Journal: Development (Cambridge, England)
Article Title: RDH10-mediated retinol metabolism and RARα-mediated retinoic acid signaling are required for submandibular salivary gland initiation
Figure Lengend Snippet: Treatment with a pan-RAR inhibitor blocks differentiation into SOX9 + salivary epithelium. (A-C‴) Mandibular explants were cultured on either 10 µM retinol, 5 µM BMS493, or vehicle control medium, whole-mount immunostained for E-cadherin and SOX9, and imaged by confocal microscopy. (A′-C′) Volume projections of E-cadherin staining in SMG initiation region, rotated for frontal view, show a bilateral pair of epithelial invaginations samples grown on control and retinol medium, but not on BMS493 medium. Control and retinol treated samples have a bilateral pair of SOX9 + expression domains that colocalize with the invaginated epithelium (A″,A‴,B″,B‴). The epithelial SOX9 expression domains are absent in BMS493-treated samples (C″,C‴). (D) SOX9 expression colocalized with epithelial buds was quantified by the intensity sum of the immunofluorescence signal. Average and standard error bars for each group are shown ( n =4). Yellow arrowheads indicate epithelium invaginated into underlying mesenchyme, yellow asterisks indicate the absence of epithelial invagination. * P
Article Snippet: For RAR inhibition experiments, cultures were treated with 5 µM of either BMS493, BMS614, LE135 or MM 11253 (Tocris, #3509, #3660, #2021 and #3822, respectively).
Techniques: Cell Culture, Confocal Microscopy, Staining, Expressing, Immunofluorescence