bhi agar Search Results


  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 99
    Thermo Fisher brain heart infusion agar bhi
    Maximum specific growth rates of Listeria monocytogenes LO28 WT and 24 HHP-resistant variants at <t>30°C</t> in <t>BHI</t> under aerobic conditions (a); at 30°C in BHI under anaerobic conditions (b); or at 7°C in BHI under aerobic conditions
    Brain Heart Infusion Agar Bhi, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 100 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/brain heart infusion agar bhi/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 99 stars, based on 100 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    brain heart infusion agar bhi - by Bioz Stars, 2020-03
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Millipore bhi agar
    Effect of the hfq mutation on the sensitivity of M. catarrhalis to methyl <t>viologen.</t> Bacterial cells of each strain were suspended to the same OD 600 and then serially diluted and spotted onto <t>BHI</t> agar (A) and BHI agar containing 40 μM methyl viologen (B). Four strains were tested: wild-type O35E strain (WT), the O35EΔ hfq mutant (Δ hfq ), the O35EΔ hfq mutant containing the pAA200 plasmid with the wild-type O35E hfq gene [Δ hfq (pAA200)], and this same mutant containing only the plasmid vector [Δ hfq (pWW115)]. The plates were dried and incubated overnight, and the resultant growth was photographed.
    Bhi Agar, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 266 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/bhi agar/product/Millipore
    Average 99 stars, based on 266 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    bhi agar - by Bioz Stars, 2020-03
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    90
    Thermo Fisher bhi agar
    Stress resistance of late-exponential phase cells of L. monocytogenes LO28 WT and acid resistant variants in <t>BHI</t> broth . Late-exponential phase cells were exposed to pH 2.5 for 3.5 min at 37∘C (adapted from Metselaar et al., 2013 ) (A), 55∘C for 6 min (B), 420 mM hydrogen peroxide for 9 min at <t>30∘C</t> (C), and 20 mg/L benzalkonium chloride (BAC) for 5 min at 30∘C (D) . Results are expressed as reduction in log 10 cfu/ml after exposure compared to log 10 cfu/ml at t = 0. Errors bars represent the SD and significant differences from the WT are indicated with ∗( p
    Bhi Agar, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 279 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/bhi agar/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 90 stars, based on 279 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    bhi agar - by Bioz Stars, 2020-03
    90/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    83
    Difco brain heart infusion agar bhi
    SDS-PAGE analysis of the OMPs of B. <t>avium</t> 4169 and the transposon mutants Pho-6 and Pho-20. Lanes: 1, molecular mass standards; 2, 4169 in <t>BHI;</t> 3, 4169 in BHI-EDDA; 4, Pho-6 in BHI; 5, Pho-6 in BHI-EDDA; 6, Pho-20 in BHI; 7, Pho-20 in BHI-EDDA. Lanes 2 to 7 each contain 1 μg of total protein. Molecular masses are in kilodaltons. The positions of the 95- and 84-kDa FeRPs that are missing in the outer membrane of Pho-20 are denoted by arrows. The gel was stained with silver.
    Brain Heart Infusion Agar Bhi, supplied by Difco, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 83/100, based on 15 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/brain heart infusion agar bhi/product/Difco
    Average 83 stars, based on 15 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    brain heart infusion agar bhi - by Bioz Stars, 2020-03
    83/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    80
    Thermo Fisher brain heart infusion bhi blood agar plates
    SDS-PAGE analysis of the OMPs of B. <t>avium</t> 4169 and the transposon mutants Pho-6 and Pho-20. Lanes: 1, molecular mass standards; 2, 4169 in <t>BHI;</t> 3, 4169 in BHI-EDDA; 4, Pho-6 in BHI; 5, Pho-6 in BHI-EDDA; 6, Pho-20 in BHI; 7, Pho-20 in BHI-EDDA. Lanes 2 to 7 each contain 1 μg of total protein. Molecular masses are in kilodaltons. The positions of the 95- and 84-kDa FeRPs that are missing in the outer membrane of Pho-20 are denoted by arrows. The gel was stained with silver.
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Blood Agar Plates, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 80/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/brain heart infusion bhi blood agar plates/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 80 stars, based on 5 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    brain heart infusion bhi blood agar plates - by Bioz Stars, 2020-03
    80/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    79
    Becton Dickinson brain heart infusion agar bhi
    Levels of PsaE and PsaF are impacted by temperature and pH. (A) Diagram of the psaEF locus showing the location of primers and the predicted PCR product used to analyze psaEF cotranscription via RT-PCR. Templates were as follows: RT+, cDNA; RT−, no reverse transcriptase (negative control); gDNA, <t>YP6</t> gDNA; dH 2 O, no template (negative control). (B) WT containing a psaEF transcriptional reporter plasmid (pJC126, psaEF-gfp ) was grown at 37°C and 26°C in buffered <t>BHI</t> broth, and the RFU/OD 600 was determined under each condition, as described in Materials and Methods. The number depicted over each bar indicates fold change in psaEF-gfp expression in the WT compared to the expression from the vector control under the given condition. Each bar represents the mean RFU/OD 600 , and error bars represent standard deviations. Each sample was assayed in biological triplicates, and at least three independent experiments were performed. ***, P
    Brain Heart Infusion Agar Bhi, supplied by Becton Dickinson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 79/100, based on 13 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/brain heart infusion agar bhi/product/Becton Dickinson
    Average 79 stars, based on 13 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    brain heart infusion agar bhi - by Bioz Stars, 2020-03
    79/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    80
    Fisher Scientific brain heart infusion agar bhi
    Levels of PsaE and PsaF are impacted by temperature and pH. (A) Diagram of the psaEF locus showing the location of primers and the predicted PCR product used to analyze psaEF cotranscription via RT-PCR. Templates were as follows: RT+, cDNA; RT−, no reverse transcriptase (negative control); gDNA, <t>YP6</t> gDNA; dH 2 O, no template (negative control). (B) WT containing a psaEF transcriptional reporter plasmid (pJC126, psaEF-gfp ) was grown at 37°C and 26°C in buffered <t>BHI</t> broth, and the RFU/OD 600 was determined under each condition, as described in Materials and Methods. The number depicted over each bar indicates fold change in psaEF-gfp expression in the WT compared to the expression from the vector control under the given condition. Each bar represents the mean RFU/OD 600 , and error bars represent standard deviations. Each sample was assayed in biological triplicates, and at least three independent experiments were performed. ***, P
    Brain Heart Infusion Agar Bhi, supplied by Fisher Scientific, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 80/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/brain heart infusion agar bhi/product/Fisher Scientific
    Average 80 stars, based on 5 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    brain heart infusion agar bhi - by Bioz Stars, 2020-03
    80/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    79
    Avantor brain heart infusion agar bhi
    Levels of PsaE and PsaF are impacted by temperature and pH. (A) Diagram of the psaEF locus showing the location of primers and the predicted PCR product used to analyze psaEF cotranscription via RT-PCR. Templates were as follows: RT+, cDNA; RT−, no reverse transcriptase (negative control); gDNA, <t>YP6</t> gDNA; dH 2 O, no template (negative control). (B) WT containing a psaEF transcriptional reporter plasmid (pJC126, psaEF-gfp ) was grown at 37°C and 26°C in buffered <t>BHI</t> broth, and the RFU/OD 600 was determined under each condition, as described in Materials and Methods. The number depicted over each bar indicates fold change in psaEF-gfp expression in the WT compared to the expression from the vector control under the given condition. Each bar represents the mean RFU/OD 600 , and error bars represent standard deviations. Each sample was assayed in biological triplicates, and at least three independent experiments were performed. ***, P
    Brain Heart Infusion Agar Bhi, supplied by Avantor, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 79/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/brain heart infusion agar bhi/product/Avantor
    Average 79 stars, based on 3 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    brain heart infusion agar bhi - by Bioz Stars, 2020-03
    79/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    79
    Becton Dickinson brain hear infusion bhi agar
    Levels of PsaE and PsaF are impacted by temperature and pH. (A) Diagram of the psaEF locus showing the location of primers and the predicted PCR product used to analyze psaEF cotranscription via RT-PCR. Templates were as follows: RT+, cDNA; RT−, no reverse transcriptase (negative control); gDNA, <t>YP6</t> gDNA; dH 2 O, no template (negative control). (B) WT containing a psaEF transcriptional reporter plasmid (pJC126, psaEF-gfp ) was grown at 37°C and 26°C in buffered <t>BHI</t> broth, and the RFU/OD 600 was determined under each condition, as described in Materials and Methods. The number depicted over each bar indicates fold change in psaEF-gfp expression in the WT compared to the expression from the vector control under the given condition. Each bar represents the mean RFU/OD 600 , and error bars represent standard deviations. Each sample was assayed in biological triplicates, and at least three independent experiments were performed. ***, P
    Brain Hear Infusion Bhi Agar, supplied by Becton Dickinson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 79/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/brain hear infusion bhi agar/product/Becton Dickinson
    Average 79 stars, based on 3 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    brain hear infusion bhi agar - by Bioz Stars, 2020-03
    79/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    89
    Beijing Land Bridge Technology Co Ltd brain heart infusion bhi agar
    Levels of PsaE and PsaF are impacted by temperature and pH. (A) Diagram of the psaEF locus showing the location of primers and the predicted PCR product used to analyze psaEF cotranscription via RT-PCR. Templates were as follows: RT+, cDNA; RT−, no reverse transcriptase (negative control); gDNA, <t>YP6</t> gDNA; dH 2 O, no template (negative control). (B) WT containing a psaEF transcriptional reporter plasmid (pJC126, psaEF-gfp ) was grown at 37°C and 26°C in buffered <t>BHI</t> broth, and the RFU/OD 600 was determined under each condition, as described in Materials and Methods. The number depicted over each bar indicates fold change in psaEF-gfp expression in the WT compared to the expression from the vector control under the given condition. Each bar represents the mean RFU/OD 600 , and error bars represent standard deviations. Each sample was assayed in biological triplicates, and at least three independent experiments were performed. ***, P
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Agar, supplied by Beijing Land Bridge Technology Co Ltd, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/brain heart infusion bhi agar/product/Beijing Land Bridge Technology Co Ltd
    Average 89 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    brain heart infusion bhi agar - by Bioz Stars, 2020-03
    89/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    HiMedia Laboratories brain heart infusion bhi agar
    Levels of PsaE and PsaF are impacted by temperature and pH. (A) Diagram of the psaEF locus showing the location of primers and the predicted PCR product used to analyze psaEF cotranscription via RT-PCR. Templates were as follows: RT+, cDNA; RT−, no reverse transcriptase (negative control); gDNA, <t>YP6</t> gDNA; dH 2 O, no template (negative control). (B) WT containing a psaEF transcriptional reporter plasmid (pJC126, psaEF-gfp ) was grown at 37°C and 26°C in buffered <t>BHI</t> broth, and the RFU/OD 600 was determined under each condition, as described in Materials and Methods. The number depicted over each bar indicates fold change in psaEF-gfp expression in the WT compared to the expression from the vector control under the given condition. Each bar represents the mean RFU/OD 600 , and error bars represent standard deviations. Each sample was assayed in biological triplicates, and at least three independent experiments were performed. ***, P
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Agar, supplied by HiMedia Laboratories, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 52 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/brain heart infusion bhi agar/product/HiMedia Laboratories
    Average 99 stars, based on 52 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    brain heart infusion bhi agar - by Bioz Stars, 2020-03
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Research Products International brain heart infusion bhi agar
    Levels of PsaE and PsaF are impacted by temperature and pH. (A) Diagram of the psaEF locus showing the location of primers and the predicted PCR product used to analyze psaEF cotranscription via RT-PCR. Templates were as follows: RT+, cDNA; RT−, no reverse transcriptase (negative control); gDNA, <t>YP6</t> gDNA; dH 2 O, no template (negative control). (B) WT containing a psaEF transcriptional reporter plasmid (pJC126, psaEF-gfp ) was grown at 37°C and 26°C in buffered <t>BHI</t> broth, and the RFU/OD 600 was determined under each condition, as described in Materials and Methods. The number depicted over each bar indicates fold change in psaEF-gfp expression in the WT compared to the expression from the vector control under the given condition. Each bar represents the mean RFU/OD 600 , and error bars represent standard deviations. Each sample was assayed in biological triplicates, and at least three independent experiments were performed. ***, P
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Agar, supplied by Research Products International, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 14 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/brain heart infusion bhi agar/product/Research Products International
    Average 99 stars, based on 14 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    brain heart infusion bhi agar - by Bioz Stars, 2020-03
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    94
    Scharlab brain heart infusion bhi agar
    Levels of PsaE and PsaF are impacted by temperature and pH. (A) Diagram of the psaEF locus showing the location of primers and the predicted PCR product used to analyze psaEF cotranscription via RT-PCR. Templates were as follows: RT+, cDNA; RT−, no reverse transcriptase (negative control); gDNA, <t>YP6</t> gDNA; dH 2 O, no template (negative control). (B) WT containing a psaEF transcriptional reporter plasmid (pJC126, psaEF-gfp ) was grown at 37°C and 26°C in buffered <t>BHI</t> broth, and the RFU/OD 600 was determined under each condition, as described in Materials and Methods. The number depicted over each bar indicates fold change in psaEF-gfp expression in the WT compared to the expression from the vector control under the given condition. Each bar represents the mean RFU/OD 600 , and error bars represent standard deviations. Each sample was assayed in biological triplicates, and at least three independent experiments were performed. ***, P
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Agar, supplied by Scharlab, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/brain heart infusion bhi agar/product/Scharlab
    Average 94 stars, based on 6 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    brain heart infusion bhi agar - by Bioz Stars, 2020-03
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    94
    Lab M Ltd brain heart infusion bhi agar
    Levels of PsaE and PsaF are impacted by temperature and pH. (A) Diagram of the psaEF locus showing the location of primers and the predicted PCR product used to analyze psaEF cotranscription via RT-PCR. Templates were as follows: RT+, cDNA; RT−, no reverse transcriptase (negative control); gDNA, <t>YP6</t> gDNA; dH 2 O, no template (negative control). (B) WT containing a psaEF transcriptional reporter plasmid (pJC126, psaEF-gfp ) was grown at 37°C and 26°C in buffered <t>BHI</t> broth, and the RFU/OD 600 was determined under each condition, as described in Materials and Methods. The number depicted over each bar indicates fold change in psaEF-gfp expression in the WT compared to the expression from the vector control under the given condition. Each bar represents the mean RFU/OD 600 , and error bars represent standard deviations. Each sample was assayed in biological triplicates, and at least three independent experiments were performed. ***, P
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Agar, supplied by Lab M Ltd, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 17 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/brain heart infusion bhi agar/product/Lab M Ltd
    Average 94 stars, based on 17 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    brain heart infusion bhi agar - by Bioz Stars, 2020-03
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    95
    Merck KGaA brain heart infusion bhi agar
    Levels of PsaE and PsaF are impacted by temperature and pH. (A) Diagram of the psaEF locus showing the location of primers and the predicted PCR product used to analyze psaEF cotranscription via RT-PCR. Templates were as follows: RT+, cDNA; RT−, no reverse transcriptase (negative control); gDNA, <t>YP6</t> gDNA; dH 2 O, no template (negative control). (B) WT containing a psaEF transcriptional reporter plasmid (pJC126, psaEF-gfp ) was grown at 37°C and 26°C in buffered <t>BHI</t> broth, and the RFU/OD 600 was determined under each condition, as described in Materials and Methods. The number depicted over each bar indicates fold change in psaEF-gfp expression in the WT compared to the expression from the vector control under the given condition. Each bar represents the mean RFU/OD 600 , and error bars represent standard deviations. Each sample was assayed in biological triplicates, and at least three independent experiments were performed. ***, P
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Agar, supplied by Merck KGaA, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 47 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/brain heart infusion bhi agar/product/Merck KGaA
    Average 95 stars, based on 47 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    brain heart infusion bhi agar - by Bioz Stars, 2020-03
    95/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Hardy Diagnostics brain heart infusion bhi agar
    Levels of PsaE and PsaF are impacted by temperature and pH. (A) Diagram of the psaEF locus showing the location of primers and the predicted PCR product used to analyze psaEF cotranscription via RT-PCR. Templates were as follows: RT+, cDNA; RT−, no reverse transcriptase (negative control); gDNA, <t>YP6</t> gDNA; dH 2 O, no template (negative control). (B) WT containing a psaEF transcriptional reporter plasmid (pJC126, psaEF-gfp ) was grown at 37°C and 26°C in buffered <t>BHI</t> broth, and the RFU/OD 600 was determined under each condition, as described in Materials and Methods. The number depicted over each bar indicates fold change in psaEF-gfp expression in the WT compared to the expression from the vector control under the given condition. Each bar represents the mean RFU/OD 600 , and error bars represent standard deviations. Each sample was assayed in biological triplicates, and at least three independent experiments were performed. ***, P
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Agar, supplied by Hardy Diagnostics, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 16 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/brain heart infusion bhi agar/product/Hardy Diagnostics
    Average 99 stars, based on 16 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    brain heart infusion bhi agar - by Bioz Stars, 2020-03
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    94
    Becton Dickinson brain heart infusion bhi agar plates
    Levels of PsaE and PsaF are impacted by temperature and pH. (A) Diagram of the psaEF locus showing the location of primers and the predicted PCR product used to analyze psaEF cotranscription via RT-PCR. Templates were as follows: RT+, cDNA; RT−, no reverse transcriptase (negative control); gDNA, <t>YP6</t> gDNA; dH 2 O, no template (negative control). (B) WT containing a psaEF transcriptional reporter plasmid (pJC126, psaEF-gfp ) was grown at 37°C and 26°C in buffered <t>BHI</t> broth, and the RFU/OD 600 was determined under each condition, as described in Materials and Methods. The number depicted over each bar indicates fold change in psaEF-gfp expression in the WT compared to the expression from the vector control under the given condition. Each bar represents the mean RFU/OD 600 , and error bars represent standard deviations. Each sample was assayed in biological triplicates, and at least three independent experiments were performed. ***, P
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Agar Plates, supplied by Becton Dickinson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 53 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/brain heart infusion bhi agar plates/product/Becton Dickinson
    Average 94 stars, based on 53 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    brain heart infusion bhi agar plates - by Bioz Stars, 2020-03
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    77
    Becton Dickinson porcine brain heart infusion bhi agar
    Levels of PsaE and PsaF are impacted by temperature and pH. (A) Diagram of the psaEF locus showing the location of primers and the predicted PCR product used to analyze psaEF cotranscription via RT-PCR. Templates were as follows: RT+, cDNA; RT−, no reverse transcriptase (negative control); gDNA, <t>YP6</t> gDNA; dH 2 O, no template (negative control). (B) WT containing a psaEF transcriptional reporter plasmid (pJC126, psaEF-gfp ) was grown at 37°C and 26°C in buffered <t>BHI</t> broth, and the RFU/OD 600 was determined under each condition, as described in Materials and Methods. The number depicted over each bar indicates fold change in psaEF-gfp expression in the WT compared to the expression from the vector control under the given condition. Each bar represents the mean RFU/OD 600 , and error bars represent standard deviations. Each sample was assayed in biological triplicates, and at least three independent experiments were performed. ***, P
    Porcine Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Agar, supplied by Becton Dickinson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 77/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/porcine brain heart infusion bhi agar/product/Becton Dickinson
    Average 77 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    porcine brain heart infusion bhi agar - by Bioz Stars, 2020-03
    77/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    90
    Difco brain heart infusion bhi agar plates
    Susceptibility of wild-type and mutant strains of M. <t>catarrhalis</t> to killing by normal human serum. Cells of wild-type strain 035E (diamonds), uspA1 mutant 035E.1 (triangles), uspA2 mutant 035E.2 (circles), and uspA1 uspA2 double mutant 035E.12 (squares) from logarithmic-phase <t>BHI</t> broth cultures were incubated in the presence of 10% (vol/vol) normal human serum (closed symbols) or heat-inactivated normal human serum (open symbols). Data are presented as the percentage of the original inoculum remaining at each time point; error bars are included.
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Agar Plates, supplied by Difco, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 49 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/brain heart infusion bhi agar plates/product/Difco
    Average 90 stars, based on 49 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    brain heart infusion bhi agar plates - by Bioz Stars, 2020-03
    90/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    79
    Liofilchem brain heart infusion agar bhi
    Susceptibility of wild-type and mutant strains of M. <t>catarrhalis</t> to killing by normal human serum. Cells of wild-type strain 035E (diamonds), uspA1 mutant 035E.1 (triangles), uspA2 mutant 035E.2 (circles), and uspA1 uspA2 double mutant 035E.12 (squares) from logarithmic-phase <t>BHI</t> broth cultures were incubated in the presence of 10% (vol/vol) normal human serum (closed symbols) or heat-inactivated normal human serum (open symbols). Data are presented as the percentage of the original inoculum remaining at each time point; error bars are included.
    Brain Heart Infusion Agar Bhi, supplied by Liofilchem, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 79/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/brain heart infusion agar bhi/product/Liofilchem
    Average 79 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    brain heart infusion agar bhi - by Bioz Stars, 2020-03
    79/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    87
    Merck & Co brain heart infusion agar bhi
    Susceptibility of wild-type and mutant strains of M. <t>catarrhalis</t> to killing by normal human serum. Cells of wild-type strain 035E (diamonds), uspA1 mutant 035E.1 (triangles), uspA2 mutant 035E.2 (circles), and uspA1 uspA2 double mutant 035E.12 (squares) from logarithmic-phase <t>BHI</t> broth cultures were incubated in the presence of 10% (vol/vol) normal human serum (closed symbols) or heat-inactivated normal human serum (open symbols). Data are presented as the percentage of the original inoculum remaining at each time point; error bars are included.
    Brain Heart Infusion Agar Bhi, supplied by Merck & Co, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 87/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/brain heart infusion agar bhi/product/Merck & Co
    Average 87 stars, based on 6 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    brain heart infusion agar bhi - by Bioz Stars, 2020-03
    87/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    85
    Merck KGaA brain heart infusion bhi agar plate
    Susceptibility of wild-type and mutant strains of M. <t>catarrhalis</t> to killing by normal human serum. Cells of wild-type strain 035E (diamonds), uspA1 mutant 035E.1 (triangles), uspA2 mutant 035E.2 (circles), and uspA1 uspA2 double mutant 035E.12 (squares) from logarithmic-phase <t>BHI</t> broth cultures were incubated in the presence of 10% (vol/vol) normal human serum (closed symbols) or heat-inactivated normal human serum (open symbols). Data are presented as the percentage of the original inoculum remaining at each time point; error bars are included.
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Agar Plate, supplied by Merck KGaA, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/brain heart infusion bhi agar plate/product/Merck KGaA
    Average 85 stars, based on 8 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    brain heart infusion bhi agar plate - by Bioz Stars, 2020-03
    85/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    79
    Carl Roth GmbH brain heart infusion bhi agar plates
    BpiB09 affects the QS-dependent pyocyanin production, C. elegans paralysis in <t>PAO1</t> and decreases AHL response in A. tumefaciens AHL reporter strain. A ) Decreased pyocyanin production. OD 520 of pyocyanin extracts from culture supernatants of P. aeruginosa carrying pBBR1MCS-5:: bpiB09 and empty pBBR1MCS-5. Data represent mean values of at least five independent experiments. Bars indicate the standard deviations. B ) C. elegans paralysis induced by PAO1 on <t>BHI</t> medium. Data represent mean values of eight independent assays per treatment (+/−) standard error. Incubation was carried out on BHI agar plates at room temperature. Per PAO1 strain eight replicate plates were assayed, each with 30 one-day-old adult C. elegans . GLM analysis revealed a significant PA strain effect between the PAO1 wildtype and pBBR1MCS-5:: bpiB09 (Likelihood ratio test, χ 2 = 132.04, df = 1, P
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Agar Plates, supplied by Carl Roth GmbH, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 79/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/brain heart infusion bhi agar plates/product/Carl Roth GmbH
    Average 79 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    brain heart infusion bhi agar plates - by Bioz Stars, 2020-03
    79/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    79
    scharlau brain heart infusion bhi agar plates
    BpiB09 affects the QS-dependent pyocyanin production, C. elegans paralysis in <t>PAO1</t> and decreases AHL response in A. tumefaciens AHL reporter strain. A ) Decreased pyocyanin production. OD 520 of pyocyanin extracts from culture supernatants of P. aeruginosa carrying pBBR1MCS-5:: bpiB09 and empty pBBR1MCS-5. Data represent mean values of at least five independent experiments. Bars indicate the standard deviations. B ) C. elegans paralysis induced by PAO1 on <t>BHI</t> medium. Data represent mean values of eight independent assays per treatment (+/−) standard error. Incubation was carried out on BHI agar plates at room temperature. Per PAO1 strain eight replicate plates were assayed, each with 30 one-day-old adult C. elegans . GLM analysis revealed a significant PA strain effect between the PAO1 wildtype and pBBR1MCS-5:: bpiB09 (Likelihood ratio test, χ 2 = 132.04, df = 1, P
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Agar Plates, supplied by scharlau, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 79/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/brain heart infusion bhi agar plates/product/scharlau
    Average 79 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    brain heart infusion bhi agar plates - by Bioz Stars, 2020-03
    79/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    78
    Difco sterile brain heart infusion bhi agar
    BpiB09 affects the QS-dependent pyocyanin production, C. elegans paralysis in <t>PAO1</t> and decreases AHL response in A. tumefaciens AHL reporter strain. A ) Decreased pyocyanin production. OD 520 of pyocyanin extracts from culture supernatants of P. aeruginosa carrying pBBR1MCS-5:: bpiB09 and empty pBBR1MCS-5. Data represent mean values of at least five independent experiments. Bars indicate the standard deviations. B ) C. elegans paralysis induced by PAO1 on <t>BHI</t> medium. Data represent mean values of eight independent assays per treatment (+/−) standard error. Incubation was carried out on BHI agar plates at room temperature. Per PAO1 strain eight replicate plates were assayed, each with 30 one-day-old adult C. elegans . GLM analysis revealed a significant PA strain effect between the PAO1 wildtype and pBBR1MCS-5:: bpiB09 (Likelihood ratio test, χ 2 = 132.04, df = 1, P
    Sterile Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Agar, supplied by Difco, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 78/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/sterile brain heart infusion bhi agar/product/Difco
    Average 78 stars, based on 2 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    sterile brain heart infusion bhi agar - by Bioz Stars, 2020-03
    78/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Thermo Fisher brain heart infusion bhi agar broth
    BpiB09 affects the QS-dependent pyocyanin production, C. elegans paralysis in <t>PAO1</t> and decreases AHL response in A. tumefaciens AHL reporter strain. A ) Decreased pyocyanin production. OD 520 of pyocyanin extracts from culture supernatants of P. aeruginosa carrying pBBR1MCS-5:: bpiB09 and empty pBBR1MCS-5. Data represent mean values of at least five independent experiments. Bars indicate the standard deviations. B ) C. elegans paralysis induced by PAO1 on <t>BHI</t> medium. Data represent mean values of eight independent assays per treatment (+/−) standard error. Incubation was carried out on BHI agar plates at room temperature. Per PAO1 strain eight replicate plates were assayed, each with 30 one-day-old adult C. elegans . GLM analysis revealed a significant PA strain effect between the PAO1 wildtype and pBBR1MCS-5:: bpiB09 (Likelihood ratio test, χ 2 = 132.04, df = 1, P
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Agar Broth, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/brain heart infusion bhi agar broth/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 99 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    brain heart infusion bhi agar broth - by Bioz Stars, 2020-03
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    88
    HiMedia Laboratories brain heart infusion bhi agar medium
    BpiB09 affects the QS-dependent pyocyanin production, C. elegans paralysis in <t>PAO1</t> and decreases AHL response in A. tumefaciens AHL reporter strain. A ) Decreased pyocyanin production. OD 520 of pyocyanin extracts from culture supernatants of P. aeruginosa carrying pBBR1MCS-5:: bpiB09 and empty pBBR1MCS-5. Data represent mean values of at least five independent experiments. Bars indicate the standard deviations. B ) C. elegans paralysis induced by PAO1 on <t>BHI</t> medium. Data represent mean values of eight independent assays per treatment (+/−) standard error. Incubation was carried out on BHI agar plates at room temperature. Per PAO1 strain eight replicate plates were assayed, each with 30 one-day-old adult C. elegans . GLM analysis revealed a significant PA strain effect between the PAO1 wildtype and pBBR1MCS-5:: bpiB09 (Likelihood ratio test, χ 2 = 132.04, df = 1, P
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Agar Medium, supplied by HiMedia Laboratories, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 9 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/brain heart infusion bhi agar medium/product/HiMedia Laboratories
    Average 88 stars, based on 9 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    brain heart infusion bhi agar medium - by Bioz Stars, 2020-03
    88/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    83
    Difco brain heart infusion medium bhi agar
    Kinetics of doxercalciferol and bacitracin interaction in MX804 (red), ΔmbrA (blue), and mbrA + (green) strains. Cultures of S. <t>mutans</t> MX804, Δ mbrA , and mbrA + were grown in TY medium plus 1% (wt/vol) glucose to exponential phase, and 10 5 CFU was used to inoculate fresh medium. The cultures were serially diluted and plated on <t>BHI</t> agar medium. Drugs were then added to the cultures as follows: doxercalciferol (16 μg/ml) (A), bacitracin (32 μg/ml) (B), a combination of doxercalciferol (16 μg/ml) and bacitracin (32 μg/ml) (C), or no-drug control (D). Aliquots were removed at 2, 4, 24, and 48 h following addition of drug and plated for enumeration. Percent survival was calculated by enumeration of CFU per milliliter at each time point. The data are averages of at least 3 independent replicates and are normalized to CFU per milliliter at time zero for each strain. *, P
    Brain Heart Infusion Medium Bhi Agar, supplied by Difco, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 83/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/brain heart infusion medium bhi agar/product/Difco
    Average 83 stars, based on 5 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    brain heart infusion medium bhi agar - by Bioz Stars, 2020-03
    83/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Difco bhi agar
    Expression and autolytic activity of Cwp19 in <t>BHI</t> medium. (A) qRT-PCR analysis of cwp19 expression during cellular growth in BHI medium. Total RNAs were extracted from C. difficile 630Δ <t>erm</t> grown in BHI medium at different times of growth. cDNAs were prepared and qRT-PCR was performed using gene-specific primers as outlined in Materials and Methods. Cells incubated for 5 h served as the reference condition. *, P ≤ 0.05 (Student’s t test). (B) Schematic representation of the genetic organization of the cwp19 chromosomal region of C. difficile strain 630Δ erm . Large arrows represent the genes, and their orientation shows the transcriptional direction. The nucleotide sequence of the cwp19 promoter region is shown. The transcriptional initiation nucleotide (+1) identified by 5′ RACE, the putative ribosome binding site sequence, the −10 and −35 motifs, and the translational initiation codon are underlined. (C) Triton X-100-induced autolysis of the C. difficile wild type (●), cwp19 mutant (■), and complemented cwp19 mutant (▲) grown in BHI medium. The strains were harvested in the exponential-growth phase and transferred in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 0.01% Triton X-100. Autolysis was monitored by measuring the decrease of the bacterial suspension at OD 600 and is expressed as a percentage of the initial OD 600 value. Error bars indicate standard deviations. Values are given as means ± standard deviations ( n = 3).
    Bhi Agar, supplied by Difco, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 441 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/bhi agar/product/Difco
    Average 99 stars, based on 441 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    bhi agar - by Bioz Stars, 2020-03
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    97
    HiMedia Laboratories bhi agar
    Expression and autolytic activity of Cwp19 in <t>BHI</t> medium. (A) qRT-PCR analysis of cwp19 expression during cellular growth in BHI medium. Total RNAs were extracted from C. difficile 630Δ <t>erm</t> grown in BHI medium at different times of growth. cDNAs were prepared and qRT-PCR was performed using gene-specific primers as outlined in Materials and Methods. Cells incubated for 5 h served as the reference condition. *, P ≤ 0.05 (Student’s t test). (B) Schematic representation of the genetic organization of the cwp19 chromosomal region of C. difficile strain 630Δ erm . Large arrows represent the genes, and their orientation shows the transcriptional direction. The nucleotide sequence of the cwp19 promoter region is shown. The transcriptional initiation nucleotide (+1) identified by 5′ RACE, the putative ribosome binding site sequence, the −10 and −35 motifs, and the translational initiation codon are underlined. (C) Triton X-100-induced autolysis of the C. difficile wild type (●), cwp19 mutant (■), and complemented cwp19 mutant (▲) grown in BHI medium. The strains were harvested in the exponential-growth phase and transferred in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 0.01% Triton X-100. Autolysis was monitored by measuring the decrease of the bacterial suspension at OD 600 and is expressed as a percentage of the initial OD 600 value. Error bars indicate standard deviations. Values are given as means ± standard deviations ( n = 3).
    Bhi Agar, supplied by HiMedia Laboratories, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 75 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/bhi agar/product/HiMedia Laboratories
    Average 97 stars, based on 75 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    bhi agar - by Bioz Stars, 2020-03
    97/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    Image Search Results


    Maximum specific growth rates of Listeria monocytogenes LO28 WT and 24 HHP-resistant variants at 30°C in BHI under aerobic conditions (a); at 30°C in BHI under anaerobic conditions (b); or at 7°C in BHI under aerobic conditions

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Population Diversity of Listeria monocytogenes LO28: Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Variants Resistant to High Hydrostatic Pressure ▿

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.02434-09

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Maximum specific growth rates of Listeria monocytogenes LO28 WT and 24 HHP-resistant variants at 30°C in BHI under aerobic conditions (a); at 30°C in BHI under anaerobic conditions (b); or at 7°C in BHI under aerobic conditions

    Article Snippet: Stock cultures of all strains were kept in 15% (vol/vol) glycerol (Fluka, Buchs, Switzerland) at −80°C, and before the experiments, cells from stock were grown for 2 days at 30°C on brain heart infusion (BHI) agar (Oxoid, Hampshire, England).

    Techniques:

    Effect of the hfq mutation on the sensitivity of M. catarrhalis to methyl viologen. Bacterial cells of each strain were suspended to the same OD 600 and then serially diluted and spotted onto BHI agar (A) and BHI agar containing 40 μM methyl viologen (B). Four strains were tested: wild-type O35E strain (WT), the O35EΔ hfq mutant (Δ hfq ), the O35EΔ hfq mutant containing the pAA200 plasmid with the wild-type O35E hfq gene [Δ hfq (pAA200)], and this same mutant containing only the plasmid vector [Δ hfq (pWW115)]. The plates were dried and incubated overnight, and the resultant growth was photographed.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Moraxella catarrhalis Expresses an Unusual Hfq Protein

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01652-07

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of the hfq mutation on the sensitivity of M. catarrhalis to methyl viologen. Bacterial cells of each strain were suspended to the same OD 600 and then serially diluted and spotted onto BHI agar (A) and BHI agar containing 40 μM methyl viologen (B). Four strains were tested: wild-type O35E strain (WT), the O35EΔ hfq mutant (Δ hfq ), the O35EΔ hfq mutant containing the pAA200 plasmid with the wild-type O35E hfq gene [Δ hfq (pAA200)], and this same mutant containing only the plasmid vector [Δ hfq (pWW115)]. The plates were dried and incubated overnight, and the resultant growth was photographed.

    Article Snippet: A 10-μl aliquot of each dilution was spotted onto BHI agar with or without 40 μM methyl viologen (Sigma, St. Louis, MO).

    Techniques: Mutagenesis, Plasmid Preparation, Incubation

    Complementation of an E. coli hfq mutant with the M. catarrhalis Hfq protein. (A) Growth curves of wild-type, mutant, and recombinant E. coli strains. The wild-type strain MC4100 (⋄), the hfq mutant GS081 (▪), the hfq mutant with the M. catarrhalis hfq gene provided in trans [GS081(pAA105)] (▴), and the hfq mutant containing the negative control plasmid [GS081(pAA105B)] (○) were suspended in LB broth to an OD 600 of 1.0 and then diluted 1:20. These cultures were allowed to grow with aeration at 37°C, and the growth was monitored by measuring the absorbance at 600 nm every hour. (B and C) Cells of the wild-type, mutant, and recombinant E. coli strains were suspended to the same OD 600 and then serially diluted and spotted onto BHI agar (B) and onto BHI agar containing 40 μM methyl viologen (C). The plates were dried and incubated overnight at 37°C.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Moraxella catarrhalis Expresses an Unusual Hfq Protein

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01652-07

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Complementation of an E. coli hfq mutant with the M. catarrhalis Hfq protein. (A) Growth curves of wild-type, mutant, and recombinant E. coli strains. The wild-type strain MC4100 (⋄), the hfq mutant GS081 (▪), the hfq mutant with the M. catarrhalis hfq gene provided in trans [GS081(pAA105)] (▴), and the hfq mutant containing the negative control plasmid [GS081(pAA105B)] (○) were suspended in LB broth to an OD 600 of 1.0 and then diluted 1:20. These cultures were allowed to grow with aeration at 37°C, and the growth was monitored by measuring the absorbance at 600 nm every hour. (B and C) Cells of the wild-type, mutant, and recombinant E. coli strains were suspended to the same OD 600 and then serially diluted and spotted onto BHI agar (B) and onto BHI agar containing 40 μM methyl viologen (C). The plates were dried and incubated overnight at 37°C.

    Article Snippet: A 10-μl aliquot of each dilution was spotted onto BHI agar with or without 40 μM methyl viologen (Sigma, St. Louis, MO).

    Techniques: Mutagenesis, Recombinant, Negative Control, Plasmid Preparation, Incubation

    ClpX contributes to in vivo survival of fully virulent B. anthracis Ames. a Competitive index of the Δ clpX mutant compared to the parental strain, B. anthracis Ames, grown overnight in BHI or after infection in guinea pigs. Results are the mean

    Journal: Journal of Innate Immunity

    Article Title: ClpX Contributes to Innate Defense Peptide Resistance and Virulence Phenotypes of Bacillus anthracis

    doi: 10.1159/000225955

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ClpX contributes to in vivo survival of fully virulent B. anthracis Ames. a Competitive index of the Δ clpX mutant compared to the parental strain, B. anthracis Ames, grown overnight in BHI or after infection in guinea pigs. Results are the mean

    Article Snippet: B. anthracis Sterne (pXO1+ pXO2− ) and Ames strains (pXO1+ pXO2+ ) were propagated in Brain-Heart Infusion (BHI) medium (Sigma) or on BHI agar plates under aerobic conditions at 37°C.

    Techniques: In Vivo, Mutagenesis, Infection

    Stress resistance of late-exponential phase cells of L. monocytogenes LO28 WT and acid resistant variants in BHI broth . Late-exponential phase cells were exposed to pH 2.5 for 3.5 min at 37∘C (adapted from Metselaar et al., 2013 ) (A), 55∘C for 6 min (B), 420 mM hydrogen peroxide for 9 min at 30∘C (C), and 20 mg/L benzalkonium chloride (BAC) for 5 min at 30∘C (D) . Results are expressed as reduction in log 10 cfu/ml after exposure compared to log 10 cfu/ml at t = 0. Errors bars represent the SD and significant differences from the WT are indicated with ∗( p

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Diversity of acid stress resistant variants of Listeria monocytogenes and the potential role of ribosomal protein S21 encoded by rpsU

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00422

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Stress resistance of late-exponential phase cells of L. monocytogenes LO28 WT and acid resistant variants in BHI broth . Late-exponential phase cells were exposed to pH 2.5 for 3.5 min at 37∘C (adapted from Metselaar et al., 2013 ) (A), 55∘C for 6 min (B), 420 mM hydrogen peroxide for 9 min at 30∘C (C), and 20 mg/L benzalkonium chloride (BAC) for 5 min at 30∘C (D) . Results are expressed as reduction in log 10 cfu/ml after exposure compared to log 10 cfu/ml at t = 0. Errors bars represent the SD and significant differences from the WT are indicated with ∗( p

    Article Snippet: The stock culture was kept in 15% (v/v) glycerol (Fluka, Buchs) at -80∘C, and before the experiments cells from stock were grown for 2 days at 30∘C on BHI agar (Oxoid, Hampshire).

    Techniques: BAC Assay

    SDS-PAGE analysis of the OMPs of B. avium 4169 and the transposon mutants Pho-6 and Pho-20. Lanes: 1, molecular mass standards; 2, 4169 in BHI; 3, 4169 in BHI-EDDA; 4, Pho-6 in BHI; 5, Pho-6 in BHI-EDDA; 6, Pho-20 in BHI; 7, Pho-20 in BHI-EDDA. Lanes 2 to 7 each contain 1 μg of total protein. Molecular masses are in kilodaltons. The positions of the 95- and 84-kDa FeRPs that are missing in the outer membrane of Pho-20 are denoted by arrows. The gel was stained with silver.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Iron Starvation of Bordetella avium Stimulates Expression of Five Outer Membrane Proteins and Regulates a Gene Involved in Acquiring Iron from Serum

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SDS-PAGE analysis of the OMPs of B. avium 4169 and the transposon mutants Pho-6 and Pho-20. Lanes: 1, molecular mass standards; 2, 4169 in BHI; 3, 4169 in BHI-EDDA; 4, Pho-6 in BHI; 5, Pho-6 in BHI-EDDA; 6, Pho-20 in BHI; 7, Pho-20 in BHI-EDDA. Lanes 2 to 7 each contain 1 μg of total protein. Molecular masses are in kilodaltons. The positions of the 95- and 84-kDa FeRPs that are missing in the outer membrane of Pho-20 are denoted by arrows. The gel was stained with silver.

    Article Snippet: B. avium strains were maintained on brain heart infusion agar (BHI) (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.), while E. coli cultures were maintained on Luria-Bertani agar.

    Techniques: SDS Page, Staining

    Growth of mutant H. influenzae Rd strains. The strains Rd, REI1012 (Δ hel :: kan ), and GK04 ( nadN :: cat Δ hel :: kan ) were grown on BHI agar plates supplemented with hemin (20 μg/ml) and different nicotinamide nucleotide concentrations and sources. Growth phenotype is shown with 1.5 and 35 μM NAD, with 1.5 and 15 μM NMN, and with 1.5 and 15 μM NR, as indicated.

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    Article Title: NadN and e (P4) Are Essential for Utilization of NAD and Nicotinamide Mononucleotide but Not Nicotinamide Riboside in Haemophilus influenzae

    doi: 10.1128/JB.183.13.3974-3981.2001

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Growth of mutant H. influenzae Rd strains. The strains Rd, REI1012 (Δ hel :: kan ), and GK04 ( nadN :: cat Δ hel :: kan ) were grown on BHI agar plates supplemented with hemin (20 μg/ml) and different nicotinamide nucleotide concentrations and sources. Growth phenotype is shown with 1.5 and 35 μM NAD, with 1.5 and 15 μM NMN, and with 1.5 and 15 μM NR, as indicated.

    Article Snippet: H. influenzae was grown at 37°C under aerobic conditions on 3.8% brain heart infusion (BHI) agar (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.) supplemented with NAD (15 to 30 μM) and hemin-chloride (20 μg/ml) (Sigma, Deisenhofen, Germany).

    Techniques: Mutagenesis

    Levels of PsaE and PsaF are impacted by temperature and pH. (A) Diagram of the psaEF locus showing the location of primers and the predicted PCR product used to analyze psaEF cotranscription via RT-PCR. Templates were as follows: RT+, cDNA; RT−, no reverse transcriptase (negative control); gDNA, YP6 gDNA; dH 2 O, no template (negative control). (B) WT containing a psaEF transcriptional reporter plasmid (pJC126, psaEF-gfp ) was grown at 37°C and 26°C in buffered BHI broth, and the RFU/OD 600 was determined under each condition, as described in Materials and Methods. The number depicted over each bar indicates fold change in psaEF-gfp expression in the WT compared to the expression from the vector control under the given condition. Each bar represents the mean RFU/OD 600 , and error bars represent standard deviations. Each sample was assayed in biological triplicates, and at least three independent experiments were performed. ***, P

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    Article Title: Temperature Control of psaA Expression by PsaE and PsaF in Yersinia pestis

    doi: 10.1128/JB.00217-19

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Levels of PsaE and PsaF are impacted by temperature and pH. (A) Diagram of the psaEF locus showing the location of primers and the predicted PCR product used to analyze psaEF cotranscription via RT-PCR. Templates were as follows: RT+, cDNA; RT−, no reverse transcriptase (negative control); gDNA, YP6 gDNA; dH 2 O, no template (negative control). (B) WT containing a psaEF transcriptional reporter plasmid (pJC126, psaEF-gfp ) was grown at 37°C and 26°C in buffered BHI broth, and the RFU/OD 600 was determined under each condition, as described in Materials and Methods. The number depicted over each bar indicates fold change in psaEF-gfp expression in the WT compared to the expression from the vector control under the given condition. Each bar represents the mean RFU/OD 600 , and error bars represent standard deviations. Each sample was assayed in biological triplicates, and at least three independent experiments were performed. ***, P

    Article Snippet: Y. pestis CO92/pCD1− (YP6) was cultivated on brain heart infusion (BHI) agar (BD Biosciences, Bedford, MA) at 26°C for 48 h and in BHI broth cultures grown with aeration at 26°C or 37°C.

    Techniques: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Negative Control, Plasmid Preparation, Expressing

    Expression of psaA and enhanced PsaE stability correspond with PsaF. (A) The psaA-gfp reporter was introduced into derivatives of the Δ psaEF mutant expressing psaEF from the psaE native 5′ UTR (YPA260, native), the psaE 5G 5′ UTR (YPA361, 5G), and the psaE 5C 5′ UTR (YPA360, 5C); these strains were grown at 37°C and 26°C in pH 6.3 buffered BHI broth, and reporter expression was determined as described in Materials and Methods. Each bar represents the mean RFU/OD 600 , and error bars represent standard deviations. Each sample was assayed in biological triplicate. ***, P

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    Article Title: Temperature Control of psaA Expression by PsaE and PsaF in Yersinia pestis

    doi: 10.1128/JB.00217-19

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Expression of psaA and enhanced PsaE stability correspond with PsaF. (A) The psaA-gfp reporter was introduced into derivatives of the Δ psaEF mutant expressing psaEF from the psaE native 5′ UTR (YPA260, native), the psaE 5G 5′ UTR (YPA361, 5G), and the psaE 5C 5′ UTR (YPA360, 5C); these strains were grown at 37°C and 26°C in pH 6.3 buffered BHI broth, and reporter expression was determined as described in Materials and Methods. Each bar represents the mean RFU/OD 600 , and error bars represent standard deviations. Each sample was assayed in biological triplicate. ***, P

    Article Snippet: Y. pestis CO92/pCD1− (YP6) was cultivated on brain heart infusion (BHI) agar (BD Biosciences, Bedford, MA) at 26°C for 48 h and in BHI broth cultures grown with aeration at 26°C or 37°C.

    Techniques: Expressing, Mutagenesis

    Expression of a psaA transcriptional reporter and production of PsaA require high temperature and low pH. WT Y. pestis (YP6) carrying a psaA transcriptional reporter (pEW102, psaA-gfp ) was grown at 26°C and 37°C, and psaA transcription (A, C, and D), medium pH (B), and PsaA (E) were analyzed as described in Materials and Methods. (A and B) psaA expression (A) and growth medium pH (B) were determined following growth at 26°C and 37°C in unbuffered BHI broth over time. (C) WT carrying psaA-gfp was grown at 37°C in BHI broth buffered to pH 6.3, 6.7, and 7.3, and reporter expression was determined. (D) WT carrying psaA-gfp was grown for 8 h at 37°C and 26°C in buffered BHI broth, and reporter expression was determined. Each bar represents the mean RFU/OD 600 , and error bars represent standard deviations. For reporter experiments, each sample was assayed in biological triplicates. ***, P

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    Article Title: Temperature Control of psaA Expression by PsaE and PsaF in Yersinia pestis

    doi: 10.1128/JB.00217-19

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Expression of a psaA transcriptional reporter and production of PsaA require high temperature and low pH. WT Y. pestis (YP6) carrying a psaA transcriptional reporter (pEW102, psaA-gfp ) was grown at 26°C and 37°C, and psaA transcription (A, C, and D), medium pH (B), and PsaA (E) were analyzed as described in Materials and Methods. (A and B) psaA expression (A) and growth medium pH (B) were determined following growth at 26°C and 37°C in unbuffered BHI broth over time. (C) WT carrying psaA-gfp was grown at 37°C in BHI broth buffered to pH 6.3, 6.7, and 7.3, and reporter expression was determined. (D) WT carrying psaA-gfp was grown for 8 h at 37°C and 26°C in buffered BHI broth, and reporter expression was determined. Each bar represents the mean RFU/OD 600 , and error bars represent standard deviations. For reporter experiments, each sample was assayed in biological triplicates. ***, P

    Article Snippet: Y. pestis CO92/pCD1− (YP6) was cultivated on brain heart infusion (BHI) agar (BD Biosciences, Bedford, MA) at 26°C for 48 h and in BHI broth cultures grown with aeration at 26°C or 37°C.

    Techniques: Expressing

    psaF translation requires high temperature and is regulated independently of the psaE 5′ UTR. The psaEF coding sequence was cloned into a tet -inducible expression vector (pPsaEF). (A) The Δ psaEF mutant carrying pPsaEF was grown at 37°C and 26°C in buffered BHI broth in the presence or absence of 50 ng/ml ATc, and whole-cell lysates were prepared and used to analyze PsaE and PsaF via Western blotting, as indicated in Materials and Methods. P λ , phage lambda promoter. (B) Diagram of sequence used to construct the psaF translational reporter (pJQ043, psaF up - lacZ ); the psaEF promoter was ligated directly to sequences upstream of psaF . The fragments outlined in red were excluded from the reporter. (C) The psaF up - lacZ reporter was introduced at the Tn 7 site in the Y. pestis Δ lacZ mutant (YPA87), and this strain was grown at 37°C or 26°C in buffered BHI broth. β-Galactosidase activity was analyzed as indicated in Materials and Methods. Bar graphs represent mean values of Miller units, and error bars represent standard deviations. ***, P

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    Article Title: Temperature Control of psaA Expression by PsaE and PsaF in Yersinia pestis

    doi: 10.1128/JB.00217-19

    Figure Lengend Snippet: psaF translation requires high temperature and is regulated independently of the psaE 5′ UTR. The psaEF coding sequence was cloned into a tet -inducible expression vector (pPsaEF). (A) The Δ psaEF mutant carrying pPsaEF was grown at 37°C and 26°C in buffered BHI broth in the presence or absence of 50 ng/ml ATc, and whole-cell lysates were prepared and used to analyze PsaE and PsaF via Western blotting, as indicated in Materials and Methods. P λ , phage lambda promoter. (B) Diagram of sequence used to construct the psaF translational reporter (pJQ043, psaF up - lacZ ); the psaEF promoter was ligated directly to sequences upstream of psaF . The fragments outlined in red were excluded from the reporter. (C) The psaF up - lacZ reporter was introduced at the Tn 7 site in the Y. pestis Δ lacZ mutant (YPA87), and this strain was grown at 37°C or 26°C in buffered BHI broth. β-Galactosidase activity was analyzed as indicated in Materials and Methods. Bar graphs represent mean values of Miller units, and error bars represent standard deviations. ***, P

    Article Snippet: Y. pestis CO92/pCD1− (YP6) was cultivated on brain heart infusion (BHI) agar (BD Biosciences, Bedford, MA) at 26°C for 48 h and in BHI broth cultures grown with aeration at 26°C or 37°C.

    Techniques: Sequencing, Clone Assay, Expressing, Plasmid Preparation, Mutagenesis, Western Blot, Construct, Activity Assay

    Susceptibility of wild-type and mutant strains of M. catarrhalis to killing by normal human serum. Cells of wild-type strain 035E (diamonds), uspA1 mutant 035E.1 (triangles), uspA2 mutant 035E.2 (circles), and uspA1 uspA2 double mutant 035E.12 (squares) from logarithmic-phase BHI broth cultures were incubated in the presence of 10% (vol/vol) normal human serum (closed symbols) or heat-inactivated normal human serum (open symbols). Data are presented as the percentage of the original inoculum remaining at each time point; error bars are included.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Phenotypic Effect of Isogenic uspA1 and uspA2 Mutations on Moraxella catarrhalis 035E

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Susceptibility of wild-type and mutant strains of M. catarrhalis to killing by normal human serum. Cells of wild-type strain 035E (diamonds), uspA1 mutant 035E.1 (triangles), uspA2 mutant 035E.2 (circles), and uspA1 uspA2 double mutant 035E.12 (squares) from logarithmic-phase BHI broth cultures were incubated in the presence of 10% (vol/vol) normal human serum (closed symbols) or heat-inactivated normal human serum (open symbols). Data are presented as the percentage of the original inoculum remaining at each time point; error bars are included.

    Article Snippet: M. catarrhalis strains were routinely grown at 37°C on brain heart infusion (BHI) agar plates (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.) in an atmosphere of 95% air–5% CO2 supplemented, when necessary, with kanamycin (20 μg/ml) (Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, Mo.) or chloramphenicol (0.5 μg/ml) (Sigma); in some cases, cells were grown in BHI broth.

    Techniques: Mutagenesis, Incubation

    BpiB09 affects the QS-dependent pyocyanin production, C. elegans paralysis in PAO1 and decreases AHL response in A. tumefaciens AHL reporter strain. A ) Decreased pyocyanin production. OD 520 of pyocyanin extracts from culture supernatants of P. aeruginosa carrying pBBR1MCS-5:: bpiB09 and empty pBBR1MCS-5. Data represent mean values of at least five independent experiments. Bars indicate the standard deviations. B ) C. elegans paralysis induced by PAO1 on BHI medium. Data represent mean values of eight independent assays per treatment (+/−) standard error. Incubation was carried out on BHI agar plates at room temperature. Per PAO1 strain eight replicate plates were assayed, each with 30 one-day-old adult C. elegans . GLM analysis revealed a significant PA strain effect between the PAO1 wildtype and pBBR1MCS-5:: bpiB09 (Likelihood ratio test, χ 2 = 132.04, df = 1, P

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: A Novel Metagenomic Short-Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase Attenuates Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation and Virulence on Caenorhabditis elegans

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026278

    Figure Lengend Snippet: BpiB09 affects the QS-dependent pyocyanin production, C. elegans paralysis in PAO1 and decreases AHL response in A. tumefaciens AHL reporter strain. A ) Decreased pyocyanin production. OD 520 of pyocyanin extracts from culture supernatants of P. aeruginosa carrying pBBR1MCS-5:: bpiB09 and empty pBBR1MCS-5. Data represent mean values of at least five independent experiments. Bars indicate the standard deviations. B ) C. elegans paralysis induced by PAO1 on BHI medium. Data represent mean values of eight independent assays per treatment (+/−) standard error. Incubation was carried out on BHI agar plates at room temperature. Per PAO1 strain eight replicate plates were assayed, each with 30 one-day-old adult C. elegans . GLM analysis revealed a significant PA strain effect between the PAO1 wildtype and pBBR1MCS-5:: bpiB09 (Likelihood ratio test, χ 2 = 132.04, df = 1, P

    Article Snippet: C. elegans paralysis assay Paralysis assays were done as described in with some modifications: PAO1 strains were grown on brain heart infusion (BHI) agar plates (Roth X915.1), supplemented with 50 µg/ml gentamycin to maintain plasmids.

    Techniques: Incubation

    Kinetics of doxercalciferol and bacitracin interaction in MX804 (red), ΔmbrA (blue), and mbrA + (green) strains. Cultures of S. mutans MX804, Δ mbrA , and mbrA + were grown in TY medium plus 1% (wt/vol) glucose to exponential phase, and 10 5 CFU was used to inoculate fresh medium. The cultures were serially diluted and plated on BHI agar medium. Drugs were then added to the cultures as follows: doxercalciferol (16 μg/ml) (A), bacitracin (32 μg/ml) (B), a combination of doxercalciferol (16 μg/ml) and bacitracin (32 μg/ml) (C), or no-drug control (D). Aliquots were removed at 2, 4, 24, and 48 h following addition of drug and plated for enumeration. Percent survival was calculated by enumeration of CFU per milliliter at each time point. The data are averages of at least 3 independent replicates and are normalized to CFU per milliliter at time zero for each strain. *, P

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Vitamin D Compounds Are Bactericidal against Streptococcus mutans and Target the Bacitracin-Associated Efflux System

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.01675-17

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Kinetics of doxercalciferol and bacitracin interaction in MX804 (red), ΔmbrA (blue), and mbrA + (green) strains. Cultures of S. mutans MX804, Δ mbrA , and mbrA + were grown in TY medium plus 1% (wt/vol) glucose to exponential phase, and 10 5 CFU was used to inoculate fresh medium. The cultures were serially diluted and plated on BHI agar medium. Drugs were then added to the cultures as follows: doxercalciferol (16 μg/ml) (A), bacitracin (32 μg/ml) (B), a combination of doxercalciferol (16 μg/ml) and bacitracin (32 μg/ml) (C), or no-drug control (D). Aliquots were removed at 2, 4, 24, and 48 h following addition of drug and plated for enumeration. Percent survival was calculated by enumeration of CFU per milliliter at each time point. The data are averages of at least 3 independent replicates and are normalized to CFU per milliliter at time zero for each strain. *, P

    Article Snippet: S. mutans strain UA159 ( ) was maintained on brain heart infusion (BHI) agar medium (BD/Difco, Franklin Lakes, NJ).

    Techniques:

    Expression and autolytic activity of Cwp19 in BHI medium. (A) qRT-PCR analysis of cwp19 expression during cellular growth in BHI medium. Total RNAs were extracted from C. difficile 630Δ erm grown in BHI medium at different times of growth. cDNAs were prepared and qRT-PCR was performed using gene-specific primers as outlined in Materials and Methods. Cells incubated for 5 h served as the reference condition. *, P ≤ 0.05 (Student’s t test). (B) Schematic representation of the genetic organization of the cwp19 chromosomal region of C. difficile strain 630Δ erm . Large arrows represent the genes, and their orientation shows the transcriptional direction. The nucleotide sequence of the cwp19 promoter region is shown. The transcriptional initiation nucleotide (+1) identified by 5′ RACE, the putative ribosome binding site sequence, the −10 and −35 motifs, and the translational initiation codon are underlined. (C) Triton X-100-induced autolysis of the C. difficile wild type (●), cwp19 mutant (■), and complemented cwp19 mutant (▲) grown in BHI medium. The strains were harvested in the exponential-growth phase and transferred in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 0.01% Triton X-100. Autolysis was monitored by measuring the decrease of the bacterial suspension at OD 600 and is expressed as a percentage of the initial OD 600 value. Error bars indicate standard deviations. Values are given as means ± standard deviations ( n = 3).

    Journal: mBio

    Article Title: Cwp19 Is a Novel Lytic Transglycosylase Involved in Stationary-Phase Autolysis Resulting in Toxin Release in Clostridium difficile

    doi: 10.1128/mBio.00648-18

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Expression and autolytic activity of Cwp19 in BHI medium. (A) qRT-PCR analysis of cwp19 expression during cellular growth in BHI medium. Total RNAs were extracted from C. difficile 630Δ erm grown in BHI medium at different times of growth. cDNAs were prepared and qRT-PCR was performed using gene-specific primers as outlined in Materials and Methods. Cells incubated for 5 h served as the reference condition. *, P ≤ 0.05 (Student’s t test). (B) Schematic representation of the genetic organization of the cwp19 chromosomal region of C. difficile strain 630Δ erm . Large arrows represent the genes, and their orientation shows the transcriptional direction. The nucleotide sequence of the cwp19 promoter region is shown. The transcriptional initiation nucleotide (+1) identified by 5′ RACE, the putative ribosome binding site sequence, the −10 and −35 motifs, and the translational initiation codon are underlined. (C) Triton X-100-induced autolysis of the C. difficile wild type (●), cwp19 mutant (■), and complemented cwp19 mutant (▲) grown in BHI medium. The strains were harvested in the exponential-growth phase and transferred in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 0.01% Triton X-100. Autolysis was monitored by measuring the decrease of the bacterial suspension at OD 600 and is expressed as a percentage of the initial OD 600 value. Error bars indicate standard deviations. Values are given as means ± standard deviations ( n = 3).

    Article Snippet: Transconjugants were selected by subculturing on BHI agar containing Cfx, Ccs, and Tm and then plated on BHI agar containing Erm.

    Techniques: Expressing, Activity Assay, Quantitative RT-PCR, Incubation, Sequencing, Binding Assay, Mutagenesis

    Cwp19 is a PG-degrading enzyme. (A) Detection of bacteriolytic activities in surface protein extracts of C. difficile 630 Δ erm (WT), cwp19 mutant (mut.), and complemented cwp19 mutant (comp) strains by zymogram. The gel contained 0.2% (wt/vol) M. lysodeikticus cells as a substrate. Surface proteins were extracted from cells grown to the exponential phase in BHI medium. Arrows indicate the positions of the bacteriolytic bands. (B) Schematic representation of Cwp19. The relevant characteristics are a signal peptide (SP), a putative catalytic domain (GHL10), and three copies of a cell wall binding motif termed CWB2. (C) Analysis of purified His 6 -tagged Cwp19 by SDS-PAGE (left panel), Western blotting performed with anti-His antibody (middle panel), and zymogram assay (right panel).

    Journal: mBio

    Article Title: Cwp19 Is a Novel Lytic Transglycosylase Involved in Stationary-Phase Autolysis Resulting in Toxin Release in Clostridium difficile

    doi: 10.1128/mBio.00648-18

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Cwp19 is a PG-degrading enzyme. (A) Detection of bacteriolytic activities in surface protein extracts of C. difficile 630 Δ erm (WT), cwp19 mutant (mut.), and complemented cwp19 mutant (comp) strains by zymogram. The gel contained 0.2% (wt/vol) M. lysodeikticus cells as a substrate. Surface proteins were extracted from cells grown to the exponential phase in BHI medium. Arrows indicate the positions of the bacteriolytic bands. (B) Schematic representation of Cwp19. The relevant characteristics are a signal peptide (SP), a putative catalytic domain (GHL10), and three copies of a cell wall binding motif termed CWB2. (C) Analysis of purified His 6 -tagged Cwp19 by SDS-PAGE (left panel), Western blotting performed with anti-His antibody (middle panel), and zymogram assay (right panel).

    Article Snippet: Transconjugants were selected by subculturing on BHI agar containing Cfx, Ccs, and Tm and then plated on BHI agar containing Erm.

    Techniques: Mutagenesis, Binding Assay, Purification, SDS Page, Western Blot

    Role of Cwp19 in cell autolysis and toxin release of C. difficile cultivated in BHI medium. (A) Growth and autolysis of the wild-type 630Δ erm (●), cwp19 mutant (■), and complemented cwp19 mutant (▲) strains in BHI medium. Values are given as means ± standard deviations ( n = 3). (B) LDH activity released in the supernatant fractions of wild-type 630Δ erm (black bars), cwp19 mutant (gray bars), and complemented cwp19 mutant (white bars) strains in BHI medium at different time points. LDH activity was determined using Promega CytoTox 96. The signal from the test was recorded as absorbance at 490 nm. Values are given as means ± standard deviations ( n = 3). *, P ≤ 0.05 (Student’s t test). (C) TEM micrographs of C. difficile wild-type 630Δ erm , cwp19 mutant ( cwp19 mut.), and complemented cwp19 mutant (comp.) strains incubated for 33 h in BHI medium. The percentage of damaged cells for each strain is indicated. (D and E) Toxin titers in the cytosol (D) and in the culture supernatant (E) of wild-type 630Δ erm (black bars), cwp19 mutant (gray bars), and complemented cwp19 mutant (white bars) strains grown in BHI medium. Toxins were quantified by ELISA. The signal from the test was recorded as absorbance at 450 nm. Values are given as means ± standard deviations ( n = 3). *, P ≤ 0.05 (Student’s t test). ND, not detectable.

    Journal: mBio

    Article Title: Cwp19 Is a Novel Lytic Transglycosylase Involved in Stationary-Phase Autolysis Resulting in Toxin Release in Clostridium difficile

    doi: 10.1128/mBio.00648-18

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Role of Cwp19 in cell autolysis and toxin release of C. difficile cultivated in BHI medium. (A) Growth and autolysis of the wild-type 630Δ erm (●), cwp19 mutant (■), and complemented cwp19 mutant (▲) strains in BHI medium. Values are given as means ± standard deviations ( n = 3). (B) LDH activity released in the supernatant fractions of wild-type 630Δ erm (black bars), cwp19 mutant (gray bars), and complemented cwp19 mutant (white bars) strains in BHI medium at different time points. LDH activity was determined using Promega CytoTox 96. The signal from the test was recorded as absorbance at 490 nm. Values are given as means ± standard deviations ( n = 3). *, P ≤ 0.05 (Student’s t test). (C) TEM micrographs of C. difficile wild-type 630Δ erm , cwp19 mutant ( cwp19 mut.), and complemented cwp19 mutant (comp.) strains incubated for 33 h in BHI medium. The percentage of damaged cells for each strain is indicated. (D and E) Toxin titers in the cytosol (D) and in the culture supernatant (E) of wild-type 630Δ erm (black bars), cwp19 mutant (gray bars), and complemented cwp19 mutant (white bars) strains grown in BHI medium. Toxins were quantified by ELISA. The signal from the test was recorded as absorbance at 450 nm. Values are given as means ± standard deviations ( n = 3). *, P ≤ 0.05 (Student’s t test). ND, not detectable.

    Article Snippet: Transconjugants were selected by subculturing on BHI agar containing Cfx, Ccs, and Tm and then plated on BHI agar containing Erm.

    Techniques: Mutagenesis, Activity Assay, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay