brain heart infusion bhi Search Results


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  • 99
    Thermo Fisher brain heart infusion bhi broth
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Broth, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1046 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore bhi broth
    Susceptibility of L. monocytogenes <t>F2365</t> to hydrogen peroxide in milk (rectangles) and <t>BHI</t> growth medium (diamonds) by disk diffusion assays. The sensitivity of L. monocytogenes F2365 to hydrogen peroxide was expressed as the diameter (mm) of the inhibition
    Bhi Broth, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 371 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Difco brain heart infusion bhi broth
    Western blot analysis of the urea-activated fraction using antibodies against RgpB. All lanes contained 20 μg of acetone (37.5%)-precipitated proteins from the supernatant fractions of P. <t>gingivalis</t> FLL92 cultures grown in <t>BHI</t> medium at exponential growth phases. The membrane was reacted with antiserum raised in rabbits against RgpB. Lanes: 1, FLL92 exponential-growth-phase extracellular proteins; 2, FLL92 exponential-growth-phase extracellular proteins treated with urea (see the text).
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Broth, supplied by Difco, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1650 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Becton Dickinson brain heart infusion bhi broth
    Clinical scoring of disease in mice after aerosol exposure to LVS grown in different culture media. Mice were scored daily beginning the day of exposure and continuing through day 10 after infection for changes in behavior and appearance. Mice were exposed to aerosols containing LVS grown in (A) MHb, (B) <t>CCDM,</t> and (C) <t>BHI</t> at a range of doses ( n = 10 per dose). Graphs show average daily score for each group; error bars show standard deviation.
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Broth, supplied by Becton Dickinson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1043 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Difco brain heart infusion bhi
    Increased sensitivity of Δ spoIIE Δ uvrAB strains to photochemical inactivation allows bacteria to retain metabolic activity and secrete critical antigens. (A) Δ spoIIE Δ uvrAB double mutants are exquisitely sensitive to PCT. S-59 was added to mid-log-phase cultures at the indicated concentrations for 1 h at 37°C, and then the cultures were illuminated with 6.5 J/cm 2 UVA. The cultures were serially diluted and plated on <t>BHI</t> agar for enumeration of CFU. The symbols represent the mean titers from three independent experiments, and the error bars represent the standard deviations. (B) Photochemically killed Δ spoIIE Δ uvrAB strains retain a high degree of metabolic activity. Sterne or Sterne 4 was grown in the presence of 1,000 nM or 50 nM S-59, respectively, for 1 h. The cultures were inactivated by exposure to 6.5 J/cm 2 UVA or were not irradiated and then were serially diluted to 5 × 10 4 CFU per well and assayed for metabolic activity using an MTS assay at 37°C. (C) KBMA B. <t>anthracis</t> secretes critical antigens. Live or photochemically inactivated bacteria were transferred into R medium supplemented with 0.8% sodium bicarbonate to induce anthrax toxin production and incubated for 4.5 h at 37°C. The cell culture supernatants were precipitated with trichloroacetic acid, and culture supernatant equivalents were separated by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotted with anti-PA (αPA), anti-EF, or anti-LF monoclonal antibody. (D) Frozen vegetative cells (1 × 10 9 CFU) were incubated in R medium with 0.8% sodium bicarbonate for 2 h at 37°C. The culture filtrate was added directly to J774A.1 cell cultures for 3.5 h, at which time a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay was used to determine the degree of metabolic activity of the cells. The data presented in panels B, C, and D are from representative experiments that were repeated at least twice.
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi, supplied by Difco, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 731 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Difco brain heart infusion bhi medium
    Beta-lactam protection in a polymicrobial biofilm. Stationary biofilms of H. influenzae Rd and/or M. <t>catarrhalis</t> were established on chamber slides for 24 h and treated with 100 µg/ml ampicillin or ampicillin with 25 µg/ml clavulanate for an additional 24 h. Biofilms were resuspended in sterile PBS, serially diluted, and plated on sBHI medium plus clarithromycin and <t>BHI</t> medium plates for enumeration of viable H. influenzae Rd and M. catarrhalis bacteria, respectively. Data are represented as means ± SEM. *, P
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Medium, supplied by Difco, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 431 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Becton Dickinson brain heart infusion bhi
    Boxplots of the distribution of growth parameters for strains representing each genetic lineage of L. <t>monocytogenes</t> at 37°C. ( A ) Growth rate in <t>BHI,</t> ( B ) growth rate in BHI + 6% NaCl, and ( C ) lag phase duration in BHI + 6%
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi, supplied by Becton Dickinson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 596 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Becton Dickinson brain heart infusion bhi medium
    Supplemental sugar alters S. <t>mutans</t> growth. A growth curve of S. mutans in <t>BHI</t> with added 1% glucose (Medium+Glucose) or 1% sucrose (Medium+Sucrose) shows that S. mutans ' growth rate changes based on the specific sugar present in the growth medium. Error
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Medium, supplied by Becton Dickinson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 362 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Thermo Fisher brain heart infusion bhi agar
    Supplemental sugar alters S. <t>mutans</t> growth. A growth curve of S. mutans in <t>BHI</t> with added 1% glucose (Medium+Glucose) or 1% sucrose (Medium+Sucrose) shows that S. mutans ' growth rate changes based on the specific sugar present in the growth medium. Error
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Agar, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 445 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Thermo Fisher brain heart infusion bhi
    Supplemental sugar alters S. <t>mutans</t> growth. A growth curve of S. mutans in <t>BHI</t> with added 1% glucose (Medium+Glucose) or 1% sucrose (Medium+Sucrose) shows that S. mutans ' growth rate changes based on the specific sugar present in the growth medium. Error
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 318 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore bhi agar
    Supplemental sugar alters S. <t>mutans</t> growth. A growth curve of S. mutans in <t>BHI</t> with added 1% glucose (Medium+Glucose) or 1% sucrose (Medium+Sucrose) shows that S. mutans ' growth rate changes based on the specific sugar present in the growth medium. Error
    Bhi Agar, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 344 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Merck KGaA brain heart infusion bhi broth
    Supplemental sugar alters S. <t>mutans</t> growth. A growth curve of S. mutans in <t>BHI</t> with added 1% glucose (Medium+Glucose) or 1% sucrose (Medium+Sucrose) shows that S. mutans ' growth rate changes based on the specific sugar present in the growth medium. Error
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Broth, supplied by Merck KGaA, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 127 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    HiMedia Laboratories brain heart infusion bhi broth
    Supplemental sugar alters S. <t>mutans</t> growth. A growth curve of S. mutans in <t>BHI</t> with added 1% glucose (Medium+Glucose) or 1% sucrose (Medium+Sucrose) shows that S. mutans ' growth rate changes based on the specific sugar present in the growth medium. Error
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Broth, supplied by HiMedia Laboratories, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 104 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Thermo Fisher brain heart infusion broth
    Supplemental sugar alters S. <t>mutans</t> growth. A growth curve of S. mutans in <t>BHI</t> with added 1% glucose (Medium+Glucose) or 1% sucrose (Medium+Sucrose) shows that S. mutans ' growth rate changes based on the specific sugar present in the growth medium. Error
    Brain Heart Infusion Broth, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 2445 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Susceptibility of L. monocytogenes F2365 to hydrogen peroxide in milk (rectangles) and BHI growth medium (diamonds) by disk diffusion assays. The sensitivity of L. monocytogenes F2365 to hydrogen peroxide was expressed as the diameter (mm) of the inhibition

    Journal:

    Article Title: Gene Expression Profiling of Listeria monocytogenes Strain F2365 during Growth in Ultrahigh-Temperature-Processed Skim Milk ▿ Strain F2365 during Growth in Ultrahigh-Temperature-Processed Skim Milk ▿ †

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.00356-08

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Susceptibility of L. monocytogenes F2365 to hydrogen peroxide in milk (rectangles) and BHI growth medium (diamonds) by disk diffusion assays. The sensitivity of L. monocytogenes F2365 to hydrogen peroxide was expressed as the diameter (mm) of the inhibition

    Article Snippet: Strain F2365 was streaked onto a brain heart infusion (BHI) (catalog no. 53286; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) agar plate from a glycerol stock culture (stored at −80°C) followed by incubation at 37°C overnight.

    Techniques: Diffusion-based Assay, Inhibition

    Western blot analysis of the urea-activated fraction using antibodies against RgpB. All lanes contained 20 μg of acetone (37.5%)-precipitated proteins from the supernatant fractions of P. gingivalis FLL92 cultures grown in BHI medium at exponential growth phases. The membrane was reacted with antiserum raised in rabbits against RgpB. Lanes: 1, FLL92 exponential-growth-phase extracellular proteins; 2, FLL92 exponential-growth-phase extracellular proteins treated with urea (see the text).

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Gingipain RgpB Is Excreted as a Proenzyme in the vimA-Defective Mutant Porphyromonas gingivalis FLL92

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.71.7.3740-3747.2003

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Western blot analysis of the urea-activated fraction using antibodies against RgpB. All lanes contained 20 μg of acetone (37.5%)-precipitated proteins from the supernatant fractions of P. gingivalis FLL92 cultures grown in BHI medium at exponential growth phases. The membrane was reacted with antiserum raised in rabbits against RgpB. Lanes: 1, FLL92 exponential-growth-phase extracellular proteins; 2, FLL92 exponential-growth-phase extracellular proteins treated with urea (see the text).

    Article Snippet: P. gingivalis W83 and P. gingivalis FLL92 ( vimA :: ermF- ermAM ) were grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.) supplemented with hemin (5 μg/ml), vitamin K (0.5 μg/ml), and cysteine (1%).

    Techniques: Western Blot

    Protease activation in the extracellular protein fraction from P. gingivalis FLL92. P. gingivalis was grown to late log phase (OD 660 of 0.8) in 1 liter of BHI broth supplemented with hemin and vitamin K. Acetone (37.5%)-precipitated proteins were mixed with 8 M urea and incubated at 4°C for 1 h. The urea was slowly removed from the mixture by centrifugation (10,000 × g ). The results shown are representative of four independent experiments.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Gingipain RgpB Is Excreted as a Proenzyme in the vimA-Defective Mutant Porphyromonas gingivalis FLL92

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.71.7.3740-3747.2003

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Protease activation in the extracellular protein fraction from P. gingivalis FLL92. P. gingivalis was grown to late log phase (OD 660 of 0.8) in 1 liter of BHI broth supplemented with hemin and vitamin K. Acetone (37.5%)-precipitated proteins were mixed with 8 M urea and incubated at 4°C for 1 h. The urea was slowly removed from the mixture by centrifugation (10,000 × g ). The results shown are representative of four independent experiments.

    Article Snippet: P. gingivalis W83 and P. gingivalis FLL92 ( vimA :: ermF- ermAM ) were grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.) supplemented with hemin (5 μg/ml), vitamin K (0.5 μg/ml), and cysteine (1%).

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Incubation, Centrifugation

    Detection of proteolytic activity in casein-conjugated polyacrylamide gel. All lanes contained 20 μg of acetone (37.5%)-precipitated proteins from the supernatant fractions of cultures in BHI medium at exponential growth phases. Samples were solubilized at room temperature for 10 min in a Tris-glycine SDS sample buffer (Invitrogen) prior to electrophoresis. Lanes: 1, W83; 2, FLL92. The arrow indicates a 48-kDa proteolytic band present in the FLL92 exponential-growth-phase extracellular proteins.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Gingipain RgpB Is Excreted as a Proenzyme in the vimA-Defective Mutant Porphyromonas gingivalis FLL92

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.71.7.3740-3747.2003

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Detection of proteolytic activity in casein-conjugated polyacrylamide gel. All lanes contained 20 μg of acetone (37.5%)-precipitated proteins from the supernatant fractions of cultures in BHI medium at exponential growth phases. Samples were solubilized at room temperature for 10 min in a Tris-glycine SDS sample buffer (Invitrogen) prior to electrophoresis. Lanes: 1, W83; 2, FLL92. The arrow indicates a 48-kDa proteolytic band present in the FLL92 exponential-growth-phase extracellular proteins.

    Article Snippet: P. gingivalis W83 and P. gingivalis FLL92 ( vimA :: ermF- ermAM ) were grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.) supplemented with hemin (5 μg/ml), vitamin K (0.5 μg/ml), and cysteine (1%).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Electrophoresis

    SDS-PAGE of acetone-precipitated P. gingivalis extracellular proteins. Proteins in the supernatant fractions of cultures at different growth phases in BHI medium were precipitated with 37.5% (A) or 60% (B) acetone. The fractions were solubilized at 72°C in reducing buffer. NuPAGE bis-Tris gels (4 to 12%) were stained with Simply Blue Safe stain. Lanes: 1, W83 at exponential phase; 2, FLL92 at exponential phase; 3, W83 at stationary phase; and 4, FLL92 at stationary phase. The molecular mass markers (in kilodaltons) are indicated on the left. Each lane contains 20 μg of protein. It is noteworthy that the 64-kDa band was observed in abundance when 37.5% acetone instead of 60% acetone was used for the precipitation.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Gingipain RgpB Is Excreted as a Proenzyme in the vimA-Defective Mutant Porphyromonas gingivalis FLL92

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.71.7.3740-3747.2003

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SDS-PAGE of acetone-precipitated P. gingivalis extracellular proteins. Proteins in the supernatant fractions of cultures at different growth phases in BHI medium were precipitated with 37.5% (A) or 60% (B) acetone. The fractions were solubilized at 72°C in reducing buffer. NuPAGE bis-Tris gels (4 to 12%) were stained with Simply Blue Safe stain. Lanes: 1, W83 at exponential phase; 2, FLL92 at exponential phase; 3, W83 at stationary phase; and 4, FLL92 at stationary phase. The molecular mass markers (in kilodaltons) are indicated on the left. Each lane contains 20 μg of protein. It is noteworthy that the 64-kDa band was observed in abundance when 37.5% acetone instead of 60% acetone was used for the precipitation.

    Article Snippet: P. gingivalis W83 and P. gingivalis FLL92 ( vimA :: ermF- ermAM ) were grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.) supplemented with hemin (5 μg/ml), vitamin K (0.5 μg/ml), and cysteine (1%).

    Techniques: SDS Page, Staining

    Western immunoblot analysis of the extracellular proteins from P. gingivalis by using specific anti-Rgp and anti-Kgp antibodies as probes. All lanes contained 20 μg of acetone (37.5%)-precipitated proteins from the supernatant fractions of cultures in BHI medium at different growth phases. The membrane was reacted with antiserum raised in rabbits or chickens against the Arg-X- and Lys-X-specific protease from P. gingivalis . The secondary antibody was goat anti-rabbit or anti-chicken immunoglobulin G-horseradish peroxidase conjugate.(Zymed Laboratories Inc.). Reactions were done with rabbit anti-RgpB (A), rabbit anti-RgpA (B), and chicken anti-Kgp (C). Lanes: 1, W83 at exponential phase; 2, FLL92 at exponential phase; 3, W83 at stationary phase; 4, FLL92 at stationary phase. It is noteworthy that the 64-kDa band was identified as the RgpB proenzyme by mass spectrometry (see the text).

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Gingipain RgpB Is Excreted as a Proenzyme in the vimA-Defective Mutant Porphyromonas gingivalis FLL92

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.71.7.3740-3747.2003

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Western immunoblot analysis of the extracellular proteins from P. gingivalis by using specific anti-Rgp and anti-Kgp antibodies as probes. All lanes contained 20 μg of acetone (37.5%)-precipitated proteins from the supernatant fractions of cultures in BHI medium at different growth phases. The membrane was reacted with antiserum raised in rabbits or chickens against the Arg-X- and Lys-X-specific protease from P. gingivalis . The secondary antibody was goat anti-rabbit or anti-chicken immunoglobulin G-horseradish peroxidase conjugate.(Zymed Laboratories Inc.). Reactions were done with rabbit anti-RgpB (A), rabbit anti-RgpA (B), and chicken anti-Kgp (C). Lanes: 1, W83 at exponential phase; 2, FLL92 at exponential phase; 3, W83 at stationary phase; 4, FLL92 at stationary phase. It is noteworthy that the 64-kDa band was identified as the RgpB proenzyme by mass spectrometry (see the text).

    Article Snippet: P. gingivalis W83 and P. gingivalis FLL92 ( vimA :: ermF- ermAM ) were grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.) supplemented with hemin (5 μg/ml), vitamin K (0.5 μg/ml), and cysteine (1%).

    Techniques: Western Blot, Mass Spectrometry

    Clinical scoring of disease in mice after aerosol exposure to LVS grown in different culture media. Mice were scored daily beginning the day of exposure and continuing through day 10 after infection for changes in behavior and appearance. Mice were exposed to aerosols containing LVS grown in (A) MHb, (B) CCDM, and (C) BHI at a range of doses ( n = 10 per dose). Graphs show average daily score for each group; error bars show standard deviation.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: Growth conditions and environmental factors impact aerosolization but not virulence of Francisella tularensis infection in mice

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2012.00126

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Clinical scoring of disease in mice after aerosol exposure to LVS grown in different culture media. Mice were scored daily beginning the day of exposure and continuing through day 10 after infection for changes in behavior and appearance. Mice were exposed to aerosols containing LVS grown in (A) MHb, (B) CCDM, and (C) BHI at a range of doses ( n = 10 per dose). Graphs show average daily score for each group; error bars show standard deviation.

    Article Snippet: Broth media Three different broth media were evaluated in these studies: (1) modified Mueller–Hinton medium (MHb) supplemented with 1.23 mM calcium chloride dihydrate, 1.03 mM magnesium chloride hexahydrate, 0.1% (wt/vol) glucose, 0.025% (wt/vol) ferric pyrophosphate, and 2% (vol/vol) IsoVitaleX (Becton-Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ); (2) Chamberlain's chemically defined medium (CCDM) (Chamberlain, ); or (3) brain heart infusion (BHI) broth (Becton-Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Infection, Standard Deviation

    Weight loss in mice after aerosol exposure to LVS grown in different culture media. Mice were weighed daily beginning the day of exposure and continuing through day 10 after infection. Mice were exposed to aerosols containing LVS grown in (A,D) MHb, (B) CCDM, and (C) BHI at a range of doses ( n = 10 per dose). Graphs (A–C) show average daily weight lost from baseline (day 0) for each group; error bars show standard deviation; graph (D) shows individual weights for mice in second highest dose group (3982 cfu) exposed to LVS grown in MHb.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: Growth conditions and environmental factors impact aerosolization but not virulence of Francisella tularensis infection in mice

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2012.00126

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Weight loss in mice after aerosol exposure to LVS grown in different culture media. Mice were weighed daily beginning the day of exposure and continuing through day 10 after infection. Mice were exposed to aerosols containing LVS grown in (A,D) MHb, (B) CCDM, and (C) BHI at a range of doses ( n = 10 per dose). Graphs (A–C) show average daily weight lost from baseline (day 0) for each group; error bars show standard deviation; graph (D) shows individual weights for mice in second highest dose group (3982 cfu) exposed to LVS grown in MHb.

    Article Snippet: Broth media Three different broth media were evaluated in these studies: (1) modified Mueller–Hinton medium (MHb) supplemented with 1.23 mM calcium chloride dihydrate, 1.03 mM magnesium chloride hexahydrate, 0.1% (wt/vol) glucose, 0.025% (wt/vol) ferric pyrophosphate, and 2% (vol/vol) IsoVitaleX (Becton-Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ); (2) Chamberlain's chemically defined medium (CCDM) (Chamberlain, ); or (3) brain heart infusion (BHI) broth (Becton-Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Infection, Standard Deviation

    Bacterial load in tissues of mice after aerosol exposure to LVS grown in different culture media. Mice became moribund after LVS infection were euthanized and necropsied. The liver, lung, and spleen were removed, weighed, and then analyzed to determine the bacterial titer in each tissue. Graphs in (A,B) show weight for lungs (A) and spleens (B) at time of necropsy from individual mice infected with LVS grown in MHb, CCDM, or BHI as well as the mean for each group and standard deviation. Weights of tissues from naive, uninfected mice are also shown. Graph in (C) shows a box and whiskers plot for the bacterial titer from the lung, liver, and spleen of mice that succumbed to infection with LVS grown in MHb (white boxes), CCDM (light gray boxes), or BHI (dark gray boxes).

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: Growth conditions and environmental factors impact aerosolization but not virulence of Francisella tularensis infection in mice

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2012.00126

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Bacterial load in tissues of mice after aerosol exposure to LVS grown in different culture media. Mice became moribund after LVS infection were euthanized and necropsied. The liver, lung, and spleen were removed, weighed, and then analyzed to determine the bacterial titer in each tissue. Graphs in (A,B) show weight for lungs (A) and spleens (B) at time of necropsy from individual mice infected with LVS grown in MHb, CCDM, or BHI as well as the mean for each group and standard deviation. Weights of tissues from naive, uninfected mice are also shown. Graph in (C) shows a box and whiskers plot for the bacterial titer from the lung, liver, and spleen of mice that succumbed to infection with LVS grown in MHb (white boxes), CCDM (light gray boxes), or BHI (dark gray boxes).

    Article Snippet: Broth media Three different broth media were evaluated in these studies: (1) modified Mueller–Hinton medium (MHb) supplemented with 1.23 mM calcium chloride dihydrate, 1.03 mM magnesium chloride hexahydrate, 0.1% (wt/vol) glucose, 0.025% (wt/vol) ferric pyrophosphate, and 2% (vol/vol) IsoVitaleX (Becton-Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ); (2) Chamberlain's chemically defined medium (CCDM) (Chamberlain, ); or (3) brain heart infusion (BHI) broth (Becton-Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Infection, Standard Deviation

    Growth of LVS in different liquid broth media. LVS was cultured for 2 days on CHAH prior to being cultured overnight in (A) MHb, (B) CCDM, and (C) BHI liquid culture media. Graphs show the change in optical density at 600 nm at different times after the culture was started (circles). Boltzmann sigmoidal semi-logistic regression was used to fit the line shown on each graph.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: Growth conditions and environmental factors impact aerosolization but not virulence of Francisella tularensis infection in mice

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2012.00126

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Growth of LVS in different liquid broth media. LVS was cultured for 2 days on CHAH prior to being cultured overnight in (A) MHb, (B) CCDM, and (C) BHI liquid culture media. Graphs show the change in optical density at 600 nm at different times after the culture was started (circles). Boltzmann sigmoidal semi-logistic regression was used to fit the line shown on each graph.

    Article Snippet: Broth media Three different broth media were evaluated in these studies: (1) modified Mueller–Hinton medium (MHb) supplemented with 1.23 mM calcium chloride dihydrate, 1.03 mM magnesium chloride hexahydrate, 0.1% (wt/vol) glucose, 0.025% (wt/vol) ferric pyrophosphate, and 2% (vol/vol) IsoVitaleX (Becton-Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ); (2) Chamberlain's chemically defined medium (CCDM) (Chamberlain, ); or (3) brain heart infusion (BHI) broth (Becton-Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ).

    Techniques: Cell Culture

    Impact of growth media on aerosolization of F. tularensis . Graphs show spray factor for F. tularensis after growth in different liquid culture media. (A) Shows the spray factor for individual aerosol exposures of LVS grown in MHb (circles), CCDM (squares), and BHI (triangles) along with the mean and standard deviation for each growth condition. Lines with (*) are statistically significant based on two-tailed Student's t -test. (B) Spray factors for individual aerosol exposures of LVS or SCHU S4 grown in CCDM or BHI along with mean and standard deviation for each growth condition.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: Growth conditions and environmental factors impact aerosolization but not virulence of Francisella tularensis infection in mice

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2012.00126

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Impact of growth media on aerosolization of F. tularensis . Graphs show spray factor for F. tularensis after growth in different liquid culture media. (A) Shows the spray factor for individual aerosol exposures of LVS grown in MHb (circles), CCDM (squares), and BHI (triangles) along with the mean and standard deviation for each growth condition. Lines with (*) are statistically significant based on two-tailed Student's t -test. (B) Spray factors for individual aerosol exposures of LVS or SCHU S4 grown in CCDM or BHI along with mean and standard deviation for each growth condition.

    Article Snippet: Broth media Three different broth media were evaluated in these studies: (1) modified Mueller–Hinton medium (MHb) supplemented with 1.23 mM calcium chloride dihydrate, 1.03 mM magnesium chloride hexahydrate, 0.1% (wt/vol) glucose, 0.025% (wt/vol) ferric pyrophosphate, and 2% (vol/vol) IsoVitaleX (Becton-Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ); (2) Chamberlain's chemically defined medium (CCDM) (Chamberlain, ); or (3) brain heart infusion (BHI) broth (Becton-Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ).

    Techniques: Standard Deviation, Two Tailed Test

    Survival of mice after aerosol exposure to LVS grown in different culture media. Mice were exposed to aerosols containing LVS grown in (A) MHb, (B) CCDM, and (C) BHI at a range of doses sufficient for determining the median lethal dose ( n = 10 mice per dose). Graphs are Kaplan–Meier plots with doses shown in lower left.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: Growth conditions and environmental factors impact aerosolization but not virulence of Francisella tularensis infection in mice

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2012.00126

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Survival of mice after aerosol exposure to LVS grown in different culture media. Mice were exposed to aerosols containing LVS grown in (A) MHb, (B) CCDM, and (C) BHI at a range of doses sufficient for determining the median lethal dose ( n = 10 mice per dose). Graphs are Kaplan–Meier plots with doses shown in lower left.

    Article Snippet: Broth media Three different broth media were evaluated in these studies: (1) modified Mueller–Hinton medium (MHb) supplemented with 1.23 mM calcium chloride dihydrate, 1.03 mM magnesium chloride hexahydrate, 0.1% (wt/vol) glucose, 0.025% (wt/vol) ferric pyrophosphate, and 2% (vol/vol) IsoVitaleX (Becton-Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ); (2) Chamberlain's chemically defined medium (CCDM) (Chamberlain, ); or (3) brain heart infusion (BHI) broth (Becton-Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Growth-dependent bioluminescence in phage-infected B. anthracis cells (A) Overnight Sterne cultures were diluted (1:100) with BHI broth and incubated at 35°C with continuous shaking (250 rpm) and assessed at various times for A 600 . At the times indicated (denoted by the arrows), samples were harvested and mixed with 10 9 PFU mL −1 (final concentration) phage and bioluminescence was determined after 1 h (B) . Numbers indicate the mean (n=3) ± SD. *p

    Journal: Journal of applied microbiology

    Article Title: Detection of Bacillus anthracis Spores from Environmental Water Using Bioluminescent Reporter Phage

    doi: 10.1111/jam.13569

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Growth-dependent bioluminescence in phage-infected B. anthracis cells (A) Overnight Sterne cultures were diluted (1:100) with BHI broth and incubated at 35°C with continuous shaking (250 rpm) and assessed at various times for A 600 . At the times indicated (denoted by the arrows), samples were harvested and mixed with 10 9 PFU mL −1 (final concentration) phage and bioluminescence was determined after 1 h (B) . Numbers indicate the mean (n=3) ± SD. *p

    Article Snippet: All strains ( B. anthracis and B. cereus ) were grown in BD™ Brain Heart Infusion broth (BHI), soft agar (broth and 0.7% Bacto agar) or broth plus 1.5% agar.

    Techniques: Infection, Incubation, Concentration Assay

    Increased sensitivity of Δ spoIIE Δ uvrAB strains to photochemical inactivation allows bacteria to retain metabolic activity and secrete critical antigens. (A) Δ spoIIE Δ uvrAB double mutants are exquisitely sensitive to PCT. S-59 was added to mid-log-phase cultures at the indicated concentrations for 1 h at 37°C, and then the cultures were illuminated with 6.5 J/cm 2 UVA. The cultures were serially diluted and plated on BHI agar for enumeration of CFU. The symbols represent the mean titers from three independent experiments, and the error bars represent the standard deviations. (B) Photochemically killed Δ spoIIE Δ uvrAB strains retain a high degree of metabolic activity. Sterne or Sterne 4 was grown in the presence of 1,000 nM or 50 nM S-59, respectively, for 1 h. The cultures were inactivated by exposure to 6.5 J/cm 2 UVA or were not irradiated and then were serially diluted to 5 × 10 4 CFU per well and assayed for metabolic activity using an MTS assay at 37°C. (C) KBMA B. anthracis secretes critical antigens. Live or photochemically inactivated bacteria were transferred into R medium supplemented with 0.8% sodium bicarbonate to induce anthrax toxin production and incubated for 4.5 h at 37°C. The cell culture supernatants were precipitated with trichloroacetic acid, and culture supernatant equivalents were separated by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotted with anti-PA (αPA), anti-EF, or anti-LF monoclonal antibody. (D) Frozen vegetative cells (1 × 10 9 CFU) were incubated in R medium with 0.8% sodium bicarbonate for 2 h at 37°C. The culture filtrate was added directly to J774A.1 cell cultures for 3.5 h, at which time a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay was used to determine the degree of metabolic activity of the cells. The data presented in panels B, C, and D are from representative experiments that were repeated at least twice.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Killed but Metabolically Active Bacillus anthracis Vaccines Induce Broad and Protective Immunity against Anthrax ▿

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.00530-08

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Increased sensitivity of Δ spoIIE Δ uvrAB strains to photochemical inactivation allows bacteria to retain metabolic activity and secrete critical antigens. (A) Δ spoIIE Δ uvrAB double mutants are exquisitely sensitive to PCT. S-59 was added to mid-log-phase cultures at the indicated concentrations for 1 h at 37°C, and then the cultures were illuminated with 6.5 J/cm 2 UVA. The cultures were serially diluted and plated on BHI agar for enumeration of CFU. The symbols represent the mean titers from three independent experiments, and the error bars represent the standard deviations. (B) Photochemically killed Δ spoIIE Δ uvrAB strains retain a high degree of metabolic activity. Sterne or Sterne 4 was grown in the presence of 1,000 nM or 50 nM S-59, respectively, for 1 h. The cultures were inactivated by exposure to 6.5 J/cm 2 UVA or were not irradiated and then were serially diluted to 5 × 10 4 CFU per well and assayed for metabolic activity using an MTS assay at 37°C. (C) KBMA B. anthracis secretes critical antigens. Live or photochemically inactivated bacteria were transferred into R medium supplemented with 0.8% sodium bicarbonate to induce anthrax toxin production and incubated for 4.5 h at 37°C. The cell culture supernatants were precipitated with trichloroacetic acid, and culture supernatant equivalents were separated by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotted with anti-PA (αPA), anti-EF, or anti-LF monoclonal antibody. (D) Frozen vegetative cells (1 × 10 9 CFU) were incubated in R medium with 0.8% sodium bicarbonate for 2 h at 37°C. The culture filtrate was added directly to J774A.1 cell cultures for 3.5 h, at which time a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay was used to determine the degree of metabolic activity of the cells. The data presented in panels B, C, and D are from representative experiments that were repeated at least twice.

    Article Snippet: All B. anthracis vegetative cells were grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) (Difco) to late log phase, harvested by centrifugation at 3,000 × g , and washed three times in cryopreservation solution (Hanks balanced salt solution with calcium and magnesium but without phenol red [HBSS]; HyClone) supplemented with 1% sucrose and either directly injected, or frozen in medium containing 8% dimethyl sulfoxide at −80°C.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Irradiation, MTS Assay, Incubation, Cell Culture, SDS Page

    spoIIE is required for sporulation of B. anthracis. (A) Δ spoIIE mutants do not form phase-bright endospores. Cultures of B. anthracis were grown for 16 h in phage assay medium to induce sporulation (top row) or in BHI (bottom row) and were then fixed with 10% formalin and visualized by phase-contrast microscopy. White arrows indicate phase-bright spores; black arrows indicate phase-dense spores. (B) Δ spoIIE mutants are heat sensitive. B. anthracis strains were grown in phage assay medium for 16 h, serially diluted and plated for CFU (Pre), and then heated to 68°C for 30 min and plated (Post 68°C). For all Δ spoIIE strains (Δ spoIIE , Sterne 2 , and Sterne 4 ), 10 ml of culture was plated for CFU, and none were detected (ND). (C) Spores of B. anthracis are resistant to photochemical inactivation. B. anthracis strains were grown in phage assay medium, serially diluted and plated for CFU (Pre), and then subjected to photochemical inactivation with 1 μM S-59 or 100 μM S-59 and 6.5 J/cm 2 UVA light. Each plating was performed in triplicate, and the error bars represent the standard deviation within a representative experiment.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Killed but Metabolically Active Bacillus anthracis Vaccines Induce Broad and Protective Immunity against Anthrax ▿

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.00530-08

    Figure Lengend Snippet: spoIIE is required for sporulation of B. anthracis. (A) Δ spoIIE mutants do not form phase-bright endospores. Cultures of B. anthracis were grown for 16 h in phage assay medium to induce sporulation (top row) or in BHI (bottom row) and were then fixed with 10% formalin and visualized by phase-contrast microscopy. White arrows indicate phase-bright spores; black arrows indicate phase-dense spores. (B) Δ spoIIE mutants are heat sensitive. B. anthracis strains were grown in phage assay medium for 16 h, serially diluted and plated for CFU (Pre), and then heated to 68°C for 30 min and plated (Post 68°C). For all Δ spoIIE strains (Δ spoIIE , Sterne 2 , and Sterne 4 ), 10 ml of culture was plated for CFU, and none were detected (ND). (C) Spores of B. anthracis are resistant to photochemical inactivation. B. anthracis strains were grown in phage assay medium, serially diluted and plated for CFU (Pre), and then subjected to photochemical inactivation with 1 μM S-59 or 100 μM S-59 and 6.5 J/cm 2 UVA light. Each plating was performed in triplicate, and the error bars represent the standard deviation within a representative experiment.

    Article Snippet: All B. anthracis vegetative cells were grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) (Difco) to late log phase, harvested by centrifugation at 3,000 × g , and washed three times in cryopreservation solution (Hanks balanced salt solution with calcium and magnesium but without phenol red [HBSS]; HyClone) supplemented with 1% sucrose and either directly injected, or frozen in medium containing 8% dimethyl sulfoxide at −80°C.

    Techniques: Microscopy, Standard Deviation

    RhuR is required by B. avium for efficient utilization of hemoglobin as source of nutrient Fe. Fe-stressed cultures of 4169rif, 4169rif bhuR :: kan , and 4169rifΔ rhuR were used to inoculate 2 ml of BHI broth which was supplemented with 400 μM EDDHA and 300 μM FeSO 4 (High Fe) or with turkey hemoglobin at the indicated concentrations. After 24 h of incubation at 37°C, the OD 600 of the cultures was measured. Results represent the average cell densities of three cultures. The heme acquisition mutant 4169rif bhuR :: kan ). Error bars indicate ±1 standard deviation. Asterisks indicate a statistically significant difference from 4169rif (Student's t test).

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: RhuR, an Extracytoplasmic Function Sigma Factor Activator, Is Essential for Heme-Dependent Expression of the Outer Membrane Heme and Hemoprotein Receptor of Bordetella avium

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.72.2.896-907.2004

    Figure Lengend Snippet: RhuR is required by B. avium for efficient utilization of hemoglobin as source of nutrient Fe. Fe-stressed cultures of 4169rif, 4169rif bhuR :: kan , and 4169rifΔ rhuR were used to inoculate 2 ml of BHI broth which was supplemented with 400 μM EDDHA and 300 μM FeSO 4 (High Fe) or with turkey hemoglobin at the indicated concentrations. After 24 h of incubation at 37°C, the OD 600 of the cultures was measured. Results represent the average cell densities of three cultures. The heme acquisition mutant 4169rif bhuR :: kan ). Error bars indicate ±1 standard deviation. Asterisks indicate a statistically significant difference from 4169rif (Student's t test).

    Article Snippet: B. avium strains were maintained on brain heart infusion (BHI) agar or broth (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.).

    Techniques: Incubation, Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    RhuR is a positive regulator of the BhuR-dependent heme induction cascade of B. avium . 4169rif(pDJM41, pRK415), 4169rifΔ rhuR (pDJM41, pRK415), 4169rifΔ rhuR (pDJM41, pAEK26), and 4169rifΔ rhuR (pDJM41, pAEK26.3) were cultured in BHI broth supplemented with 100 μM EDDHA to deplete the internal Fe stores. Fe-stressed cultures were used to inoculate high-Fe (BHI plus 150 μM FeSO 4 ). Results shown represent the average of three experiments. Error bars indicate ±1 standard deviation. An asterisk indicates a significant difference ( P

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: RhuR, an Extracytoplasmic Function Sigma Factor Activator, Is Essential for Heme-Dependent Expression of the Outer Membrane Heme and Hemoprotein Receptor of Bordetella avium

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.72.2.896-907.2004

    Figure Lengend Snippet: RhuR is a positive regulator of the BhuR-dependent heme induction cascade of B. avium . 4169rif(pDJM41, pRK415), 4169rifΔ rhuR (pDJM41, pRK415), 4169rifΔ rhuR (pDJM41, pAEK26), and 4169rifΔ rhuR (pDJM41, pAEK26.3) were cultured in BHI broth supplemented with 100 μM EDDHA to deplete the internal Fe stores. Fe-stressed cultures were used to inoculate high-Fe (BHI plus 150 μM FeSO 4 ). Results shown represent the average of three experiments. Error bars indicate ±1 standard deviation. An asterisk indicates a significant difference ( P

    Article Snippet: B. avium strains were maintained on brain heart infusion (BHI) agar or broth (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.).

    Techniques: Cell Culture, Standard Deviation

    2-DE Coomassie-stained gels of secreted proteins isolated from isogenic L. monocytogenes prfA mutants. Secreted proteins were TCA precipitated from bacterial supernatants following approximately 3 h of bacterial growth in BHI (OD 600 of ∼0.6).

    Journal:

    Article Title: Identification of Novel Listeria monocytogenes Secreted Virulence Factors following Mutational Activation of the Central Virulence Regulator, PrfA ▿ Secreted Virulence Factors following Mutational Activation of the Central Virulence Regulator, PrfA ▿ †

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.00845-07

    Figure Lengend Snippet: 2-DE Coomassie-stained gels of secreted proteins isolated from isogenic L. monocytogenes prfA mutants. Secreted proteins were TCA precipitated from bacterial supernatants following approximately 3 h of bacterial growth in BHI (OD 600 of ∼0.6).

    Article Snippet: All L. monocytogenes and E. coli strains were grown at 37°C in brain heart infusion (BHI) media (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI) and Luria broth (LB) (Invitrogen Corp., Grand Island, NY), respectively.

    Techniques: Staining, Isolation

    Swimming motility of isogenic L. monocytogenes prfA mutants in semisolid media. Single colonies were stab inoculated into BHI 0.3% agar plates and incubated at room temperature or at 37°C. Swimming motility was calculated as the diameter

    Journal:

    Article Title: Identification of Novel Listeria monocytogenes Secreted Virulence Factors following Mutational Activation of the Central Virulence Regulator, PrfA ▿ Secreted Virulence Factors following Mutational Activation of the Central Virulence Regulator, PrfA ▿ †

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.00845-07

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Swimming motility of isogenic L. monocytogenes prfA mutants in semisolid media. Single colonies were stab inoculated into BHI 0.3% agar plates and incubated at room temperature or at 37°C. Swimming motility was calculated as the diameter

    Article Snippet: All L. monocytogenes and E. coli strains were grown at 37°C in brain heart infusion (BHI) media (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI) and Luria broth (LB) (Invitrogen Corp., Grand Island, NY), respectively.

    Techniques: Incubation

    actA expression levels and LLO secretion in isogenic L. monocytogenes prfA * mutants grown in BHI broth culture at 37°C. Units of GUS activity were determined as described in Materials and Methods, following normalization for bacterial

    Journal:

    Article Title: Identification of Novel Listeria monocytogenes Secreted Virulence Factors following Mutational Activation of the Central Virulence Regulator, PrfA ▿ Secreted Virulence Factors following Mutational Activation of the Central Virulence Regulator, PrfA ▿ †

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.00845-07

    Figure Lengend Snippet: actA expression levels and LLO secretion in isogenic L. monocytogenes prfA * mutants grown in BHI broth culture at 37°C. Units of GUS activity were determined as described in Materials and Methods, following normalization for bacterial

    Article Snippet: All L. monocytogenes and E. coli strains were grown at 37°C in brain heart infusion (BHI) media (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI) and Luria broth (LB) (Invitrogen Corp., Grand Island, NY), respectively.

    Techniques: Expressing, Activity Assay

    Bacterial growth in mouse livers and spleens following intravenous infection with L. monocytogenes gene disruption mutants. L. monocytogenes mutant strains were grown to mid-log phase in BHI broth, the bacteria were washed with PBS, and 2 × 10

    Journal:

    Article Title: Identification of Novel Listeria monocytogenes Secreted Virulence Factors following Mutational Activation of the Central Virulence Regulator, PrfA ▿ Secreted Virulence Factors following Mutational Activation of the Central Virulence Regulator, PrfA ▿ †

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.00845-07

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Bacterial growth in mouse livers and spleens following intravenous infection with L. monocytogenes gene disruption mutants. L. monocytogenes mutant strains were grown to mid-log phase in BHI broth, the bacteria were washed with PBS, and 2 × 10

    Article Snippet: All L. monocytogenes and E. coli strains were grown at 37°C in brain heart infusion (BHI) media (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI) and Luria broth (LB) (Invitrogen Corp., Grand Island, NY), respectively.

    Techniques: Infection, Mutagenesis

    Beta-lactam protection in a polymicrobial biofilm. Stationary biofilms of H. influenzae Rd and/or M. catarrhalis were established on chamber slides for 24 h and treated with 100 µg/ml ampicillin or ampicillin with 25 µg/ml clavulanate for an additional 24 h. Biofilms were resuspended in sterile PBS, serially diluted, and plated on sBHI medium plus clarithromycin and BHI medium plates for enumeration of viable H. influenzae Rd and M. catarrhalis bacteria, respectively. Data are represented as means ± SEM. *, P

    Journal: mBio

    Article Title: Indirect Pathogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis in Polymicrobial Otitis Media Occurs via Interspecies Quorum Signaling

    doi: 10.1128/mBio.00102-10

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Beta-lactam protection in a polymicrobial biofilm. Stationary biofilms of H. influenzae Rd and/or M. catarrhalis were established on chamber slides for 24 h and treated with 100 µg/ml ampicillin or ampicillin with 25 µg/ml clavulanate for an additional 24 h. Biofilms were resuspended in sterile PBS, serially diluted, and plated on sBHI medium plus clarithromycin and BHI medium plates for enumeration of viable H. influenzae Rd and M. catarrhalis bacteria, respectively. Data are represented as means ± SEM. *, P

    Article Snippet: M. catarrhalis strains were cultivated in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium (Difco), and H. influenzae strains were cultivated in BHI medium supplemented with hemin (ICN Biochemicals) and NAD (Sigma); this medium is referred to herein as supplemented BHI (sBHI).

    Techniques:

    Polymicrobial infection augments M. catarrhalis persistence in vivo . Chinchillas were infected with 10 3 CFU of H. influenzae or H. influenzae luxS , 10 4 CFU of M. catarrhalis , or a mixture of both species. (A) Middle ear effusion fluids were removed for enumeration of viable H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis bacteria by plating on sBHI medium plus clarithromycin or BHI medium, respectively. (B) Bullae were removed at each time point and homogenized for enumeration of viable H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis bacteria, as described above. Data represent the mean results from four experiments ± SEM. ***, P

    Journal: mBio

    Article Title: Indirect Pathogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis in Polymicrobial Otitis Media Occurs via Interspecies Quorum Signaling

    doi: 10.1128/mBio.00102-10

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Polymicrobial infection augments M. catarrhalis persistence in vivo . Chinchillas were infected with 10 3 CFU of H. influenzae or H. influenzae luxS , 10 4 CFU of M. catarrhalis , or a mixture of both species. (A) Middle ear effusion fluids were removed for enumeration of viable H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis bacteria by plating on sBHI medium plus clarithromycin or BHI medium, respectively. (B) Bullae were removed at each time point and homogenized for enumeration of viable H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis bacteria, as described above. Data represent the mean results from four experiments ± SEM. ***, P

    Article Snippet: M. catarrhalis strains were cultivated in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium (Difco), and H. influenzae strains were cultivated in BHI medium supplemented with hemin (ICN Biochemicals) and NAD (Sigma); this medium is referred to herein as supplemented BHI (sBHI).

    Techniques: Infection, In Vivo

    AI-2 promotes M. catarrhalis biofilm development and antibiotic resistance. (A) M. catarrhalis was cultured in BHI medium or BHI medium supplemented with 0.2 µM synthetic AI-2 (DPD) to determine AI-2 production and depletion, as measured by Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence. H. influenzae luxS was cultured in sBHI medium supplemented with DPD to measure depletion. An uninoculated control of BHI medium with DPD shows the minimal degradation of the AI-2 signal during 6 h of incubation at 37°C. (B) Depletion of DPD by M. catarrhalis biofilms were established for 24 h following incubation with 10 µg/ml tetracycline was measured by bioluminescence over a period of 7 h. (C) M. catarrhalis biofilms were established in the presence or absense of DPD and stained with crystal violet for determination of biofilm biomass at 4, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. Data represent the mean results from three combined experiments, with three replicate wells per experiment. Error bars represent SEM. (D and E) M. catarrhalis biofilms were established for 24 h in the presence (E) or absence (D) of DPD and stained with a viability kit for CLSM visualization of surface coverage and biofilm thickness. (F and G) Z-series images from panels D and E were compressed to show total viable and nonviable staining of biofilms established in the presence (G) or absence (F) of DPD. (H and I) SEM images of 24-h M. catarrhalis biofilms established with (I) or without (H) DPD. (J) M. catarrhalis biofilms were established for 4 h in the presence or absence of DPD and then treated with 6 µg/ml clarithromycin for 24 h and plated for enumeration of viable bacteria. Data represent the means from three replicates ± SEM. *, P

    Journal: mBio

    Article Title: Indirect Pathogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis in Polymicrobial Otitis Media Occurs via Interspecies Quorum Signaling

    doi: 10.1128/mBio.00102-10

    Figure Lengend Snippet: AI-2 promotes M. catarrhalis biofilm development and antibiotic resistance. (A) M. catarrhalis was cultured in BHI medium or BHI medium supplemented with 0.2 µM synthetic AI-2 (DPD) to determine AI-2 production and depletion, as measured by Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence. H. influenzae luxS was cultured in sBHI medium supplemented with DPD to measure depletion. An uninoculated control of BHI medium with DPD shows the minimal degradation of the AI-2 signal during 6 h of incubation at 37°C. (B) Depletion of DPD by M. catarrhalis biofilms were established for 24 h following incubation with 10 µg/ml tetracycline was measured by bioluminescence over a period of 7 h. (C) M. catarrhalis biofilms were established in the presence or absense of DPD and stained with crystal violet for determination of biofilm biomass at 4, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. Data represent the mean results from three combined experiments, with three replicate wells per experiment. Error bars represent SEM. (D and E) M. catarrhalis biofilms were established for 24 h in the presence (E) or absence (D) of DPD and stained with a viability kit for CLSM visualization of surface coverage and biofilm thickness. (F and G) Z-series images from panels D and E were compressed to show total viable and nonviable staining of biofilms established in the presence (G) or absence (F) of DPD. (H and I) SEM images of 24-h M. catarrhalis biofilms established with (I) or without (H) DPD. (J) M. catarrhalis biofilms were established for 4 h in the presence or absence of DPD and then treated with 6 µg/ml clarithromycin for 24 h and plated for enumeration of viable bacteria. Data represent the means from three replicates ± SEM. *, P

    Article Snippet: M. catarrhalis strains were cultivated in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium (Difco), and H. influenzae strains were cultivated in BHI medium supplemented with hemin (ICN Biochemicals) and NAD (Sigma); this medium is referred to herein as supplemented BHI (sBHI).

    Techniques: Cell Culture, Incubation, Staining, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

    Polymicrobial biofilm formation protects H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis from antibiotic treatment. Single-species or polymicrobial stationary biofilms were established for 4 h and treated with 60 µg/ml trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TS) (A) or 6 µg/ml clarithromycin (B) for 24 h. Biofilms were resuspended in sterile PBS, serially diluted, and plated on sBHI medium plus clarithromycin or BHI medium for enumeration of viable H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis bacteria, respectively. Data are represented as the mean results from three combined experiments, with two replicates per experiment. Error bars represent SEM. *, P

    Journal: mBio

    Article Title: Indirect Pathogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis in Polymicrobial Otitis Media Occurs via Interspecies Quorum Signaling

    doi: 10.1128/mBio.00102-10

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Polymicrobial biofilm formation protects H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis from antibiotic treatment. Single-species or polymicrobial stationary biofilms were established for 4 h and treated with 60 µg/ml trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TS) (A) or 6 µg/ml clarithromycin (B) for 24 h. Biofilms were resuspended in sterile PBS, serially diluted, and plated on sBHI medium plus clarithromycin or BHI medium for enumeration of viable H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis bacteria, respectively. Data are represented as the mean results from three combined experiments, with two replicates per experiment. Error bars represent SEM. *, P

    Article Snippet: M. catarrhalis strains were cultivated in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium (Difco), and H. influenzae strains were cultivated in BHI medium supplemented with hemin (ICN Biochemicals) and NAD (Sigma); this medium is referred to herein as supplemented BHI (sBHI).

    Techniques:

    Boxplots of the distribution of growth parameters for strains representing each genetic lineage of L. monocytogenes at 37°C. ( A ) Growth rate in BHI, ( B ) growth rate in BHI + 6% NaCl, and ( C ) lag phase duration in BHI + 6%

    Journal: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease

    Article Title: Salt Stress Phenotypes in Listeria monocytogenes Vary by Genetic Lineage and Temperature

    doi: 10.1089/fpd.2010.0624

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Boxplots of the distribution of growth parameters for strains representing each genetic lineage of L. monocytogenes at 37°C. ( A ) Growth rate in BHI, ( B ) growth rate in BHI + 6% NaCl, and ( C ) lag phase duration in BHI + 6%

    Article Snippet: The 40 strains that were selected to represent the genetic diversity of L. monocytogenes ( ) were stored at −80°C in brain–heart infusion (BHI) (Becton, Dickinson, and Company, Sparks, MD) broth with 15% glycerol.

    Techniques:

    Boxplots of the distribution of growth parameters for strains representing each genetic lineage of Listeria monocytogenes at 7°C. ( A ) Growth rate in brain–heart infusion (BHI), ( B ) growth rate in BHI + 6% NaCl, and ( C )

    Journal: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease

    Article Title: Salt Stress Phenotypes in Listeria monocytogenes Vary by Genetic Lineage and Temperature

    doi: 10.1089/fpd.2010.0624

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Boxplots of the distribution of growth parameters for strains representing each genetic lineage of Listeria monocytogenes at 7°C. ( A ) Growth rate in brain–heart infusion (BHI), ( B ) growth rate in BHI + 6% NaCl, and ( C )

    Article Snippet: The 40 strains that were selected to represent the genetic diversity of L. monocytogenes ( ) were stored at −80°C in brain–heart infusion (BHI) (Becton, Dickinson, and Company, Sparks, MD) broth with 15% glycerol.

    Techniques:

    Boxplots of the distribution of doubling time ratios at 7°C and 37°C for strains representing each genetic lineage of L. monocytogenes. Doubling time ratios for each strain were calculated by dividing the doubling time in BHI + 6%

    Journal: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease

    Article Title: Salt Stress Phenotypes in Listeria monocytogenes Vary by Genetic Lineage and Temperature

    doi: 10.1089/fpd.2010.0624

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Boxplots of the distribution of doubling time ratios at 7°C and 37°C for strains representing each genetic lineage of L. monocytogenes. Doubling time ratios for each strain were calculated by dividing the doubling time in BHI + 6%

    Article Snippet: The 40 strains that were selected to represent the genetic diversity of L. monocytogenes ( ) were stored at −80°C in brain–heart infusion (BHI) (Becton, Dickinson, and Company, Sparks, MD) broth with 15% glycerol.

    Techniques:

    Levels of PsaE and PsaF are impacted by temperature and pH. (A) Diagram of the psaEF locus showing the location of primers and the predicted PCR product used to analyze psaEF cotranscription via RT-PCR. Templates were as follows: RT+, cDNA; RT−, no reverse transcriptase (negative control); gDNA, YP6 gDNA; dH 2 O, no template (negative control). (B) WT containing a psaEF transcriptional reporter plasmid (pJC126, psaEF-gfp ) was grown at 37°C and 26°C in buffered BHI broth, and the RFU/OD 600 was determined under each condition, as described in Materials and Methods. The number depicted over each bar indicates fold change in psaEF-gfp expression in the WT compared to the expression from the vector control under the given condition. Each bar represents the mean RFU/OD 600 , and error bars represent standard deviations. Each sample was assayed in biological triplicates, and at least three independent experiments were performed. ***, P

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    Article Title: Temperature Control of psaA Expression by PsaE and PsaF in Yersinia pestis

    doi: 10.1128/JB.00217-19

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Levels of PsaE and PsaF are impacted by temperature and pH. (A) Diagram of the psaEF locus showing the location of primers and the predicted PCR product used to analyze psaEF cotranscription via RT-PCR. Templates were as follows: RT+, cDNA; RT−, no reverse transcriptase (negative control); gDNA, YP6 gDNA; dH 2 O, no template (negative control). (B) WT containing a psaEF transcriptional reporter plasmid (pJC126, psaEF-gfp ) was grown at 37°C and 26°C in buffered BHI broth, and the RFU/OD 600 was determined under each condition, as described in Materials and Methods. The number depicted over each bar indicates fold change in psaEF-gfp expression in the WT compared to the expression from the vector control under the given condition. Each bar represents the mean RFU/OD 600 , and error bars represent standard deviations. Each sample was assayed in biological triplicates, and at least three independent experiments were performed. ***, P

    Article Snippet: Y. pestis CO92/pCD1− (YP6) was cultivated on brain heart infusion (BHI) agar (BD Biosciences, Bedford, MA) at 26°C for 48 h and in BHI broth cultures grown with aeration at 26°C or 37°C.

    Techniques: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Negative Control, Plasmid Preparation, Expressing

    Expression of psaA and enhanced PsaE stability correspond with PsaF. (A) The psaA-gfp reporter was introduced into derivatives of the Δ psaEF mutant expressing psaEF from the psaE native 5′ UTR (YPA260, native), the psaE 5G 5′ UTR (YPA361, 5G), and the psaE 5C 5′ UTR (YPA360, 5C); these strains were grown at 37°C and 26°C in pH 6.3 buffered BHI broth, and reporter expression was determined as described in Materials and Methods. Each bar represents the mean RFU/OD 600 , and error bars represent standard deviations. Each sample was assayed in biological triplicate. ***, P

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    Article Title: Temperature Control of psaA Expression by PsaE and PsaF in Yersinia pestis

    doi: 10.1128/JB.00217-19

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Expression of psaA and enhanced PsaE stability correspond with PsaF. (A) The psaA-gfp reporter was introduced into derivatives of the Δ psaEF mutant expressing psaEF from the psaE native 5′ UTR (YPA260, native), the psaE 5G 5′ UTR (YPA361, 5G), and the psaE 5C 5′ UTR (YPA360, 5C); these strains were grown at 37°C and 26°C in pH 6.3 buffered BHI broth, and reporter expression was determined as described in Materials and Methods. Each bar represents the mean RFU/OD 600 , and error bars represent standard deviations. Each sample was assayed in biological triplicate. ***, P

    Article Snippet: Y. pestis CO92/pCD1− (YP6) was cultivated on brain heart infusion (BHI) agar (BD Biosciences, Bedford, MA) at 26°C for 48 h and in BHI broth cultures grown with aeration at 26°C or 37°C.

    Techniques: Expressing, Mutagenesis

    Expression of a psaA transcriptional reporter and production of PsaA require high temperature and low pH. WT Y. pestis (YP6) carrying a psaA transcriptional reporter (pEW102, psaA-gfp ) was grown at 26°C and 37°C, and psaA transcription (A, C, and D), medium pH (B), and PsaA (E) were analyzed as described in Materials and Methods. (A and B) psaA expression (A) and growth medium pH (B) were determined following growth at 26°C and 37°C in unbuffered BHI broth over time. (C) WT carrying psaA-gfp was grown at 37°C in BHI broth buffered to pH 6.3, 6.7, and 7.3, and reporter expression was determined. (D) WT carrying psaA-gfp was grown for 8 h at 37°C and 26°C in buffered BHI broth, and reporter expression was determined. Each bar represents the mean RFU/OD 600 , and error bars represent standard deviations. For reporter experiments, each sample was assayed in biological triplicates. ***, P

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    Article Title: Temperature Control of psaA Expression by PsaE and PsaF in Yersinia pestis

    doi: 10.1128/JB.00217-19

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Expression of a psaA transcriptional reporter and production of PsaA require high temperature and low pH. WT Y. pestis (YP6) carrying a psaA transcriptional reporter (pEW102, psaA-gfp ) was grown at 26°C and 37°C, and psaA transcription (A, C, and D), medium pH (B), and PsaA (E) were analyzed as described in Materials and Methods. (A and B) psaA expression (A) and growth medium pH (B) were determined following growth at 26°C and 37°C in unbuffered BHI broth over time. (C) WT carrying psaA-gfp was grown at 37°C in BHI broth buffered to pH 6.3, 6.7, and 7.3, and reporter expression was determined. (D) WT carrying psaA-gfp was grown for 8 h at 37°C and 26°C in buffered BHI broth, and reporter expression was determined. Each bar represents the mean RFU/OD 600 , and error bars represent standard deviations. For reporter experiments, each sample was assayed in biological triplicates. ***, P

    Article Snippet: Y. pestis CO92/pCD1− (YP6) was cultivated on brain heart infusion (BHI) agar (BD Biosciences, Bedford, MA) at 26°C for 48 h and in BHI broth cultures grown with aeration at 26°C or 37°C.

    Techniques: Expressing

    psaF translation requires high temperature and is regulated independently of the psaE 5′ UTR. The psaEF coding sequence was cloned into a tet -inducible expression vector (pPsaEF). (A) The Δ psaEF mutant carrying pPsaEF was grown at 37°C and 26°C in buffered BHI broth in the presence or absence of 50 ng/ml ATc, and whole-cell lysates were prepared and used to analyze PsaE and PsaF via Western blotting, as indicated in Materials and Methods. P λ , phage lambda promoter. (B) Diagram of sequence used to construct the psaF translational reporter (pJQ043, psaF up - lacZ ); the psaEF promoter was ligated directly to sequences upstream of psaF . The fragments outlined in red were excluded from the reporter. (C) The psaF up - lacZ reporter was introduced at the Tn 7 site in the Y. pestis Δ lacZ mutant (YPA87), and this strain was grown at 37°C or 26°C in buffered BHI broth. β-Galactosidase activity was analyzed as indicated in Materials and Methods. Bar graphs represent mean values of Miller units, and error bars represent standard deviations. ***, P

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    Article Title: Temperature Control of psaA Expression by PsaE and PsaF in Yersinia pestis

    doi: 10.1128/JB.00217-19

    Figure Lengend Snippet: psaF translation requires high temperature and is regulated independently of the psaE 5′ UTR. The psaEF coding sequence was cloned into a tet -inducible expression vector (pPsaEF). (A) The Δ psaEF mutant carrying pPsaEF was grown at 37°C and 26°C in buffered BHI broth in the presence or absence of 50 ng/ml ATc, and whole-cell lysates were prepared and used to analyze PsaE and PsaF via Western blotting, as indicated in Materials and Methods. P λ , phage lambda promoter. (B) Diagram of sequence used to construct the psaF translational reporter (pJQ043, psaF up - lacZ ); the psaEF promoter was ligated directly to sequences upstream of psaF . The fragments outlined in red were excluded from the reporter. (C) The psaF up - lacZ reporter was introduced at the Tn 7 site in the Y. pestis Δ lacZ mutant (YPA87), and this strain was grown at 37°C or 26°C in buffered BHI broth. β-Galactosidase activity was analyzed as indicated in Materials and Methods. Bar graphs represent mean values of Miller units, and error bars represent standard deviations. ***, P

    Article Snippet: Y. pestis CO92/pCD1− (YP6) was cultivated on brain heart infusion (BHI) agar (BD Biosciences, Bedford, MA) at 26°C for 48 h and in BHI broth cultures grown with aeration at 26°C or 37°C.

    Techniques: Sequencing, Clone Assay, Expressing, Plasmid Preparation, Mutagenesis, Western Blot, Construct, Activity Assay

    Supplemental sugar alters S. mutans growth. A growth curve of S. mutans in BHI with added 1% glucose (Medium+Glucose) or 1% sucrose (Medium+Sucrose) shows that S. mutans ' growth rate changes based on the specific sugar present in the growth medium. Error

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Salivary Mucins Protect Surfaces from Colonization by Cariogenic Bacteria

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.02573-14

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Supplemental sugar alters S. mutans growth. A growth curve of S. mutans in BHI with added 1% glucose (Medium+Glucose) or 1% sucrose (Medium+Sucrose) shows that S. mutans ' growth rate changes based on the specific sugar present in the growth medium. Error

    Article Snippet: For sucrose and glucose experiments, S. mutans was grown overnight in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium (Becton, Dickinson and Company) containing 1% (wt/vol) sucrose and BHI with 1% (wt/vol) glucose (Sigma).

    Techniques:

    Salivary mucins reduce S. mutans attachment and biofilm formation. The addition of 0.3% mucins to the control medium, BHI containing 1% sucrose (SMedium), significantly reduces the levels of S. mutans attachment and biofilm formation on glass (A, B) and

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Salivary Mucins Protect Surfaces from Colonization by Cariogenic Bacteria

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.02573-14

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Salivary mucins reduce S. mutans attachment and biofilm formation. The addition of 0.3% mucins to the control medium, BHI containing 1% sucrose (SMedium), significantly reduces the levels of S. mutans attachment and biofilm formation on glass (A, B) and

    Article Snippet: For sucrose and glucose experiments, S. mutans was grown overnight in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium (Becton, Dickinson and Company) containing 1% (wt/vol) sucrose and BHI with 1% (wt/vol) glucose (Sigma).

    Techniques:

    S. mutans growth is unaffected by the presence of salivary mucins. A growth curve of S. mutans in BHI with 1% sucrose (SMedium), BHI with 1% sucrose and 0.3% mucins, or BHI with 1% sucrose and 0.3% methylcellulose indicates that the presence of mucins

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Salivary Mucins Protect Surfaces from Colonization by Cariogenic Bacteria

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.02573-14

    Figure Lengend Snippet: S. mutans growth is unaffected by the presence of salivary mucins. A growth curve of S. mutans in BHI with 1% sucrose (SMedium), BHI with 1% sucrose and 0.3% mucins, or BHI with 1% sucrose and 0.3% methylcellulose indicates that the presence of mucins

    Article Snippet: For sucrose and glucose experiments, S. mutans was grown overnight in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium (Becton, Dickinson and Company) containing 1% (wt/vol) sucrose and BHI with 1% (wt/vol) glucose (Sigma).

    Techniques:

    Sucrose enhances S. mutans attachment and biofilm formation. The levels of S. mutans attachment (A) and biofilm formation (B) on glass are significantly enhanced at all time points when the bacteria are grown in BHI containing 1% sucrose (Medium+Sucrose)

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Salivary Mucins Protect Surfaces from Colonization by Cariogenic Bacteria

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.02573-14

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Sucrose enhances S. mutans attachment and biofilm formation. The levels of S. mutans attachment (A) and biofilm formation (B) on glass are significantly enhanced at all time points when the bacteria are grown in BHI containing 1% sucrose (Medium+Sucrose)

    Article Snippet: For sucrose and glucose experiments, S. mutans was grown overnight in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium (Becton, Dickinson and Company) containing 1% (wt/vol) sucrose and BHI with 1% (wt/vol) glucose (Sigma).

    Techniques:

    S. mutans survival is unaffected by salivary mucins. The graph represents the total number of viable S. mutans cells per well in the supernatant and biofilm in BHI with 1% sucrose (SMedium), BHI with 1% sucrose and 0.3% mucins, or BHI with 1% sucrose

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Salivary Mucins Protect Surfaces from Colonization by Cariogenic Bacteria

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.02573-14

    Figure Lengend Snippet: S. mutans survival is unaffected by salivary mucins. The graph represents the total number of viable S. mutans cells per well in the supernatant and biofilm in BHI with 1% sucrose (SMedium), BHI with 1% sucrose and 0.3% mucins, or BHI with 1% sucrose

    Article Snippet: For sucrose and glucose experiments, S. mutans was grown overnight in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium (Becton, Dickinson and Company) containing 1% (wt/vol) sucrose and BHI with 1% (wt/vol) glucose (Sigma).

    Techniques: