B and C) Striations are visible, either locally (black arrows) or extending over longer distances (white arrows). (D and E) Nucleosomes visualized in side views. The patterns are compared with CTF-modulated projections of the crystallographic structure of the particle (from PDB ID: 1 EQZ). (D’ and E’) The distance between the DNA gyres P , is measured on line profiles indicated in yellow in (D) and (E). ( F ) Distribution of P for the two cell types.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Nucleosome conformational variability in solution and in interphase nuclei evidenced by cryo-electron microscopy of vitreous sections

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gky670

    Figure Lengend Snippet: CEMOVIS of interphase nuclei of the human cell lines KE37 ( A, B and D ) and HT29 ( C and E ). (A) Local view of a nucleus limited by the NE. An NPC is visible. (B) A chromatin-dense region (*), delineated by the white dotted line, coexists with a less dense region. (B and C) Striations are visible, either locally (black arrows) or extending over longer distances (white arrows). (D and E) Nucleosomes visualized in side views. The patterns are compared with CTF-modulated projections of the crystallographic structure of the particle (from PDB ID: 1 EQZ). (D’ and E’) The distance between the DNA gyres P , is measured on line profiles indicated in yellow in (D) and (E). ( F ) Distribution of P for the two cell types.

    Article Snippet: Cell culture and preparation Cell suspensions of the human cell lines HT29 ( ) and KE37 ( ) were pelleted by centrifugation (3000 g , 3 min), and gently re-suspended in an equal volume of dextran (PM 40 000, Sigma-Aldrich) dissolved at a concentration of 40% (w:w) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS).

    Techniques:

    MUC2 protein level in coculture of Caco‐2/HT29‐MTX cells treated with 10 μM of chlorogenic acid, epicatechin gallate, or quercetin determined by ELISA. Values are expressed as means ± SD of three independent replicates

    Journal: Food Science & Nutrition

    Article Title: Effects of chlorogenic acid, epicatechin gallate, and quercetin on mucin expression and secretion in the Caco‐2/HT29‐MTX cell model. Effects of chlorogenic acid, epicatechin gallate, and quercetin on mucin expression and secretion in the Caco‐2/HT29‐MTX cell model

    doi: 10.1002/fsn3.818

    Figure Lengend Snippet: MUC2 protein level in coculture of Caco‐2/HT29‐MTX cells treated with 10 μM of chlorogenic acid, epicatechin gallate, or quercetin determined by ELISA. Values are expressed as means ± SD of three independent replicates

    Article Snippet: The Caco‐2 cell line was purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (Rockville, Maryland, USA), and the HT29‐MTX cell line was obtained from Sigma‐Aldrich (Prague, Czech Republic).

    Techniques: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Effect of chlorogenic acid, epicatechin gallate, and quercetin on the viability of Caco‐2 (a), HT29‐MTX (b), and cocultured Caco‐2/HT29‐MTX (c) cells determined by the MTT assay. Values are expressed as means of the percentage of cell viability with respect to control cells ± standard deviation ( SD ), N = 3

    Journal: Food Science & Nutrition

    Article Title: Effects of chlorogenic acid, epicatechin gallate, and quercetin on mucin expression and secretion in the Caco‐2/HT29‐MTX cell model. Effects of chlorogenic acid, epicatechin gallate, and quercetin on mucin expression and secretion in the Caco‐2/HT29‐MTX cell model

    doi: 10.1002/fsn3.818

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of chlorogenic acid, epicatechin gallate, and quercetin on the viability of Caco‐2 (a), HT29‐MTX (b), and cocultured Caco‐2/HT29‐MTX (c) cells determined by the MTT assay. Values are expressed as means of the percentage of cell viability with respect to control cells ± standard deviation ( SD ), N = 3

    Article Snippet: The Caco‐2 cell line was purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (Rockville, Maryland, USA), and the HT29‐MTX cell line was obtained from Sigma‐Aldrich (Prague, Czech Republic).

    Techniques: MTT Assay, Standard Deviation

    The release of LXA 4 is reduced in Anaplasma phagocytophilum -infected PMN. Primary human neutrophil granulocytes were coincubated with cell-free A. phagocytophilum for 300 min and extracellular bacteria were removed by washing. During the last 90 min of infection 10 ng/ml GM-CSF was added. For transcellular lipoxin synthesis A. phagocytophilum -infected and uninfected neutrophils were coincubated with HT-29 cells and stimulated with ionomycin (1.0 μ M) for 10 (a) or 360 (b) min. LXA 4 content of the supernatants was determined by ELISA. n = 3 each, n.d.: not detectable, and ∗ p ≤ 0.05.

    Journal: BioMed Research International

    Article Title: Early Production of the Neutrophil-Derived Lipid Mediators LTB4 and LXA4 Is Modulated by Intracellular Infection with Leishmania major

    doi: 10.1155/2017/2014583

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The release of LXA 4 is reduced in Anaplasma phagocytophilum -infected PMN. Primary human neutrophil granulocytes were coincubated with cell-free A. phagocytophilum for 300 min and extracellular bacteria were removed by washing. During the last 90 min of infection 10 ng/ml GM-CSF was added. For transcellular lipoxin synthesis A. phagocytophilum -infected and uninfected neutrophils were coincubated with HT-29 cells and stimulated with ionomycin (1.0 μ M) for 10 (a) or 360 (b) min. LXA 4 content of the supernatants was determined by ELISA. n = 3 each, n.d.: not detectable, and ∗ p ≤ 0.05.

    Article Snippet: HT-29 Cell Culture The human adenocarcinoma epithelial-like cell line HT-29 was kept in DMEM medium supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated FCS (both Sigma-Aldrich), 2 mML-glutamine, 100 U/ml penicillin, and 100 μ g/ml streptomycin (all from Biochrom) under humidified conditions at 37°C and 5% CO2 .

    Techniques: Infection, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    The release of LXA 4 is reduced in Leishmania major -infected PMN. PMN were infected with L. major promastigotes for 300 minutes. During the last 90 min of infection 10 ng/ml GM-CSF was added. L. major -infected and uninfected neutrophils were coincubated with HT-29 cells and stimulated with ionomycin (1.0 μ M) for 10 (a) or 360 (b) min. LXA 4 content of the supernatants was determined by ELISA. (a) n = 6, (b) n = 3, n.d.: not detectable, ∗∗ p ≤ 0.01, and ∗∗∗ p ≤ 0.001.

    Journal: BioMed Research International

    Article Title: Early Production of the Neutrophil-Derived Lipid Mediators LTB4 and LXA4 Is Modulated by Intracellular Infection with Leishmania major

    doi: 10.1155/2017/2014583

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The release of LXA 4 is reduced in Leishmania major -infected PMN. PMN were infected with L. major promastigotes for 300 minutes. During the last 90 min of infection 10 ng/ml GM-CSF was added. L. major -infected and uninfected neutrophils were coincubated with HT-29 cells and stimulated with ionomycin (1.0 μ M) for 10 (a) or 360 (b) min. LXA 4 content of the supernatants was determined by ELISA. (a) n = 6, (b) n = 3, n.d.: not detectable, ∗∗ p ≤ 0.01, and ∗∗∗ p ≤ 0.001.

    Article Snippet: HT-29 Cell Culture The human adenocarcinoma epithelial-like cell line HT-29 was kept in DMEM medium supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated FCS (both Sigma-Aldrich), 2 mML-glutamine, 100 U/ml penicillin, and 100 μ g/ml streptomycin (all from Biochrom) under humidified conditions at 37°C and 5% CO2 .

    Techniques: Infection, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Quantification of ATP levels using selective media conditions. ATP levels were measured in HT-29 cells cultured in glucose (25 mM) and galactose (10 mM) conditioned media, which are known as a cellular switch, where cells either rely on glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation or solely on oxidative phosphorylation, respectively. Results are expressed in luminescence units, and statistically significant differences between the solvent control and the treatment groups are indicated by asterisks (One-Way ANOVA, Dunnett’s test, ** = p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Cytotoxicity of portoamides in human cancer cells and analysis of the molecular mechanisms of action

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188817

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Quantification of ATP levels using selective media conditions. ATP levels were measured in HT-29 cells cultured in glucose (25 mM) and galactose (10 mM) conditioned media, which are known as a cellular switch, where cells either rely on glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation or solely on oxidative phosphorylation, respectively. Results are expressed in luminescence units, and statistically significant differences between the solvent control and the treatment groups are indicated by asterisks (One-Way ANOVA, Dunnett’s test, ** = p

    Article Snippet: Cell culture The human cell lines HT-29, SH-SY5Y and T-47D were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, Missouri, USA).

    Techniques: Cell Culture

    Predicted mechanism of action of portoamides in HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells, based on all experimental data.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Cytotoxicity of portoamides in human cancer cells and analysis of the molecular mechanisms of action

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188817

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Predicted mechanism of action of portoamides in HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells, based on all experimental data.

    Article Snippet: Cell culture The human cell lines HT-29, SH-SY5Y and T-47D were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, Missouri, USA).

    Techniques:

    Mito-toxicity evaluation using MTT on selective media. Values are represented relative to the solvent control (DMSO 0.5%) for HT-29 cells cultured in glucose (25 mM) and galactose (10 mM) conditioned media, which are known as cellular switch, where cells either rely on glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation or solely oxidative phosphorylation, respectively. HT-29 cells were exposed to four different portoamide concentrations, using DMSO 20% as a positive control. Statistically significant differences between the solvent control and the treatment groups are indicated by asterisks (One-Way ANOVA, Dunnett’s test, * = p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Cytotoxicity of portoamides in human cancer cells and analysis of the molecular mechanisms of action

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188817

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mito-toxicity evaluation using MTT on selective media. Values are represented relative to the solvent control (DMSO 0.5%) for HT-29 cells cultured in glucose (25 mM) and galactose (10 mM) conditioned media, which are known as cellular switch, where cells either rely on glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation or solely oxidative phosphorylation, respectively. HT-29 cells were exposed to four different portoamide concentrations, using DMSO 20% as a positive control. Statistically significant differences between the solvent control and the treatment groups are indicated by asterisks (One-Way ANOVA, Dunnett’s test, * = p

    Article Snippet: Cell culture The human cell lines HT-29, SH-SY5Y and T-47D were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, Missouri, USA).

    Techniques: MTT Assay, Cell Culture, Positive Control

    Polyacrylamide gel (12.5%) with indication of the position of the proteins identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF from the HT-29 cell line.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Cytotoxicity of portoamides in human cancer cells and analysis of the molecular mechanisms of action

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188817

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Polyacrylamide gel (12.5%) with indication of the position of the proteins identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF from the HT-29 cell line.

    Article Snippet: Cell culture The human cell lines HT-29, SH-SY5Y and T-47D were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, Missouri, USA).

    Techniques:

    Neutralization of CARD15 gene expression in colon carcinoma cells reduces their survival. A: The level of NOD2 mRNA in HT-29 cells transfected with green fluorescent (GFP) containing lentiviral vectors expressing either NOD2 ( NOD2 shRNA) or scrambled

    Journal:

    Article Title: Evidence for the involvement of NOD2 in regulating colonic epithelial cell growth and survival

    doi: 10.3748/wjg.14.5834

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Neutralization of CARD15 gene expression in colon carcinoma cells reduces their survival. A: The level of NOD2 mRNA in HT-29 cells transfected with green fluorescent (GFP) containing lentiviral vectors expressing either NOD2 ( NOD2 shRNA) or scrambled

    Article Snippet: HT-29 and SW480 human colonic carcinoma cells were infected with lentiviruses and 10 mg/mL polybrene (Sigma) for 16 h. Quantitative (Taqman) RT-PCR was used to assess CARD15 mRNA knockdown.

    Techniques: Neutralization, Expressing, Transfection, shRNA

    Kaplan-Meier survival plots of mice (exposed to antibiotic pretreatment for 3 days) challenged with C. difficile VPI 10463 and subsequently treated on different schedules. *, the line for the combination of vancomycin and berberine coincides with the

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Berberine Blocks the Relapse of Clostridium difficile Infection in C57BL/6 Mice after Standard Vancomycin Treatment

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.04794-14

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Kaplan-Meier survival plots of mice (exposed to antibiotic pretreatment for 3 days) challenged with C. difficile VPI 10463 and subsequently treated on different schedules. *, the line for the combination of vancomycin and berberine coincides with the

    Article Snippet: C. difficile strain VPI 10463 (ATCC 43255) was purchased from ATCC.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Vancomycin reduced C. difficile VPI10463-induced cecal tissue damages in hamsters. A : experimental design of C. difficile infection and vancomycin treatment. B : H E staining of cecal tissues. Infection of C. difficile VPI10463 caused severe cecal

    Journal: American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology

    Article Title: Probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 prevents outbreak-associated Clostridium difficile-associated cecal inflammation in hamsters

    doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00150.2016

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Vancomycin reduced C. difficile VPI10463-induced cecal tissue damages in hamsters. A : experimental design of C. difficile infection and vancomycin treatment. B : H E staining of cecal tissues. Infection of C. difficile VPI10463 caused severe cecal

    Article Snippet: C. difficile strains VPI10463 (ATCC stock 43255), ribotype 027 (ATCC BAA-1805), ribotype 078 (ATCC BAA-1875), and ribotype 017 (ATCC 43598) were cultured in Difco cooked meat media (no. 226730 BD, Fisher Scientific, Canoga Park, CA) at 37°C in anaerobic conditions as previously reported ( ).

    Techniques: Infection, Staining

    S. boulardii reduced C. difficile VPI10463-induced cecal tissue damage in hamsters. A : experimental design of C. difficile infection and Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 ( S.b ; SB) treatment. B : H E staining of cecal tissues. Infection of C.

    Journal: American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology

    Article Title: Probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 prevents outbreak-associated Clostridium difficile-associated cecal inflammation in hamsters

    doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00150.2016

    Figure Lengend Snippet: S. boulardii reduced C. difficile VPI10463-induced cecal tissue damage in hamsters. A : experimental design of C. difficile infection and Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 ( S.b ; SB) treatment. B : H E staining of cecal tissues. Infection of C.

    Article Snippet: C. difficile strains VPI10463 (ATCC stock 43255), ribotype 027 (ATCC BAA-1805), ribotype 078 (ATCC BAA-1875), and ribotype 017 (ATCC 43598) were cultured in Difco cooked meat media (no. 226730 BD, Fisher Scientific, Canoga Park, CA) at 37°C in anaerobic conditions as previously reported ( ).

    Techniques: Infection, Staining

    S. boulardii reduced cecal TNFα protein expression induced by multiple C. difficile strains. A : cecal TNFα protein expression. Live S.b but not heated S.b reduced cecal TNFα protein expression in C. difficile strain VPI10463-infected

    Journal: American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology

    Article Title: Probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 prevents outbreak-associated Clostridium difficile-associated cecal inflammation in hamsters

    doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00150.2016

    Figure Lengend Snippet: S. boulardii reduced cecal TNFα protein expression induced by multiple C. difficile strains. A : cecal TNFα protein expression. Live S.b but not heated S.b reduced cecal TNFα protein expression in C. difficile strain VPI10463-infected

    Article Snippet: C. difficile strains VPI10463 (ATCC stock 43255), ribotype 027 (ATCC BAA-1805), ribotype 078 (ATCC BAA-1875), and ribotype 017 (ATCC 43598) were cultured in Difco cooked meat media (no. 226730 BD, Fisher Scientific, Canoga Park, CA) at 37°C in anaerobic conditions as previously reported ( ).

    Techniques: Expressing, Infection

    Comparison of the Portrait Toxigenic  C. difficile  Assay to three alternative molecular tests for detection of toxigenic  C. difficile .

    Journal: Journal of Clinical Microbiology

    Article Title: Multicenter Clinical Evaluation of the Portrait Toxigenic C. difficile Assay for Detection of Toxigenic Clostridium difficile Strains in Clinical Stool Specimens

    doi: 10.1128/JCM.02083-12

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison of the Portrait Toxigenic C. difficile Assay to three alternative molecular tests for detection of toxigenic C. difficile .

    Article Snippet: Stool specimens spiked with a toxigenic C. difficile strain (ATCC 43255) at three different densities were tested in replicates by two operators at each test site on five different days for a total of 270 replicates (30 for each density per site).

    Techniques:

    Comparison of the Portrait Toxigenic  C. difficile  Assay to three alternative molecular tests for detection of toxigenic  C. difficile .

    Journal: Journal of Clinical Microbiology

    Article Title: Multicenter Clinical Evaluation of the Portrait Toxigenic C. difficile Assay for Detection of Toxigenic Clostridium difficile Strains in Clinical Stool Specimens

    doi: 10.1128/JCM.02083-12

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison of the Portrait Toxigenic C. difficile Assay to three alternative molecular tests for detection of toxigenic C. difficile .

    Article Snippet: Stool specimens spiked with a toxigenic C. difficile strain (ATCC 43255) at three different densities were tested in replicates by two operators at each test site on five different days for a total of 270 replicates (30 for each density per site).

    Techniques:

    Comparison of the Portrait Toxigenic  C. difficile  Assay to TBC/CCNA.

    Journal: Journal of Clinical Microbiology

    Article Title: Multicenter Clinical Evaluation of the Portrait Toxigenic C. difficile Assay for Detection of Toxigenic Clostridium difficile Strains in Clinical Stool Specimens

    doi: 10.1128/JCM.02083-12

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison of the Portrait Toxigenic C. difficile Assay to TBC/CCNA.

    Article Snippet: Stool specimens spiked with a toxigenic C. difficile strain (ATCC 43255) at three different densities were tested in replicates by two operators at each test site on five different days for a total of 270 replicates (30 for each density per site).

    Techniques:

    Call rate and reproducibility of the Portrait Toxigenic  C. difficile  Assay.

    Journal: Journal of Clinical Microbiology

    Article Title: Multicenter Clinical Evaluation of the Portrait Toxigenic C. difficile Assay for Detection of Toxigenic Clostridium difficile Strains in Clinical Stool Specimens

    doi: 10.1128/JCM.02083-12

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Call rate and reproducibility of the Portrait Toxigenic C. difficile Assay.

    Article Snippet: Stool specimens spiked with a toxigenic C. difficile strain (ATCC 43255) at three different densities were tested in replicates by two operators at each test site on five different days for a total of 270 replicates (30 for each density per site).

    Techniques:

    Survival in hamsters treated with the A2+B2 MAb combination postchallenge with  C. difficile  strain VPI 10463. The numbers in parentheses are the doses in milligrams per kilogram of body weight.

    Journal: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology : CVI

    Article Title: A Combination of Three Fully Human Toxin A- and Toxin B-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies Protects against Challenge with Highly Virulent Epidemic Strains of Clostridium difficile in the Hamster Model

    doi: 10.1128/CVI.00763-14

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Survival in hamsters treated with the A2+B2 MAb combination postchallenge with C. difficile strain VPI 10463. The numbers in parentheses are the doses in milligrams per kilogram of body weight.

    Article Snippet: The representative strain of toxinotype 0 was the C. difficile reference strain VPI 10463 (ATCC 43255).

    Techniques:

    Toxin levels for C. difficile strain ATCC 43255. C. difficile ATCC 43255 was co-cultured with B. longum JDM301 at different inoculation ratios ( B. longum : C. difficile ) in BHI supplemented with 0.05% (w/v) L-cysteine-HCl for 48 h at 37°C under anaerobic conditions. Samples (1 ml aliquots) were taken at 48 h and the supernatants were collected by centrifugation. Then toxins in these supernatants were detected. (A) TcdA was detected by Dot-blot assay. (B) TcdB was detected by Dot-blot assay. The experiments were repeated three times and representative blots were shown. (C) TcdA was detected by ELISA. (D) TcdB was detected by ELISA. The values are presented as the averages of three independent experiments; error bars represent the standard deviations. ∗ P

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Protective Effects of Bifidobacterial Strains Against Toxigenic Clostridium difficile

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00888

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Toxin levels for C. difficile strain ATCC 43255. C. difficile ATCC 43255 was co-cultured with B. longum JDM301 at different inoculation ratios ( B. longum : C. difficile ) in BHI supplemented with 0.05% (w/v) L-cysteine-HCl for 48 h at 37°C under anaerobic conditions. Samples (1 ml aliquots) were taken at 48 h and the supernatants were collected by centrifugation. Then toxins in these supernatants were detected. (A) TcdA was detected by Dot-blot assay. (B) TcdB was detected by Dot-blot assay. The experiments were repeated three times and representative blots were shown. (C) TcdA was detected by ELISA. (D) TcdB was detected by ELISA. The values are presented as the averages of three independent experiments; error bars represent the standard deviations. ∗ P

    Article Snippet: Our results indicated that at different inoculation ratio (B. longum : C. difficile ), the growth of C. difficile virulent strain-ATCC 43255 was significantly inhibited ( Figure ).

    Techniques: Cell Culture, Centrifugation, Dot Blot, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Bifidobacterium longum JDM301 attenuates CDI in vivo . Mice were infected with ATCC 43255 treated with or without B. longum JDM301. (A) Clinical scores. (B) Percent weight loss from day 0 (the day of infection). (C) Survival curve P = 0.0215 by Mantel-Cox ( n = 6–9). ∗ P

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Protective Effects of Bifidobacterial Strains Against Toxigenic Clostridium difficile

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00888

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Bifidobacterium longum JDM301 attenuates CDI in vivo . Mice were infected with ATCC 43255 treated with or without B. longum JDM301. (A) Clinical scores. (B) Percent weight loss from day 0 (the day of infection). (C) Survival curve P = 0.0215 by Mantel-Cox ( n = 6–9). ∗ P

    Article Snippet: Our results indicated that at different inoculation ratio (B. longum : C. difficile ), the growth of C. difficile virulent strain-ATCC 43255 was significantly inhibited ( Figure ).

    Techniques: In Vivo, Mouse Assay, Infection

    Growth of C. difficile co-cultured with B. longum JDM301. (A) The growth of ATCC 43255 co-cultured with B. longum JDM301. C. difficile ATCC 43255 was co-cultured with B. longum JDM301 at different inoculation ratios ( B. longum : C. difficile 43255) in BHI for 48 h at 37°C under anaerobic conditions. (B) The growth of ATCC 9689 co-cultured with B. longum JDM301. C. difficile ATCC 9689 was co-cultured with B. longum JDM301 at different inoculation ratios ( B. longum : C. difficile ATCC 9689) in BHI for 48 h at 37°C under anaerobic conditions. The values presented are the averages of three independent experiments; error bars represent the standard deviations. ∗∗∗ P

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Protective Effects of Bifidobacterial Strains Against Toxigenic Clostridium difficile

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00888

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Growth of C. difficile co-cultured with B. longum JDM301. (A) The growth of ATCC 43255 co-cultured with B. longum JDM301. C. difficile ATCC 43255 was co-cultured with B. longum JDM301 at different inoculation ratios ( B. longum : C. difficile 43255) in BHI for 48 h at 37°C under anaerobic conditions. (B) The growth of ATCC 9689 co-cultured with B. longum JDM301. C. difficile ATCC 9689 was co-cultured with B. longum JDM301 at different inoculation ratios ( B. longum : C. difficile ATCC 9689) in BHI for 48 h at 37°C under anaerobic conditions. The values presented are the averages of three independent experiments; error bars represent the standard deviations. ∗∗∗ P

    Article Snippet: Our results indicated that at different inoculation ratio (B. longum : C. difficile ), the growth of C. difficile virulent strain-ATCC 43255 was significantly inhibited ( Figure ).

    Techniques: Cell Culture

    Schematic representation of regions surrounding the genes for CDD-1 and CDD-2 β-lactamases. The open reading frames are shown as arrows and intergenic regions as black lines. In strain ATCC 43255 (top), the gene for the CDD-1 β-lactamase ( cdd1 ) is flanked by an ATP-dependent helicase ( hlc ) upstream and by an ABC transporter-coupled two-component system ATP-binding protein ( abp ) downstream. In strain 630 (bottom), two additional open reading frames are present between the gene for the CDD-2 β-lactamase ( cdd2 ) and the hlc gene (an excinuclease ABC subunit A paralog of unknown function [ ecn ] and a putative membrane protein [ pmp ]). As a result, the intergenic region between the cdd gene and the upstream gene changed from 540 bp for cdd1 to 27 bp for cdd2 .

    Journal: mBio

    Article Title: Intrinsic Class D β-Lactamases of Clostridium difficile

    doi: 10.1128/mBio.01803-18

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Schematic representation of regions surrounding the genes for CDD-1 and CDD-2 β-lactamases. The open reading frames are shown as arrows and intergenic regions as black lines. In strain ATCC 43255 (top), the gene for the CDD-1 β-lactamase ( cdd1 ) is flanked by an ATP-dependent helicase ( hlc ) upstream and by an ABC transporter-coupled two-component system ATP-binding protein ( abp ) downstream. In strain 630 (bottom), two additional open reading frames are present between the gene for the CDD-2 β-lactamase ( cdd2 ) and the hlc gene (an excinuclease ABC subunit A paralog of unknown function [ ecn ] and a putative membrane protein [ pmp ]). As a result, the intergenic region between the cdd gene and the upstream gene changed from 540 bp for cdd1 to 27 bp for cdd2 .

    Article Snippet: In our effort to get insights into the mechanism of resistance of C. difficile to β-lactam antibiotics, we analyzed genomes of two strains, C. difficile ATCC 43255 and C. difficile 630Δerm, and found that each contains only one open-reading frame annotated as a putative β-lactamase gene.

    Techniques: Binding Assay

    Effects on toxin production by membrane-active agents and comparators. At bactericidal concentrations membrane-active agents decreased the total toxin in cultures of stationary-phase C. difficile BAA-1803 within 24 h, compared with the protein synthesis

    Journal: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

    Article Title: The membrane as a target for controlling hypervirulent Clostridium difficile infections

    doi: 10.1093/jac/dks493

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects on toxin production by membrane-active agents and comparators. At bactericidal concentrations membrane-active agents decreased the total toxin in cultures of stationary-phase C. difficile BAA-1803 within 24 h, compared with the protein synthesis

    Article Snippet: The C. difficile strains BAA-1803 (toxinotype III, 95 NAP1) and BAA-1875 (toxinotype V, NAP7) from ATCC were primarily used.

    Techniques:

    Effects of inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of surotomycin (SUR) on macromolecular biosynthesis in C. difficile . The effects against BAA-1875 are shown for SUR (0.25 and 4 μg/ml). The control drugs and concentrations are as follows:

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Mode of Action and Bactericidal Properties of Surotomycin against Growing and Nongrowing Clostridium difficile

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.01087-15

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of surotomycin (SUR) on macromolecular biosynthesis in C. difficile . The effects against BAA-1875 are shown for SUR (0.25 and 4 μg/ml). The control drugs and concentrations are as follows:

    Article Snippet: C. difficile strains BAA-1875 (ribotype 078) and BAA-1803 (ribotype 027) were from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC).

    Techniques:

    Dissipation of the membrane potential (left) and effects on membrane permeability (right) of C. difficile , shown as histogram half overlays. Representative data from three independent cultures of BAA-1875 are shown following exposure to drugs at 16×

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Mode of Action and Bactericidal Properties of Surotomycin against Growing and Nongrowing Clostridium difficile

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.01087-15

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Dissipation of the membrane potential (left) and effects on membrane permeability (right) of C. difficile , shown as histogram half overlays. Representative data from three independent cultures of BAA-1875 are shown following exposure to drugs at 16×

    Article Snippet: C. difficile strains BAA-1875 (ribotype 078) and BAA-1803 (ribotype 027) were from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC).

    Techniques: Permeability

    Time-kill kinetics of antibiotics against logarithmic-phase (left) and stationary-phase (right) BAA-1875 cultures. Various concentrations of surotomycin (SUR), metronidazole (MTZ), and vancomycin (VAN) are shown. Mean values are plotted, and error bars

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Mode of Action and Bactericidal Properties of Surotomycin against Growing and Nongrowing Clostridium difficile

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.01087-15

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Time-kill kinetics of antibiotics against logarithmic-phase (left) and stationary-phase (right) BAA-1875 cultures. Various concentrations of surotomycin (SUR), metronidazole (MTZ), and vancomycin (VAN) are shown. Mean values are plotted, and error bars

    Article Snippet: C. difficile strains BAA-1875 (ribotype 078) and BAA-1803 (ribotype 027) were from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC).

    Techniques:

    A schematic description of vaccine vector. a Linear depiction of the three major domains identified within C. difficile TcdA and TcdB. Note: ED; Enzymatic Domain; HD: Hydrophobic Translocation Domain; RBD: Receptor Binding Domain; IVS: Synthetic intron. b Schematic depiction of the vaccine gene sequence as inserted into the eukaryotic expression vector, pIRES. c Protein expression from vaccine vectors following transient transfection of COS7 cells. Immunoblot of COS7 cell lysates and supernatants following transient transfection with pTA (line1), pTB (line2) and pTAB (line3) for detection of expressed protein products. Supernatant was clarified at 18,000 × g for 30 min prior to the procedure. The expected size of TcdA-RBD is 35 kDa, TcdB-RBD is 60 kDa

    Journal: BMC Infectious Diseases

    Article Title: A DNA vaccine targeting TcdA and TcdB induces protective immunity against Clostridium difficile

    doi: 10.1186/s12879-016-1924-1

    Figure Lengend Snippet: A schematic description of vaccine vector. a Linear depiction of the three major domains identified within C. difficile TcdA and TcdB. Note: ED; Enzymatic Domain; HD: Hydrophobic Translocation Domain; RBD: Receptor Binding Domain; IVS: Synthetic intron. b Schematic depiction of the vaccine gene sequence as inserted into the eukaryotic expression vector, pIRES. c Protein expression from vaccine vectors following transient transfection of COS7 cells. Immunoblot of COS7 cell lysates and supernatants following transient transfection with pTA (line1), pTB (line2) and pTAB (line3) for detection of expressed protein products. Supernatant was clarified at 18,000 × g for 30 min prior to the procedure. The expected size of TcdA-RBD is 35 kDa, TcdB-RBD is 60 kDa

    Article Snippet: Plasmid design The amino acid sequences corresponding to the RBD of C. difficile TcdA (strain ATCC 43255/VPI 10463, residue positions 2394–2710) and TcdB (strain ATCC 43255/VPI 10463, residue positions 1855–2366) were identified [ , ].

    Techniques: Plasmid Preparation, Translocation Assay, Binding Assay, Sequencing, Expressing, Transfection

    Subinhibitory concentrations of tigecycline inhibit C. difficile spore formation and toxin activity. (A and B) Growth of C. difficile strain 630 by OD 600 at 24 h (C) and 48 h (B) in BHI growth medium supplemented with 0, 0.03, or 0.06 μg/ml of

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Effects of Tigecycline and Vancomycin Administration on Established Clostridium difficile Infection

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.04296-14

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Subinhibitory concentrations of tigecycline inhibit C. difficile spore formation and toxin activity. (A and B) Growth of C. difficile strain 630 by OD 600 at 24 h (C) and 48 h (B) in BHI growth medium supplemented with 0, 0.03, or 0.06 μg/ml of

    Article Snippet: C. difficile strain 630 (ATCC BAA-1382) was used in this study.

    Techniques: Activity Assay

    Subinhibitory concentrations of vancomycin do not inhibit C. difficile spore formation and toxin activity. (A and B) Growth of C. difficile strain 630 by OD 600 at 24 h (A) and 48 h (B) in BHI growth medium supplemented with 0, 0.6, or 0.8 μg/ml

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Effects of Tigecycline and Vancomycin Administration on Established Clostridium difficile Infection

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.04296-14

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Subinhibitory concentrations of vancomycin do not inhibit C. difficile spore formation and toxin activity. (A and B) Growth of C. difficile strain 630 by OD 600 at 24 h (A) and 48 h (B) in BHI growth medium supplemented with 0, 0.6, or 0.8 μg/ml

    Article Snippet: C. difficile strain 630 (ATCC BAA-1382) was used in this study.

    Techniques: Activity Assay

    Electrophoresis gel plot of single-gene and multiplex PCR using C. difficile reference strain 630 and the NAP1/027/BI cultured isolate VA17. The template is indicated at the top of each lane. Lanes 1 and 4, tcdB primer set; lanes 2 and 5, tcdC primer

    Journal: The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics : JMD

    Article Title: A Novel Subtyping Assay for Detection of Clostridium difficile Virulence Genes

    doi: 10.1016/j.jmoldx.2013.11.006

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Electrophoresis gel plot of single-gene and multiplex PCR using C. difficile reference strain 630 and the NAP1/027/BI cultured isolate VA17. The template is indicated at the top of each lane. Lanes 1 and 4, tcdB primer set; lanes 2 and 5, tcdC primer

    Article Snippet: DNA isolated from cultured C. difficile reference strain 630 ( C. difficile ATCC BAA-1382) was used, or DNA isolated from the C. difficile strain VA17 (provided by Dr. Curtis Donskey).

    Techniques: Electrophoresis, Multiplex Assay, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Cell Culture

    Production of Srl in C. difficile ATCC 9689 and clinical strains. (A) Whole-cell lysate and TCA-precipitated culture filtrate from C. difficile ATCC 9689 or C. novyi ATCC 17861 as the negative control were subjected to SDS-PAGE followed by silver staining.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Identification of a Novel Virulence Factor in Clostridium Difficile That Modulates Toxin Sensitivity of Cultured Epithelial Cells ▿

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.00051-11

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Production of Srl in C. difficile ATCC 9689 and clinical strains. (A) Whole-cell lysate and TCA-precipitated culture filtrate from C. difficile ATCC 9689 or C. novyi ATCC 17861 as the negative control were subjected to SDS-PAGE followed by silver staining.

    Article Snippet: A single protein band of the expected size (7.6 kDa) was detected in samples from both TCA-precipitated culture filtrate and whole-cell lysate of C. difficile strain ATCC 9689 but not in samples from an irrelevant clostridial strain, C. novyi ATCC 17861 ( A), suggesting the production and secretion of Srl from C. difficile strain ATCC 9689.

    Techniques: Negative Control, SDS Page, Silver Staining

    Partial inhibition of morphological changes with Srl-neutralized culture filtrate in parallel with decreased formation of the actin aggregate in cells. (A) C. difficile ATCC 9689 culture filtrate was prepared by incubation with anti-Srl antibody or control

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Identification of a Novel Virulence Factor in Clostridium Difficile That Modulates Toxin Sensitivity of Cultured Epithelial Cells ▿

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.00051-11

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Partial inhibition of morphological changes with Srl-neutralized culture filtrate in parallel with decreased formation of the actin aggregate in cells. (A) C. difficile ATCC 9689 culture filtrate was prepared by incubation with anti-Srl antibody or control

    Article Snippet: A single protein band of the expected size (7.6 kDa) was detected in samples from both TCA-precipitated culture filtrate and whole-cell lysate of C. difficile strain ATCC 9689 but not in samples from an irrelevant clostridial strain, C. novyi ATCC 17861 ( A), suggesting the production and secretion of Srl from C. difficile strain ATCC 9689.

    Techniques: Inhibition, Incubation

    Percentages of individual C. difficile spores that had lost DPA or became phase dark after HP treatment at 550 MPa. C. difficile ATCC 43601 spores were exposed to 550 MPa of HP for various times as described in Materials and Methods. Samples treated for various times were assayed for DPA release (○) by measuring either DPA released in germination supernatant fluid (A) or the percentage of individual spores that had lost DPA or spores that had become phase dark (B) (△). All values were corrected for the small percentage (≤2%) of phase-dark spores in the starting spores and the small percentage (

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Effects of High-Pressure Treatment on Spores of Clostridium Species

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.01363-16

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Percentages of individual C. difficile spores that had lost DPA or became phase dark after HP treatment at 550 MPa. C. difficile ATCC 43601 spores were exposed to 550 MPa of HP for various times as described in Materials and Methods. Samples treated for various times were assayed for DPA release (○) by measuring either DPA released in germination supernatant fluid (A) or the percentage of individual spores that had lost DPA or spores that had become phase dark (B) (△). All values were corrected for the small percentage (≤2%) of phase-dark spores in the starting spores and the small percentage (

    Article Snippet: C. difficile strain ATCC 43601 (ribotype 031) was used in all experiments, and spores of C. difficile strain ATCC 43593 were also used in a few experiments.

    Techniques:

    Average Raman spectra of C. difficile spores exposed to HP for various times. C. difficile ATCC 43601 spores were exposed to an HP of 550 MPa for various times, and average Raman spectra of ∼30 spores that retained DPA (A) and ∼30 spores that did not retain DPA (B) after HP exposure for 0 min (curves a), 5 min (curves b), or 15 min (curves c) were obtained as described in Materials and Methods. Raman peaks at 824, 1,017, 1,395, and 1,572 cm −1 are due to CaDPA. The region around 1,653 to 1,667 cm −1 in these Raman spectra contains peaks that are from proteins in either the α-helical (1,653 cm −1 ) or unstructured (1,667 cm −1 ) conformation, as noted in the text.

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Effects of High-Pressure Treatment on Spores of Clostridium Species

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.01363-16

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Average Raman spectra of C. difficile spores exposed to HP for various times. C. difficile ATCC 43601 spores were exposed to an HP of 550 MPa for various times, and average Raman spectra of ∼30 spores that retained DPA (A) and ∼30 spores that did not retain DPA (B) after HP exposure for 0 min (curves a), 5 min (curves b), or 15 min (curves c) were obtained as described in Materials and Methods. Raman peaks at 824, 1,017, 1,395, and 1,572 cm −1 are due to CaDPA. The region around 1,653 to 1,667 cm −1 in these Raman spectra contains peaks that are from proteins in either the α-helical (1,653 cm −1 ) or unstructured (1,667 cm −1 ) conformation, as noted in the text.

    Article Snippet: C. difficile strain ATCC 43601 (ribotype 031) was used in all experiments, and spores of C. difficile strain ATCC 43593 were also used in a few experiments.

    Techniques:

    Viability, wet heat sensitivity, and germination events in C. difficile spores exposed to HP. Spores of C. difficile ATCC 43601 were exposed to HPs of either 150 MPa (A) or 550 MPa (B) for various times, and phase-bright spores, spores that retained DPA, spore viability, and spore viability after exposure to 80°C in water for 30 min were measured, all as described in Materials and Methods. The various parameters measured are shown as follows: phase-bright spores, white bars (100 individual spores examined); spores retaining DPA, gray bars (100 individual spores examined); spore viability, white stippled bars (determined in triplicate); and spore viability after heat treatment, black stippled bars (determined in duplicate for panel A and in triplicate for panel B). Values for spores that retained DPA and were phase bright are expressed relative to the average values in untreated spores; values for viability with and without a heat treatment are expressed relative to the viability of spores that were HP treated for 0 min and not then heat treated. In panel B, the values for viable spores at time zero are the averages of values for spores with and without heat treatment. Average standard deviations for viability values without heat treatment were ±38% in panel A and ±43% in panel B, and those for viability values with heat treatment were ±25% in panel A and ±43% in panel B.

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Effects of High-Pressure Treatment on Spores of Clostridium Species

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.01363-16

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Viability, wet heat sensitivity, and germination events in C. difficile spores exposed to HP. Spores of C. difficile ATCC 43601 were exposed to HPs of either 150 MPa (A) or 550 MPa (B) for various times, and phase-bright spores, spores that retained DPA, spore viability, and spore viability after exposure to 80°C in water for 30 min were measured, all as described in Materials and Methods. The various parameters measured are shown as follows: phase-bright spores, white bars (100 individual spores examined); spores retaining DPA, gray bars (100 individual spores examined); spore viability, white stippled bars (determined in triplicate); and spore viability after heat treatment, black stippled bars (determined in duplicate for panel A and in triplicate for panel B). Values for spores that retained DPA and were phase bright are expressed relative to the average values in untreated spores; values for viability with and without a heat treatment are expressed relative to the viability of spores that were HP treated for 0 min and not then heat treated. In panel B, the values for viable spores at time zero are the averages of values for spores with and without heat treatment. Average standard deviations for viability values without heat treatment were ±38% in panel A and ±43% in panel B, and those for viability values with heat treatment were ±25% in panel A and ±43% in panel B.

    Article Snippet: C. difficile strain ATCC 43601 (ribotype 031) was used in all experiments, and spores of C. difficile strain ATCC 43593 were also used in a few experiments.

    Techniques:

    Effect of oral administration of Ramizol on survival rate in the hamster C. difficile (strain BAA-1805, 027 ribotype) -induced colitis. The animals were orally inoculated with C. difficile (BAA- 1805) at a lethal LD90-100 inoculum size (1.35 × 10 5 spores per animal) in 0.5 ml PBS. Test substance was orally administered twice daily for 5 days starting 16 h after infection. Mortality was monitored for 28 days for all groups. The Fisher's exact test was used to determine the statistical significance compared with the untreated vehicle group at * P

    Journal: The Journal of Antibiotics

    Article Title: Preclinical development of Ramizol, an antibiotic belonging to a new class, for the treatment of Clostridium difficile colitis

    doi: 10.1038/ja.2016.45

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of oral administration of Ramizol on survival rate in the hamster C. difficile (strain BAA-1805, 027 ribotype) -induced colitis. The animals were orally inoculated with C. difficile (BAA- 1805) at a lethal LD90-100 inoculum size (1.35 × 10 5 spores per animal) in 0.5 ml PBS. Test substance was orally administered twice daily for 5 days starting 16 h after infection. Mortality was monitored for 28 days for all groups. The Fisher's exact test was used to determine the statistical significance compared with the untreated vehicle group at * P

    Article Snippet: C. difficile colitis hamster infection model The hamster infection model was similar to that published previously but performed with C. difficile strain BAA-1805, from the ATCC.

    Techniques: Infection