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  • 99
    Millipore bhi agar
    Bhi Agar, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 254 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Thermo Fisher bhi agar
    Bhi Agar, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 280 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Thermo Fisher brain heart infusion agar bhi
    Escape of Neisseria meningitidis strain <t>8047</t> from the PorA MAb P1.2-mediated serum bactericidal activity. Strain 8047 was incubated in the presence of 5% human serum diluted in 1 ml of PBSB containing 0.1% glucose and in 10 μl of a 1:4 dilution of MAb P1.2. Inocula for the first passage were prepared from an overnight culture grown on <t>BHI</t> plates. Subsequent passages (after the first passage) were performed by mixing 500 μl of the passaged population with an equal volume of PBSB containing human serum and antibody. Each passage was 2 h. The x axis represents the number of passages performed, with P0 being the inoculum. Filled diamonds, inoculum of 5 × 10 6 CFU with MAb; filled squares, inoculum of 5 × 10 5 CFU with MAb; filled triangles, inoculum of 5 × 10 4 CFU with MAb; filled circles, inoculum of 5 × 10 3 CFU with MAb; open circles and dashed line, inoculum of 5 × 10 3 CFU without MAb.
    Brain Heart Infusion Agar Bhi, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 51 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Thermo Fisher brain heart infusion bhi blood agar plates
    Escape of Neisseria meningitidis strain <t>8047</t> from the PorA MAb P1.2-mediated serum bactericidal activity. Strain 8047 was incubated in the presence of 5% human serum diluted in 1 ml of PBSB containing 0.1% glucose and in 10 μl of a 1:4 dilution of MAb P1.2. Inocula for the first passage were prepared from an overnight culture grown on <t>BHI</t> plates. Subsequent passages (after the first passage) were performed by mixing 500 μl of the passaged population with an equal volume of PBSB containing human serum and antibody. Each passage was 2 h. The x axis represents the number of passages performed, with P0 being the inoculum. Filled diamonds, inoculum of 5 × 10 6 CFU with MAb; filled squares, inoculum of 5 × 10 5 CFU with MAb; filled triangles, inoculum of 5 × 10 4 CFU with MAb; filled circles, inoculum of 5 × 10 3 CFU with MAb; open circles and dashed line, inoculum of 5 × 10 3 CFU without MAb.
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Blood Agar Plates, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Becton Dickinson brain heart infusion bhi agar plates
    Escape of Neisseria meningitidis strain <t>8047</t> from the PorA MAb P1.2-mediated serum bactericidal activity. Strain 8047 was incubated in the presence of 5% human serum diluted in 1 ml of PBSB containing 0.1% glucose and in 10 μl of a 1:4 dilution of MAb P1.2. Inocula for the first passage were prepared from an overnight culture grown on <t>BHI</t> plates. Subsequent passages (after the first passage) were performed by mixing 500 μl of the passaged population with an equal volume of PBSB containing human serum and antibody. Each passage was 2 h. The x axis represents the number of passages performed, with P0 being the inoculum. Filled diamonds, inoculum of 5 × 10 6 CFU with MAb; filled squares, inoculum of 5 × 10 5 CFU with MAb; filled triangles, inoculum of 5 × 10 4 CFU with MAb; filled circles, inoculum of 5 × 10 3 CFU with MAb; open circles and dashed line, inoculum of 5 × 10 3 CFU without MAb.
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Agar Plates, supplied by Becton Dickinson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 53 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Difco brain heart infusion bhi agar plates
    Susceptibility of wild-type and mutant strains of M. <t>catarrhalis</t> to killing by normal human serum. Cells of wild-type strain 035E (diamonds), uspA1 mutant 035E.1 (triangles), uspA2 mutant 035E.2 (circles), and uspA1 uspA2 double mutant 035E.12 (squares) from logarithmic-phase <t>BHI</t> broth cultures were incubated in the presence of 10% (vol/vol) normal human serum (closed symbols) or heat-inactivated normal human serum (open symbols). Data are presented as the percentage of the original inoculum remaining at each time point; error bars are included.
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Agar Plates, supplied by Difco, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 49 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Merck KGaA brain heart infusion bhi agar plate
    Susceptibility of wild-type and mutant strains of M. <t>catarrhalis</t> to killing by normal human serum. Cells of wild-type strain 035E (diamonds), uspA1 mutant 035E.1 (triangles), uspA2 mutant 035E.2 (circles), and uspA1 uspA2 double mutant 035E.12 (squares) from logarithmic-phase <t>BHI</t> broth cultures were incubated in the presence of 10% (vol/vol) normal human serum (closed symbols) or heat-inactivated normal human serum (open symbols). Data are presented as the percentage of the original inoculum remaining at each time point; error bars are included.
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Agar Plate, supplied by Merck KGaA, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Carl Roth GmbH brain heart infusion bhi agar plates
    BpiB09 affects the QS-dependent pyocyanin production, C. elegans paralysis in <t>PAO1</t> and decreases AHL response in A. tumefaciens AHL reporter strain. A ) Decreased pyocyanin production. OD 520 of pyocyanin extracts from culture supernatants of P. aeruginosa carrying pBBR1MCS-5:: bpiB09 and empty pBBR1MCS-5. Data represent mean values of at least five independent experiments. Bars indicate the standard deviations. B ) C. elegans paralysis induced by PAO1 on <t>BHI</t> medium. Data represent mean values of eight independent assays per treatment (+/−) standard error. Incubation was carried out on BHI agar plates at room temperature. Per PAO1 strain eight replicate plates were assayed, each with 30 one-day-old adult C. elegans . GLM analysis revealed a significant PA strain effect between the PAO1 wildtype and pBBR1MCS-5:: bpiB09 (Likelihood ratio test, χ 2 = 132.04, df = 1, P
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Agar Plates, supplied by Carl Roth GmbH, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    scharlau brain heart infusion bhi agar plates
    BpiB09 affects the QS-dependent pyocyanin production, C. elegans paralysis in <t>PAO1</t> and decreases AHL response in A. tumefaciens AHL reporter strain. A ) Decreased pyocyanin production. OD 520 of pyocyanin extracts from culture supernatants of P. aeruginosa carrying pBBR1MCS-5:: bpiB09 and empty pBBR1MCS-5. Data represent mean values of at least five independent experiments. Bars indicate the standard deviations. B ) C. elegans paralysis induced by PAO1 on <t>BHI</t> medium. Data represent mean values of eight independent assays per treatment (+/−) standard error. Incubation was carried out on BHI agar plates at room temperature. Per PAO1 strain eight replicate plates were assayed, each with 30 one-day-old adult C. elegans . GLM analysis revealed a significant PA strain effect between the PAO1 wildtype and pBBR1MCS-5:: bpiB09 (Likelihood ratio test, χ 2 = 132.04, df = 1, P
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Agar Plates, supplied by scharlau, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Difco brain heart infusion bhi agar
    BpiB09 affects the QS-dependent pyocyanin production, C. elegans paralysis in <t>PAO1</t> and decreases AHL response in A. tumefaciens AHL reporter strain. A ) Decreased pyocyanin production. OD 520 of pyocyanin extracts from culture supernatants of P. aeruginosa carrying pBBR1MCS-5:: bpiB09 and empty pBBR1MCS-5. Data represent mean values of at least five independent experiments. Bars indicate the standard deviations. B ) C. elegans paralysis induced by PAO1 on <t>BHI</t> medium. Data represent mean values of eight independent assays per treatment (+/−) standard error. Incubation was carried out on BHI agar plates at room temperature. Per PAO1 strain eight replicate plates were assayed, each with 30 one-day-old adult C. elegans . GLM analysis revealed a significant PA strain effect between the PAO1 wildtype and pBBR1MCS-5:: bpiB09 (Likelihood ratio test, χ 2 = 132.04, df = 1, P
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Agar, supplied by Difco, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 439 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Becton Dickinson brain heart infusion bhi agar
    BpiB09 affects the QS-dependent pyocyanin production, C. elegans paralysis in <t>PAO1</t> and decreases AHL response in A. tumefaciens AHL reporter strain. A ) Decreased pyocyanin production. OD 520 of pyocyanin extracts from culture supernatants of P. aeruginosa carrying pBBR1MCS-5:: bpiB09 and empty pBBR1MCS-5. Data represent mean values of at least five independent experiments. Bars indicate the standard deviations. B ) C. elegans paralysis induced by PAO1 on <t>BHI</t> medium. Data represent mean values of eight independent assays per treatment (+/−) standard error. Incubation was carried out on BHI agar plates at room temperature. Per PAO1 strain eight replicate plates were assayed, each with 30 one-day-old adult C. elegans . GLM analysis revealed a significant PA strain effect between the PAO1 wildtype and pBBR1MCS-5:: bpiB09 (Likelihood ratio test, χ 2 = 132.04, df = 1, P
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Agar, supplied by Becton Dickinson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 417 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    HiMedia Laboratories brain heart infusion bhi agar
    BpiB09 affects the QS-dependent pyocyanin production, C. elegans paralysis in <t>PAO1</t> and decreases AHL response in A. tumefaciens AHL reporter strain. A ) Decreased pyocyanin production. OD 520 of pyocyanin extracts from culture supernatants of P. aeruginosa carrying pBBR1MCS-5:: bpiB09 and empty pBBR1MCS-5. Data represent mean values of at least five independent experiments. Bars indicate the standard deviations. B ) C. elegans paralysis induced by PAO1 on <t>BHI</t> medium. Data represent mean values of eight independent assays per treatment (+/−) standard error. Incubation was carried out on BHI agar plates at room temperature. Per PAO1 strain eight replicate plates were assayed, each with 30 one-day-old adult C. elegans . GLM analysis revealed a significant PA strain effect between the PAO1 wildtype and pBBR1MCS-5:: bpiB09 (Likelihood ratio test, χ 2 = 132.04, df = 1, P
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Agar, supplied by HiMedia Laboratories, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 51 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Merck KGaA brain heart infusion bhi agar
    BpiB09 affects the QS-dependent pyocyanin production, C. elegans paralysis in <t>PAO1</t> and decreases AHL response in A. tumefaciens AHL reporter strain. A ) Decreased pyocyanin production. OD 520 of pyocyanin extracts from culture supernatants of P. aeruginosa carrying pBBR1MCS-5:: bpiB09 and empty pBBR1MCS-5. Data represent mean values of at least five independent experiments. Bars indicate the standard deviations. B ) C. elegans paralysis induced by PAO1 on <t>BHI</t> medium. Data represent mean values of eight independent assays per treatment (+/−) standard error. Incubation was carried out on BHI agar plates at room temperature. Per PAO1 strain eight replicate plates were assayed, each with 30 one-day-old adult C. elegans . GLM analysis revealed a significant PA strain effect between the PAO1 wildtype and pBBR1MCS-5:: bpiB09 (Likelihood ratio test, χ 2 = 132.04, df = 1, P
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Agar, supplied by Merck KGaA, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 47 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Becton Dickinson brain heart infusion agar plates bhi
    BpiB09 affects the QS-dependent pyocyanin production, C. elegans paralysis in <t>PAO1</t> and decreases AHL response in A. tumefaciens AHL reporter strain. A ) Decreased pyocyanin production. OD 520 of pyocyanin extracts from culture supernatants of P. aeruginosa carrying pBBR1MCS-5:: bpiB09 and empty pBBR1MCS-5. Data represent mean values of at least five independent experiments. Bars indicate the standard deviations. B ) C. elegans paralysis induced by PAO1 on <t>BHI</t> medium. Data represent mean values of eight independent assays per treatment (+/−) standard error. Incubation was carried out on BHI agar plates at room temperature. Per PAO1 strain eight replicate plates were assayed, each with 30 one-day-old adult C. elegans . GLM analysis revealed a significant PA strain effect between the PAO1 wildtype and pBBR1MCS-5:: bpiB09 (Likelihood ratio test, χ 2 = 132.04, df = 1, P
    Brain Heart Infusion Agar Plates Bhi, supplied by Becton Dickinson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Difco bhi agar plates
    TcpF is constitutively transcribed in E . <t>faecalis</t> Symbioflor 1. (a) Full length mRNA transcript of tcpF in E . faecalis Symbioflor 1. Reverse transcription was performed with primer E.f.seq.2. PCR primers E.f.seq. 8/15: 457 bp, primers E.f.seq. 8/14: 640 bp, primers E.f.seq. 8/17a: 671 bp, and primers E.f.seq. 8/1: 680 bp. (b) TcpF mRNA is transcribed upon growth in <t>BHI</t> medium and upon infection on CaCo cells. PCR primers E.f.seq. 7/6: 300 bp. Reverse transcriptase minus (RT-) reactions served as negative control.
    Bhi Agar Plates, supplied by Difco, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 77 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Becton Dickinson bhi agar plates
    TcpF is constitutively transcribed in E . <t>faecalis</t> Symbioflor 1. (a) Full length mRNA transcript of tcpF in E . faecalis Symbioflor 1. Reverse transcription was performed with primer E.f.seq.2. PCR primers E.f.seq. 8/15: 457 bp, primers E.f.seq. 8/14: 640 bp, primers E.f.seq. 8/17a: 671 bp, and primers E.f.seq. 8/1: 680 bp. (b) TcpF mRNA is transcribed upon growth in <t>BHI</t> medium and upon infection on CaCo cells. PCR primers E.f.seq. 7/6: 300 bp. Reverse transcriptase minus (RT-) reactions served as negative control.
    Bhi Agar Plates, supplied by Becton Dickinson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 63 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Thermo Fisher brain heart infusion agar bhia
    TcpF is constitutively transcribed in E . <t>faecalis</t> Symbioflor 1. (a) Full length mRNA transcript of tcpF in E . faecalis Symbioflor 1. Reverse transcription was performed with primer E.f.seq.2. PCR primers E.f.seq. 8/15: 457 bp, primers E.f.seq. 8/14: 640 bp, primers E.f.seq. 8/17a: 671 bp, and primers E.f.seq. 8/1: 680 bp. (b) TcpF mRNA is transcribed upon growth in <t>BHI</t> medium and upon infection on CaCo cells. PCR primers E.f.seq. 7/6: 300 bp. Reverse transcriptase minus (RT-) reactions served as negative control.
    Brain Heart Infusion Agar Bhia, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 154 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Hardy Diagnostics bhi agar plates
    P. aeruginosa supports the growth of F. nucleatum in both planktonic and biofilm settings under aerobic conditions. Tubes containing 5 mL of <t>BHI</t> broth and a cellulose disk were inoculated with ~10 6 CFU of P. aeruginosa and 10 2 CFU of F. nucleatum and incubated aerobically at <t>37°C</t> for time indicated on graph. (a) The disks were removed and rinsed to remove planktonic bacteria, and the numbers of CFU in the biofilm (CFU/disk) were determined. (b) The numbers of planktonic bacteria (CFU/mL) were also determined. Values in (a) and (b) represent the means of three independent experiments ± SEM; ∗ P
    Bhi Agar Plates, supplied by Hardy Diagnostics, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Difco brain heart infusion bhi agar medium
    P. aeruginosa supports the growth of F. nucleatum in both planktonic and biofilm settings under aerobic conditions. Tubes containing 5 mL of <t>BHI</t> broth and a cellulose disk were inoculated with ~10 6 CFU of P. aeruginosa and 10 2 CFU of F. nucleatum and incubated aerobically at <t>37°C</t> for time indicated on graph. (a) The disks were removed and rinsed to remove planktonic bacteria, and the numbers of CFU in the biofilm (CFU/disk) were determined. (b) The numbers of planktonic bacteria (CFU/mL) were also determined. Values in (a) and (b) represent the means of three independent experiments ± SEM; ∗ P
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Agar Medium, supplied by Difco, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 87/100, based on 16 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Becton Dickinson bhi agar
    P. aeruginosa supports the growth of F. nucleatum in both planktonic and biofilm settings under aerobic conditions. Tubes containing 5 mL of <t>BHI</t> broth and a cellulose disk were inoculated with ~10 6 CFU of P. aeruginosa and 10 2 CFU of F. nucleatum and incubated aerobically at <t>37°C</t> for time indicated on graph. (a) The disks were removed and rinsed to remove planktonic bacteria, and the numbers of CFU in the biofilm (CFU/disk) were determined. (b) The numbers of planktonic bacteria (CFU/mL) were also determined. Values in (a) and (b) represent the means of three independent experiments ± SEM; ∗ P
    Bhi Agar, supplied by Becton Dickinson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 287 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Becton Dickinson difcotm brain heart infusion agar plates
    P. aeruginosa supports the growth of F. nucleatum in both planktonic and biofilm settings under aerobic conditions. Tubes containing 5 mL of <t>BHI</t> broth and a cellulose disk were inoculated with ~10 6 CFU of P. aeruginosa and 10 2 CFU of F. nucleatum and incubated aerobically at <t>37°C</t> for time indicated on graph. (a) The disks were removed and rinsed to remove planktonic bacteria, and the numbers of CFU in the biofilm (CFU/disk) were determined. (b) The numbers of planktonic bacteria (CFU/mL) were also determined. Values in (a) and (b) represent the means of three independent experiments ± SEM; ∗ P
    Difcotm Brain Heart Infusion Agar Plates, supplied by Becton Dickinson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Beijing Land Bridge Technology Co Ltd brain heart infusion agar
    P. aeruginosa supports the growth of F. nucleatum in both planktonic and biofilm settings under aerobic conditions. Tubes containing 5 mL of <t>BHI</t> broth and a cellulose disk were inoculated with ~10 6 CFU of P. aeruginosa and 10 2 CFU of F. nucleatum and incubated aerobically at <t>37°C</t> for time indicated on graph. (a) The disks were removed and rinsed to remove planktonic bacteria, and the numbers of CFU in the biofilm (CFU/disk) were determined. (b) The numbers of planktonic bacteria (CFU/mL) were also determined. Values in (a) and (b) represent the means of three independent experiments ± SEM; ∗ P
    Brain Heart Infusion Agar, supplied by Beijing Land Bridge Technology Co Ltd, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Difco bhi agar
    Hfq contributes to the regulation of Pla activity. (A) Y. pestis was grown on <t>BHI</t> agar and then overlaid with a top agar containing fat-free milk and human Glu-Plg. Activation of plg by Pla results in a zone of clearance surrounding the bacteria (left), while Y. pestis lacking Pla does not produce equivalent zones (middle). Reduced zones of clearance produced by one of the Y. pestis ::Tn 5 mutants recovered from the screen (right). (B) Y. pestis was mutagenized with the <t>transposon</t> TnMod-RKm′, and mutants were assessed for altered zones of clearance. Two mutants with reduced zones of clearance had independent insertions (indicated by black triangles) in the gene encoding the small RNA chaperone Hfq. (C) The plg-activating ability of Y. pestis , an isogenic Y. pestis Δ hfq mutant, a ∆ hfq strain complemented with a wild-type copy of hfq integrated onto the chromosome (Δ hfq + hfq ), and a ∆ pla mutant cultured at 37°C are shown. Data are representative of at least 3 independent experiments.
    Bhi Agar, supplied by Difco, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 441 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    HiMedia Laboratories brain heart infusion bhi agar plates
    Hfq contributes to the regulation of Pla activity. (A) Y. pestis was grown on <t>BHI</t> agar and then overlaid with a top agar containing fat-free milk and human Glu-Plg. Activation of plg by Pla results in a zone of clearance surrounding the bacteria (left), while Y. pestis lacking Pla does not produce equivalent zones (middle). Reduced zones of clearance produced by one of the Y. pestis ::Tn 5 mutants recovered from the screen (right). (B) Y. pestis was mutagenized with the <t>transposon</t> TnMod-RKm′, and mutants were assessed for altered zones of clearance. Two mutants with reduced zones of clearance had independent insertions (indicated by black triangles) in the gene encoding the small RNA chaperone Hfq. (C) The plg-activating ability of Y. pestis , an isogenic Y. pestis Δ hfq mutant, a ∆ hfq strain complemented with a wild-type copy of hfq integrated onto the chromosome (Δ hfq + hfq ), and a ∆ pla mutant cultured at 37°C are shown. Data are representative of at least 3 independent experiments.
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    Thermo Fisher bhi agar plates
    Hfq contributes to the regulation of Pla activity. (A) Y. pestis was grown on <t>BHI</t> agar and then overlaid with a top agar containing fat-free milk and human Glu-Plg. Activation of plg by Pla results in a zone of clearance surrounding the bacteria (left), while Y. pestis lacking Pla does not produce equivalent zones (middle). Reduced zones of clearance produced by one of the Y. pestis ::Tn 5 mutants recovered from the screen (right). (B) Y. pestis was mutagenized with the <t>transposon</t> TnMod-RKm′, and mutants were assessed for altered zones of clearance. Two mutants with reduced zones of clearance had independent insertions (indicated by black triangles) in the gene encoding the small RNA chaperone Hfq. (C) The plg-activating ability of Y. pestis , an isogenic Y. pestis Δ hfq mutant, a ∆ hfq strain complemented with a wild-type copy of hfq integrated onto the chromosome (Δ hfq + hfq ), and a ∆ pla mutant cultured at 37°C are shown. Data are representative of at least 3 independent experiments.
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    Hfq contributes to the regulation of Pla activity. (A) Y. pestis was grown on <t>BHI</t> agar and then overlaid with a top agar containing fat-free milk and human Glu-Plg. Activation of plg by Pla results in a zone of clearance surrounding the bacteria (left), while Y. pestis lacking Pla does not produce equivalent zones (middle). Reduced zones of clearance produced by one of the Y. pestis ::Tn 5 mutants recovered from the screen (right). (B) Y. pestis was mutagenized with the <t>transposon</t> TnMod-RKm′, and mutants were assessed for altered zones of clearance. Two mutants with reduced zones of clearance had independent insertions (indicated by black triangles) in the gene encoding the small RNA chaperone Hfq. (C) The plg-activating ability of Y. pestis , an isogenic Y. pestis Δ hfq mutant, a ∆ hfq strain complemented with a wild-type copy of hfq integrated onto the chromosome (Δ hfq + hfq ), and a ∆ pla mutant cultured at 37°C are shown. Data are representative of at least 3 independent experiments.
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    Hfq contributes to the regulation of Pla activity. (A) Y. pestis was grown on <t>BHI</t> agar and then overlaid with a top agar containing fat-free milk and human Glu-Plg. Activation of plg by Pla results in a zone of clearance surrounding the bacteria (left), while Y. pestis lacking Pla does not produce equivalent zones (middle). Reduced zones of clearance produced by one of the Y. pestis ::Tn 5 mutants recovered from the screen (right). (B) Y. pestis was mutagenized with the <t>transposon</t> TnMod-RKm′, and mutants were assessed for altered zones of clearance. Two mutants with reduced zones of clearance had independent insertions (indicated by black triangles) in the gene encoding the small RNA chaperone Hfq. (C) The plg-activating ability of Y. pestis , an isogenic Y. pestis Δ hfq mutant, a ∆ hfq strain complemented with a wild-type copy of hfq integrated onto the chromosome (Δ hfq + hfq ), and a ∆ pla mutant cultured at 37°C are shown. Data are representative of at least 3 independent experiments.
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    Hfq contributes to the regulation of Pla activity. (A) Y. pestis was grown on <t>BHI</t> agar and then overlaid with a top agar containing fat-free milk and human Glu-Plg. Activation of plg by Pla results in a zone of clearance surrounding the bacteria (left), while Y. pestis lacking Pla does not produce equivalent zones (middle). Reduced zones of clearance produced by one of the Y. pestis ::Tn 5 mutants recovered from the screen (right). (B) Y. pestis was mutagenized with the <t>transposon</t> TnMod-RKm′, and mutants were assessed for altered zones of clearance. Two mutants with reduced zones of clearance had independent insertions (indicated by black triangles) in the gene encoding the small RNA chaperone Hfq. (C) The plg-activating ability of Y. pestis , an isogenic Y. pestis Δ hfq mutant, a ∆ hfq strain complemented with a wild-type copy of hfq integrated onto the chromosome (Δ hfq + hfq ), and a ∆ pla mutant cultured at 37°C are shown. Data are representative of at least 3 independent experiments.
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    Hfq contributes to the regulation of Pla activity. (A) Y. pestis was grown on <t>BHI</t> agar and then overlaid with a top agar containing fat-free milk and human Glu-Plg. Activation of plg by Pla results in a zone of clearance surrounding the bacteria (left), while Y. pestis lacking Pla does not produce equivalent zones (middle). Reduced zones of clearance produced by one of the Y. pestis ::Tn 5 mutants recovered from the screen (right). (B) Y. pestis was mutagenized with the <t>transposon</t> TnMod-RKm′, and mutants were assessed for altered zones of clearance. Two mutants with reduced zones of clearance had independent insertions (indicated by black triangles) in the gene encoding the small RNA chaperone Hfq. (C) The plg-activating ability of Y. pestis , an isogenic Y. pestis Δ hfq mutant, a ∆ hfq strain complemented with a wild-type copy of hfq integrated onto the chromosome (Δ hfq + hfq ), and a ∆ pla mutant cultured at 37°C are shown. Data are representative of at least 3 independent experiments.
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    Hfq contributes to the regulation of Pla activity. (A) Y. pestis was grown on <t>BHI</t> agar and then overlaid with a top agar containing fat-free milk and human Glu-Plg. Activation of plg by Pla results in a zone of clearance surrounding the bacteria (left), while Y. pestis lacking Pla does not produce equivalent zones (middle). Reduced zones of clearance produced by one of the Y. pestis ::Tn 5 mutants recovered from the screen (right). (B) Y. pestis was mutagenized with the <t>transposon</t> TnMod-RKm′, and mutants were assessed for altered zones of clearance. Two mutants with reduced zones of clearance had independent insertions (indicated by black triangles) in the gene encoding the small RNA chaperone Hfq. (C) The plg-activating ability of Y. pestis , an isogenic Y. pestis Δ hfq mutant, a ∆ hfq strain complemented with a wild-type copy of hfq integrated onto the chromosome (Δ hfq + hfq ), and a ∆ pla mutant cultured at 37°C are shown. Data are representative of at least 3 independent experiments.
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    Image Search Results


    Escape of Neisseria meningitidis strain 8047 from the PorA MAb P1.2-mediated serum bactericidal activity. Strain 8047 was incubated in the presence of 5% human serum diluted in 1 ml of PBSB containing 0.1% glucose and in 10 μl of a 1:4 dilution of MAb P1.2. Inocula for the first passage were prepared from an overnight culture grown on BHI plates. Subsequent passages (after the first passage) were performed by mixing 500 μl of the passaged population with an equal volume of PBSB containing human serum and antibody. Each passage was 2 h. The x axis represents the number of passages performed, with P0 being the inoculum. Filled diamonds, inoculum of 5 × 10 6 CFU with MAb; filled squares, inoculum of 5 × 10 5 CFU with MAb; filled triangles, inoculum of 5 × 10 4 CFU with MAb; filled circles, inoculum of 5 × 10 3 CFU with MAb; open circles and dashed line, inoculum of 5 × 10 3 CFU without MAb.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Phase Variation of PorA, a Major Outer Membrane Protein, Mediates Escape of Bactericidal Antibodies by Neisseria meningitidis

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01358-12

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Escape of Neisseria meningitidis strain 8047 from the PorA MAb P1.2-mediated serum bactericidal activity. Strain 8047 was incubated in the presence of 5% human serum diluted in 1 ml of PBSB containing 0.1% glucose and in 10 μl of a 1:4 dilution of MAb P1.2. Inocula for the first passage were prepared from an overnight culture grown on BHI plates. Subsequent passages (after the first passage) were performed by mixing 500 μl of the passaged population with an equal volume of PBSB containing human serum and antibody. Each passage was 2 h. The x axis represents the number of passages performed, with P0 being the inoculum. Filled diamonds, inoculum of 5 × 10 6 CFU with MAb; filled squares, inoculum of 5 × 10 5 CFU with MAb; filled triangles, inoculum of 5 × 10 4 CFU with MAb; filled circles, inoculum of 5 × 10 3 CFU with MAb; open circles and dashed line, inoculum of 5 × 10 3 CFU without MAb.

    Article Snippet: N. meningitidis strain 8047 and a mutS mutant of this strain (8047 ΔmutS ; [ ]) were grown either on plates with brain heart infusion (BHI) agar supplemented with Levinthal's medium (10% vol/vol) or on chocolate agar plates (Oxoid) in 5% CO2 at 37°C.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Incubation

    Susceptibility of wild-type and mutant strains of M. catarrhalis to killing by normal human serum. Cells of wild-type strain 035E (diamonds), uspA1 mutant 035E.1 (triangles), uspA2 mutant 035E.2 (circles), and uspA1 uspA2 double mutant 035E.12 (squares) from logarithmic-phase BHI broth cultures were incubated in the presence of 10% (vol/vol) normal human serum (closed symbols) or heat-inactivated normal human serum (open symbols). Data are presented as the percentage of the original inoculum remaining at each time point; error bars are included.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Phenotypic Effect of Isogenic uspA1 and uspA2 Mutations on Moraxella catarrhalis 035E

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Susceptibility of wild-type and mutant strains of M. catarrhalis to killing by normal human serum. Cells of wild-type strain 035E (diamonds), uspA1 mutant 035E.1 (triangles), uspA2 mutant 035E.2 (circles), and uspA1 uspA2 double mutant 035E.12 (squares) from logarithmic-phase BHI broth cultures were incubated in the presence of 10% (vol/vol) normal human serum (closed symbols) or heat-inactivated normal human serum (open symbols). Data are presented as the percentage of the original inoculum remaining at each time point; error bars are included.

    Article Snippet: M. catarrhalis strains were routinely grown at 37°C on brain heart infusion (BHI) agar plates (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.) in an atmosphere of 95% air–5% CO2 supplemented, when necessary, with kanamycin (20 μg/ml) (Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, Mo.) or chloramphenicol (0.5 μg/ml) (Sigma); in some cases, cells were grown in BHI broth.

    Techniques: Mutagenesis, Incubation

    BpiB09 affects the QS-dependent pyocyanin production, C. elegans paralysis in PAO1 and decreases AHL response in A. tumefaciens AHL reporter strain. A ) Decreased pyocyanin production. OD 520 of pyocyanin extracts from culture supernatants of P. aeruginosa carrying pBBR1MCS-5:: bpiB09 and empty pBBR1MCS-5. Data represent mean values of at least five independent experiments. Bars indicate the standard deviations. B ) C. elegans paralysis induced by PAO1 on BHI medium. Data represent mean values of eight independent assays per treatment (+/−) standard error. Incubation was carried out on BHI agar plates at room temperature. Per PAO1 strain eight replicate plates were assayed, each with 30 one-day-old adult C. elegans . GLM analysis revealed a significant PA strain effect between the PAO1 wildtype and pBBR1MCS-5:: bpiB09 (Likelihood ratio test, χ 2 = 132.04, df = 1, P

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: A Novel Metagenomic Short-Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase Attenuates Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation and Virulence on Caenorhabditis elegans

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026278

    Figure Lengend Snippet: BpiB09 affects the QS-dependent pyocyanin production, C. elegans paralysis in PAO1 and decreases AHL response in A. tumefaciens AHL reporter strain. A ) Decreased pyocyanin production. OD 520 of pyocyanin extracts from culture supernatants of P. aeruginosa carrying pBBR1MCS-5:: bpiB09 and empty pBBR1MCS-5. Data represent mean values of at least five independent experiments. Bars indicate the standard deviations. B ) C. elegans paralysis induced by PAO1 on BHI medium. Data represent mean values of eight independent assays per treatment (+/−) standard error. Incubation was carried out on BHI agar plates at room temperature. Per PAO1 strain eight replicate plates were assayed, each with 30 one-day-old adult C. elegans . GLM analysis revealed a significant PA strain effect between the PAO1 wildtype and pBBR1MCS-5:: bpiB09 (Likelihood ratio test, χ 2 = 132.04, df = 1, P

    Article Snippet: C. elegans paralysis assay Paralysis assays were done as described in with some modifications: PAO1 strains were grown on brain heart infusion (BHI) agar plates (Roth X915.1), supplemented with 50 µg/ml gentamycin to maintain plasmids.

    Techniques: Incubation

    TcpF is constitutively transcribed in E . faecalis Symbioflor 1. (a) Full length mRNA transcript of tcpF in E . faecalis Symbioflor 1. Reverse transcription was performed with primer E.f.seq.2. PCR primers E.f.seq. 8/15: 457 bp, primers E.f.seq. 8/14: 640 bp, primers E.f.seq. 8/17a: 671 bp, and primers E.f.seq. 8/1: 680 bp. (b) TcpF mRNA is transcribed upon growth in BHI medium and upon infection on CaCo cells. PCR primers E.f.seq. 7/6: 300 bp. Reverse transcriptase minus (RT-) reactions served as negative control.

    Journal: International Journal of Microbiology

    Article Title: The TIR Domain Containing Locus of Enterococcus faecalis Is Predominant among Urinary Tract Infection Isolates and Downregulates Host Inflammatory Response

    doi: 10.1155/2014/918143

    Figure Lengend Snippet: TcpF is constitutively transcribed in E . faecalis Symbioflor 1. (a) Full length mRNA transcript of tcpF in E . faecalis Symbioflor 1. Reverse transcription was performed with primer E.f.seq.2. PCR primers E.f.seq. 8/15: 457 bp, primers E.f.seq. 8/14: 640 bp, primers E.f.seq. 8/17a: 671 bp, and primers E.f.seq. 8/1: 680 bp. (b) TcpF mRNA is transcribed upon growth in BHI medium and upon infection on CaCo cells. PCR primers E.f.seq. 7/6: 300 bp. Reverse transcriptase minus (RT-) reactions served as negative control.

    Article Snippet: E. faecalis was grown in brain-heart-infusion (BHI) broth or on BHI agar plates (Difco) at 37°C.

    Techniques: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Infection, Negative Control

    TcpF suppresses TNF- α induction. (a) E. faecalis Symbioflor 1 and its isogenic tcpF deletion mutant Symbioflor 1 Δ tcpF show identical growth rate. Fresh culture was started from overnight culture 1 : 25 in BHI at 37°C and 100 rpm. Optical density at 600 nm (OD 600 ) at indicated time points. (b) RAW264.7 macrophages were infected for 6 h with E. faecalis Symbioflor 1 and E . faecalis Symbioflor 1 Δ tcpF at indicated moi. NC: negative control—uninfected macrophages. Error bars represent s.d. ( n = 4). Student's t -test: ∗∗∗ P

    Journal: International Journal of Microbiology

    Article Title: The TIR Domain Containing Locus of Enterococcus faecalis Is Predominant among Urinary Tract Infection Isolates and Downregulates Host Inflammatory Response

    doi: 10.1155/2014/918143

    Figure Lengend Snippet: TcpF suppresses TNF- α induction. (a) E. faecalis Symbioflor 1 and its isogenic tcpF deletion mutant Symbioflor 1 Δ tcpF show identical growth rate. Fresh culture was started from overnight culture 1 : 25 in BHI at 37°C and 100 rpm. Optical density at 600 nm (OD 600 ) at indicated time points. (b) RAW264.7 macrophages were infected for 6 h with E. faecalis Symbioflor 1 and E . faecalis Symbioflor 1 Δ tcpF at indicated moi. NC: negative control—uninfected macrophages. Error bars represent s.d. ( n = 4). Student's t -test: ∗∗∗ P

    Article Snippet: E. faecalis was grown in brain-heart-infusion (BHI) broth or on BHI agar plates (Difco) at 37°C.

    Techniques: Mutagenesis, Infection, Negative Control

    P. aeruginosa supports the growth of F. nucleatum in both planktonic and biofilm settings under aerobic conditions. Tubes containing 5 mL of BHI broth and a cellulose disk were inoculated with ~10 6 CFU of P. aeruginosa and 10 2 CFU of F. nucleatum and incubated aerobically at 37°C for time indicated on graph. (a) The disks were removed and rinsed to remove planktonic bacteria, and the numbers of CFU in the biofilm (CFU/disk) were determined. (b) The numbers of planktonic bacteria (CFU/mL) were also determined. Values in (a) and (b) represent the means of three independent experiments ± SEM; ∗ P

    Journal: International Journal of Otolaryngology

    Article Title: Planktonic Growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa around a Dual-Species Biofilm Supports the Growth of Fusobacterium nucleatum within That Biofilm

    doi: 10.1155/2017/3037191

    Figure Lengend Snippet: P. aeruginosa supports the growth of F. nucleatum in both planktonic and biofilm settings under aerobic conditions. Tubes containing 5 mL of BHI broth and a cellulose disk were inoculated with ~10 6 CFU of P. aeruginosa and 10 2 CFU of F. nucleatum and incubated aerobically at 37°C for time indicated on graph. (a) The disks were removed and rinsed to remove planktonic bacteria, and the numbers of CFU in the biofilm (CFU/disk) were determined. (b) The numbers of planktonic bacteria (CFU/mL) were also determined. Values in (a) and (b) represent the means of three independent experiments ± SEM; ∗ P

    Article Snippet: For general growth, the strains were grown aerobically (18.6% ambient oxygen) or anaerobically (0% oxygen) at 37°C for up to 96 h in 37°C in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth or on BHI agar plates (CRITERION; Hardy Diagnostics, Santa Maria, CA).

    Techniques: Incubation

    The growth of P. aeruginosa significantly reduces the level of dissolved oxygen in broth. Fifty mL conical tubes containing 15 mL of BHI broth were inoculated with ~10 6 CFU of PAO1, 10 2 CFU of VPI 4355, or both organisms and incubated aerobically at 37°C. The level of DO 2 (mg/L) was measured at 24 h after inoculation. As a control, the level of DO 2 in uninoculated BHI broth was measured at time 0 for a baseline and at 24 h. Values represent the means of three independent experiments ± SEM; ∗∗∗∗ P

    Journal: International Journal of Otolaryngology

    Article Title: Planktonic Growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa around a Dual-Species Biofilm Supports the Growth of Fusobacterium nucleatum within That Biofilm

    doi: 10.1155/2017/3037191

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The growth of P. aeruginosa significantly reduces the level of dissolved oxygen in broth. Fifty mL conical tubes containing 15 mL of BHI broth were inoculated with ~10 6 CFU of PAO1, 10 2 CFU of VPI 4355, or both organisms and incubated aerobically at 37°C. The level of DO 2 (mg/L) was measured at 24 h after inoculation. As a control, the level of DO 2 in uninoculated BHI broth was measured at time 0 for a baseline and at 24 h. Values represent the means of three independent experiments ± SEM; ∗∗∗∗ P

    Article Snippet: For general growth, the strains were grown aerobically (18.6% ambient oxygen) or anaerobically (0% oxygen) at 37°C for up to 96 h in 37°C in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth or on BHI agar plates (CRITERION; Hardy Diagnostics, Santa Maria, CA).

    Techniques: Incubation

    Growth of F. nucleatum within the P. aeruginosa/F. nucleatum biofilm depends on the environment around the biofilm. PAO1 and VPI 4355 were inoculated into two sets of tubes of BHI broth containing cellulose disks as described in Figure 2 and incubated aerobically for 24 h at 37°C. (a) Disks were removed from one set of tubes, placed on the surface of BHI agar plates, and incubated aerobically for 48 h at 37°C. At intervals indicated on the graph, the disks were removed from the plates and the number of CFU/disk was determined. (b) Disks from the second set of tubes were transferred to fresh tubes of BHI broth and incubated aerobically for 48 h at 37°C. At intervals indicated on the graph, the disks were removed from the broth and the number of CFU/disk was determined. Values in (a) and (b) represent the means of three independent experiments ± SEM; ∗ P

    Journal: International Journal of Otolaryngology

    Article Title: Planktonic Growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa around a Dual-Species Biofilm Supports the Growth of Fusobacterium nucleatum within That Biofilm

    doi: 10.1155/2017/3037191

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Growth of F. nucleatum within the P. aeruginosa/F. nucleatum biofilm depends on the environment around the biofilm. PAO1 and VPI 4355 were inoculated into two sets of tubes of BHI broth containing cellulose disks as described in Figure 2 and incubated aerobically for 24 h at 37°C. (a) Disks were removed from one set of tubes, placed on the surface of BHI agar plates, and incubated aerobically for 48 h at 37°C. At intervals indicated on the graph, the disks were removed from the plates and the number of CFU/disk was determined. (b) Disks from the second set of tubes were transferred to fresh tubes of BHI broth and incubated aerobically for 48 h at 37°C. At intervals indicated on the graph, the disks were removed from the broth and the number of CFU/disk was determined. Values in (a) and (b) represent the means of three independent experiments ± SEM; ∗ P

    Article Snippet: For general growth, the strains were grown aerobically (18.6% ambient oxygen) or anaerobically (0% oxygen) at 37°C for up to 96 h in 37°C in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth or on BHI agar plates (CRITERION; Hardy Diagnostics, Santa Maria, CA).

    Techniques: Incubation

    P. aeruginosa supports the growth of F. nucleatum under aerobic conditions. P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 and F. nucleatum strain VPI 4355 were inoculated into BHI broth individually or in coculture and incubated at 37°C under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The number of CFU/mL was determined. Values represent the means of three independent experiments ± SEM.

    Journal: International Journal of Otolaryngology

    Article Title: Planktonic Growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa around a Dual-Species Biofilm Supports the Growth of Fusobacterium nucleatum within That Biofilm

    doi: 10.1155/2017/3037191

    Figure Lengend Snippet: P. aeruginosa supports the growth of F. nucleatum under aerobic conditions. P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 and F. nucleatum strain VPI 4355 were inoculated into BHI broth individually or in coculture and incubated at 37°C under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The number of CFU/mL was determined. Values represent the means of three independent experiments ± SEM.

    Article Snippet: For general growth, the strains were grown aerobically (18.6% ambient oxygen) or anaerobically (0% oxygen) at 37°C for up to 96 h in 37°C in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth or on BHI agar plates (CRITERION; Hardy Diagnostics, Santa Maria, CA).

    Techniques: Incubation

    Growth of P. aeruginosa creates anaerobic conditions within 4 h of inoculation. Fifty mL tubes of BHI broth were left uninoculated or inoculated with 10 6 CFU PAO1 and incubated for 24 h at 37°C. Levels of DO 2 were measured at times indicated. Values represent the means of three independent experiments ± SEM; ∗∗∗∗ P

    Journal: International Journal of Otolaryngology

    Article Title: Planktonic Growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa around a Dual-Species Biofilm Supports the Growth of Fusobacterium nucleatum within That Biofilm

    doi: 10.1155/2017/3037191

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Growth of P. aeruginosa creates anaerobic conditions within 4 h of inoculation. Fifty mL tubes of BHI broth were left uninoculated or inoculated with 10 6 CFU PAO1 and incubated for 24 h at 37°C. Levels of DO 2 were measured at times indicated. Values represent the means of three independent experiments ± SEM; ∗∗∗∗ P

    Article Snippet: For general growth, the strains were grown aerobically (18.6% ambient oxygen) or anaerobically (0% oxygen) at 37°C for up to 96 h in 37°C in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth or on BHI agar plates (CRITERION; Hardy Diagnostics, Santa Maria, CA).

    Techniques: Incubation

    Hfq contributes to the regulation of Pla activity. (A) Y. pestis was grown on BHI agar and then overlaid with a top agar containing fat-free milk and human Glu-Plg. Activation of plg by Pla results in a zone of clearance surrounding the bacteria (left), while Y. pestis lacking Pla does not produce equivalent zones (middle). Reduced zones of clearance produced by one of the Y. pestis ::Tn 5 mutants recovered from the screen (right). (B) Y. pestis was mutagenized with the transposon TnMod-RKm′, and mutants were assessed for altered zones of clearance. Two mutants with reduced zones of clearance had independent insertions (indicated by black triangles) in the gene encoding the small RNA chaperone Hfq. (C) The plg-activating ability of Y. pestis , an isogenic Y. pestis Δ hfq mutant, a ∆ hfq strain complemented with a wild-type copy of hfq integrated onto the chromosome (Δ hfq + hfq ), and a ∆ pla mutant cultured at 37°C are shown. Data are representative of at least 3 independent experiments.

    Journal: mBio

    Article Title: Posttranscriptional Regulation of the Yersinia pestis Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein Crp and Impact on Virulence

    doi: 10.1128/mBio.01038-13

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Hfq contributes to the regulation of Pla activity. (A) Y. pestis was grown on BHI agar and then overlaid with a top agar containing fat-free milk and human Glu-Plg. Activation of plg by Pla results in a zone of clearance surrounding the bacteria (left), while Y. pestis lacking Pla does not produce equivalent zones (middle). Reduced zones of clearance produced by one of the Y. pestis ::Tn 5 mutants recovered from the screen (right). (B) Y. pestis was mutagenized with the transposon TnMod-RKm′, and mutants were assessed for altered zones of clearance. Two mutants with reduced zones of clearance had independent insertions (indicated by black triangles) in the gene encoding the small RNA chaperone Hfq. (C) The plg-activating ability of Y. pestis , an isogenic Y. pestis Δ hfq mutant, a ∆ hfq strain complemented with a wild-type copy of hfq integrated onto the chromosome (Δ hfq + hfq ), and a ∆ pla mutant cultured at 37°C are shown. Data are representative of at least 3 independent experiments.

    Article Snippet: Mutagenesis was performed by electroporating the pTnMod-RKm plasmid carrying the Tn5 minitransposon into pCD1− Y. pestis ( ); transposon mutants were plated onto BHI agar containing kanamycin and incubated at 37°C for 2 days.

    Techniques: Proximity Ligation Assay, Activity Assay, Activation Assay, Produced, Mutagenesis, Cell Culture

    Induction of Crp synthesis partially restores the growth of Δ hfq Y. pestis in rich broth. The same bacterial strains containing the P tetO - crp -HA construct as described in Fig. 5 were cultured in BHI broth with shaking at 37°C for 12 h in the presence or absence of ATc, and at the indicated times the OD 620 was measured. The growth of the strains containing the P tetO - crp -HA construct in the absence of ATc was equivalent to the parent strains without the construct, and the addition of ATc had no impact on the growth of wild-type bacteria (not shown). Data are representative of 3 independent experiments.

    Journal: mBio

    Article Title: Posttranscriptional Regulation of the Yersinia pestis Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein Crp and Impact on Virulence

    doi: 10.1128/mBio.01038-13

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Induction of Crp synthesis partially restores the growth of Δ hfq Y. pestis in rich broth. The same bacterial strains containing the P tetO - crp -HA construct as described in Fig. 5 were cultured in BHI broth with shaking at 37°C for 12 h in the presence or absence of ATc, and at the indicated times the OD 620 was measured. The growth of the strains containing the P tetO - crp -HA construct in the absence of ATc was equivalent to the parent strains without the construct, and the addition of ATc had no impact on the growth of wild-type bacteria (not shown). Data are representative of 3 independent experiments.

    Article Snippet: Mutagenesis was performed by electroporating the pTnMod-RKm plasmid carrying the Tn5 minitransposon into pCD1− Y. pestis ( ); transposon mutants were plated onto BHI agar containing kanamycin and incubated at 37°C for 2 days.

    Techniques: Construct, Cell Culture

    Hfq-dependent, posttranscriptional control of Crp. (A) Wild-type, ∆ hfq , and Δ hfq + hfq Y. pestis strains carrying an HA-tagged version of the crp gene were cultured for 6 h in BHI broth at 37°C, and whole-cell lysates were analyzed by immunoblotting with an anti-HA antibody. RpoA (bottom) is shown as a loading control. The relative density of the Crp-HA band compared with that of the wild type is shown below the RpoA panel. Data are representative of at least 3 independent experiments. (B) Steady-state levels of the crp transcript after 6 h at 37°C. Strains of Y. pestis were grown in triplicate, and the relative fold change of the crp transcript in the ∆ hfq and Δ hfq + hfq strains compared to that of the wild-type bacteria (set at 1) was determined by qRT-PCR using the ∆∆ C T method. Data represent the combination of 3 independent experiments. (C) Wild-type or ∆ hfq Y. pestis strains with the chromosomal-integrated P crp - gfp or P tetO - crp 5′ UTR- gfp reporter constructs were cultured at 37°C for 6 h, and fold change in fluorescence compared with that of the wild type (set at 1), normalized to the optical density of the culture, was determined. For the P tetO - crp 5′ UTR- gfp reporters, ATc was added at time 0. **, P

    Journal: mBio

    Article Title: Posttranscriptional Regulation of the Yersinia pestis Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein Crp and Impact on Virulence

    doi: 10.1128/mBio.01038-13

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Hfq-dependent, posttranscriptional control of Crp. (A) Wild-type, ∆ hfq , and Δ hfq + hfq Y. pestis strains carrying an HA-tagged version of the crp gene were cultured for 6 h in BHI broth at 37°C, and whole-cell lysates were analyzed by immunoblotting with an anti-HA antibody. RpoA (bottom) is shown as a loading control. The relative density of the Crp-HA band compared with that of the wild type is shown below the RpoA panel. Data are representative of at least 3 independent experiments. (B) Steady-state levels of the crp transcript after 6 h at 37°C. Strains of Y. pestis were grown in triplicate, and the relative fold change of the crp transcript in the ∆ hfq and Δ hfq + hfq strains compared to that of the wild-type bacteria (set at 1) was determined by qRT-PCR using the ∆∆ C T method. Data represent the combination of 3 independent experiments. (C) Wild-type or ∆ hfq Y. pestis strains with the chromosomal-integrated P crp - gfp or P tetO - crp 5′ UTR- gfp reporter constructs were cultured at 37°C for 6 h, and fold change in fluorescence compared with that of the wild type (set at 1), normalized to the optical density of the culture, was determined. For the P tetO - crp 5′ UTR- gfp reporters, ATc was added at time 0. **, P

    Article Snippet: Mutagenesis was performed by electroporating the pTnMod-RKm plasmid carrying the Tn5 minitransposon into pCD1− Y. pestis ( ); transposon mutants were plated onto BHI agar containing kanamycin and incubated at 37°C for 2 days.

    Techniques: Cell Culture, Quantitative RT-PCR, Construct, Fluorescence

    Changes in relative pla mRNA levels during the progression of primary pneumonic plague. C57BL/6 mice were infected via the intranasal (i.n.) route with Y. pestis , and the relative levels of the pla transcript in the lungs at the times indicated were compared to BHI broth after 12 h at 37°C (set at −1) by qRT-PCR. Data are representative of two independent experiments.

    Journal: mBio

    Article Title: Posttranscriptional Regulation of the Yersinia pestis Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein Crp and Impact on Virulence

    doi: 10.1128/mBio.01038-13

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Changes in relative pla mRNA levels during the progression of primary pneumonic plague. C57BL/6 mice were infected via the intranasal (i.n.) route with Y. pestis , and the relative levels of the pla transcript in the lungs at the times indicated were compared to BHI broth after 12 h at 37°C (set at −1) by qRT-PCR. Data are representative of two independent experiments.

    Article Snippet: Mutagenesis was performed by electroporating the pTnMod-RKm plasmid carrying the Tn5 minitransposon into pCD1− Y. pestis ( ); transposon mutants were plated onto BHI agar containing kanamycin and incubated at 37°C for 2 days.

    Techniques: Proximity Ligation Assay, Mouse Assay, Infection, Quantitative RT-PCR