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  • 99
    ATCC biofilm formation
    Requirement for Csu pili for <t>biofilm</t> formation in A. baumannii ATCC 17978. (A) Representative crystal violet assay image of A. baumannii strains on polystyrene surfaces. The biofilms were stained with crystal violet and dissolved in 10% acetic acid solution. A. baumannii ATCC 17978 wild-type and complemented strains, but not the csuD mutant strain, formed biofilms. The endogenous pAB3 plasmid and the pBAV shuttle vector did not affect biofilm formation. The A. baumannii ATCC 19606 strain was used as a control. (B) Quantitative determination of biofilm formation. To normalize cell growth rates, A. baumannii strains were grown in LB medium and collected at OD 600 values of 1.0 to 1.2. To count CFU, collected cells were plated on LB medium (top); to quantify the biofilms, absorbance was measured at OD 550 (bottom). Points indicate mean values, and error bars indicate standard deviations of triplicate samples. *, P ≤ 0.002, significant reduction of biofilm production in csuD mutant strains, compared to 17978pAB3−.
    Biofilm Formation, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1749 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore biofilm formation exogenous pge2
    Requirement for Csu pili for <t>biofilm</t> formation in A. baumannii ATCC 17978. (A) Representative crystal violet assay image of A. baumannii strains on polystyrene surfaces. The biofilms were stained with crystal violet and dissolved in 10% acetic acid solution. A. baumannii ATCC 17978 wild-type and complemented strains, but not the csuD mutant strain, formed biofilms. The endogenous pAB3 plasmid and the pBAV shuttle vector did not affect biofilm formation. The A. baumannii ATCC 19606 strain was used as a control. (B) Quantitative determination of biofilm formation. To normalize cell growth rates, A. baumannii strains were grown in LB medium and collected at OD 600 values of 1.0 to 1.2. To count CFU, collected cells were plated on LB medium (top); to quantify the biofilms, absorbance was measured at OD 550 (bottom). Points indicate mean values, and error bars indicate standard deviations of triplicate samples. *, P ≤ 0.002, significant reduction of biofilm production in csuD mutant strains, compared to 17978pAB3−.
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    92
    Waters Corporation biofilm formation
    Colonization patterns of P. fluorescens strain SBW25 on non-mycorrhizal Aspen roots. Z-stack reconstruction of root surface topology was performed by SDCM at x100 magnification. SBW25 cells are green and plant tissues are visualized using red auto-fluorescence. Scale is indicated by a white bar. Images are representative of colonization patterns on all the observed plant roots. (A) Long strip (LS) colonization pattern observed 1 week after inoculation, (B) long patch (LP) patterns after 2 weeks, (C) short patch (SP) microcolonies formed after 3 weeks, (D,E) bulge–like structures observed along roots after 4-5 weeks, with enlarged images showing dense <t>biofilm-like</t> structures (DBS) in which cells appear encased in a matrix.
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    91
    Becton Dickinson biofilm formation biofilm formation
    <t>Biofilm</t> formation by Acinetobacter. Biofilm formation after 24 h at 28°C for the clinically relevant A. baumannii (n = 45), A. gen. sp. 3 (n = 3) and A. gen. sp. 13TU (n = 3) and for the clinically less-relevant A. calcoaceticus (n = 3) and A. junii (n = 7). Data are expressed as mean biofilm mass (in arbitrary units (a.u.)) of three independent experiments; each performed in sixplicate. Outbreak-associated (+) or non-outbreak-associated (−) isolate. European clone I (I), II (II) or III (III) isolate. Multidrug resistant (MDR; +) or susceptible (−) isolate.
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    95
    Eppendorf AG biofilm formation
    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images (A) and SEM images (B) of the <t>biofilm</t> states of the H. alvei strain on zinc surfaces after different treatments. (a) 20 μg/mL C 6 -HSL, (b) control, (c–f) L -carvone treatments at concentrations of 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 μL/mL.
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    91
    Starlab biofilm formation
    <t>Biofilm</t> development under dynamic conditions in flow cells (FC) of the Bioflux system. (A and B) Bottom-up views of FC (5× objective, bright field). The imaged parts of the FC were approximately 1.9 mm long and 350 μm wide (FC cross-section, 350 × 70 μm), and the medium flow was from left to right. (A) FAM19195 (19 h) showed biofilm from the sides and a bacterial lawn but no biofilm formation within the channel (top), and FAM21805 (19 h) produced biofilm from the sides and within the channel (bottom). (B) There was a sudden decrease (sloughing) of strong biofilm within the channel for strain FAM21843 between 18 h (top) and 18.5 h (bottom). (C and D) Average area coverage (% of the flow channel within an image that was covered by biofilm) was evaluated every 30 min for 24 h for all 37 strains. Eleven strains consistently formed biofilm within the FC channel, and their area coverages over time are given here. Values indicate averages for at least biological triplicates.
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    94
    Glycomimetics biofilm formation
    <t>Biofilm</t> development under dynamic conditions in flow cells (FC) of the Bioflux system. (A and B) Bottom-up views of FC (5× objective, bright field). The imaged parts of the FC were approximately 1.9 mm long and 350 μm wide (FC cross-section, 350 × 70 μm), and the medium flow was from left to right. (A) FAM19195 (19 h) showed biofilm from the sides and a bacterial lawn but no biofilm formation within the channel (top), and FAM21805 (19 h) produced biofilm from the sides and within the channel (bottom). (B) There was a sudden decrease (sloughing) of strong biofilm within the channel for strain FAM21843 between 18 h (top) and 18.5 h (bottom). (C and D) Average area coverage (% of the flow channel within an image that was covered by biofilm) was evaluated every 30 min for 24 h for all 37 strains. Eleven strains consistently formed biofilm within the FC channel, and their area coverages over time are given here. Values indicate averages for at least biological triplicates.
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    92
    Illumina Inc biofilm formation
    Gene expression profiles for all significant genes a and several representative categories. b Transporters. c Metabolism. d Cell motility and chemotaxis. e NRPS PKS. f <t>Biofilm-formation</t> related. g Plant growth-promotion related. For e-g , all important genes (both significantly and insignificantly differentially expressed) are included. The color bar in the heatmap figures indicates the ratio of expression level of each gene between the presence of root exudates and its absence. Each number represents the category of the significantly affected genes: 1, cell wall; 2, transporters; 3, sensors; 4, membrane bioenergetics; 5, motility and chemotaxis; 6, protein secretion; 7, cell division; 8, sporulation and germination; 9, metabolism of carbohydrates and related molecules; 10, metabolism of amino acids and related molecules; 11, metabolism of nucleotides and nucleic acids; 12, metabolism of lipids; 13, metabolism of coenzymes and prosthetic groups, phosphate, and sulfur; 14, DNA replication, restriction/modification, repair, recombination, packaging and segregation; 15, RNA synthesis; 16, RNA modification; 17, protein synthesis, modification and folding; 18, adaptation to atypical conditions; 19, detoxification; 20, antibiotic production; and 21, phage-related functions
    Biofilm Formation, supplied by Illumina Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 53 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    95
    Greiner Bio biofilm formation
    SarZ is an important determinant of S. epidermidis <t>biofilm-associated</t> infection
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    92
    Merck KGaA biofilm formation
    Effect of temperature on <t>biofilm</t> formation of E. coli and P. fluorescens . The elastic (G0) and viscous (G00) is plotted against the time of E. coli (A) and P. fluorescens (B) with changing temperature from 25°–30°C.
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    94
    Biocell Technology biofilm formation
    Summary log difference from smooth data for S. epidermidis ( a ), P. aeruginosa ( b ), and R. pickettii ( c ). Error bars indicate ± standard deviation from the mean. Positive values indicate more <t>attachment/biofilm</t> formation than Smooth, while negative values indicate less attachment/biofilm formation than Smooth. Overall, the Biocell and Siltex textures had greater differences from Smooth [i.e., more attached bacteria (2 h) and biofilm formation (24 h)] than the Silk and Velvet textures
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    96
    Corning Life Sciences biofilm formation
    RT-qPCR analysis of relative expression of selected genes related to carbon metabolism, sulfate reduction, electron transfer and <t>biofilm</t> formation in D. vulgaris biofilms under saline and freshwater conditions . (A) Relative expression of carbon metabolism enzymes lactate dehydrogenase ldh , pyruvate formate lyase DVU2272 and pyruvate dehydrogenase DVU3025 in the primary left y -axis, and formate dehydrogenase DUV0588 in the secondary right y -axis. (B) Relative expression of dissimilatory sulfite reductase dsrB , dsrC , adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate reductase aprA , aprB and pyrophosphatase ppaC in the primary left y -axis, and dissimilatory sulfite reductase alpha subunit dsrA and sulfate adenylytransferase Sat in the secondary right y -axis. (C) Relative expression of Fe hydrogenase hydA , NiFeSe hydrogenase hysA -1, Ech hydrogenases echE , formate dehydrogenase DVU1817and c 3-type cytochromes DVU3171 and DVU2524 in the primary left y -axis, as well as NiFe hydrogenase hynA -1, Ech hydrogenase echF , and c 3-type cytochrome DVU2809 in the secondary right y -axis. (D) Relative expression of exopolysaccharide synthesis protein DVU0281 in the primary left y -axis and sensor histidine kinase response regulator DVU3062 in the secondary right y -axis. Relative expression refers to the transcript level of a specific gene normalized with that of reference gene recA . Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation ( n = 3). Significant difference: ∗ p
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    93
    Difco biofilm formation
    Quantification of eDNA and the contribution of eDNA to <t>biofilm</t> formation. (A) Quantification of eDNA in biofilms. eDNA was isolated from a 20-h biofilm and quantified as the weight of eDNA per unit of dry weight of biofilm. The dry weights of biofilm obtained from TSBs, TSBg, and TSBr were 4.44 ± 0.3 μg, 2.49 ± 0.1 μg, and 2.80 ± 0.2 μg, respectively. (B) Quantification of total eDNA in biofilm and conditioned medium. Five hundred microliters of overnight culture was mixed with 4.5 ml of TSBs, TSBg, or TSBr in a 6-well culture plate. The biofilm formation was conducted for 20 h. These data indicate the total amount of eDNA detected from biofilm and 5 ml of culture supernatant. (C) Inhibitory effect of DNase I on biofilm formation. Taking into consideration the finding that eDNA contributes to the initial stage of the biofilm formation, we quantified biofilm formations in the 8-h biofilm. DNase I was added at a concentration of 50 U/ml (DNase+) before the incubation for biofilm formation. As a control, we also quantified biofilm formations in the absence of DNase I (DNase−) and heat-inactivated (100°C for 30 min) DNase I (iDNase). These data indicate mean ± SD of the results from three independent experiments. The asterisks indicate a significant difference between two groups (Student's t test, P
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    88
    Stovall biofilm formation
    Alternation of <t>biofilm</t> microbial community composition with different treatments. (A) PCoA, (B) top five dominant genera. Control: mountain water as influent for 60 days; polluted: mountain water as influent for 20 days and urban water as influent for 40 days; recovery: mountain water as influent for 20 days, urban water as influent for 20 days, and finally mountain water as influent for 20 days. Error bar represents mean value plus standard deviation.
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    90
    Carl Roth GmbH biofilm formation
    Comparison of manual counting and automated counting by qBA. T. (A) Processed images of a P . aeruginosa <t>biofilm</t> Z-stack. (B) Three manually and individually determined bacteria numbers (red line) per layer compared to individual counting by qBA (2D, green line). (B) Three different biofilms of P . aeruginosa were analyzed manually (red line) and by qBA (2D, green line and 3D, black line). In general the cell distribution within those three independent grown biofilms exhibited a minor deviation.
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    99
    Thermo Fisher biofilm formation
    The antimicrobial effects of ZY354 against oral streptococcal multispecies <t>biofilms.</t> (A) Representative images of multispecies biofilms treated with ZY354. Green, bacteria (SYTO 9); red, extracellular polysaccharides (EPS). (B) Quantitative analysis of EPS and bacteria within the biofilms. (C) The ratio of EPS/bacteria within the biofilms. (D) Representative images of dead/live bacteria within the multispecies biofilms after treatment. Green, live bacteria; red, dead bacteria. (E) Quantitative ratio of dead to live bacteria after treatment. Data are presented as means ± standard deviations. * , P  
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    92
    Lab M Ltd biofilm formation
    Effect of OligoG on inhibition of mucoid <t>biofilm</t> formation: Imaging and quantification of P. aeruginosa (NH57388A) biofilms grown for 24 h at 37 °C in MH broth ± OligoG (0.5%, 2% 6%). a SEM imaging of biofilms (Scale bar, 10 µm). b CLSM 3D imaging (aerial view) of LIVE/DEAD® staining of biofilms (Scale bar, 20 µm). c COMSTAT image analysis of the corresponding biofilm CLSM z-stack images. * P
    Biofilm Formation, supplied by Lab M Ltd, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Sony biofilm formation
    Kinetic profile of the cell cultures of Mucor circinelloides UMN-B34 with Chlorella vulgaris attached on a polymer matrix a Total biomass distribution in the co-culture flasks b Biomass composition of the mycoalgae <t>biofilm.</t> MC Mucor circinelloides ; CV Chlorella vulgaris
    Biofilm Formation, supplied by Sony, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Roche biofilm formation
    (A) Chronic venous leg ulcer. (B) <t>Biofilm</t> of P. aeruginosa [red stain] and S. aureus [green stain], identified by specific PNA FISH probes, surrounded by host cells (DAPI [blue stain]) in a human chronic wound. (C) CSLM three dimensional imaging of picture B. (D) Enlargement of picture C. The white arrows point to bacterial aggregates and the yellow arrows point to the wound surface (Kirketerp-Møller et al., 2008 ).
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    92
    SAS institute biofilm formation
    Viability of F. columnare cells in <t>biofilm</t> determined with the Live/Dead cell viability kit and examination by CLSM. Biofilm was grown on glass slides for 48 h postinoculation. Live cells are stained green, dead cells are red, and EPS is stained blue
    Biofilm Formation, supplied by SAS institute, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    86
    Prestwick Chemical biofilm formation
    Effect of representative antifungal drugs on prevention of C. albicans <t>biofilm</t> formation (open circles) and against preformed biofilms (closed circles).
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    98
    ibidi biofilm formation
    Effect of representative antifungal drugs on prevention of C. albicans <t>biofilm</t> formation (open circles) and against preformed biofilms (closed circles).
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    86
    Biotechnology Information biofilm formation
    Confocal scanning laser microscopy showing the effect of farnesol on C. albicans <t>biofilm</t> (24 h) formation. ConA (green) and FUN-1 (red) staining were used to generate the images. Metabolically active cells are shown in red, and cell wall polysaccharides
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    95
    Cell Signaling Technology Inc biofilm formation
    Fluorescence microphotograph of the <t>biofilm</t> of the cheek surface collected with periopaper and stained with life – dead bacterial staining. The smear contains epithelial cell at the bottom and life (green) and dead (red) bacteria.
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    93
    Wound Management Technologies Inc biofilm formation
    Fluorescence microphotograph of the <t>biofilm</t> of the cheek surface collected with periopaper and stained with life – dead bacterial staining. The smear contains epithelial cell at the bottom and life (green) and dead (red) bacteria.
    Biofilm Formation, supplied by Wound Management Technologies Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 9 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    87
    Millar Inc biofilm formation
    <t>Biofilm</t> of Helicobacter pylori . A: Scanning electron micrograph of mature biofilm on a polystyrene surface with rod shaped and coccoid cells embedded in an abundant matrix. Insert: Confocal laser scanning microscopy image of mature in vitro biofilm with
    Biofilm Formation, supplied by Millar Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 87/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    SERVA Electrophoresis biofilm formation lb medium
    Activity of the QS inhibitors (leads, tested at 100 μM) on the transition between microcolonies and fully-formed <t>biofilms</t> of E. coli and P. aeruginosa strains (indicated as EC or PA strains in the legend). The figure contains results of crystal violet staining, shown as percent of inhibition when compared to untreated control samples. Error bars represent SEM ( n = 6). *** p
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    90
    Kamiya s biofilm formation
    <t>Biofilm</t> prevention activities of α4 and α4M1 using six clinical strains of methicillin-resistant S . aureus (A through F). Bacterial biofilm were measured by crystal violet 24h after bacterial incubation at 37°C in the presence or absence (control) of the indicated peptides; P values (*P
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    84
    Difco robust biofilm formation
    Effect of heparin on known <t>biofilm</t> formation mutants. A. Mutants (gene names noted) were assessed for biofilm formation in the microtiter dish assay (8-h biofilms) with heparin at 1,000 U/ml (shaded bars) or with saline (white bars). B. Relative PIA levels
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    92
    DSMZ commensal biofilm formation
    <t>Biofilm</t> formation and cytotoxicity effects. (A) Crystal violet staining after 48 h. The 24-h-old S. sanguinis biofilms blocked with lysate or 0.9% NaCl before secondary adherence of S. sanguinis , F. nucleatum , or P. gingivalis for another 24 h ( N = 16). Asterisks denote statistical significance as follows: ∗ P
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    <t>Biofilm</t> formation and cytotoxicity effects. (A) Crystal violet staining after 48 h. The 24-h-old S. sanguinis biofilms blocked with lysate or 0.9% NaCl before secondary adherence of S. sanguinis , F. nucleatum , or P. gingivalis for another 24 h ( N = 16). Asterisks denote statistical significance as follows: ∗ P
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    Dendogram shows the genetic diversity of 69 carbapenem non-susceptible Acinetobacter baumannii isolates by MLVA and MLST; carbapenemase encoding genes; MIC ranges of colisitin, imipenem, and tigecycline; resistance phenotype; <t>biofilm</t> formation and international clonal lineage .
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    Image Search Results


    Requirement for Csu pili for biofilm formation in A. baumannii ATCC 17978. (A) Representative crystal violet assay image of A. baumannii strains on polystyrene surfaces. The biofilms were stained with crystal violet and dissolved in 10% acetic acid solution. A. baumannii ATCC 17978 wild-type and complemented strains, but not the csuD mutant strain, formed biofilms. The endogenous pAB3 plasmid and the pBAV shuttle vector did not affect biofilm formation. The A. baumannii ATCC 19606 strain was used as a control. (B) Quantitative determination of biofilm formation. To normalize cell growth rates, A. baumannii strains were grown in LB medium and collected at OD 600 values of 1.0 to 1.2. To count CFU, collected cells were plated on LB medium (top); to quantify the biofilms, absorbance was measured at OD 550 (bottom). Points indicate mean values, and error bars indicate standard deviations of triplicate samples. *, P ≤ 0.002, significant reduction of biofilm production in csuD mutant strains, compared to 17978pAB3−.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Subinhibitory Concentrations of Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole Prevent Biofilm Formation by Acinetobacter baumannii through Inhibition of Csu Pilus Expression

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00778-17

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Requirement for Csu pili for biofilm formation in A. baumannii ATCC 17978. (A) Representative crystal violet assay image of A. baumannii strains on polystyrene surfaces. The biofilms were stained with crystal violet and dissolved in 10% acetic acid solution. A. baumannii ATCC 17978 wild-type and complemented strains, but not the csuD mutant strain, formed biofilms. The endogenous pAB3 plasmid and the pBAV shuttle vector did not affect biofilm formation. The A. baumannii ATCC 19606 strain was used as a control. (B) Quantitative determination of biofilm formation. To normalize cell growth rates, A. baumannii strains were grown in LB medium and collected at OD 600 values of 1.0 to 1.2. To count CFU, collected cells were plated on LB medium (top); to quantify the biofilms, absorbance was measured at OD 550 (bottom). Points indicate mean values, and error bars indicate standard deviations of triplicate samples. *, P ≤ 0.002, significant reduction of biofilm production in csuD mutant strains, compared to 17978pAB3−.

    Article Snippet: We found that, although ATCC 17978 was resistant to sulfamethoxazole (Smx) and trimethoprim (Tmp), subinhibitory concentrations of these antibiotics abolished the expression of Csu and consequently produced a dramatic reduction in biofilm formation by ATCC 17978.

    Techniques: Crystal Violet Assay, Staining, Mutagenesis, Plasmid Preparation

    Recovery of Csu pilus and biofilm repression with THF but not folate supplements under Tmp-mediated folate stress conditions. (A) CsuA/B expression with folate (Fol) or THF supplements, as determined by Western blotting with the anti-CsuA/B antibody (green bands); RNAP was used as loading control (red bands). Folate stress was generated by Tmp. S/T, Smx and Tmp; Kan, kanamycin. (B) Representative crystal violet assay images of A. baumannii strains with folate or THF supplements. THF but not folate was able to relieve folate stress generated by Tmp, resulting in partially restored biofilm formation. (C) CFU counts (top) and biofilm crystal violet assay quantification (bottom). Points indicate mean values, and error bars indicate standard deviations of triplicate samples. *, P ≤ 0.005; †, P ≤ 0.05, significant reduction of biofilm production, compared to 17978pAB3− cells with folate.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Subinhibitory Concentrations of Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole Prevent Biofilm Formation by Acinetobacter baumannii through Inhibition of Csu Pilus Expression

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00778-17

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Recovery of Csu pilus and biofilm repression with THF but not folate supplements under Tmp-mediated folate stress conditions. (A) CsuA/B expression with folate (Fol) or THF supplements, as determined by Western blotting with the anti-CsuA/B antibody (green bands); RNAP was used as loading control (red bands). Folate stress was generated by Tmp. S/T, Smx and Tmp; Kan, kanamycin. (B) Representative crystal violet assay images of A. baumannii strains with folate or THF supplements. THF but not folate was able to relieve folate stress generated by Tmp, resulting in partially restored biofilm formation. (C) CFU counts (top) and biofilm crystal violet assay quantification (bottom). Points indicate mean values, and error bars indicate standard deviations of triplicate samples. *, P ≤ 0.005; †, P ≤ 0.05, significant reduction of biofilm production, compared to 17978pAB3− cells with folate.

    Article Snippet: We found that, although ATCC 17978 was resistant to sulfamethoxazole (Smx) and trimethoprim (Tmp), subinhibitory concentrations of these antibiotics abolished the expression of Csu and consequently produced a dramatic reduction in biofilm formation by ATCC 17978.

    Techniques: Expressing, Western Blot, Generated, Crystal Violet Assay

    Abolishment of both Csu pilus expression and biofilm formation by Smx and Tmp. (A) Inhibition of CsuA/B expression by Smx and Tmp. The 17978pAB3+ cells were grown in LB medium with or without 30 μg/ml Smx and 6 μg/ml Tmp (S/T); 17978pAB3− cells were sensitive to the combination of Smx and Tmp. Under Smx/Tmp-treated conditions, CsuA/B was not detected in 17978pAB3+ lysates. Immunoblot was performed using CsuA/B-specific antibody (green bands); RNAP was used as a loading control (red bands). (B) Representative crystal violet assay image of A. baumannii strains with and without Smx and Tmp. The 17978pAB3+ strain treated with Smx and Tmp was not able to form biofilms. The csuD mutant was also unable to form biofilms, with or without treatment with Smx and Tmp, which corresponded to CsuA/B immunoblot results. (C) Quantitative measurements of biofilm formation by A. baumannii strains with and without Smx and Tmp, including CFU counts of A. baumannii biofilms (top) and absorbance at 550 nm following crystal violet staining (bottom). Points indicate mean values, and error bars indicate standard deviations of triplicate samples. *, P ≤ 0.005, significant reduction of biofilm production in 17978pAB3+ cells with Smx and Tmp and csuD mutant strains with and without Smx and Tmp, compared to 17978pAB3− cells without Smx and Tmp. (D) Transmission electron microscopic images confirming Csu pilus repression on A. baumannii surfaces by Smx and Tmp. This result corresponded to CsuA/B immunoblot and biofilm assay results.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Subinhibitory Concentrations of Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole Prevent Biofilm Formation by Acinetobacter baumannii through Inhibition of Csu Pilus Expression

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00778-17

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Abolishment of both Csu pilus expression and biofilm formation by Smx and Tmp. (A) Inhibition of CsuA/B expression by Smx and Tmp. The 17978pAB3+ cells were grown in LB medium with or without 30 μg/ml Smx and 6 μg/ml Tmp (S/T); 17978pAB3− cells were sensitive to the combination of Smx and Tmp. Under Smx/Tmp-treated conditions, CsuA/B was not detected in 17978pAB3+ lysates. Immunoblot was performed using CsuA/B-specific antibody (green bands); RNAP was used as a loading control (red bands). (B) Representative crystal violet assay image of A. baumannii strains with and without Smx and Tmp. The 17978pAB3+ strain treated with Smx and Tmp was not able to form biofilms. The csuD mutant was also unable to form biofilms, with or without treatment with Smx and Tmp, which corresponded to CsuA/B immunoblot results. (C) Quantitative measurements of biofilm formation by A. baumannii strains with and without Smx and Tmp, including CFU counts of A. baumannii biofilms (top) and absorbance at 550 nm following crystal violet staining (bottom). Points indicate mean values, and error bars indicate standard deviations of triplicate samples. *, P ≤ 0.005, significant reduction of biofilm production in 17978pAB3+ cells with Smx and Tmp and csuD mutant strains with and without Smx and Tmp, compared to 17978pAB3− cells without Smx and Tmp. (D) Transmission electron microscopic images confirming Csu pilus repression on A. baumannii surfaces by Smx and Tmp. This result corresponded to CsuA/B immunoblot and biofilm assay results.

    Article Snippet: We found that, although ATCC 17978 was resistant to sulfamethoxazole (Smx) and trimethoprim (Tmp), subinhibitory concentrations of these antibiotics abolished the expression of Csu and consequently produced a dramatic reduction in biofilm formation by ATCC 17978.

    Techniques: Expressing, Inhibition, Crystal Violet Assay, Mutagenesis, Staining, Transmission Assay, Biofilm Production Assay

    Dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) responsibility for pilus expression and biofilm formation. (A) CsuA/B expression in 17978pAB3+ Δ dhps :: kan cells with Tmp or Smx treatment, as determined by Western blotting with the anti-CsuA/B antibody (green bands); RNAP was used as loading control (red bands). CsuA/B is expressed in the presence of kanamycin but not in the presence of both antifolate antibiotics. (B) Representative crystal violet assay image of A. baumannii strains with Tmp or Smx treatment. The 17978pAB3+ Δ dhps :: kan cells were unable to form biofilms under antifolate antibiotic treatment conditions. (C) CFU counts (top) and biofilm crystal violet quantification (bottom). Points indicate mean values, and error bars indicate standard deviations of triplicate samples. *, P ≤ 0.003; †, P ≤ 0.05, significant reduction of biofilm production, compared to 17978pAB3+ cells. (D) Transmission electron microscopic images confirming Csu pilus repression on 17978pAB3+ Δ dhps :: kan surfaces by Smx but not kanamycin (Kan).

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Subinhibitory Concentrations of Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole Prevent Biofilm Formation by Acinetobacter baumannii through Inhibition of Csu Pilus Expression

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00778-17

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) responsibility for pilus expression and biofilm formation. (A) CsuA/B expression in 17978pAB3+ Δ dhps :: kan cells with Tmp or Smx treatment, as determined by Western blotting with the anti-CsuA/B antibody (green bands); RNAP was used as loading control (red bands). CsuA/B is expressed in the presence of kanamycin but not in the presence of both antifolate antibiotics. (B) Representative crystal violet assay image of A. baumannii strains with Tmp or Smx treatment. The 17978pAB3+ Δ dhps :: kan cells were unable to form biofilms under antifolate antibiotic treatment conditions. (C) CFU counts (top) and biofilm crystal violet quantification (bottom). Points indicate mean values, and error bars indicate standard deviations of triplicate samples. *, P ≤ 0.003; †, P ≤ 0.05, significant reduction of biofilm production, compared to 17978pAB3+ cells. (D) Transmission electron microscopic images confirming Csu pilus repression on 17978pAB3+ Δ dhps :: kan surfaces by Smx but not kanamycin (Kan).

    Article Snippet: We found that, although ATCC 17978 was resistant to sulfamethoxazole (Smx) and trimethoprim (Tmp), subinhibitory concentrations of these antibiotics abolished the expression of Csu and consequently produced a dramatic reduction in biofilm formation by ATCC 17978.

    Techniques: Expressing, Western Blot, Crystal Violet Assay, Transmission Assay

    Effects of Smx and Tmp, alone and in combination, on Csu pilus expression and biofilm formation. (A) Verification by Western blotting of CsuA/B expression with Smx and Tmp (S/T), alone and in combination. Smx or Tmp single treatment was able to inhibit CsuA/B expression in 17978pAB3− cells, whereas Smx was unable to inhibit CsuA/B expression in 17978pAB3+ cells. Immunoblot was performed using CsuA/B-specific antibody (green bands); RNAP was used as loading control (red bands). (B) Representative crystal violet assay image of A. baumannii strains treated with Smx and Tmp, alone or in combination. (C) CFU counts (top) and biofilm quantification through the crystal violet assay (bottom). Points indicate mean values, and error bars indicate standard deviations of triplicate samples. *, P ≤ 0.005, significant reduction of biofilm production, compared to 17978pAB3− cells without Smx and Tmp.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Subinhibitory Concentrations of Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole Prevent Biofilm Formation by Acinetobacter baumannii through Inhibition of Csu Pilus Expression

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00778-17

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of Smx and Tmp, alone and in combination, on Csu pilus expression and biofilm formation. (A) Verification by Western blotting of CsuA/B expression with Smx and Tmp (S/T), alone and in combination. Smx or Tmp single treatment was able to inhibit CsuA/B expression in 17978pAB3− cells, whereas Smx was unable to inhibit CsuA/B expression in 17978pAB3+ cells. Immunoblot was performed using CsuA/B-specific antibody (green bands); RNAP was used as loading control (red bands). (B) Representative crystal violet assay image of A. baumannii strains treated with Smx and Tmp, alone or in combination. (C) CFU counts (top) and biofilm quantification through the crystal violet assay (bottom). Points indicate mean values, and error bars indicate standard deviations of triplicate samples. *, P ≤ 0.005, significant reduction of biofilm production, compared to 17978pAB3− cells without Smx and Tmp.

    Article Snippet: We found that, although ATCC 17978 was resistant to sulfamethoxazole (Smx) and trimethoprim (Tmp), subinhibitory concentrations of these antibiotics abolished the expression of Csu and consequently produced a dramatic reduction in biofilm formation by ATCC 17978.

    Techniques: Expressing, Western Blot, Crystal Violet Assay

    Recovery of Csu pilus and biofilm repression with both THF and folate supplements under Smx-mediated folate stress conditions. (A) CsuA/B expression with folate or THF supplements, as determined by Western blotting with the anti-CsuA/B antibody (green bands); RNAP was used as loading control (red bands). Folate stress was generated by Smx. Kan, kanamycin. (B) Representative crystal violet assay images of 17978pAB3− and 17978pAB3+ Δ dhps :: kan cells with folate or THF supplements. Both folate and THF supplements were able to relieve folate stress generated by Smx, resulting in partially restored biofilm formation. (C) CFU counts (top) and biofilm crystal violet assay quantification (bottom). Points indicate mean values, and error bars indicate standard deviations of triplicate samples. *, P ≤ 0.002; †, P ≤ 0.05, significant reduction of biofilm production, compared to 17978pAB3− cells with LB.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Subinhibitory Concentrations of Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole Prevent Biofilm Formation by Acinetobacter baumannii through Inhibition of Csu Pilus Expression

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00778-17

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Recovery of Csu pilus and biofilm repression with both THF and folate supplements under Smx-mediated folate stress conditions. (A) CsuA/B expression with folate or THF supplements, as determined by Western blotting with the anti-CsuA/B antibody (green bands); RNAP was used as loading control (red bands). Folate stress was generated by Smx. Kan, kanamycin. (B) Representative crystal violet assay images of 17978pAB3− and 17978pAB3+ Δ dhps :: kan cells with folate or THF supplements. Both folate and THF supplements were able to relieve folate stress generated by Smx, resulting in partially restored biofilm formation. (C) CFU counts (top) and biofilm crystal violet assay quantification (bottom). Points indicate mean values, and error bars indicate standard deviations of triplicate samples. *, P ≤ 0.002; †, P ≤ 0.05, significant reduction of biofilm production, compared to 17978pAB3− cells with LB.

    Article Snippet: We found that, although ATCC 17978 was resistant to sulfamethoxazole (Smx) and trimethoprim (Tmp), subinhibitory concentrations of these antibiotics abolished the expression of Csu and consequently produced a dramatic reduction in biofilm formation by ATCC 17978.

    Techniques: Expressing, Western Blot, Generated, Crystal Violet Assay

    Quantification of biofilm formation by the A. baumannii ATCC 17978 strain, the mutant derivative strain Δ0242, the mutant derivative strain Δ3850, the double mutant derivative strain Δ0242/Δ3850, the ATCC 17978 harboring the empty vector pWH1266-Km (ATCC 17978 + pWH1266-Km), the mutant derivative strain harboring the empty vector pWH1266-Km (Δ0242 + pWH1266-Km) and the mutant derivative Δ0242 over-expressing the A1S_0242 gene from the pWH1266-Km plasmid (Δ0242 complemented).

    Journal: Virulence

    Article Title: Pneumonia infection in mice reveals the involvement of the feoA gene in the pathogenesis of Acinetobacter baumannii

    doi: 10.1080/21505594.2017.1420451

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Quantification of biofilm formation by the A. baumannii ATCC 17978 strain, the mutant derivative strain Δ0242, the mutant derivative strain Δ3850, the double mutant derivative strain Δ0242/Δ3850, the ATCC 17978 harboring the empty vector pWH1266-Km (ATCC 17978 + pWH1266-Km), the mutant derivative strain harboring the empty vector pWH1266-Km (Δ0242 + pWH1266-Km) and the mutant derivative Δ0242 over-expressing the A1S_0242 gene from the pWH1266-Km plasmid (Δ0242 complemented).

    Article Snippet: In this case, the fitness of the strains was a limiting factor as can be seen in Figure S2, the wild type strain harboring the plasmid (ATCC 17978 + pWH1266-Km) showed an important decrease in biofilm formation ability, compared with the wild type strain (ATCC 17978).

    Techniques: Mutagenesis, Plasmid Preparation, Expressing

    UFAs activity on A. baumannii ATCC 17978 quorum sensing system. ( a ) abaR gene expression quantified by real time PCR of the total RNA isolated from bacteria grown in the presence of virstatin (100 µM, Vir-100), PoA or MoA at 0.02 mg/mL (PoA-2 and MoA-2) relative to that of the bacteria grown in DMSO alone; ( b ) UFAs activity on biofilm formation in presence of AHLs (500 nM) quantified by crystal violet staining method. 24 h-biofilm formation with or without virstatin (100 µM), PoA or MoA at 0.02 mg/mL and DMSO as control. Results are presented as (mean ± standard error of mean). “***” for p

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    Article Title: Unsaturated Fatty Acids Affect Quorum Sensing Communication System and Inhibit Motility and Biofilm Formation of Acinetobacter baumannii

    doi: 10.3390/ijms19010214

    Figure Lengend Snippet: UFAs activity on A. baumannii ATCC 17978 quorum sensing system. ( a ) abaR gene expression quantified by real time PCR of the total RNA isolated from bacteria grown in the presence of virstatin (100 µM, Vir-100), PoA or MoA at 0.02 mg/mL (PoA-2 and MoA-2) relative to that of the bacteria grown in DMSO alone; ( b ) UFAs activity on biofilm formation in presence of AHLs (500 nM) quantified by crystal violet staining method. 24 h-biofilm formation with or without virstatin (100 µM), PoA or MoA at 0.02 mg/mL and DMSO as control. Results are presented as (mean ± standard error of mean). “***” for p

    Article Snippet: We demonstrated that PoA and MoA (at 0.02 mg/mL) were able to decrease A. baumannii ATCC 17978 biofilm formation up to 38% and 24%, respectively, presented a biofilm dispersing effect and drastically reduced motility.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Isolation, Staining

    UFAs activity on A. baumannii ATCC 17978 motility and biofilm formation. ( a ) Inhibition and dispersion of biofilms quantified by crystal violet staining method. 24 h-biofilms were treated with or without virstatin (100 µM), palmitoleic acid (PoA) or myristoleic acid (MoA) at different concentrations (0.01 (UFA-1), 0.02 (UFA-2) or 0.05 (UFA-5) mg/mL) and DMSO as control; ( b ) Activity on motility. Blue arrows measure the diameter of surface motility. Results are presented as (mean ± standard error of mean). “***” for p

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    Article Title: Unsaturated Fatty Acids Affect Quorum Sensing Communication System and Inhibit Motility and Biofilm Formation of Acinetobacter baumannii

    doi: 10.3390/ijms19010214

    Figure Lengend Snippet: UFAs activity on A. baumannii ATCC 17978 motility and biofilm formation. ( a ) Inhibition and dispersion of biofilms quantified by crystal violet staining method. 24 h-biofilms were treated with or without virstatin (100 µM), palmitoleic acid (PoA) or myristoleic acid (MoA) at different concentrations (0.01 (UFA-1), 0.02 (UFA-2) or 0.05 (UFA-5) mg/mL) and DMSO as control; ( b ) Activity on motility. Blue arrows measure the diameter of surface motility. Results are presented as (mean ± standard error of mean). “***” for p

    Article Snippet: We demonstrated that PoA and MoA (at 0.02 mg/mL) were able to decrease A. baumannii ATCC 17978 biofilm formation up to 38% and 24%, respectively, presented a biofilm dispersing effect and drastically reduced motility.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Inhibition, Staining

    Colonization patterns of P. fluorescens strain SBW25 on non-mycorrhizal Aspen roots. Z-stack reconstruction of root surface topology was performed by SDCM at x100 magnification. SBW25 cells are green and plant tissues are visualized using red auto-fluorescence. Scale is indicated by a white bar. Images are representative of colonization patterns on all the observed plant roots. (A) Long strip (LS) colonization pattern observed 1 week after inoculation, (B) long patch (LP) patterns after 2 weeks, (C) short patch (SP) microcolonies formed after 3 weeks, (D,E) bulge–like structures observed along roots after 4-5 weeks, with enlarged images showing dense biofilm-like structures (DBS) in which cells appear encased in a matrix.

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Dynamics of Aspen Roots Colonization by Pseudomonads Reveals Strain-Specific and Mycorrhizal-Specific Patterns of Biofilm Formation

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00853

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Colonization patterns of P. fluorescens strain SBW25 on non-mycorrhizal Aspen roots. Z-stack reconstruction of root surface topology was performed by SDCM at x100 magnification. SBW25 cells are green and plant tissues are visualized using red auto-fluorescence. Scale is indicated by a white bar. Images are representative of colonization patterns on all the observed plant roots. (A) Long strip (LS) colonization pattern observed 1 week after inoculation, (B) long patch (LP) patterns after 2 weeks, (C) short patch (SP) microcolonies formed after 3 weeks, (D,E) bulge–like structures observed along roots after 4-5 weeks, with enlarged images showing dense biofilm-like structures (DBS) in which cells appear encased in a matrix.

    Article Snippet: In many Gram-negative bacteria, quorum sensing (QS) plays a pivotal role in biofilm formation through the production and sensing of small diffusible autoinducer (AI) molecules, such as N-Acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) that monitor cell density and regulate cell behaviors (Newton and Fray, ; Waters and Bassler, ).

    Techniques: Fluorescence, Stripping Membranes

    Internal architecture of bacterial biofilms on Aspen roots. 3D-volumes of cell structures were unstacked to deploy a panel of 2D-slices revealing the internal colony architecture. (A) Unstacking of a SBW25 macro-colony highlighting void spaces. One slice every 0.5 μm is shown. (B) Unstacking of a z-directional movie. Maximum intensity and Orthogonal projections from a reconstruction from 60 planes (left) and panel of 2D-slices revealing internal canals.

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Dynamics of Aspen Roots Colonization by Pseudomonads Reveals Strain-Specific and Mycorrhizal-Specific Patterns of Biofilm Formation

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00853

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Internal architecture of bacterial biofilms on Aspen roots. 3D-volumes of cell structures were unstacked to deploy a panel of 2D-slices revealing the internal colony architecture. (A) Unstacking of a SBW25 macro-colony highlighting void spaces. One slice every 0.5 μm is shown. (B) Unstacking of a z-directional movie. Maximum intensity and Orthogonal projections from a reconstruction from 60 planes (left) and panel of 2D-slices revealing internal canals.

    Article Snippet: In many Gram-negative bacteria, quorum sensing (QS) plays a pivotal role in biofilm formation through the production and sensing of small diffusible autoinducer (AI) molecules, such as N-Acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) that monitor cell density and regulate cell behaviors (Newton and Fray, ; Waters and Bassler, ).

    Techniques:

    Biofilm formation by Acinetobacter. Biofilm formation after 24 h at 28°C for the clinically relevant A. baumannii (n = 45), A. gen. sp. 3 (n = 3) and A. gen. sp. 13TU (n = 3) and for the clinically less-relevant A. calcoaceticus (n = 3) and A. junii (n = 7). Data are expressed as mean biofilm mass (in arbitrary units (a.u.)) of three independent experiments; each performed in sixplicate. Outbreak-associated (+) or non-outbreak-associated (−) isolate. European clone I (I), II (II) or III (III) isolate. Multidrug resistant (MDR; +) or susceptible (−) isolate.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Do Biofilm Formation and Interactions with Human Cells Explain the Clinical Success of Acinetobacter baumannii?

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010732

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Biofilm formation by Acinetobacter. Biofilm formation after 24 h at 28°C for the clinically relevant A. baumannii (n = 45), A. gen. sp. 3 (n = 3) and A. gen. sp. 13TU (n = 3) and for the clinically less-relevant A. calcoaceticus (n = 3) and A. junii (n = 7). Data are expressed as mean biofilm mass (in arbitrary units (a.u.)) of three independent experiments; each performed in sixplicate. Outbreak-associated (+) or non-outbreak-associated (−) isolate. European clone I (I), II (II) or III (III) isolate. Multidrug resistant (MDR; +) or susceptible (−) isolate.

    Article Snippet: Biofilm formation Biofilm formation in 96-wells polyvinylchloride microtiter plates (Falcon, BD, Breda, the Netherlands) was assayed as described .

    Techniques:

    Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy of biofilm formed by S. pseudintermedius strain DSM 25713. Biofilm was allowed to form for 48 h at 37 °C, in absence of serum, under both ( a ) static, and ( b ) dynamic (flow cell chamber) conditions. Static biofilms were further treated for 24 h with increasing gentamicin concentrations (1x-128xMIC). Representative images of biofilm exposed at ( c ) 1x and ( d ) 128xMIC gentamicin are shown. Orthogonal images z are projections of x and y planes, collected within the biofilm as indicated by the green and red lines in the top view. Image capture was set for simultaneous visualization of red (Propidium iodide-stained dead cells), green (Syto-9-stained viable cells), and blue (Concanavalin A-stained EPS) fluorescence. Magnification, x100

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: New insights in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius pathogenicity: antibiotic-resistant biofilm formation by a human wound-associated strain

    doi: 10.1186/s12866-015-0449-x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy of biofilm formed by S. pseudintermedius strain DSM 25713. Biofilm was allowed to form for 48 h at 37 °C, in absence of serum, under both ( a ) static, and ( b ) dynamic (flow cell chamber) conditions. Static biofilms were further treated for 24 h with increasing gentamicin concentrations (1x-128xMIC). Representative images of biofilm exposed at ( c ) 1x and ( d ) 128xMIC gentamicin are shown. Orthogonal images z are projections of x and y planes, collected within the biofilm as indicated by the green and red lines in the top view. Image capture was set for simultaneous visualization of red (Propidium iodide-stained dead cells), green (Syto-9-stained viable cells), and blue (Concanavalin A-stained EPS) fluorescence. Magnification, x100

    Article Snippet: Time course of biofilm formation Biofilms were allowed to form in each well of a 24-well flat-bottom polystyrene tissue-treated microtiter plate (BD Company), as described above.

    Techniques: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Flow Cytometry, Staining, Fluorescence

    Kinetic of biofilm formation, through 72 h-incubation, by S. pseudintermedius strain DSM 25713 onto polystyrene. ( a - f ) Representative SEM images of biofilm formation after 1, 4, 8, 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation, respectively. Magnification (x1.000). ( g , h ) Magnification (x20.000) of ( e ) and ( f ), respectively. Cocci are surrounded by EPS appearing as an extensive network of filaments stretched among cells and between these and the substratum. ( i ) Kinetic of biofilm formation as assessed by viable count. Maximum, median, and minimum values are shown in each box (n = 6)

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: New insights in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius pathogenicity: antibiotic-resistant biofilm formation by a human wound-associated strain

    doi: 10.1186/s12866-015-0449-x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Kinetic of biofilm formation, through 72 h-incubation, by S. pseudintermedius strain DSM 25713 onto polystyrene. ( a - f ) Representative SEM images of biofilm formation after 1, 4, 8, 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation, respectively. Magnification (x1.000). ( g , h ) Magnification (x20.000) of ( e ) and ( f ), respectively. Cocci are surrounded by EPS appearing as an extensive network of filaments stretched among cells and between these and the substratum. ( i ) Kinetic of biofilm formation as assessed by viable count. Maximum, median, and minimum values are shown in each box (n = 6)

    Article Snippet: Time course of biofilm formation Biofilms were allowed to form in each well of a 24-well flat-bottom polystyrene tissue-treated microtiter plate (BD Company), as described above.

    Techniques: Incubation

    ESEM images of biofilm formed by S. pseudintermedius strain DSM 25713 onto polystyrene following 72 h-incubation. ( a ) Biofilm exhibited spatially heterogeneous organization, as suggested by the presence of “mushroom-like” structures (as indicated by arrows). Magnification: x3.000. ( b , c ) Multilayered organization with the presence of bacteria under EPS matrix (as indicated by arrows). Magnification: x12.500 and x20.000, respectively

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: New insights in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius pathogenicity: antibiotic-resistant biofilm formation by a human wound-associated strain

    doi: 10.1186/s12866-015-0449-x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ESEM images of biofilm formed by S. pseudintermedius strain DSM 25713 onto polystyrene following 72 h-incubation. ( a ) Biofilm exhibited spatially heterogeneous organization, as suggested by the presence of “mushroom-like” structures (as indicated by arrows). Magnification: x3.000. ( b , c ) Multilayered organization with the presence of bacteria under EPS matrix (as indicated by arrows). Magnification: x12.500 and x20.000, respectively

    Article Snippet: Time course of biofilm formation Biofilms were allowed to form in each well of a 24-well flat-bottom polystyrene tissue-treated microtiter plate (BD Company), as described above.

    Techniques: Incubation

    Standardization of experimental conditions for biofilm formation by S. pseudintermedius strain DSM 25713 on polystyrene surface. Effect of dynamic (filled squares) or static (filled triangles) incubation, incubation time (24, 48, and 72 h), and inoculum concentration (10 5 , 10 6 , and 10 7 CFU/mL) on biofilm biomass formation, as assessed by spectrophotometric assay. Values are means ± SDs (n = 6). *** p

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: New insights in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius pathogenicity: antibiotic-resistant biofilm formation by a human wound-associated strain

    doi: 10.1186/s12866-015-0449-x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Standardization of experimental conditions for biofilm formation by S. pseudintermedius strain DSM 25713 on polystyrene surface. Effect of dynamic (filled squares) or static (filled triangles) incubation, incubation time (24, 48, and 72 h), and inoculum concentration (10 5 , 10 6 , and 10 7 CFU/mL) on biofilm biomass formation, as assessed by spectrophotometric assay. Values are means ± SDs (n = 6). *** p

    Article Snippet: Time course of biofilm formation Biofilms were allowed to form in each well of a 24-well flat-bottom polystyrene tissue-treated microtiter plate (BD Company), as described above.

    Techniques: Incubation, Concentration Assay, Spectrophotometric Assay

    Effect of serum and pH on biofilm formation and growth by S. pseudintermedius strain DSM 25713. ( a ) Serum was tested against biofilm formation at various dilutions (1:2, 1:10, and 1:100), as free or adsorbed to polystyrene, under different pH (5.5, 7.1, and 8.7). Control wells contained bacteria but not serum. Biofilm biomass amount was measured by crystal violet assay, then normalized on bacterial growth by calculating the specific biofilm formation (SBF) index (see Materials and Methods). ( b ) The effect of free serum against bacterial growth was assessed by measuring OD 600 of cell grown in broth following 24 h-incubation. Results are means + SDs (n = 9). * p

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: New insights in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius pathogenicity: antibiotic-resistant biofilm formation by a human wound-associated strain

    doi: 10.1186/s12866-015-0449-x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of serum and pH on biofilm formation and growth by S. pseudintermedius strain DSM 25713. ( a ) Serum was tested against biofilm formation at various dilutions (1:2, 1:10, and 1:100), as free or adsorbed to polystyrene, under different pH (5.5, 7.1, and 8.7). Control wells contained bacteria but not serum. Biofilm biomass amount was measured by crystal violet assay, then normalized on bacterial growth by calculating the specific biofilm formation (SBF) index (see Materials and Methods). ( b ) The effect of free serum against bacterial growth was assessed by measuring OD 600 of cell grown in broth following 24 h-incubation. Results are means + SDs (n = 9). * p

    Article Snippet: Time course of biofilm formation Biofilms were allowed to form in each well of a 24-well flat-bottom polystyrene tissue-treated microtiter plate (BD Company), as described above.

    Techniques: Crystal Violet Assay, Incubation

    In vitro effect of antibiotics against preformed biofilm by S. pseudintermedius strain DSM 25713. Biofilms allowed to form following 48 h-incubation were exposed for further 24 h to each antibiotic at concentrations equal or multiple of MIC. Results are expressed as percentage of biofilm’s viability – as assessed by viable colony count - compared to control (unexposed, 100 % viability) (n = 6). The dotted line indicates a reduction in biofilm viability of at least 20 % vs control ( p

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: New insights in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius pathogenicity: antibiotic-resistant biofilm formation by a human wound-associated strain

    doi: 10.1186/s12866-015-0449-x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: In vitro effect of antibiotics against preformed biofilm by S. pseudintermedius strain DSM 25713. Biofilms allowed to form following 48 h-incubation were exposed for further 24 h to each antibiotic at concentrations equal or multiple of MIC. Results are expressed as percentage of biofilm’s viability – as assessed by viable colony count - compared to control (unexposed, 100 % viability) (n = 6). The dotted line indicates a reduction in biofilm viability of at least 20 % vs control ( p

    Article Snippet: Time course of biofilm formation Biofilms were allowed to form in each well of a 24-well flat-bottom polystyrene tissue-treated microtiter plate (BD Company), as described above.

    Techniques: In Vitro, Incubation

    In vitro activity of antibiotics at sub-inhibitory concentrations against biofilm formation by S. pseudintermedius strain DSM 25713. Biofilm biomass formed during 24 h-incubation was measured, using the crystal violet assay, in the presence of antibiotics at concentrations equal to 1/2x, 1/4x, and 1/8xMIC. Results were plotted as percentage of biofilm biomass formed in the presence of antibiotic, compared to controls (not exposed, 100 % biofilm biomass) (n = 6). The dotted line indicates a reduction in biofilm biomass of at least 20 % vs control ( p

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: New insights in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius pathogenicity: antibiotic-resistant biofilm formation by a human wound-associated strain

    doi: 10.1186/s12866-015-0449-x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: In vitro activity of antibiotics at sub-inhibitory concentrations against biofilm formation by S. pseudintermedius strain DSM 25713. Biofilm biomass formed during 24 h-incubation was measured, using the crystal violet assay, in the presence of antibiotics at concentrations equal to 1/2x, 1/4x, and 1/8xMIC. Results were plotted as percentage of biofilm biomass formed in the presence of antibiotic, compared to controls (not exposed, 100 % biofilm biomass) (n = 6). The dotted line indicates a reduction in biofilm biomass of at least 20 % vs control ( p

    Article Snippet: Time course of biofilm formation Biofilms were allowed to form in each well of a 24-well flat-bottom polystyrene tissue-treated microtiter plate (BD Company), as described above.

    Techniques: In Vitro, Activity Assay, Incubation, Crystal Violet Assay

    (A) Conditioned media (30 μ droplets) of wild isolates T16-8, T16-2, T16-10, T16-4 and T16-5 (first raw) and of isogenic ΔsrfA mutants (second raw) from pellicle cultures grown in MSN medium at 28°C were sampled after 48 h. The numbers below the droplet pictures represent percent of haemolytic activity measured in conditioned medium of isogenic ΔsrfA mutants as compared with their ancestor wild type strains. (B) Biofilms were harvested after 48 h of incubation, and their dry mass was determined. Data represent average of three independent replicates (independent experiments).

    Journal: Microbial Biotechnology

    Article Title: Exploring ComQXPA quorum-sensing diversity and biocontrol potential of Bacillus spp. isolates from tomato rhizoplane

    doi: 10.1111/1751-7915.12258

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A) Conditioned media (30 μ droplets) of wild isolates T16-8, T16-2, T16-10, T16-4 and T16-5 (first raw) and of isogenic ΔsrfA mutants (second raw) from pellicle cultures grown in MSN medium at 28°C were sampled after 48 h. The numbers below the droplet pictures represent percent of haemolytic activity measured in conditioned medium of isogenic ΔsrfA mutants as compared with their ancestor wild type strains. (B) Biofilms were harvested after 48 h of incubation, and their dry mass was determined. Data represent average of three independent replicates (independent experiments).

    Article Snippet: We observed only moderate diversity at the level of biofilm formation.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Incubation

    Biofilm biomass and surfactin activity of B . subtilis isolates from tomato rhizoplane. Biofilms were harvested and their dry mass was determined. The dry mass of each biofilm was then divided by the dry mass of biofilm formed by the negative control BD2833. Conditioned media produced during biofilms growth were filter-sterilized, and the presence of biosurfactants was determined by heamolytic test. Strain BD2833 which is deficient in surfactin production was used as negative control. Percent of haemolysis obtained for each conditioned medium was divided by the value obtained for negative control. Columms on the graph indicating the diversity of the response are marked with RGB intensities that directly correspond to quantitative values measured for each trait (as shown below the table). Data represent average of three independent replicates with SE (standard error) indicated. The RGB colours also indicate the diversity of biofilm dry biomass (B.) and haemolytic activity (S.) at the plant level (on the right).

    Journal: Microbial Biotechnology

    Article Title: Exploring ComQXPA quorum-sensing diversity and biocontrol potential of Bacillus spp. isolates from tomato rhizoplane

    doi: 10.1111/1751-7915.12258

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Biofilm biomass and surfactin activity of B . subtilis isolates from tomato rhizoplane. Biofilms were harvested and their dry mass was determined. The dry mass of each biofilm was then divided by the dry mass of biofilm formed by the negative control BD2833. Conditioned media produced during biofilms growth were filter-sterilized, and the presence of biosurfactants was determined by heamolytic test. Strain BD2833 which is deficient in surfactin production was used as negative control. Percent of haemolysis obtained for each conditioned medium was divided by the value obtained for negative control. Columms on the graph indicating the diversity of the response are marked with RGB intensities that directly correspond to quantitative values measured for each trait (as shown below the table). Data represent average of three independent replicates with SE (standard error) indicated. The RGB colours also indicate the diversity of biofilm dry biomass (B.) and haemolytic activity (S.) at the plant level (on the right).

    Article Snippet: We observed only moderate diversity at the level of biofilm formation.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Negative Control, Produced

    Example of microscopy evaluation of the effect of DNase treatment on 24 h C.albicans biofilm formation. Microphotographs of cells in wells before (I) and after (II) aspiration of medium and subsequent washings with PBS and crystal violet staining for biofilms treated with 0 mg/ml (a and c) and 0.13 mg/ml of DNase (b and d). The bar in the picture represents 200 μm.

    Journal: Mycopathologia

    Article Title: Presence of extracellular DNA in the Candida albicans biofilm matrix and its contribution to biofilms

    doi: 10.1007/s11046-009-9264-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Example of microscopy evaluation of the effect of DNase treatment on 24 h C.albicans biofilm formation. Microphotographs of cells in wells before (I) and after (II) aspiration of medium and subsequent washings with PBS and crystal violet staining for biofilms treated with 0 mg/ml (a and c) and 0.13 mg/ml of DNase (b and d). The bar in the picture represents 200 μm.

    Article Snippet: Briefly, after formation the biofilms were transferred to polypropylene conical tubes (BD), resuspended in 10 ml of ultrapure sterile water and vortexed for 1 min. Next, biofilm cells were sonicated in an ultrasonic bath for 45 min, followed by a vortexing step of 2 min and centrifuged (2000 rpm; 20 min).

    Techniques: Microscopy, Staining

    Effect of DNase treatment on C. albicans biofilm formation. DifferentDNase concentrations (0, 0.02, 0.03, 0.06, 0.13, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00 mg/ml) were added to C. albicans cells at different times (0, 1, 2 and 24 h) post-inoculation in the wells of microtiter plates and incubated at 37°C under static conditions. The extent of biofilm formation was estimated by the crystal violet assay. Presented values are mean A 550 ± standard error of mean of four independent experiments with three to eight replicates. Statistically significant differences (compared to biofilms formed in the absence of DNase) are indicated with an asterisk. (*, P

    Journal: Mycopathologia

    Article Title: Presence of extracellular DNA in the Candida albicans biofilm matrix and its contribution to biofilms

    doi: 10.1007/s11046-009-9264-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of DNase treatment on C. albicans biofilm formation. DifferentDNase concentrations (0, 0.02, 0.03, 0.06, 0.13, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00 mg/ml) were added to C. albicans cells at different times (0, 1, 2 and 24 h) post-inoculation in the wells of microtiter plates and incubated at 37°C under static conditions. The extent of biofilm formation was estimated by the crystal violet assay. Presented values are mean A 550 ± standard error of mean of four independent experiments with three to eight replicates. Statistically significant differences (compared to biofilms formed in the absence of DNase) are indicated with an asterisk. (*, P

    Article Snippet: Briefly, after formation the biofilms were transferred to polypropylene conical tubes (BD), resuspended in 10 ml of ultrapure sterile water and vortexed for 1 min. Next, biofilm cells were sonicated in an ultrasonic bath for 45 min, followed by a vortexing step of 2 min and centrifuged (2000 rpm; 20 min).

    Techniques: Incubation, Crystal Violet Assay

    Effect of addition of exogenous DNA on C. albicans biofilm formation. Different eDNA concentrations (0, 20, 40, 80, 160, 320, 640, 1280 and 2560 ng/ml) were added to C. albicans cells at different times (0, 1, 2 and 24 h) post -inoculation in the wells of microtiter plates and incubated at 37°C under static conditions. The extent of biofilm formation was estimated by the crystal violet assay. Presented values are mean A 550 ± standard error of mean of four independent experiments with three to eight replicates. Statistically significant differences (compared to biofilms formed in the absence of DNA) are indicated with an asterisk. (*, P

    Journal: Mycopathologia

    Article Title: Presence of extracellular DNA in the Candida albicans biofilm matrix and its contribution to biofilms

    doi: 10.1007/s11046-009-9264-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of addition of exogenous DNA on C. albicans biofilm formation. Different eDNA concentrations (0, 20, 40, 80, 160, 320, 640, 1280 and 2560 ng/ml) were added to C. albicans cells at different times (0, 1, 2 and 24 h) post -inoculation in the wells of microtiter plates and incubated at 37°C under static conditions. The extent of biofilm formation was estimated by the crystal violet assay. Presented values are mean A 550 ± standard error of mean of four independent experiments with three to eight replicates. Statistically significant differences (compared to biofilms formed in the absence of DNA) are indicated with an asterisk. (*, P

    Article Snippet: Briefly, after formation the biofilms were transferred to polypropylene conical tubes (BD), resuspended in 10 ml of ultrapure sterile water and vortexed for 1 min. Next, biofilm cells were sonicated in an ultrasonic bath for 45 min, followed by a vortexing step of 2 min and centrifuged (2000 rpm; 20 min).

    Techniques: Incubation, Crystal Violet Assay

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images (A) and SEM images (B) of the biofilm states of the H. alvei strain on zinc surfaces after different treatments. (a) 20 μg/mL C 6 -HSL, (b) control, (c–f) L -carvone treatments at concentrations of 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 μL/mL.

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Reducing Quorum Sensing-Mediated Virulence Factor Expression and Biofilm Formation in Hafnia alvei by Using the Potential Quorum Sensing Inhibitor L-Carvone

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.03324

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images (A) and SEM images (B) of the biofilm states of the H. alvei strain on zinc surfaces after different treatments. (a) 20 μg/mL C 6 -HSL, (b) control, (c–f) L -carvone treatments at concentrations of 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 μL/mL.

    Article Snippet: In contrast, biofilm formation in the C6 -HSL-treated group was visibly higher than that in the control group, which proves that the biofilm formation of H. alvei is positively regulated by the AHL-based QS system.

    Techniques: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

    Biofilm development under dynamic conditions in flow cells (FC) of the Bioflux system. (A and B) Bottom-up views of FC (5× objective, bright field). The imaged parts of the FC were approximately 1.9 mm long and 350 μm wide (FC cross-section, 350 × 70 μm), and the medium flow was from left to right. (A) FAM19195 (19 h) showed biofilm from the sides and a bacterial lawn but no biofilm formation within the channel (top), and FAM21805 (19 h) produced biofilm from the sides and within the channel (bottom). (B) There was a sudden decrease (sloughing) of strong biofilm within the channel for strain FAM21843 between 18 h (top) and 18.5 h (bottom). (C and D) Average area coverage (% of the flow channel within an image that was covered by biofilm) was evaluated every 30 min for 24 h for all 37 strains. Eleven strains consistently formed biofilm within the FC channel, and their area coverages over time are given here. Values indicate averages for at least biological triplicates.

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Biofilm Formation Potential of Heat-Resistant Escherichia coli Dairy Isolates and the Complete Genome of Multidrug-Resistant, Heat-Resistant Strain FAM21845

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.00628-17

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Biofilm development under dynamic conditions in flow cells (FC) of the Bioflux system. (A and B) Bottom-up views of FC (5× objective, bright field). The imaged parts of the FC were approximately 1.9 mm long and 350 μm wide (FC cross-section, 350 × 70 μm), and the medium flow was from left to right. (A) FAM19195 (19 h) showed biofilm from the sides and a bacterial lawn but no biofilm formation within the channel (top), and FAM21805 (19 h) produced biofilm from the sides and within the channel (bottom). (B) There was a sudden decrease (sloughing) of strong biofilm within the channel for strain FAM21843 between 18 h (top) and 18.5 h (bottom). (C and D) Average area coverage (% of the flow channel within an image that was covered by biofilm) was evaluated every 30 min for 24 h for all 37 strains. Eleven strains consistently formed biofilm within the FC channel, and their area coverages over time are given here. Values indicate averages for at least biological triplicates.

    Article Snippet: Biofilm formation was assessed by CV assays in 96-well plates (untreated PS surfaces) (CytoOne; StarLab, Hamburg, Germany).

    Techniques: Flow Cytometry, Produced

    Gene expression profiles for all significant genes a and several representative categories. b Transporters. c Metabolism. d Cell motility and chemotaxis. e NRPS PKS. f Biofilm-formation related. g Plant growth-promotion related. For e-g , all important genes (both significantly and insignificantly differentially expressed) are included. The color bar in the heatmap figures indicates the ratio of expression level of each gene between the presence of root exudates and its absence. Each number represents the category of the significantly affected genes: 1, cell wall; 2, transporters; 3, sensors; 4, membrane bioenergetics; 5, motility and chemotaxis; 6, protein secretion; 7, cell division; 8, sporulation and germination; 9, metabolism of carbohydrates and related molecules; 10, metabolism of amino acids and related molecules; 11, metabolism of nucleotides and nucleic acids; 12, metabolism of lipids; 13, metabolism of coenzymes and prosthetic groups, phosphate, and sulfur; 14, DNA replication, restriction/modification, repair, recombination, packaging and segregation; 15, RNA synthesis; 16, RNA modification; 17, protein synthesis, modification and folding; 18, adaptation to atypical conditions; 19, detoxification; 20, antibiotic production; and 21, phage-related functions

    Journal: BMC Genomics

    Article Title: Whole transcriptomic analysis of the plant-beneficial rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 during enhanced biofilm formation regulated by maize root exudates

    doi: 10.1186/s12864-015-1825-5

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Gene expression profiles for all significant genes a and several representative categories. b Transporters. c Metabolism. d Cell motility and chemotaxis. e NRPS PKS. f Biofilm-formation related. g Plant growth-promotion related. For e-g , all important genes (both significantly and insignificantly differentially expressed) are included. The color bar in the heatmap figures indicates the ratio of expression level of each gene between the presence of root exudates and its absence. Each number represents the category of the significantly affected genes: 1, cell wall; 2, transporters; 3, sensors; 4, membrane bioenergetics; 5, motility and chemotaxis; 6, protein secretion; 7, cell division; 8, sporulation and germination; 9, metabolism of carbohydrates and related molecules; 10, metabolism of amino acids and related molecules; 11, metabolism of nucleotides and nucleic acids; 12, metabolism of lipids; 13, metabolism of coenzymes and prosthetic groups, phosphate, and sulfur; 14, DNA replication, restriction/modification, repair, recombination, packaging and segregation; 15, RNA synthesis; 16, RNA modification; 17, protein synthesis, modification and folding; 18, adaptation to atypical conditions; 19, detoxification; 20, antibiotic production; and 21, phage-related functions

    Article Snippet: Considering the dynamics curves of biofilm formation, cells were collected and RNA extracted 24 and 48 h post-inoculation, which represented the mid-exponential phase (biomass quickly increasing) and stationary phase (biomass peaked and remained stable) during the biofilm formation, respectively (Additional file : Figure S1).

    Techniques: Expressing, Chemotaxis Assay, Modification

    Effects of specific components in maize root exudates on biofilm formation and growth of SQR9. a Effects of different concentrations of glucose on the biomass of biofilm formed by SQR9 after incubation for 24 h. b Effects of glucose (Glucose 1, 500 μM; Glucose 2, 1 mM), citric acid (50 μM) and fumaric acid (50 μM) on the growth of SQR9 under aeration at 8 h post-inoculation. Columns with different letters are statistically different according to the Duncan’s multiple range tests ( P

    Journal: BMC Genomics

    Article Title: Whole transcriptomic analysis of the plant-beneficial rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 during enhanced biofilm formation regulated by maize root exudates

    doi: 10.1186/s12864-015-1825-5

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of specific components in maize root exudates on biofilm formation and growth of SQR9. a Effects of different concentrations of glucose on the biomass of biofilm formed by SQR9 after incubation for 24 h. b Effects of glucose (Glucose 1, 500 μM; Glucose 2, 1 mM), citric acid (50 μM) and fumaric acid (50 μM) on the growth of SQR9 under aeration at 8 h post-inoculation. Columns with different letters are statistically different according to the Duncan’s multiple range tests ( P

    Article Snippet: Considering the dynamics curves of biofilm formation, cells were collected and RNA extracted 24 and 48 h post-inoculation, which represented the mid-exponential phase (biomass quickly increasing) and stationary phase (biomass peaked and remained stable) during the biofilm formation, respectively (Additional file : Figure S1).

    Techniques: Incubation

    Effects of concentrated maize root exudates on biofilm formation of SQR9. a Effects of maize root exudates on the biomass of biofilm formed by SQR9. Data with asterisks were significantly different from the control at each time point (*, P

    Journal: BMC Genomics

    Article Title: Whole transcriptomic analysis of the plant-beneficial rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 during enhanced biofilm formation regulated by maize root exudates

    doi: 10.1186/s12864-015-1825-5

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of concentrated maize root exudates on biofilm formation of SQR9. a Effects of maize root exudates on the biomass of biofilm formed by SQR9. Data with asterisks were significantly different from the control at each time point (*, P

    Article Snippet: Considering the dynamics curves of biofilm formation, cells were collected and RNA extracted 24 and 48 h post-inoculation, which represented the mid-exponential phase (biomass quickly increasing) and stationary phase (biomass peaked and remained stable) during the biofilm formation, respectively (Additional file : Figure S1).

    Techniques:

    SarZ is an important determinant of S. epidermidis biofilm-associated infection

    Journal:

    Article Title: SarZ is a key regulator of biofilm formation and virulence in Staphylococcus epidermidis

    doi: 10.1086/586714

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SarZ is an important determinant of S. epidermidis biofilm-associated infection

    Article Snippet: Finally, several Sar paralogs have been implicated in the control of biofilm formation.

    Techniques: Infection

    SarZ influences in vitro biofilm formation

    Journal:

    Article Title: SarZ is a key regulator of biofilm formation and virulence in Staphylococcus epidermidis

    doi: 10.1086/586714

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SarZ influences in vitro biofilm formation

    Article Snippet: Finally, several Sar paralogs have been implicated in the control of biofilm formation.

    Techniques: In Vitro

    Effect of temperature on biofilm formation of E. coli and P. fluorescens . The elastic (G0) and viscous (G00) is plotted against the time of E. coli (A) and P. fluorescens (B) with changing temperature from 25°–30°C.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: In-Situ Quantification of the Interfacial Rheological Response of Bacterial Biofilms to Environmental Stimuli

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078524

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of temperature on biofilm formation of E. coli and P. fluorescens . The elastic (G0) and viscous (G00) is plotted against the time of E. coli (A) and P. fluorescens (B) with changing temperature from 25°–30°C.

    Article Snippet: Biofilm growth of B. subtilis in LB Using interfacial rheological measurements, we were also able to detect subtle changes in biofilm formation caused by single, excreted gene products, such as surfactin.

    Techniques:

    Overview on the experimental techniques used to measure the biofilm elasticity. A: Schematic overview over subphase controlled interfacial rheological setup used for the bacterial biofilm elasticity measurements. B: Schematic representation on the pendant drop tensiometer with an biofilm.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: In-Situ Quantification of the Interfacial Rheological Response of Bacterial Biofilms to Environmental Stimuli

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078524

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Overview on the experimental techniques used to measure the biofilm elasticity. A: Schematic overview over subphase controlled interfacial rheological setup used for the bacterial biofilm elasticity measurements. B: Schematic representation on the pendant drop tensiometer with an biofilm.

    Article Snippet: Biofilm growth of B. subtilis in LB Using interfacial rheological measurements, we were also able to detect subtle changes in biofilm formation caused by single, excreted gene products, such as surfactin.

    Techniques:

    Effect of surfactin production on biofilm formation of B. subtilis . A: The elasticity (G0) of B. subtilis and B. subtilis surfactin mutant is plotted against the time. B: The surface tension versus time is plotted of B. subtilis and B. subtilis surfactin mutant. C: Images of the pendant drop experiment of B. subtilis and B. subtilis before and after biofilm growth (C) (t > 45 h).

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: In-Situ Quantification of the Interfacial Rheological Response of Bacterial Biofilms to Environmental Stimuli

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078524

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of surfactin production on biofilm formation of B. subtilis . A: The elasticity (G0) of B. subtilis and B. subtilis surfactin mutant is plotted against the time. B: The surface tension versus time is plotted of B. subtilis and B. subtilis surfactin mutant. C: Images of the pendant drop experiment of B. subtilis and B. subtilis before and after biofilm growth (C) (t > 45 h).

    Article Snippet: Biofilm growth of B. subtilis in LB Using interfacial rheological measurements, we were also able to detect subtle changes in biofilm formation caused by single, excreted gene products, such as surfactin.

    Techniques: Mutagenesis

    Biofilm formation at the water-air interface. Macroscopic (top) and microscopic images (bottom) of biofilms formed at the water-air interface after 72 h of P. fluorescens (A), E. coli (B) and B. subtilis (C).

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: In-Situ Quantification of the Interfacial Rheological Response of Bacterial Biofilms to Environmental Stimuli

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078524

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Biofilm formation at the water-air interface. Macroscopic (top) and microscopic images (bottom) of biofilms formed at the water-air interface after 72 h of P. fluorescens (A), E. coli (B) and B. subtilis (C).

    Article Snippet: Biofilm growth of B. subtilis in LB Using interfacial rheological measurements, we were also able to detect subtle changes in biofilm formation caused by single, excreted gene products, such as surfactin.

    Techniques:

    Effect of Tween 20 on biofilm elasticity after biofilm formation. The elasticity (G0) is plotted against the time and concentration of Tween 20 of P. fluorescens (A) and B. flsubtilis (B).

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: In-Situ Quantification of the Interfacial Rheological Response of Bacterial Biofilms to Environmental Stimuli

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078524

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of Tween 20 on biofilm elasticity after biofilm formation. The elasticity (G0) is plotted against the time and concentration of Tween 20 of P. fluorescens (A) and B. flsubtilis (B).

    Article Snippet: Biofilm growth of B. subtilis in LB Using interfacial rheological measurements, we were also able to detect subtle changes in biofilm formation caused by single, excreted gene products, such as surfactin.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    Transient biofilm elasticity of E. coli and P. uorescens . The elastic (G0) and viscous (G00) as a function of time for E. coli (A) and P. fluorescens (B).

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: In-Situ Quantification of the Interfacial Rheological Response of Bacterial Biofilms to Environmental Stimuli

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078524

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Transient biofilm elasticity of E. coli and P. uorescens . The elastic (G0) and viscous (G00) as a function of time for E. coli (A) and P. fluorescens (B).

    Article Snippet: Biofilm growth of B. subtilis in LB Using interfacial rheological measurements, we were also able to detect subtle changes in biofilm formation caused by single, excreted gene products, such as surfactin.

    Techniques:

    Effect of varying pH on biofilm elasticity after biofilm formation. The elasticity (G0) is plotted against the time of E. coli (A), P. fluorescens (B) and B. subtilis (C) before and after pH change. After the dotted line, the pH was controlled by the addition of 1 M HCl.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: In-Situ Quantification of the Interfacial Rheological Response of Bacterial Biofilms to Environmental Stimuli

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078524

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of varying pH on biofilm elasticity after biofilm formation. The elasticity (G0) is plotted against the time of E. coli (A), P. fluorescens (B) and B. subtilis (C) before and after pH change. After the dotted line, the pH was controlled by the addition of 1 M HCl.

    Article Snippet: Biofilm growth of B. subtilis in LB Using interfacial rheological measurements, we were also able to detect subtle changes in biofilm formation caused by single, excreted gene products, such as surfactin.

    Techniques:

    Summary log difference from smooth data for S. epidermidis ( a ), P. aeruginosa ( b ), and R. pickettii ( c ). Error bars indicate ± standard deviation from the mean. Positive values indicate more attachment/biofilm formation than Smooth, while negative values indicate less attachment/biofilm formation than Smooth. Overall, the Biocell and Siltex textures had greater differences from Smooth [i.e., more attached bacteria (2 h) and biofilm formation (24 h)] than the Silk and Velvet textures

    Journal: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

    Article Title: Bacterial Adhesion and Biofilm Formation on Textured Breast Implant Shell Materials

    doi: 10.1007/s00266-018-1234-7

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Summary log difference from smooth data for S. epidermidis ( a ), P. aeruginosa ( b ), and R. pickettii ( c ). Error bars indicate ± standard deviation from the mean. Positive values indicate more attachment/biofilm formation than Smooth, while negative values indicate less attachment/biofilm formation than Smooth. Overall, the Biocell and Siltex textures had greater differences from Smooth [i.e., more attached bacteria (2 h) and biofilm formation (24 h)] than the Silk and Velvet textures

    Article Snippet: However, there were differences between species and time points, with P. aeruginosa attaching more to the textures with greater surface area but not developing more biofilm on these textures, whereas S. epidermidis and R. pickettii displayed more difference between textures for biofilm formation.

    Techniques: Standard Deviation

    CSLM images of S. epidermidis ( a ), P. aeruginosa ( b ), and R. pickettii ( c ) biofilms after 24 h of growth on breast implant surfaces. For all three species, more biofilm was observed on the Biocell and Siltex textures than the Silk and Velvet textures

    Journal: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

    Article Title: Bacterial Adhesion and Biofilm Formation on Textured Breast Implant Shell Materials

    doi: 10.1007/s00266-018-1234-7

    Figure Lengend Snippet: CSLM images of S. epidermidis ( a ), P. aeruginosa ( b ), and R. pickettii ( c ) biofilms after 24 h of growth on breast implant surfaces. For all three species, more biofilm was observed on the Biocell and Siltex textures than the Silk and Velvet textures

    Article Snippet: However, there were differences between species and time points, with P. aeruginosa attaching more to the textures with greater surface area but not developing more biofilm on these textures, whereas S. epidermidis and R. pickettii displayed more difference between textures for biofilm formation.

    Techniques:

    RT-qPCR analysis of relative expression of selected genes related to carbon metabolism, sulfate reduction, electron transfer and biofilm formation in D. vulgaris biofilms under saline and freshwater conditions . (A) Relative expression of carbon metabolism enzymes lactate dehydrogenase ldh , pyruvate formate lyase DVU2272 and pyruvate dehydrogenase DVU3025 in the primary left y -axis, and formate dehydrogenase DUV0588 in the secondary right y -axis. (B) Relative expression of dissimilatory sulfite reductase dsrB , dsrC , adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate reductase aprA , aprB and pyrophosphatase ppaC in the primary left y -axis, and dissimilatory sulfite reductase alpha subunit dsrA and sulfate adenylytransferase Sat in the secondary right y -axis. (C) Relative expression of Fe hydrogenase hydA , NiFeSe hydrogenase hysA -1, Ech hydrogenases echE , formate dehydrogenase DVU1817and c 3-type cytochromes DVU3171 and DVU2524 in the primary left y -axis, as well as NiFe hydrogenase hynA -1, Ech hydrogenase echF , and c 3-type cytochrome DVU2809 in the secondary right y -axis. (D) Relative expression of exopolysaccharide synthesis protein DVU0281 in the primary left y -axis and sensor histidine kinase response regulator DVU3062 in the secondary right y -axis. Relative expression refers to the transcript level of a specific gene normalized with that of reference gene recA . Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation ( n = 3). Significant difference: ∗ p

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Salinity-Mediated Increment in Sulfate Reduction, Biofilm Formation, and Quorum Sensing: A Potential Connection Between Quorum Sensing and Sulfate Reduction?

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.00188

    Figure Lengend Snippet: RT-qPCR analysis of relative expression of selected genes related to carbon metabolism, sulfate reduction, electron transfer and biofilm formation in D. vulgaris biofilms under saline and freshwater conditions . (A) Relative expression of carbon metabolism enzymes lactate dehydrogenase ldh , pyruvate formate lyase DVU2272 and pyruvate dehydrogenase DVU3025 in the primary left y -axis, and formate dehydrogenase DUV0588 in the secondary right y -axis. (B) Relative expression of dissimilatory sulfite reductase dsrB , dsrC , adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate reductase aprA , aprB and pyrophosphatase ppaC in the primary left y -axis, and dissimilatory sulfite reductase alpha subunit dsrA and sulfate adenylytransferase Sat in the secondary right y -axis. (C) Relative expression of Fe hydrogenase hydA , NiFeSe hydrogenase hysA -1, Ech hydrogenases echE , formate dehydrogenase DVU1817and c 3-type cytochromes DVU3171 and DVU2524 in the primary left y -axis, as well as NiFe hydrogenase hynA -1, Ech hydrogenase echF , and c 3-type cytochrome DVU2809 in the secondary right y -axis. (D) Relative expression of exopolysaccharide synthesis protein DVU0281 in the primary left y -axis and sensor histidine kinase response regulator DVU3062 in the secondary right y -axis. Relative expression refers to the transcript level of a specific gene normalized with that of reference gene recA . Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation ( n = 3). Significant difference: ∗ p

    Article Snippet: Effect of Salinity on Biofilm Formation To elucidate effects of salinity on SRB biofilm formation, a static biofilm assay was conducted on D. vulgaris and Db. corrodens biofilms cultivated on a polystyrene flat bottom 96-well plate (Costar, Corning Inc., Corning, NY, United States).

    Techniques: Quantitative RT-PCR, Expressing, Standard Deviation

    Quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) and the effect on specific growth rate and biofilm formation of D. vulgaris and Db. corrodens in saline media. (A) Effect of bromofuranone on specific growth rate and biofilm formation of D. vulgaris (upper panel) and Db. corrodens (lower panel). (B) Effect of 3-oxo-N on specific growth rate and biofilm formation of D. vulgaris (upper panel) and Db. corrodens (lower panel). (C) Effect of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on specific growth rate and biofilm formation of D. vulgaris (upper panel) and Db. corrodens (lower panel). Bar chart illustrates specific growth rate plot and dotted line scatter plot illustrates biofilm biomass plot. Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation ( n = 3). Significant difference in specific growth rate: ∗ p

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Salinity-Mediated Increment in Sulfate Reduction, Biofilm Formation, and Quorum Sensing: A Potential Connection Between Quorum Sensing and Sulfate Reduction?

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.00188

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) and the effect on specific growth rate and biofilm formation of D. vulgaris and Db. corrodens in saline media. (A) Effect of bromofuranone on specific growth rate and biofilm formation of D. vulgaris (upper panel) and Db. corrodens (lower panel). (B) Effect of 3-oxo-N on specific growth rate and biofilm formation of D. vulgaris (upper panel) and Db. corrodens (lower panel). (C) Effect of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on specific growth rate and biofilm formation of D. vulgaris (upper panel) and Db. corrodens (lower panel). Bar chart illustrates specific growth rate plot and dotted line scatter plot illustrates biofilm biomass plot. Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation ( n = 3). Significant difference in specific growth rate: ∗ p

    Article Snippet: Effect of Salinity on Biofilm Formation To elucidate effects of salinity on SRB biofilm formation, a static biofilm assay was conducted on D. vulgaris and Db. corrodens biofilms cultivated on a polystyrene flat bottom 96-well plate (Costar, Corning Inc., Corning, NY, United States).

    Techniques: Standard Deviation

    Quantification of eDNA and the contribution of eDNA to biofilm formation. (A) Quantification of eDNA in biofilms. eDNA was isolated from a 20-h biofilm and quantified as the weight of eDNA per unit of dry weight of biofilm. The dry weights of biofilm obtained from TSBs, TSBg, and TSBr were 4.44 ± 0.3 μg, 2.49 ± 0.1 μg, and 2.80 ± 0.2 μg, respectively. (B) Quantification of total eDNA in biofilm and conditioned medium. Five hundred microliters of overnight culture was mixed with 4.5 ml of TSBs, TSBg, or TSBr in a 6-well culture plate. The biofilm formation was conducted for 20 h. These data indicate the total amount of eDNA detected from biofilm and 5 ml of culture supernatant. (C) Inhibitory effect of DNase I on biofilm formation. Taking into consideration the finding that eDNA contributes to the initial stage of the biofilm formation, we quantified biofilm formations in the 8-h biofilm. DNase I was added at a concentration of 50 U/ml (DNase+) before the incubation for biofilm formation. As a control, we also quantified biofilm formations in the absence of DNase I (DNase−) and heat-inactivated (100°C for 30 min) DNase I (iDNase). These data indicate mean ± SD of the results from three independent experiments. The asterisks indicate a significant difference between two groups (Student's t test, P

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Raffinose Induces Biofilm Formation by Streptococcus mutans in Low Concentrations of Sucrose by Increasing Production of Extracellular DNA and Fructan

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.00869-17

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Quantification of eDNA and the contribution of eDNA to biofilm formation. (A) Quantification of eDNA in biofilms. eDNA was isolated from a 20-h biofilm and quantified as the weight of eDNA per unit of dry weight of biofilm. The dry weights of biofilm obtained from TSBs, TSBg, and TSBr were 4.44 ± 0.3 μg, 2.49 ± 0.1 μg, and 2.80 ± 0.2 μg, respectively. (B) Quantification of total eDNA in biofilm and conditioned medium. Five hundred microliters of overnight culture was mixed with 4.5 ml of TSBs, TSBg, or TSBr in a 6-well culture plate. The biofilm formation was conducted for 20 h. These data indicate the total amount of eDNA detected from biofilm and 5 ml of culture supernatant. (C) Inhibitory effect of DNase I on biofilm formation. Taking into consideration the finding that eDNA contributes to the initial stage of the biofilm formation, we quantified biofilm formations in the 8-h biofilm. DNase I was added at a concentration of 50 U/ml (DNase+) before the incubation for biofilm formation. As a control, we also quantified biofilm formations in the absence of DNase I (DNase−) and heat-inactivated (100°C for 30 min) DNase I (iDNase). These data indicate mean ± SD of the results from three independent experiments. The asterisks indicate a significant difference between two groups (Student's t test, P

    Article Snippet: Biofilm formation was quantified using several medium types, including tryptic soy broth without dextrose (TSB; Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI), TSB supplemented with 0.25% (wt/vol) sucrose (TSBs), glucose (TSBg), or raffinose (TSBr), and semidefined medium (SDM) supplemented with 0.25% (wt/vol) sucrose (SDMs), glucose (SDMg), or raffinose (SDMr) ( ).

    Techniques: Isolation, Concentration Assay, Incubation

    The function of the polysaccharide synthase genes in biofilm formation in TSBr. (A) The amount of biofilm formed by the deletion mutants of the gene encoding polysaccharide synthase in TSBr. (B) CLSM analysis of the biofilm formed in TSBr. The cells in the biofilm were stained with the LIVE/DEAD BacLight bacterial viability kit for 30 min. Representative images from three independent experiments are presented. (C) An aggregation assay of the bacterial cells. The roles of eDNA and fructan in cell aggregation were examined by mimicking the extracellular matrix synthesized in TSBr. Five micrograms per milliliter genomic DNA of UA159 and/or 250 μg/ml commercial inulin was added to 3 ml of cell suspension, which was grown in BHI and adjusted to an OD 600 of 1.5 with aggregation buffer. The data are presented as the means ± SD of the results from three independent experiments. The asterisks indicate a significant difference between two groups (Student's t test, P

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Raffinose Induces Biofilm Formation by Streptococcus mutans in Low Concentrations of Sucrose by Increasing Production of Extracellular DNA and Fructan

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.00869-17

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The function of the polysaccharide synthase genes in biofilm formation in TSBr. (A) The amount of biofilm formed by the deletion mutants of the gene encoding polysaccharide synthase in TSBr. (B) CLSM analysis of the biofilm formed in TSBr. The cells in the biofilm were stained with the LIVE/DEAD BacLight bacterial viability kit for 30 min. Representative images from three independent experiments are presented. (C) An aggregation assay of the bacterial cells. The roles of eDNA and fructan in cell aggregation were examined by mimicking the extracellular matrix synthesized in TSBr. Five micrograms per milliliter genomic DNA of UA159 and/or 250 μg/ml commercial inulin was added to 3 ml of cell suspension, which was grown in BHI and adjusted to an OD 600 of 1.5 with aggregation buffer. The data are presented as the means ± SD of the results from three independent experiments. The asterisks indicate a significant difference between two groups (Student's t test, P

    Article Snippet: Biofilm formation was quantified using several medium types, including tryptic soy broth without dextrose (TSB; Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI), TSB supplemented with 0.25% (wt/vol) sucrose (TSBs), glucose (TSBg), or raffinose (TSBr), and semidefined medium (SDM) supplemented with 0.25% (wt/vol) sucrose (SDMs), glucose (SDMg), or raffinose (SDMr) ( ).

    Techniques: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining, Synthesized

    The stimulatory effect of raffinose on biofilm formation by S. mutans . (A) Structural comparison of sugars used in this study. (B) Biofilm formation assay in TSB or SDM supplemented with 0.25% (wt/vol) sucrose, glucose, or raffinose. We used sucrose and glucose as biofilm-inducible and non-biofilm-inducible controls, respectively. (C) The impact of a low concentration of sucrose and the stimulatory effect of raffinose on biofilm formation. To evaluate the effects of a low concentration of sucrose, we used SDM with 0.002% sucrose, which is not sufficient to induce a biofilm, as a base medium. We tested whether raffinose has a stimulatory effect of biofilm by adding various concentrations of raffinose to cell culture. Glucose was used as a negative control. (D) Comparison of the biomass of a biofilm formed by WT and Δ agaL mutant strains. Biofilm biomasses were comparable in the WT and Δ agaL mutant strains. The data indicate means ± standard deviations (SD) of the results from three independent experiments. The asterisks indicate a significant difference between two groups (Student's t test; P

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Raffinose Induces Biofilm Formation by Streptococcus mutans in Low Concentrations of Sucrose by Increasing Production of Extracellular DNA and Fructan

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.00869-17

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The stimulatory effect of raffinose on biofilm formation by S. mutans . (A) Structural comparison of sugars used in this study. (B) Biofilm formation assay in TSB or SDM supplemented with 0.25% (wt/vol) sucrose, glucose, or raffinose. We used sucrose and glucose as biofilm-inducible and non-biofilm-inducible controls, respectively. (C) The impact of a low concentration of sucrose and the stimulatory effect of raffinose on biofilm formation. To evaluate the effects of a low concentration of sucrose, we used SDM with 0.002% sucrose, which is not sufficient to induce a biofilm, as a base medium. We tested whether raffinose has a stimulatory effect of biofilm by adding various concentrations of raffinose to cell culture. Glucose was used as a negative control. (D) Comparison of the biomass of a biofilm formed by WT and Δ agaL mutant strains. Biofilm biomasses were comparable in the WT and Δ agaL mutant strains. The data indicate means ± standard deviations (SD) of the results from three independent experiments. The asterisks indicate a significant difference between two groups (Student's t test; P

    Article Snippet: Biofilm formation was quantified using several medium types, including tryptic soy broth without dextrose (TSB; Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI), TSB supplemented with 0.25% (wt/vol) sucrose (TSBs), glucose (TSBg), or raffinose (TSBr), and semidefined medium (SDM) supplemented with 0.25% (wt/vol) sucrose (SDMs), glucose (SDMg), or raffinose (SDMr) ( ).

    Techniques: Tube Formation Assay, Concentration Assay, Cell Culture, Negative Control, Mutagenesis

    The importance of gtfB for biofilm formation in TSBr. (A) Expression of genes which encode the polysaccharide synthases in a 20-h biofilm. This graph indicates the relative expression levels of the genes compared with the expression of each gene during cultivation in TSB. These data were normalized to the expression of the endogenous control (lactate dehydrogenase). (B) A two-compartment biofilm formation assay. This experiment revealed the importance of Gtf-I encoded by gtfB secreted by the WT cells inoculated into the upper compartment. The wells were separated by the hanging cell culture insert into the upper and bottom parts of the well. The biofilm formed on the bottom of the wells in TSBr was stained with a safranin solution. Representative images of three independent experiments are presented. (C) Comparison of the cell surface hydrophobicities between strains. The cells grown in TSB, TSBr, SDMr, or SDM supplemented with 0.0075% sucrose medium for 6 h were used. These data are presented as means ± SD of the results from three independent experiments. The asterisks indicate a significant difference between two strains (Student's t test, P

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Raffinose Induces Biofilm Formation by Streptococcus mutans in Low Concentrations of Sucrose by Increasing Production of Extracellular DNA and Fructan

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.00869-17

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The importance of gtfB for biofilm formation in TSBr. (A) Expression of genes which encode the polysaccharide synthases in a 20-h biofilm. This graph indicates the relative expression levels of the genes compared with the expression of each gene during cultivation in TSB. These data were normalized to the expression of the endogenous control (lactate dehydrogenase). (B) A two-compartment biofilm formation assay. This experiment revealed the importance of Gtf-I encoded by gtfB secreted by the WT cells inoculated into the upper compartment. The wells were separated by the hanging cell culture insert into the upper and bottom parts of the well. The biofilm formed on the bottom of the wells in TSBr was stained with a safranin solution. Representative images of three independent experiments are presented. (C) Comparison of the cell surface hydrophobicities between strains. The cells grown in TSB, TSBr, SDMr, or SDM supplemented with 0.0075% sucrose medium for 6 h were used. These data are presented as means ± SD of the results from three independent experiments. The asterisks indicate a significant difference between two strains (Student's t test, P

    Article Snippet: Biofilm formation was quantified using several medium types, including tryptic soy broth without dextrose (TSB; Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI), TSB supplemented with 0.25% (wt/vol) sucrose (TSBs), glucose (TSBg), or raffinose (TSBr), and semidefined medium (SDM) supplemented with 0.25% (wt/vol) sucrose (SDMs), glucose (SDMg), or raffinose (SDMr) ( ).

    Techniques: Expressing, Tube Formation Assay, Cell Culture, Staining, Cell Surface Hydrophobicity

    Alternation of biofilm microbial community composition with different treatments. (A) PCoA, (B) top five dominant genera. Control: mountain water as influent for 60 days; polluted: mountain water as influent for 20 days and urban water as influent for 40 days; recovery: mountain water as influent for 20 days, urban water as influent for 20 days, and finally mountain water as influent for 20 days. Error bar represents mean value plus standard deviation.

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Fungal Community as a Bioindicator to Reflect Anthropogenic Activities in a River Ecosystem

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.03152

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Alternation of biofilm microbial community composition with different treatments. (A) PCoA, (B) top five dominant genera. Control: mountain water as influent for 60 days; polluted: mountain water as influent for 20 days and urban water as influent for 40 days; recovery: mountain water as influent for 20 days, urban water as influent for 20 days, and finally mountain water as influent for 20 days. Error bar represents mean value plus standard deviation.

    Article Snippet: Biofilm Formation in Flow Cells Convertible flow cells (Stovall Life Science, Inc., Greensboro, NC, United States), with a dimension of 24 mm × 40 mm × 8 mm, provide continuous culture chambers for the real time, non-destructive study of biofilms under continuous hydrodynamic conditions at a controlled and reproducible flow rate (Supplementary Figure ).

    Techniques: Standard Deviation

    Fungal community composition of reactor biofilms over two seasons of operation. (A) PCoA, (B) phylum level community. MA, influent using water from mountain area; UA, influent using water from urban area; AA, influent using water from agricultural area.

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Fungal Community as a Bioindicator to Reflect Anthropogenic Activities in a River Ecosystem

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.03152

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Fungal community composition of reactor biofilms over two seasons of operation. (A) PCoA, (B) phylum level community. MA, influent using water from mountain area; UA, influent using water from urban area; AA, influent using water from agricultural area.

    Article Snippet: Biofilm Formation in Flow Cells Convertible flow cells (Stovall Life Science, Inc., Greensboro, NC, United States), with a dimension of 24 mm × 40 mm × 8 mm, provide continuous culture chambers for the real time, non-destructive study of biofilms under continuous hydrodynamic conditions at a controlled and reproducible flow rate (Supplementary Figure ).

    Techniques:

    Comparison of manual counting and automated counting by qBA. T. (A) Processed images of a P . aeruginosa biofilm Z-stack. (B) Three manually and individually determined bacteria numbers (red line) per layer compared to individual counting by qBA (2D, green line). (B) Three different biofilms of P . aeruginosa were analyzed manually (red line) and by qBA (2D, green line and 3D, black line). In general the cell distribution within those three independent grown biofilms exhibited a minor deviation.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: A Novel Computerized Cell Count Algorithm for Biofilm Analysis

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154937

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison of manual counting and automated counting by qBA. T. (A) Processed images of a P . aeruginosa biofilm Z-stack. (B) Three manually and individually determined bacteria numbers (red line) per layer compared to individual counting by qBA (2D, green line). (B) Three different biofilms of P . aeruginosa were analyzed manually (red line) and by qBA (2D, green line and 3D, black line). In general the cell distribution within those three independent grown biofilms exhibited a minor deviation.

    Article Snippet: For biofilm formation, the overnight culture was diluted 1:100 in fresh Mueller Hinton (MH) medium (Roth GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany), and 300 μL were applied in X-well Tissue Culture Chambers (Sarstedt AG, Germany) and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours without shaking to allow biofilm maturation.

    Techniques:

    Comparison of simulated images with genuine biofilms. (A) S . aureus (cocci) biofilm and (B) P . aeruginosa (rods) biofilm. Simulations of 10,000 coccal (C) or rod (D) cells at a minimum and maximum declension = 1. All 2D-images of single layers are shown as section of similar resolution with an approximately edge length of 42 μm.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: A Novel Computerized Cell Count Algorithm for Biofilm Analysis

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154937

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison of simulated images with genuine biofilms. (A) S . aureus (cocci) biofilm and (B) P . aeruginosa (rods) biofilm. Simulations of 10,000 coccal (C) or rod (D) cells at a minimum and maximum declension = 1. All 2D-images of single layers are shown as section of similar resolution with an approximately edge length of 42 μm.

    Article Snippet: For biofilm formation, the overnight culture was diluted 1:100 in fresh Mueller Hinton (MH) medium (Roth GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany), and 300 μL were applied in X-well Tissue Culture Chambers (Sarstedt AG, Germany) and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours without shaking to allow biofilm maturation.

    Techniques:

    Histograms of viable and dead cells of P . aeruginosa biofilms treated by PBS or various concentrations of antibiotics. (A) PBS treatment; (B, D, F, H) Nitroxoline treatment and (C, E, G, I) colistin treatment (corresponding to Fig 6 ). Viable cells are represented by green lines and dead cells in red lines. Error bars indicate the standard error of the mean (SEM) for three independent experiments. Concentrations of antibiotics are indicated above the corresponding histograms.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: A Novel Computerized Cell Count Algorithm for Biofilm Analysis

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154937

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Histograms of viable and dead cells of P . aeruginosa biofilms treated by PBS or various concentrations of antibiotics. (A) PBS treatment; (B, D, F, H) Nitroxoline treatment and (C, E, G, I) colistin treatment (corresponding to Fig 6 ). Viable cells are represented by green lines and dead cells in red lines. Error bars indicate the standard error of the mean (SEM) for three independent experiments. Concentrations of antibiotics are indicated above the corresponding histograms.

    Article Snippet: For biofilm formation, the overnight culture was diluted 1:100 in fresh Mueller Hinton (MH) medium (Roth GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany), and 300 μL were applied in X-well Tissue Culture Chambers (Sarstedt AG, Germany) and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours without shaking to allow biofilm maturation.

    Techniques:

    CLSM images of P . aeruginosa PA01 biofilms after 24 hours growth treated with PBS or nitroxoline or colistin for 3.5 hours. (A) PBS treatment; (B) 160 μg/mL nitroxoline; (C) 160 μg/mL colistin; (D) 320 μg/mL nitroxoline; (E) 320 μg/mL colistin (F) 640 μg/mL nitroxoline; (G) 640 μg/mL colistin. Viable cells are visible in green (SYTO 9) and dead cells in red (propidium iodide). All images present only sections of approximately 50 x 50 μm (X x Y) and variable Z-sizes (depending on biofilm thickness).

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: A Novel Computerized Cell Count Algorithm for Biofilm Analysis

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154937

    Figure Lengend Snippet: CLSM images of P . aeruginosa PA01 biofilms after 24 hours growth treated with PBS or nitroxoline or colistin for 3.5 hours. (A) PBS treatment; (B) 160 μg/mL nitroxoline; (C) 160 μg/mL colistin; (D) 320 μg/mL nitroxoline; (E) 320 μg/mL colistin (F) 640 μg/mL nitroxoline; (G) 640 μg/mL colistin. Viable cells are visible in green (SYTO 9) and dead cells in red (propidium iodide). All images present only sections of approximately 50 x 50 μm (X x Y) and variable Z-sizes (depending on biofilm thickness).

    Article Snippet: For biofilm formation, the overnight culture was diluted 1:100 in fresh Mueller Hinton (MH) medium (Roth GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany), and 300 μL were applied in X-well Tissue Culture Chambers (Sarstedt AG, Germany) and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours without shaking to allow biofilm maturation.

    Techniques: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

    Concentration-response activities of nitroxoline and colistin against P . aeruginosa biofilms measured by different methods. (A-B) Direct count ( N /cm 2 ) of viable and dead bacteria by qBA; (C-D) Determination of viable cells on agar (CFU/mL); (E-F) Direct determination of the area ( A ) covered by green- and red-stained bacteria by qBA; (G-H) Crystal violet absorption.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: A Novel Computerized Cell Count Algorithm for Biofilm Analysis

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154937

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Concentration-response activities of nitroxoline and colistin against P . aeruginosa biofilms measured by different methods. (A-B) Direct count ( N /cm 2 ) of viable and dead bacteria by qBA; (C-D) Determination of viable cells on agar (CFU/mL); (E-F) Direct determination of the area ( A ) covered by green- and red-stained bacteria by qBA; (G-H) Crystal violet absorption.

    Article Snippet: For biofilm formation, the overnight culture was diluted 1:100 in fresh Mueller Hinton (MH) medium (Roth GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany), and 300 μL were applied in X-well Tissue Culture Chambers (Sarstedt AG, Germany) and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours without shaking to allow biofilm maturation.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay, Staining

    Comparison of a 2D and 3D analysis by qBA of an E . coli biofilm. (A) Analyzed biofilm layers scanned by CLSM (green and red channels overlapping). (B) Histogram of the viable (green) and dead (red) cells estimated in a 2D (dotted lines) and 3D (solid lines) setting. (C) Allocated (red crosses) local grayscale maxima in three neighboring layers (as indicated by the red dotted square in A). Biofilm images in A and B were processed by increasing the intensity and contrast of the signals for illustrative purpose.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: A Novel Computerized Cell Count Algorithm for Biofilm Analysis

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154937

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison of a 2D and 3D analysis by qBA of an E . coli biofilm. (A) Analyzed biofilm layers scanned by CLSM (green and red channels overlapping). (B) Histogram of the viable (green) and dead (red) cells estimated in a 2D (dotted lines) and 3D (solid lines) setting. (C) Allocated (red crosses) local grayscale maxima in three neighboring layers (as indicated by the red dotted square in A). Biofilm images in A and B were processed by increasing the intensity and contrast of the signals for illustrative purpose.

    Article Snippet: For biofilm formation, the overnight culture was diluted 1:100 in fresh Mueller Hinton (MH) medium (Roth GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany), and 300 μL were applied in X-well Tissue Culture Chambers (Sarstedt AG, Germany) and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours without shaking to allow biofilm maturation.

    Techniques: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

    The antimicrobial effects of ZY354 against oral streptococcal multispecies biofilms. (A) Representative images of multispecies biofilms treated with ZY354. Green, bacteria (SYTO 9); red, extracellular polysaccharides (EPS). (B) Quantitative analysis of EPS and bacteria within the biofilms. (C) The ratio of EPS/bacteria within the biofilms. (D) Representative images of dead/live bacteria within the multispecies biofilms after treatment. Green, live bacteria; red, dead bacteria. (E) Quantitative ratio of dead to live bacteria after treatment. Data are presented as means ± standard deviations. * , P  

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: A Novel Small Molecule, ZY354, Inhibits Dental Caries-Associated Oral Biofilms

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.02414-18

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The antimicrobial effects of ZY354 against oral streptococcal multispecies biofilms. (A) Representative images of multispecies biofilms treated with ZY354. Green, bacteria (SYTO 9); red, extracellular polysaccharides (EPS). (B) Quantitative analysis of EPS and bacteria within the biofilms. (C) The ratio of EPS/bacteria within the biofilms. (D) Representative images of dead/live bacteria within the multispecies biofilms after treatment. Green, live bacteria; red, dead bacteria. (E) Quantitative ratio of dead to live bacteria after treatment. Data are presented as means ± standard deviations. * , P  

    Article Snippet: For EPS staining, 2.5 μM Alexa Fluor 647-labeled dextran conjugate (Molecular Probes) was added at the beginning of biofilm formation, and the bacteria were stained with 2.5 μM SYTO9 (Molecular Probes) for 15 min after biofilms formed ( ).

    Techniques:

    The anti-demineralization effect of ZY354 against multispecies biofilms. (A) Representative transverse microradiography images of human enamel discs exposed to 5-day biofilm-induced experimental demineralization. The high-density regions represent the sound enamel tissues, while the low-density shadows indicate the caries-like lesions. (B and C) Lesion depth and mineral loss were calculated. Data are presented as means ± standard deviations. * , P  

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: A Novel Small Molecule, ZY354, Inhibits Dental Caries-Associated Oral Biofilms

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.02414-18

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The anti-demineralization effect of ZY354 against multispecies biofilms. (A) Representative transverse microradiography images of human enamel discs exposed to 5-day biofilm-induced experimental demineralization. The high-density regions represent the sound enamel tissues, while the low-density shadows indicate the caries-like lesions. (B and C) Lesion depth and mineral loss were calculated. Data are presented as means ± standard deviations. * , P  

    Article Snippet: For EPS staining, 2.5 μM Alexa Fluor 647-labeled dextran conjugate (Molecular Probes) was added at the beginning of biofilm formation, and the bacteria were stained with 2.5 μM SYTO9 (Molecular Probes) for 15 min after biofilms formed ( ).

    Techniques:

    The composition shift of multispecies biofilms. (A) Representative fluorescent in situ hybridization images of multispecies biofilms: S. m ., S. mutans ; S. g ., S. gordonii ; S. s ., S. sanguinis . (B) The ratios of S. mutans , S. gordonii , and S. sanguinis in multispecies biofilms quantified by qPCR. Data are presented as means ± standard deviations.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: A Novel Small Molecule, ZY354, Inhibits Dental Caries-Associated Oral Biofilms

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.02414-18

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The composition shift of multispecies biofilms. (A) Representative fluorescent in situ hybridization images of multispecies biofilms: S. m ., S. mutans ; S. g ., S. gordonii ; S. s ., S. sanguinis . (B) The ratios of S. mutans , S. gordonii , and S. sanguinis in multispecies biofilms quantified by qPCR. Data are presented as means ± standard deviations.

    Article Snippet: For EPS staining, 2.5 μM Alexa Fluor 647-labeled dextran conjugate (Molecular Probes) was added at the beginning of biofilm formation, and the bacteria were stained with 2.5 μM SYTO9 (Molecular Probes) for 15 min after biofilms formed ( ).

    Techniques: In Situ Hybridization, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Effect of OligoG on inhibition of mucoid biofilm formation: Imaging and quantification of P. aeruginosa (NH57388A) biofilms grown for 24 h at 37 °C in MH broth ± OligoG (0.5%, 2% 6%). a SEM imaging of biofilms (Scale bar, 10 µm). b CLSM 3D imaging (aerial view) of LIVE/DEAD® staining of biofilms (Scale bar, 20 µm). c COMSTAT image analysis of the corresponding biofilm CLSM z-stack images. * P

    Journal: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes

    Article Title: Targeted disruption of the extracellular polymeric network of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms by alginate oligosaccharides

    doi: 10.1038/s41522-018-0056-3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of OligoG on inhibition of mucoid biofilm formation: Imaging and quantification of P. aeruginosa (NH57388A) biofilms grown for 24 h at 37 °C in MH broth ± OligoG (0.5%, 2% 6%). a SEM imaging of biofilms (Scale bar, 10 µm). b CLSM 3D imaging (aerial view) of LIVE/DEAD® staining of biofilms (Scale bar, 20 µm). c COMSTAT image analysis of the corresponding biofilm CLSM z-stack images. * P

    Article Snippet: Effect of OligoG as a treatment to inhibit biofilm formation (SEM) Mueller Hinton (MH) broth (Lab M) ± 0.5%, 2% or 6% OligoG (w/v) was prepared in a 12-well plate (Greiner Bio-One, Stonehouse, UK) containing ThermanoxTM slides (Agar Scientific), followed by an inoculum using a 1:100 dilution of the P. aeruginosa (NH57388A) overnight culture, and incubated at 37 °C with gentle rocking for 24 h. The supernatant was then removed and biofilms fixed with 2.5% (v/v) glutaraldehyde for 1.5 h. Following washing (x4) with dH2 O, the fixed biofilms were covered with 1 ml dH2 O, frozen and then freeze-dried.

    Techniques: Inhibition, Imaging, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining

    Effect of OligoG on disruption of mucoid established biofilms: CLSM 3D imaging (side view) with LIVE/DEAD® staining of P. aeruginosa (NH57388A) biofilms grown for 24 h at 37 °C in MH broth followed by 4 or 24 h OligoG treatment (0.5, 2 6%) (Scale bar, 15 µm) with COMSTAT image analysis of the corresponding biofilm CLSM z-stack images. Treatment times a 4 h. b 24 h. * P

    Journal: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes

    Article Title: Targeted disruption of the extracellular polymeric network of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms by alginate oligosaccharides

    doi: 10.1038/s41522-018-0056-3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of OligoG on disruption of mucoid established biofilms: CLSM 3D imaging (side view) with LIVE/DEAD® staining of P. aeruginosa (NH57388A) biofilms grown for 24 h at 37 °C in MH broth followed by 4 or 24 h OligoG treatment (0.5, 2 6%) (Scale bar, 15 µm) with COMSTAT image analysis of the corresponding biofilm CLSM z-stack images. Treatment times a 4 h. b 24 h. * P

    Article Snippet: Effect of OligoG as a treatment to inhibit biofilm formation (SEM) Mueller Hinton (MH) broth (Lab M) ± 0.5%, 2% or 6% OligoG (w/v) was prepared in a 12-well plate (Greiner Bio-One, Stonehouse, UK) containing ThermanoxTM slides (Agar Scientific), followed by an inoculum using a 1:100 dilution of the P. aeruginosa (NH57388A) overnight culture, and incubated at 37 °C with gentle rocking for 24 h. The supernatant was then removed and biofilms fixed with 2.5% (v/v) glutaraldehyde for 1.5 h. Following washing (x4) with dH2 O, the fixed biofilms were covered with 1 ml dH2 O, frozen and then freeze-dried.

    Techniques: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Imaging, Staining

    Transwell® biofilm diffusion studies. a Schematic diagram of Transwell® device showing particle diffusion through the biofilm and microporous membrane. Boxplots of mean fluorescence intensity (arbitrary units) in the biofilm Transwell® assay after 4 h OligoG treatment (n = 5), where fluorescence was measured at b 1 h and c 2 h after fluosphere addition. * P

    Journal: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes

    Article Title: Targeted disruption of the extracellular polymeric network of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms by alginate oligosaccharides

    doi: 10.1038/s41522-018-0056-3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Transwell® biofilm diffusion studies. a Schematic diagram of Transwell® device showing particle diffusion through the biofilm and microporous membrane. Boxplots of mean fluorescence intensity (arbitrary units) in the biofilm Transwell® assay after 4 h OligoG treatment (n = 5), where fluorescence was measured at b 1 h and c 2 h after fluosphere addition. * P

    Article Snippet: Effect of OligoG as a treatment to inhibit biofilm formation (SEM) Mueller Hinton (MH) broth (Lab M) ± 0.5%, 2% or 6% OligoG (w/v) was prepared in a 12-well plate (Greiner Bio-One, Stonehouse, UK) containing ThermanoxTM slides (Agar Scientific), followed by an inoculum using a 1:100 dilution of the P. aeruginosa (NH57388A) overnight culture, and incubated at 37 °C with gentle rocking for 24 h. The supernatant was then removed and biofilms fixed with 2.5% (v/v) glutaraldehyde for 1.5 h. Following washing (x4) with dH2 O, the fixed biofilms were covered with 1 ml dH2 O, frozen and then freeze-dried.

    Techniques: Diffusion-based Assay, Fluorescence, Transwell Assay

    Effect of OligoG on the EPS components of mucoid biofilms. 3D CLSM imaging of P. aeruginosa (NH57388A) biofilms stained with ConA (EPS polysaccharides, red) and TOTO-1 (eDNA, green; scale bar, 8 µm) in a biofilm formation assay, where biofilms are grown for 24 h in MH broth ± OligoG (0.5%, 2% 6%) and b the biofilm disruption model where biofilms grown for 24 h in MH broth, followed by 24 h treatment of OligoG (0.5%, 2% 6%). Corresponding mean fluorescence intensities (arbitrary units ×10 6 ) achieved from CLSM 3D imaging of the c biofilm formation assay and the d biofilm disruption assay. * P

    Journal: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes

    Article Title: Targeted disruption of the extracellular polymeric network of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms by alginate oligosaccharides

    doi: 10.1038/s41522-018-0056-3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of OligoG on the EPS components of mucoid biofilms. 3D CLSM imaging of P. aeruginosa (NH57388A) biofilms stained with ConA (EPS polysaccharides, red) and TOTO-1 (eDNA, green; scale bar, 8 µm) in a biofilm formation assay, where biofilms are grown for 24 h in MH broth ± OligoG (0.5%, 2% 6%) and b the biofilm disruption model where biofilms grown for 24 h in MH broth, followed by 24 h treatment of OligoG (0.5%, 2% 6%). Corresponding mean fluorescence intensities (arbitrary units ×10 6 ) achieved from CLSM 3D imaging of the c biofilm formation assay and the d biofilm disruption assay. * P

    Article Snippet: Effect of OligoG as a treatment to inhibit biofilm formation (SEM) Mueller Hinton (MH) broth (Lab M) ± 0.5%, 2% or 6% OligoG (w/v) was prepared in a 12-well plate (Greiner Bio-One, Stonehouse, UK) containing ThermanoxTM slides (Agar Scientific), followed by an inoculum using a 1:100 dilution of the P. aeruginosa (NH57388A) overnight culture, and incubated at 37 °C with gentle rocking for 24 h. The supernatant was then removed and biofilms fixed with 2.5% (v/v) glutaraldehyde for 1.5 h. Following washing (x4) with dH2 O, the fixed biofilms were covered with 1 ml dH2 O, frozen and then freeze-dried.

    Techniques: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Imaging, Staining, Tube Formation Assay, Fluorescence

    Kinetic profile of the cell cultures of Mucor circinelloides UMN-B34 with Chlorella vulgaris attached on a polymer matrix a Total biomass distribution in the co-culture flasks b Biomass composition of the mycoalgae biofilm. MC Mucor circinelloides ; CV Chlorella vulgaris

    Journal: Biotechnology for Biofuels

    Article Title: Mycoalgae biofilm: development of a novel platform technology using algae and fungal cultures

    doi: 10.1186/s13068-016-0533-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Kinetic profile of the cell cultures of Mucor circinelloides UMN-B34 with Chlorella vulgaris attached on a polymer matrix a Total biomass distribution in the co-culture flasks b Biomass composition of the mycoalgae biofilm. MC Mucor circinelloides ; CV Chlorella vulgaris

    Article Snippet: Pictures were taken at different stages of the cell culture and biofilm formation with a digital camera (DSC-T20, Sony).

    Techniques: Co-Culture Assay

    Possible mechanism and stages of algae–fungal cell attachment and proliferation of the mycoalgae biofilm

    Journal: Biotechnology for Biofuels

    Article Title: Mycoalgae biofilm: development of a novel platform technology using algae and fungal cultures

    doi: 10.1186/s13068-016-0533-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Possible mechanism and stages of algae–fungal cell attachment and proliferation of the mycoalgae biofilm

    Article Snippet: Pictures were taken at different stages of the cell culture and biofilm formation with a digital camera (DSC-T20, Sony).

    Techniques: Cell Attachment Assay

    Attached lichen-type mycoalgae biofilm in polypropylene spun-tape yarn composite matrix a Biofilm of axenic Mucor circinelloides b Mucor circinelloides and Chlorella vulgaris mycoalgae biofilm at initial stages of the biofilm formation (48 h) c Mature mycoalgae biofilm at 168 h after complete attachment of the algae

    Journal: Biotechnology for Biofuels

    Article Title: Mycoalgae biofilm: development of a novel platform technology using algae and fungal cultures

    doi: 10.1186/s13068-016-0533-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Attached lichen-type mycoalgae biofilm in polypropylene spun-tape yarn composite matrix a Biofilm of axenic Mucor circinelloides b Mucor circinelloides and Chlorella vulgaris mycoalgae biofilm at initial stages of the biofilm formation (48 h) c Mature mycoalgae biofilm at 168 h after complete attachment of the algae

    Article Snippet: Pictures were taken at different stages of the cell culture and biofilm formation with a digital camera (DSC-T20, Sony).

    Techniques:

    Algae attachment efficiency in the fungal biofilm growth at different process time

    Journal: Biotechnology for Biofuels

    Article Title: Mycoalgae biofilm: development of a novel platform technology using algae and fungal cultures

    doi: 10.1186/s13068-016-0533-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Algae attachment efficiency in the fungal biofilm growth at different process time

    Article Snippet: Pictures were taken at different stages of the cell culture and biofilm formation with a digital camera (DSC-T20, Sony).

    Techniques:

    Digital microscopic pictures of the Mucor circinelloides and Chlorella vulgaris mycoalgae biofilm at different magnification a 10×, b 40×, c 100×

    Journal: Biotechnology for Biofuels

    Article Title: Mycoalgae biofilm: development of a novel platform technology using algae and fungal cultures

    doi: 10.1186/s13068-016-0533-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Digital microscopic pictures of the Mucor circinelloides and Chlorella vulgaris mycoalgae biofilm at different magnification a 10×, b 40×, c 100×

    Article Snippet: Pictures were taken at different stages of the cell culture and biofilm formation with a digital camera (DSC-T20, Sony).

    Techniques:

    (A) Chronic venous leg ulcer. (B) Biofilm of P. aeruginosa [red stain] and S. aureus [green stain], identified by specific PNA FISH probes, surrounded by host cells (DAPI [blue stain]) in a human chronic wound. (C) CSLM three dimensional imaging of picture B. (D) Enlargement of picture C. The white arrows point to bacterial aggregates and the yellow arrows point to the wound surface (Kirketerp-Møller et al., 2008 ).

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Porcine Models of Biofilm Infections with Focus on Pathomorphology

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01961

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A) Chronic venous leg ulcer. (B) Biofilm of P. aeruginosa [red stain] and S. aureus [green stain], identified by specific PNA FISH probes, surrounded by host cells (DAPI [blue stain]) in a human chronic wound. (C) CSLM three dimensional imaging of picture B. (D) Enlargement of picture C. The white arrows point to bacterial aggregates and the yellow arrows point to the wound surface (Kirketerp-Møller et al., 2008 ).

    Article Snippet: A full thickness wound model by Roche et al. ( ; Table ), showed that biofilm formation resulted in delayed healing (Roche et al., ).

    Techniques: Staining, Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization, Imaging

    Viability of F. columnare cells in biofilm determined with the Live/Dead cell viability kit and examination by CLSM. Biofilm was grown on glass slides for 48 h postinoculation. Live cells are stained green, dead cells are red, and EPS is stained blue

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Biofilm Formation by the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium columnare: Development and Parameters Affecting Surface Attachment

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.01192-13

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Viability of F. columnare cells in biofilm determined with the Live/Dead cell viability kit and examination by CLSM. Biofilm was grown on glass slides for 48 h postinoculation. Live cells are stained green, dead cells are red, and EPS is stained blue

    Article Snippet: Data on biofilm formation on polystyrene plates were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance with SAS Software version 9.2 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC).

    Techniques: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining

    Colonization and biofilm development by F. columnare strain ALG-00-530 on glass slides. The bright-field light microscopy images in panels A to F display cell attachment and biofilm formation at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 h postinoculation. Scale bars,

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Biofilm Formation by the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium columnare: Development and Parameters Affecting Surface Attachment

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.01192-13

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Colonization and biofilm development by F. columnare strain ALG-00-530 on glass slides. The bright-field light microscopy images in panels A to F display cell attachment and biofilm formation at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 h postinoculation. Scale bars,

    Article Snippet: Data on biofilm formation on polystyrene plates were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance with SAS Software version 9.2 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC).

    Techniques: Light Microscopy, Cell Attachment Assay

    Colonization and biofilm development by F. columnare strain ALG-00-530 on glass slides analyzed by SEM. (A) Cells attached at 12 h postinoculation (scale bar, 30 μm). (B and C) Details of cell aggregation at 48 h (scale bars, 20 μm). (D)

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Biofilm Formation by the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium columnare: Development and Parameters Affecting Surface Attachment

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.01192-13

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Colonization and biofilm development by F. columnare strain ALG-00-530 on glass slides analyzed by SEM. (A) Cells attached at 12 h postinoculation (scale bar, 30 μm). (B and C) Details of cell aggregation at 48 h (scale bars, 20 μm). (D)

    Article Snippet: Data on biofilm formation on polystyrene plates were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance with SAS Software version 9.2 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC).

    Techniques:

    Biofilm formation by F. columnare inside microfluidic chambers. F. columnare strains ALG-00-530 and ARS-1 were introduced into microfluidic chambers kept under constant flow of MS broth, and growth and biofilm formation were monitored microscopically.

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Biofilm Formation by the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium columnare: Development and Parameters Affecting Surface Attachment

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.01192-13

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Biofilm formation by F. columnare inside microfluidic chambers. F. columnare strains ALG-00-530 and ARS-1 were introduced into microfluidic chambers kept under constant flow of MS broth, and growth and biofilm formation were monitored microscopically.

    Article Snippet: Data on biofilm formation on polystyrene plates were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance with SAS Software version 9.2 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC).

    Techniques: Flow Cytometry, Mass Spectrometry

    Biofilm formation on polyvinyl chloride of CS29544 and select gene knockout and complementation strains . Experiment is mean ± standard error of three independent replicates. Gene knockouts: Δ motAB and Δ fliC and FliC complement: Δ fliC /fliC. Values with no letters in common are significantly different ( P

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC 29544 Autoaggregation Requires FliC Flagellation, Not Motility

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.00301

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Biofilm formation on polyvinyl chloride of CS29544 and select gene knockout and complementation strains . Experiment is mean ± standard error of three independent replicates. Gene knockouts: Δ motAB and Δ fliC and FliC complement: Δ fliC /fliC. Values with no letters in common are significantly different ( P

    Article Snippet: The differences between the mean maximum percent autoaggregation due to temperature, redox balance, pH, blending, and various media; the differences between biofilm formation due to the presence of FliC were determined with SAS® (Version 9.4; SAS Institute) using the generalized linear model.

    Techniques: Gene Knockout

    Effect of representative antifungal drugs on prevention of C. albicans biofilm formation (open circles) and against preformed biofilms (closed circles).

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: High-Throughput Screening of a Collection of Known Pharmacologically Active Small Compounds for Identification of Candida albicans Biofilm Inhibitors

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00680-13

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of representative antifungal drugs on prevention of C. albicans biofilm formation (open circles) and against preformed biofilms (closed circles).

    Article Snippet: We identified inhibitors of biofilm formation by performing a primary screen on the 1,200 compounds belonging to the Prestwick Chemical Library.

    Techniques:

    Screening of inhibitors of biofilm formation.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: High-Throughput Screening of a Collection of Known Pharmacologically Active Small Compounds for Identification of Candida albicans Biofilm Inhibitors

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00680-13

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Screening of inhibitors of biofilm formation.

    Article Snippet: We identified inhibitors of biofilm formation by performing a primary screen on the 1,200 compounds belonging to the Prestwick Chemical Library.

    Techniques:

    Effect of representative antiseptic drugs on prevention of C. albicans biofilm formation (open circles) and against preformed biofilms (closed circles).

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: High-Throughput Screening of a Collection of Known Pharmacologically Active Small Compounds for Identification of Candida albicans Biofilm Inhibitors

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00680-13

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of representative antiseptic drugs on prevention of C. albicans biofilm formation (open circles) and against preformed biofilms (closed circles).

    Article Snippet: We identified inhibitors of biofilm formation by performing a primary screen on the 1,200 compounds belonging to the Prestwick Chemical Library.

    Techniques:

    Primary screening. (A) The initial hits were identified by screening compounds from the Prestwick Chemical Library that inhibit biofilm formation. C. albicans strain SC5314 was grown in the presence of 20 μM each compound in a 96-well microtiter

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: High-Throughput Screening of a Collection of Known Pharmacologically Active Small Compounds for Identification of Candida albicans Biofilm Inhibitors

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00680-13

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Primary screening. (A) The initial hits were identified by screening compounds from the Prestwick Chemical Library that inhibit biofilm formation. C. albicans strain SC5314 was grown in the presence of 20 μM each compound in a 96-well microtiter

    Article Snippet: We identified inhibitors of biofilm formation by performing a primary screen on the 1,200 compounds belonging to the Prestwick Chemical Library.

    Techniques:

    Effect of representative miscellaneous drugs on prevention of C. albicans biofilm formation (open circles) and against preformed biofilms (closed circles).

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: High-Throughput Screening of a Collection of Known Pharmacologically Active Small Compounds for Identification of Candida albicans Biofilm Inhibitors

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00680-13

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of representative miscellaneous drugs on prevention of C. albicans biofilm formation (open circles) and against preformed biofilms (closed circles).

    Article Snippet: We identified inhibitors of biofilm formation by performing a primary screen on the 1,200 compounds belonging to the Prestwick Chemical Library.

    Techniques:

    Confocal scanning laser microscopy showing the effect of farnesol on C. albicans biofilm (24 h) formation. ConA (green) and FUN-1 (red) staining were used to generate the images. Metabolically active cells are shown in red, and cell wall polysaccharides

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: cDNA Microarray Analysis of Differential Gene Expression in Candida albicans Biofilm Exposed to Farnesol

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.49.2.584-589.2005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Confocal scanning laser microscopy showing the effect of farnesol on C. albicans biofilm (24 h) formation. ConA (green) and FUN-1 (red) staining were used to generate the images. Metabolically active cells are shown in red, and cell wall polysaccharides

    Article Snippet: Other known genes involved in drug resistance and biofilm formation were selected from the National Center for Biotechnology Information Unigene set and were cloned into plasmid vectors.

    Techniques: Microscopy, Staining, Metabolic Labelling

    Effect of farnesol on CSH of C. albicans biofilms. Different farnesol concentrations (0, 1, 10, and 100 μM) were added to C. albicans cells 1 h after attachment, and the cells were incubated under conditions favorable for biofilm growth. CSH was

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: cDNA Microarray Analysis of Differential Gene Expression in Candida albicans Biofilm Exposed to Farnesol

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.49.2.584-589.2005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of farnesol on CSH of C. albicans biofilms. Different farnesol concentrations (0, 1, 10, and 100 μM) were added to C. albicans cells 1 h after attachment, and the cells were incubated under conditions favorable for biofilm growth. CSH was

    Article Snippet: Other known genes involved in drug resistance and biofilm formation were selected from the National Center for Biotechnology Information Unigene set and were cloned into plasmid vectors.

    Techniques: Cell Surface Hydrophobicity, Incubation

    Fluorescence microphotograph of the biofilm of the cheek surface collected with periopaper and stained with life – dead bacterial staining. The smear contains epithelial cell at the bottom and life (green) and dead (red) bacteria.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Dynamics of Fluoride Bioavailability in the Biofilms of Different Oral Surfaces after Amine Fluoride and Sodium Fluoride Application

    doi: 10.1038/srep18729

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Fluorescence microphotograph of the biofilm of the cheek surface collected with periopaper and stained with life – dead bacterial staining. The smear contains epithelial cell at the bottom and life (green) and dead (red) bacteria.

    Article Snippet: Biofilm formation is regulated by complex biological mechanisms, which include host–microbial cross talk , epithelial cell signaling , and quorum-sensing .

    Techniques: Fluorescence, Staining

    Biofilm of Helicobacter pylori . A: Scanning electron micrograph of mature biofilm on a polystyrene surface with rod shaped and coccoid cells embedded in an abundant matrix. Insert: Confocal laser scanning microscopy image of mature in vitro biofilm with

    Journal: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG

    Article Title: Helicobacter pylori: A chameleon-like approach to life

    doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i19.5575

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Biofilm of Helicobacter pylori . A: Scanning electron micrograph of mature biofilm on a polystyrene surface with rod shaped and coccoid cells embedded in an abundant matrix. Insert: Confocal laser scanning microscopy image of mature in vitro biofilm with

    Article Snippet: Stark RM, Gerwig GJ, Pitman RS, Potts LF, Williams NA, Greenman J, Weinzweig IP, Hirst TR, Millar MR. Biofilm formation by Helicobacter pylori.

    Techniques: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, In Vitro

    Activity of the QS inhibitors (leads, tested at 100 μM) on the transition between microcolonies and fully-formed biofilms of E. coli and P. aeruginosa strains (indicated as EC or PA strains in the legend). The figure contains results of crystal violet staining, shown as percent of inhibition when compared to untreated control samples. Error bars represent SEM ( n = 6). *** p

    Journal: Molecules

    Article Title: Flavones as Quorum Sensing Inhibitors Identified by a Newly Optimized Screening Platform Using Chromobacterium violaceum as Reporter Bacteria

    doi: 10.3390/molecules21091211

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Activity of the QS inhibitors (leads, tested at 100 μM) on the transition between microcolonies and fully-formed biofilms of E. coli and P. aeruginosa strains (indicated as EC or PA strains in the legend). The figure contains results of crystal violet staining, shown as percent of inhibition when compared to untreated control samples. Error bars represent SEM ( n = 6). *** p

    Article Snippet: To improve the violacein production during biofilm formation LB medium (Serva Electrophoresis GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany) with additional yeast extract (0.1% w/v ; Becton, Dickinson & Co., Le Pont de Claix, France) was used.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Staining, Inhibition

    Biofilm prevention activities of α4 and α4M1 using six clinical strains of methicillin-resistant S . aureus (A through F). Bacterial biofilm were measured by crystal violet 24h after bacterial incubation at 37°C in the presence or absence (control) of the indicated peptides; P values (*P

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Enhanced biofilm prevention activity of a SPLUNC1-derived antimicrobial peptide against Staphylococcus aureus

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0203621

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Biofilm prevention activities of α4 and α4M1 using six clinical strains of methicillin-resistant S . aureus (A through F). Bacterial biofilm were measured by crystal violet 24h after bacterial incubation at 37°C in the presence or absence (control) of the indicated peptides; P values (*P

    Article Snippet: Yonezawa H, Osaki T, Kamiya S. Biofilm Formation by Helicobacter pylori and Its Involvement for Antibiotic Resistance .

    Techniques: Incubation

    The synthetic α4 domain can be structural optimized for enhanced biofilm prevention properties. The α4 sequence was compared to α4M1 for biofilm inhibition kinetic activities against MSSA ATCC49775 (A) and MRSA USA300 (B); P values (*P

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Enhanced biofilm prevention activity of a SPLUNC1-derived antimicrobial peptide against Staphylococcus aureus

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0203621

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The synthetic α4 domain can be structural optimized for enhanced biofilm prevention properties. The α4 sequence was compared to α4M1 for biofilm inhibition kinetic activities against MSSA ATCC49775 (A) and MRSA USA300 (B); P values (*P

    Article Snippet: Yonezawa H, Osaki T, Kamiya S. Biofilm Formation by Helicobacter pylori and Its Involvement for Antibiotic Resistance .

    Techniques: Sequencing, Inhibition

    Dependence of SPLUNC 1 antibiofilm prevention activity on the α4 domain. SPLUNC1 displayed higher reduction in S . aureus biofilm than Δα4; MSSA, ATCC49775: A, antibiofilm assay and C, biofilm growth inhibition kinetics; MRSA USA300; B, antibiofilm assay and D, biofilm growth kinetics. *denotes statistical significance at *P

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Enhanced biofilm prevention activity of a SPLUNC1-derived antimicrobial peptide against Staphylococcus aureus

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0203621

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Dependence of SPLUNC 1 antibiofilm prevention activity on the α4 domain. SPLUNC1 displayed higher reduction in S . aureus biofilm than Δα4; MSSA, ATCC49775: A, antibiofilm assay and C, biofilm growth inhibition kinetics; MRSA USA300; B, antibiofilm assay and D, biofilm growth kinetics. *denotes statistical significance at *P

    Article Snippet: Yonezawa H, Osaki T, Kamiya S. Biofilm Formation by Helicobacter pylori and Its Involvement for Antibiotic Resistance .

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Antibiofilm Assay, Inhibition

    Effect of heparin on known biofilm formation mutants. A. Mutants (gene names noted) were assessed for biofilm formation in the microtiter dish assay (8-h biofilms) with heparin at 1,000 U/ml (shaded bars) or with saline (white bars). B. Relative PIA levels

    Journal:

    Article Title: Heparin Stimulates Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.73.8.4596-4606.2005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of heparin on known biofilm formation mutants. A. Mutants (gene names noted) were assessed for biofilm formation in the microtiter dish assay (8-h biofilms) with heparin at 1,000 U/ml (shaded bars) or with saline (white bars). B. Relative PIA levels

    Article Snippet: For all phenotypic assays we use 66% TSB plus 0.2% glucose, as this medium promotes robust biofilm formation (data not shown) (20 g/liter of Difco Bacto tryptic soy broth, Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD).

    Techniques:

    Sodium heparin enhances S. aureus biofilm formation. The effect of heparin on the formation of S. aureus MZ100 biofilms on abiotic surfaces was assessed microscopically. Scanning electron micrographs of 12-hour-old S. aureus biofilms on polyvinylchloride

    Journal:

    Article Title: Heparin Stimulates Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.73.8.4596-4606.2005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Sodium heparin enhances S. aureus biofilm formation. The effect of heparin on the formation of S. aureus MZ100 biofilms on abiotic surfaces was assessed microscopically. Scanning electron micrographs of 12-hour-old S. aureus biofilms on polyvinylchloride

    Article Snippet: For all phenotypic assays we use 66% TSB plus 0.2% glucose, as this medium promotes robust biofilm formation (data not shown) (20 g/liter of Difco Bacto tryptic soy broth, Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD).

    Techniques:

    Sodium heparin increases the adherence of S. aureus to polystyrene. A. Dose response. Serial dilutions of sodium heparin were added to cultures and biofilms were allowed to form for 16 h, at which time nonadherent cells were removed by vigorous washing.

    Journal:

    Article Title: Heparin Stimulates Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.73.8.4596-4606.2005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Sodium heparin increases the adherence of S. aureus to polystyrene. A. Dose response. Serial dilutions of sodium heparin were added to cultures and biofilms were allowed to form for 16 h, at which time nonadherent cells were removed by vigorous washing.

    Article Snippet: For all phenotypic assays we use 66% TSB plus 0.2% glucose, as this medium promotes robust biofilm formation (data not shown) (20 g/liter of Difco Bacto tryptic soy broth, Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD).

    Techniques:

    Sodium heparin enhances S. aureus biofilm formation. The effect of heparin formation of S. aureus (MZ100) biofilms on abiotic surfaces was assessed microscopically. S. aureus biofilms (4 hours) formed on polystyrene were viewed with phase 2 microscopy

    Journal:

    Article Title: Heparin Stimulates Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.73.8.4596-4606.2005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Sodium heparin enhances S. aureus biofilm formation. The effect of heparin formation of S. aureus (MZ100) biofilms on abiotic surfaces was assessed microscopically. S. aureus biofilms (4 hours) formed on polystyrene were viewed with phase 2 microscopy

    Article Snippet: For all phenotypic assays we use 66% TSB plus 0.2% glucose, as this medium promotes robust biofilm formation (data not shown) (20 g/liter of Difco Bacto tryptic soy broth, Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD).

    Techniques: Microscopy

    Biofilm formation and cytotoxicity effects. (A) Crystal violet staining after 48 h. The 24-h-old S. sanguinis biofilms blocked with lysate or 0.9% NaCl before secondary adherence of S. sanguinis , F. nucleatum , or P. gingivalis for another 24 h ( N = 16). Asterisks denote statistical significance as follows: ∗ P

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Beneficial Oral Biofilms as Smart Bioactive Interfaces

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00107

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Biofilm formation and cytotoxicity effects. (A) Crystal violet staining after 48 h. The 24-h-old S. sanguinis biofilms blocked with lysate or 0.9% NaCl before secondary adherence of S. sanguinis , F. nucleatum , or P. gingivalis for another 24 h ( N = 16). Asterisks denote statistical significance as follows: ∗ P

    Article Snippet: Commensal Biofilm Formation All bacteria strains were obtained from The Leibniz Institute DSMZ, German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH (Braunschweig, Germany).

    Techniques: Staining

    Schematic representation of the project idea. Formation of a commensal biofilm of S. sanguinis whose binding receptors are blocked by the bacterial cell lysate of F. nucleatum or P. gingivalis . Consequently pathogenic colonization is prevented.

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Beneficial Oral Biofilms as Smart Bioactive Interfaces

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00107

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Schematic representation of the project idea. Formation of a commensal biofilm of S. sanguinis whose binding receptors are blocked by the bacterial cell lysate of F. nucleatum or P. gingivalis . Consequently pathogenic colonization is prevented.

    Article Snippet: Commensal Biofilm Formation All bacteria strains were obtained from The Leibniz Institute DSMZ, German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH (Braunschweig, Germany).

    Techniques: Binding Assay

    Dendogram shows the genetic diversity of 69 carbapenem non-susceptible Acinetobacter baumannii isolates by MLVA and MLST; carbapenemase encoding genes; MIC ranges of colisitin, imipenem, and tigecycline; resistance phenotype; biofilm formation and international clonal lineage .

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Wide distribution of carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in burns patients in Iran

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.01146

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Dendogram shows the genetic diversity of 69 carbapenem non-susceptible Acinetobacter baumannii isolates by MLVA and MLST; carbapenemase encoding genes; MIC ranges of colisitin, imipenem, and tigecycline; resistance phenotype; biofilm formation and international clonal lineage .

    Article Snippet: Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests and Biofilm Formation Assay The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guideline ( ) for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) using the E test was used to assess the susceptibility of 92 A. baumannii isolates to imipenem (Ezy MICTM strips, Himedia, India).

    Techniques: