anti-phospho-akt Search Results


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  • 99
    Cell Signaling Technology Inc phospho akt
    GSK-3 phosphorylates RacE at Ser192 in response to the chemoattractant. a , WT and RacE-KO cells were stimulated with the chemoattractant cAMP (1 μM). Total amounts of RacE and its phosphorylation at Ser192 were analyzed by <t>immunoblotting</t> with antibodies to RacE and phospho-RacE(Ser192). b , WT cells expressing GFP fused to WT RacE, phospho-defective RacE S192A or phospho-mimetic RacE S192D were stimulated with cAMP. Whole cell lysates prepared at the indicated time points were analyzed by immunoblotting with antibodies to RacE and phospho-RacE(S192). c , The amino acid sequence in the vicinity of the phosphorylation site (Ser192, red) of RacE. A consensus motif for GSK-3 phosphorylation — a cluster of (S/TXXXS/T) — is underlined. A phosphopeptide used to raise anti-phospho-RacE (S192P) is highlighted. d , The location of serine 192 in a modeled RacE 3-D structure. (e–h) WT cells were treated with inhibitors to GSK-3 (250 nM LY2090314 in e and 10 mM lithium in f ), PI3K (250 μM LY294002 in g ), mTORC2 (0.5 μM PP242 in g ), or <t>AKT</t> (5 μM afuresertib in h ) for 10 min. Cells were then stimulated by the chemoattractant cAMP for the indicated amounts of time. Whole cell lysates were analyzed by immunoblotting with antibodies to RacE and phospho-RacE(Ser192). i , WT and cells lacking AKT (PkbA-KO or PkbR1-KO) were stimulated with cAMP for 30 s. Whole cell lysates were analyzed by immunoblotting with the indicated antibodies. j , Purified human GSK-3β was incubated with purified WT, GDP-bound RacE T25N or phospho-defective RacE S192A for 15 min. Ser192 phosphorylation of RacE was tested by immunoblotting. k , WT or GDP-bound RacE T25N was mixed with GSK-3β in the presence or absence of the GSK-3 inhibitor LY2090314 (10 nM) and examined for Ser192 phosphorylation using immunoblotting. l , Summary of the data. Experiments were repeated independently three times with similar results in a, b and e - k .
    Phospho Akt, supplied by Cell Signaling Technology Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 24476 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Cell Signaling Technology Inc rabbit anti phospho akt
    GPR84 signaling activates <t>AKT,</t> <t>ERK,</t> and NFκβ in WT, but not in GPR84 −/− macrophages. (A) Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were treated with 0.1 µg/ml LPS for 2 h before stimulated with either vehicle (0.3% DMSO) or 1 µM 6-OAU for 1, 5, 10, 30, and 60 min. Cell lysates were prepared and western blotting conducted for either phosphorylated Akt (P-AKT) or ERK 1/2 (P-ERK), followed by stripping and re-staining for β-actin as a loading control. Representative images from n = 3 independent experiments are shown. (B) BMDMs were treated with LPS (0.1 µg/ml) for 2 h before stimulation with vehicle (0.3% DMSO) or 1 µM 6-OAU for 30 min followed by p65 staining. Confocal microscopy images are illustrative of two separate experiments. (C) BMDMs were treated with LPS (0.1 µg/ml) for 2 h before stimulation with either vehicle (0.3% DMSO) or 1 µM 6-OAU for 5, 10, 30, and 60 min. Western blotting for p65 was performed using samples from cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions of cell lysates, followed by stripping and re-staining for histone-3 in the nuclear fraction and α-tubulin in the cytoplasmic fraction as a loading control. Representative images from n = 3 independent experiments are shown.
    Rabbit Anti Phospho Akt, supplied by Cell Signaling Technology Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1951 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Cell Signaling Technology Inc total akt
    Genetic targeting of SOS enhances efficacy of MEK inhibition in KRAS -amplified gastric cancer models in vitro and in vivo Representative western blot analysis (of n= 3 independent experiments) of GC KRAS amplified (HUG1N/KE39) and KRAS mutant (GSU) was performed on cells following transfection with a combination of 20 nM pooled siRNAs specific to SOS1 and SOS2 (siSOS1/2) or 20 nM non-targeting control siRNA for 48 hours and then treated with 100 nM GSK1120212 for 24 hours. Protein lysates were harvested and probed for antibodies to SOS1, SOS2, pAKT (Ser473), total <t>AKT,</t> pERK1/2 and total <t>ERK1/2</t> with B-actin used as a loading control Bar graph measuring percentage cell viability (of n= 3 independent experiments) in KRAS amplified (KE39/HUG1N) and KRAS mutant (GSU) GC lines following transfection with SOS1 and SOS2 siRNAs for 48 hours followed by treatment with 100 nM GSK1120212 for 72 hours. Cell viability was determined using Cell Titer Glo cell viability assay. Bar graphs display mean ± s.d. Comparisons were made using 2-tailed Student’s t-test (*) P
    Total Akt, supplied by Cell Signaling Technology Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 9585 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Cell Signaling Technology Inc phospho akt s473
    Genetic targeting of SOS enhances efficacy of MEK inhibition in KRAS -amplified gastric cancer models in vitro and in vivo Representative western blot analysis (of n= 3 independent experiments) of GC KRAS amplified (HUG1N/KE39) and KRAS mutant (GSU) was performed on cells following transfection with a combination of 20 nM pooled siRNAs specific to SOS1 and SOS2 (siSOS1/2) or 20 nM non-targeting control siRNA for 48 hours and then treated with 100 nM GSK1120212 for 24 hours. Protein lysates were harvested and probed for antibodies to SOS1, SOS2, pAKT (Ser473), total <t>AKT,</t> pERK1/2 and total <t>ERK1/2</t> with B-actin used as a loading control Bar graph measuring percentage cell viability (of n= 3 independent experiments) in KRAS amplified (KE39/HUG1N) and KRAS mutant (GSU) GC lines following transfection with SOS1 and SOS2 siRNAs for 48 hours followed by treatment with 100 nM GSK1120212 for 72 hours. Cell viability was determined using Cell Titer Glo cell viability assay. Bar graphs display mean ± s.d. Comparisons were made using 2-tailed Student’s t-test (*) P
    Phospho Akt S473, supplied by Cell Signaling Technology Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1741 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Cell Signaling Technology Inc phospho akt thr308
    Genetic targeting of SOS enhances efficacy of MEK inhibition in KRAS -amplified gastric cancer models in vitro and in vivo Representative western blot analysis (of n= 3 independent experiments) of GC KRAS amplified (HUG1N/KE39) and KRAS mutant (GSU) was performed on cells following transfection with a combination of 20 nM pooled siRNAs specific to SOS1 and SOS2 (siSOS1/2) or 20 nM non-targeting control siRNA for 48 hours and then treated with 100 nM GSK1120212 for 24 hours. Protein lysates were harvested and probed for antibodies to SOS1, SOS2, pAKT (Ser473), total <t>AKT,</t> pERK1/2 and total <t>ERK1/2</t> with B-actin used as a loading control Bar graph measuring percentage cell viability (of n= 3 independent experiments) in KRAS amplified (KE39/HUG1N) and KRAS mutant (GSU) GC lines following transfection with SOS1 and SOS2 siRNAs for 48 hours followed by treatment with 100 nM GSK1120212 for 72 hours. Cell viability was determined using Cell Titer Glo cell viability assay. Bar graphs display mean ± s.d. Comparisons were made using 2-tailed Student’s t-test (*) P
    Phospho Akt Thr308, supplied by Cell Signaling Technology Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 1440 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Cell Signaling Technology Inc anti phospho akt thr308
    Genetic targeting of SOS enhances efficacy of MEK inhibition in KRAS -amplified gastric cancer models in vitro and in vivo Representative western blot analysis (of n= 3 independent experiments) of GC KRAS amplified (HUG1N/KE39) and KRAS mutant (GSU) was performed on cells following transfection with a combination of 20 nM pooled siRNAs specific to SOS1 and SOS2 (siSOS1/2) or 20 nM non-targeting control siRNA for 48 hours and then treated with 100 nM GSK1120212 for 24 hours. Protein lysates were harvested and probed for antibodies to SOS1, SOS2, pAKT (Ser473), total <t>AKT,</t> pERK1/2 and total <t>ERK1/2</t> with B-actin used as a loading control Bar graph measuring percentage cell viability (of n= 3 independent experiments) in KRAS amplified (KE39/HUG1N) and KRAS mutant (GSU) GC lines following transfection with SOS1 and SOS2 siRNAs for 48 hours followed by treatment with 100 nM GSK1120212 for 72 hours. Cell viability was determined using Cell Titer Glo cell viability assay. Bar graphs display mean ± s.d. Comparisons were made using 2-tailed Student’s t-test (*) P
    Anti Phospho Akt Thr308, supplied by Cell Signaling Technology Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 571 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Abcam anti pan akt phospho t308 antibody
    Genetic targeting of SOS enhances efficacy of MEK inhibition in KRAS -amplified gastric cancer models in vitro and in vivo Representative western blot analysis (of n= 3 independent experiments) of GC KRAS amplified (HUG1N/KE39) and KRAS mutant (GSU) was performed on cells following transfection with a combination of 20 nM pooled siRNAs specific to SOS1 and SOS2 (siSOS1/2) or 20 nM non-targeting control siRNA for 48 hours and then treated with 100 nM GSK1120212 for 24 hours. Protein lysates were harvested and probed for antibodies to SOS1, SOS2, pAKT (Ser473), total <t>AKT,</t> pERK1/2 and total <t>ERK1/2</t> with B-actin used as a loading control Bar graph measuring percentage cell viability (of n= 3 independent experiments) in KRAS amplified (KE39/HUG1N) and KRAS mutant (GSU) GC lines following transfection with SOS1 and SOS2 siRNAs for 48 hours followed by treatment with 100 nM GSK1120212 for 72 hours. Cell viability was determined using Cell Titer Glo cell viability assay. Bar graphs display mean ± s.d. Comparisons were made using 2-tailed Student’s t-test (*) P
    Anti Pan Akt Phospho T308 Antibody, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 205 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Cell Signaling Technology Inc anti phospho akt antibodies
    Genetic targeting of SOS enhances efficacy of MEK inhibition in KRAS -amplified gastric cancer models in vitro and in vivo Representative western blot analysis (of n= 3 independent experiments) of GC KRAS amplified (HUG1N/KE39) and KRAS mutant (GSU) was performed on cells following transfection with a combination of 20 nM pooled siRNAs specific to SOS1 and SOS2 (siSOS1/2) or 20 nM non-targeting control siRNA for 48 hours and then treated with 100 nM GSK1120212 for 24 hours. Protein lysates were harvested and probed for antibodies to SOS1, SOS2, pAKT (Ser473), total <t>AKT,</t> pERK1/2 and total <t>ERK1/2</t> with B-actin used as a loading control Bar graph measuring percentage cell viability (of n= 3 independent experiments) in KRAS amplified (KE39/HUG1N) and KRAS mutant (GSU) GC lines following transfection with SOS1 and SOS2 siRNAs for 48 hours followed by treatment with 100 nM GSK1120212 for 72 hours. Cell viability was determined using Cell Titer Glo cell viability assay. Bar graphs display mean ± s.d. Comparisons were made using 2-tailed Student’s t-test (*) P
    Anti Phospho Akt Antibodies, supplied by Cell Signaling Technology Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 112 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Cell Signaling Technology Inc rabbit anti phospho akt ser473
    Genetic targeting of SOS enhances efficacy of MEK inhibition in KRAS -amplified gastric cancer models in vitro and in vivo Representative western blot analysis (of n= 3 independent experiments) of GC KRAS amplified (HUG1N/KE39) and KRAS mutant (GSU) was performed on cells following transfection with a combination of 20 nM pooled siRNAs specific to SOS1 and SOS2 (siSOS1/2) or 20 nM non-targeting control siRNA for 48 hours and then treated with 100 nM GSK1120212 for 24 hours. Protein lysates were harvested and probed for antibodies to SOS1, SOS2, pAKT (Ser473), total <t>AKT,</t> pERK1/2 and total <t>ERK1/2</t> with B-actin used as a loading control Bar graph measuring percentage cell viability (of n= 3 independent experiments) in KRAS amplified (KE39/HUG1N) and KRAS mutant (GSU) GC lines following transfection with SOS1 and SOS2 siRNAs for 48 hours followed by treatment with 100 nM GSK1120212 for 72 hours. Cell viability was determined using Cell Titer Glo cell viability assay. Bar graphs display mean ± s.d. Comparisons were made using 2-tailed Student’s t-test (*) P
    Rabbit Anti Phospho Akt Ser473, supplied by Cell Signaling Technology Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 696 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Cell Signaling Technology Inc phospho akt antibody
    Genetic targeting of SOS enhances efficacy of MEK inhibition in KRAS -amplified gastric cancer models in vitro and in vivo Representative western blot analysis (of n= 3 independent experiments) of GC KRAS amplified (HUG1N/KE39) and KRAS mutant (GSU) was performed on cells following transfection with a combination of 20 nM pooled siRNAs specific to SOS1 and SOS2 (siSOS1/2) or 20 nM non-targeting control siRNA for 48 hours and then treated with 100 nM GSK1120212 for 24 hours. Protein lysates were harvested and probed for antibodies to SOS1, SOS2, pAKT (Ser473), total <t>AKT,</t> pERK1/2 and total <t>ERK1/2</t> with B-actin used as a loading control Bar graph measuring percentage cell viability (of n= 3 independent experiments) in KRAS amplified (KE39/HUG1N) and KRAS mutant (GSU) GC lines following transfection with SOS1 and SOS2 siRNAs for 48 hours followed by treatment with 100 nM GSK1120212 for 72 hours. Cell viability was determined using Cell Titer Glo cell viability assay. Bar graphs display mean ± s.d. Comparisons were made using 2-tailed Student’s t-test (*) P
    Phospho Akt Antibody, supplied by Cell Signaling Technology Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 165 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    p akt  (Abcam)
    99
    Abcam p akt
    <t>ERK/AKT</t> signaling pathway is involved in the activation of the <t>TNF/caspase-3</t> cascade within ovarian cancer cells. (A) Inhibition of ERKIR decreased caspase-3 expression levels within CAOV-3 cells compared with in the control group. (B) Inhibition of ERKIR inhibited TNF-induced CAOV-3 cell apoptosis compared with in the control group. (C) PL-PTX-induced CAOV-3 cell apoptosis was inhibited via an ERK inhibitor compared with in the control group. **P
    P Akt, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 2008 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Abcam anti akt1 phospho s473 antibody ep2109y
    <t>ERK/AKT</t> signaling pathway is involved in the activation of the <t>TNF/caspase-3</t> cascade within ovarian cancer cells. (A) Inhibition of ERKIR decreased caspase-3 expression levels within CAOV-3 cells compared with in the control group. (B) Inhibition of ERKIR inhibited TNF-induced CAOV-3 cell apoptosis compared with in the control group. (C) PL-PTX-induced CAOV-3 cell apoptosis was inhibited via an ERK inhibitor compared with in the control group. **P
    Anti Akt1 Phospho S473 Antibody Ep2109y, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 134 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    GSK-3 phosphorylates RacE at Ser192 in response to the chemoattractant. a , WT and RacE-KO cells were stimulated with the chemoattractant cAMP (1 μM). Total amounts of RacE and its phosphorylation at Ser192 were analyzed by immunoblotting with antibodies to RacE and phospho-RacE(Ser192). b , WT cells expressing GFP fused to WT RacE, phospho-defective RacE S192A or phospho-mimetic RacE S192D were stimulated with cAMP. Whole cell lysates prepared at the indicated time points were analyzed by immunoblotting with antibodies to RacE and phospho-RacE(S192). c , The amino acid sequence in the vicinity of the phosphorylation site (Ser192, red) of RacE. A consensus motif for GSK-3 phosphorylation — a cluster of (S/TXXXS/T) — is underlined. A phosphopeptide used to raise anti-phospho-RacE (S192P) is highlighted. d , The location of serine 192 in a modeled RacE 3-D structure. (e–h) WT cells were treated with inhibitors to GSK-3 (250 nM LY2090314 in e and 10 mM lithium in f ), PI3K (250 μM LY294002 in g ), mTORC2 (0.5 μM PP242 in g ), or AKT (5 μM afuresertib in h ) for 10 min. Cells were then stimulated by the chemoattractant cAMP for the indicated amounts of time. Whole cell lysates were analyzed by immunoblotting with antibodies to RacE and phospho-RacE(Ser192). i , WT and cells lacking AKT (PkbA-KO or PkbR1-KO) were stimulated with cAMP for 30 s. Whole cell lysates were analyzed by immunoblotting with the indicated antibodies. j , Purified human GSK-3β was incubated with purified WT, GDP-bound RacE T25N or phospho-defective RacE S192A for 15 min. Ser192 phosphorylation of RacE was tested by immunoblotting. k , WT or GDP-bound RacE T25N was mixed with GSK-3β in the presence or absence of the GSK-3 inhibitor LY2090314 (10 nM) and examined for Ser192 phosphorylation using immunoblotting. l , Summary of the data. Experiments were repeated independently three times with similar results in a, b and e - k .

    Journal: Nature cell biology

    Article Title: Phosphorylated Rho-GDP Directly Activates mTORC2 Kinase Toward AKT Through Dimerization with Ras-GTP to Regulate Cell Migration

    doi: 10.1038/s41556-019-0348-8

    Figure Lengend Snippet: GSK-3 phosphorylates RacE at Ser192 in response to the chemoattractant. a , WT and RacE-KO cells were stimulated with the chemoattractant cAMP (1 μM). Total amounts of RacE and its phosphorylation at Ser192 were analyzed by immunoblotting with antibodies to RacE and phospho-RacE(Ser192). b , WT cells expressing GFP fused to WT RacE, phospho-defective RacE S192A or phospho-mimetic RacE S192D were stimulated with cAMP. Whole cell lysates prepared at the indicated time points were analyzed by immunoblotting with antibodies to RacE and phospho-RacE(S192). c , The amino acid sequence in the vicinity of the phosphorylation site (Ser192, red) of RacE. A consensus motif for GSK-3 phosphorylation — a cluster of (S/TXXXS/T) — is underlined. A phosphopeptide used to raise anti-phospho-RacE (S192P) is highlighted. d , The location of serine 192 in a modeled RacE 3-D structure. (e–h) WT cells were treated with inhibitors to GSK-3 (250 nM LY2090314 in e and 10 mM lithium in f ), PI3K (250 μM LY294002 in g ), mTORC2 (0.5 μM PP242 in g ), or AKT (5 μM afuresertib in h ) for 10 min. Cells were then stimulated by the chemoattractant cAMP for the indicated amounts of time. Whole cell lysates were analyzed by immunoblotting with antibodies to RacE and phospho-RacE(Ser192). i , WT and cells lacking AKT (PkbA-KO or PkbR1-KO) were stimulated with cAMP for 30 s. Whole cell lysates were analyzed by immunoblotting with the indicated antibodies. j , Purified human GSK-3β was incubated with purified WT, GDP-bound RacE T25N or phospho-defective RacE S192A for 15 min. Ser192 phosphorylation of RacE was tested by immunoblotting. k , WT or GDP-bound RacE T25N was mixed with GSK-3β in the presence or absence of the GSK-3 inhibitor LY2090314 (10 nM) and examined for Ser192 phosphorylation using immunoblotting. l , Summary of the data. Experiments were repeated independently three times with similar results in a, b and e - k .

    Article Snippet: AKT phosphorylation was detected by immunoblotting with anti-phospho-AKT (serine 473) antibodies (Cell Signaling, 9271).

    Techniques: Expressing, Sequencing, Purification, Incubation

    RacE-GDP promotes chemoattractant-induced, mTORC2-mediated AKT phosphorylation in cells. The indicated Dictyostelium cell lines were stimulated with the chemoattractant cAMP (1 μM). a - f , WT cells and RacE-KO cells expressing different GFP-RacE constructs were analyzed. g and h , WT cells and RacE-KO cells expressing GFP-RacE were pretreated with 0.5 μM of the mTORC2 inhibitor PP242 for 10 min and then stimulated with cAMP. i and j , WT and RacE-KO cells expressing FLAG-tagged RasC or GTP-bound RasC Q62L were analyzed. a - j , Total amounts of two AKT homologs (PKBR1 and PKBA) and their phosphorylation (Red: hydrophobic motif, Green: activation loop) were analyzed by immunoblotting. PVDF membranes were stained with CBB as loading controls in a, c, e, g, and i . The band intensity of phosphorylated AKTs was quantified in b, d, f, h, and j : WT cells at 30 s (b, d, f and h) and WT cells expressing RasC at 30 s (j) were set at 100%. Values are average ± SD (n = 3 independent experiments).

    Journal: Nature cell biology

    Article Title: Phosphorylated Rho-GDP Directly Activates mTORC2 Kinase Toward AKT Through Dimerization with Ras-GTP to Regulate Cell Migration

    doi: 10.1038/s41556-019-0348-8

    Figure Lengend Snippet: RacE-GDP promotes chemoattractant-induced, mTORC2-mediated AKT phosphorylation in cells. The indicated Dictyostelium cell lines were stimulated with the chemoattractant cAMP (1 μM). a - f , WT cells and RacE-KO cells expressing different GFP-RacE constructs were analyzed. g and h , WT cells and RacE-KO cells expressing GFP-RacE were pretreated with 0.5 μM of the mTORC2 inhibitor PP242 for 10 min and then stimulated with cAMP. i and j , WT and RacE-KO cells expressing FLAG-tagged RasC or GTP-bound RasC Q62L were analyzed. a - j , Total amounts of two AKT homologs (PKBR1 and PKBA) and their phosphorylation (Red: hydrophobic motif, Green: activation loop) were analyzed by immunoblotting. PVDF membranes were stained with CBB as loading controls in a, c, e, g, and i . The band intensity of phosphorylated AKTs was quantified in b, d, f, h, and j : WT cells at 30 s (b, d, f and h) and WT cells expressing RasC at 30 s (j) were set at 100%. Values are average ± SD (n = 3 independent experiments).

    Article Snippet: AKT phosphorylation was detected by immunoblotting with anti-phospho-AKT (serine 473) antibodies (Cell Signaling, 9271).

    Techniques: Expressing, Construct, Activation Assay, Staining

    RacE-GDP specifically interacts with mTORC2. a , Dictyostelium cell lysates carrying GFP fused to the indicated forms of RacE were incubated with cell lysates carrying FLAG-Tor and subjected to immunoprecipitation with GFP-Trap. Quantification of interaction is shown. The band intensity of FLAG-Tor in immunoprecipitates of cells expressing WT RacE was set 100% (n=6, 6, 6 and 3 independent experiments for RacE, RacE T25N , RacE G20V and RacE T43A , respectively). Values are average ± SD. Significance was calculated using ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey. p values are shown for comparison between RacE and others. b , Dictyostelium cell lysates carrying the indicated GFP-RacE were subject to immunoprecipitation with GFP-Trap to analyze its association with endogenous PiaA. The band intensity of PiaA in immunoprecipitates of cells expressing WT RacE was set 100% (n = 3 independent experiments). Values are average ± SD. Significance was calculated using ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey. p values are shown for comparison betwen RacE with others. c , Dictyostelium cell lysates carrying GFP fused to the indicated forms of Rac1A and RacE were incubated with cell lysates carrying FLAG-Tor and subjected to immunoprecipitation with GFP-Trap. Experiment was repeated independently three times with similar results. d , HEK293T cells were transfected with YFP fused to the indicated constructs of human Rac1 and RhoA and subjected to immunoprecipitation using GFP-Trap. The band intensities of Tor and rictor in immunoprecipitates of cells expressing WT RhoA was set 100% (n = 3 and n = 4 independent experiments for Tor and Rictor, respectively). Values are average ± SD. Significance was calculated using ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey. p values are shown for comparison between YFP-RhoA and others. e , Summary of the data. f , AKTs are phosphorylated in the hydrophobic motif by mTORC2 and in the activation loop by PDK. g and h , WT, RacE-KO, and PiaA-KO Dictyostelium cells were stimulated with the chemoattractant cAMP (1 μM). (n = 3 independent experiments). The total amounts of two AKT homologs (PkbR1 and PkbA) and their phosphorylation (Red: hydrophobic motif, Green: activation loop) were analyzed by immunoblotting. PVDF membranes were stained with CBB as loading controls. The band intensity of phosphorylated AKTs was quantified in h : WT cells at 30 s were set at 100%. Values are average ± SD.

    Journal: Nature cell biology

    Article Title: Phosphorylated Rho-GDP Directly Activates mTORC2 Kinase Toward AKT Through Dimerization with Ras-GTP to Regulate Cell Migration

    doi: 10.1038/s41556-019-0348-8

    Figure Lengend Snippet: RacE-GDP specifically interacts with mTORC2. a , Dictyostelium cell lysates carrying GFP fused to the indicated forms of RacE were incubated with cell lysates carrying FLAG-Tor and subjected to immunoprecipitation with GFP-Trap. Quantification of interaction is shown. The band intensity of FLAG-Tor in immunoprecipitates of cells expressing WT RacE was set 100% (n=6, 6, 6 and 3 independent experiments for RacE, RacE T25N , RacE G20V and RacE T43A , respectively). Values are average ± SD. Significance was calculated using ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey. p values are shown for comparison between RacE and others. b , Dictyostelium cell lysates carrying the indicated GFP-RacE were subject to immunoprecipitation with GFP-Trap to analyze its association with endogenous PiaA. The band intensity of PiaA in immunoprecipitates of cells expressing WT RacE was set 100% (n = 3 independent experiments). Values are average ± SD. Significance was calculated using ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey. p values are shown for comparison betwen RacE with others. c , Dictyostelium cell lysates carrying GFP fused to the indicated forms of Rac1A and RacE were incubated with cell lysates carrying FLAG-Tor and subjected to immunoprecipitation with GFP-Trap. Experiment was repeated independently three times with similar results. d , HEK293T cells were transfected with YFP fused to the indicated constructs of human Rac1 and RhoA and subjected to immunoprecipitation using GFP-Trap. The band intensities of Tor and rictor in immunoprecipitates of cells expressing WT RhoA was set 100% (n = 3 and n = 4 independent experiments for Tor and Rictor, respectively). Values are average ± SD. Significance was calculated using ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey. p values are shown for comparison between YFP-RhoA and others. e , Summary of the data. f , AKTs are phosphorylated in the hydrophobic motif by mTORC2 and in the activation loop by PDK. g and h , WT, RacE-KO, and PiaA-KO Dictyostelium cells were stimulated with the chemoattractant cAMP (1 μM). (n = 3 independent experiments). The total amounts of two AKT homologs (PkbR1 and PkbA) and their phosphorylation (Red: hydrophobic motif, Green: activation loop) were analyzed by immunoblotting. PVDF membranes were stained with CBB as loading controls. The band intensity of phosphorylated AKTs was quantified in h : WT cells at 30 s were set at 100%. Values are average ± SD.

    Article Snippet: AKT phosphorylation was detected by immunoblotting with anti-phospho-AKT (serine 473) antibodies (Cell Signaling, 9271).

    Techniques: Incubation, Immunoprecipitation, Expressing, Transfection, Construct, Activation Assay, Staining

    Ser192 phosphorylated RacE-GDP forms a supercomplex with Tor and Ras-GTP. a and b , The indicated GFP-RacE proteins were purified from Dictyostelium cells with or without 1 μM cAMP stimulation for 30 s. FLAG-RasC proteins were purified without cAMP stimulation. GFP-RacE was incubated with FLAG-RasC and pulled down using GFP-Trap. The pellet fraction was analyzed by immunoblotting using antibodies to GFP and FLAG. c , GFP-RacE, GFP-RasC or GFP-RasG was incubated with FLAG-Tor that was purified in a high-salt condition and pulled down with GFP-Trap. The pellet fraction was analyzed by immunoblotting using antibodies to GFP and FLAG. d , GFP fused to GDP-bound RacE T25N or GTP-bound RacE G20V were purified from Dictyostelium cells under a high salt condition after stimulation with the chemoattractant cAMP. These GFP fusion proteins were incubated with high-salt washed FLAG-Tor and/or FLAG-RasC proteins. GFP-RacE was pulled down with GFP-Trap, and the pellet fractions were analyzed by immunoblotting. e , RacE forms a complex with Tor and RasC. The indicated proteins were purified under high-salt conditions and mixed for 15 min at room temperature. GFP-RasC proteins were pulled down with GFP-Trap, and the pellet fraction was analyzed by immunoblotting. f and g , Different GFP-RacE proteins were purified from Dictyostelium cells with or without 1 μM cAMP stimulation for 30 s in the presence or absence of the GSK-3 inhibitor LY2090314 (250 nM). GFP-RacE was incubated with FLAG-RasC in f or FLAG-Tor in g and pulled down using GFP-Trap. The pellet fraction was analyzed by immunoblotting using antibodies to GFP and FLAG. h , Model for GPCR-mediated mTORC2-AKT signaling. In response to GPCR activation by chemoattractant, Rho-GDP becomes phosphorylated by GSK-3 and assembles the super signaling complex with Ras-GTP and mTORC2 to promote AKT phosphorylation. Experiments were repeated independently three times with similar results in a - g .

    Journal: Nature cell biology

    Article Title: Phosphorylated Rho-GDP Directly Activates mTORC2 Kinase Toward AKT Through Dimerization with Ras-GTP to Regulate Cell Migration

    doi: 10.1038/s41556-019-0348-8

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Ser192 phosphorylated RacE-GDP forms a supercomplex with Tor and Ras-GTP. a and b , The indicated GFP-RacE proteins were purified from Dictyostelium cells with or without 1 μM cAMP stimulation for 30 s. FLAG-RasC proteins were purified without cAMP stimulation. GFP-RacE was incubated with FLAG-RasC and pulled down using GFP-Trap. The pellet fraction was analyzed by immunoblotting using antibodies to GFP and FLAG. c , GFP-RacE, GFP-RasC or GFP-RasG was incubated with FLAG-Tor that was purified in a high-salt condition and pulled down with GFP-Trap. The pellet fraction was analyzed by immunoblotting using antibodies to GFP and FLAG. d , GFP fused to GDP-bound RacE T25N or GTP-bound RacE G20V were purified from Dictyostelium cells under a high salt condition after stimulation with the chemoattractant cAMP. These GFP fusion proteins were incubated with high-salt washed FLAG-Tor and/or FLAG-RasC proteins. GFP-RacE was pulled down with GFP-Trap, and the pellet fractions were analyzed by immunoblotting. e , RacE forms a complex with Tor and RasC. The indicated proteins were purified under high-salt conditions and mixed for 15 min at room temperature. GFP-RasC proteins were pulled down with GFP-Trap, and the pellet fraction was analyzed by immunoblotting. f and g , Different GFP-RacE proteins were purified from Dictyostelium cells with or without 1 μM cAMP stimulation for 30 s in the presence or absence of the GSK-3 inhibitor LY2090314 (250 nM). GFP-RacE was incubated with FLAG-RasC in f or FLAG-Tor in g and pulled down using GFP-Trap. The pellet fraction was analyzed by immunoblotting using antibodies to GFP and FLAG. h , Model for GPCR-mediated mTORC2-AKT signaling. In response to GPCR activation by chemoattractant, Rho-GDP becomes phosphorylated by GSK-3 and assembles the super signaling complex with Ras-GTP and mTORC2 to promote AKT phosphorylation. Experiments were repeated independently three times with similar results in a - g .

    Article Snippet: AKT phosphorylation was detected by immunoblotting with anti-phospho-AKT (serine 473) antibodies (Cell Signaling, 9271).

    Techniques: Purification, Incubation, Activation Assay

    Phosphorylated RacE-GDP activates mTORC2 in vitro . mTORC2-mediated AKT phosphorylation was reconstituted using purified proteins. mTORC2 (FLAG-Tor, -PiaA or -Lst8), FLAG-RacE, and FLAG-RasC/G were purified from Dictyostelium cells. +cAMP indicates that cells were stimulated by the chemoattractant for 30 s before purification of FLAG-RacE. Purified proteins were mixed in the presence or absence of ATP and human unactive AKT for 5 min at room temperature. AKT phosphorylation was analyzed by immunoblotting using anti-phospho AKT (serine 473) antibodies. a , mTORC2 phosphorylates AKT in the presence of RacE and RasC. b and c , mTORC2 activation requires PiaA and Lst8, but not the mSIN1 homolog Rip3. FLAG-PiaA or FLAG-Lst8 was added to FLAG-Tor purified from the indicated KO cell lines in b . FLAG-PiaA and/or FLAG-Lst8 were incubated with high-salt washed FLAG-Tor in c . d , mTORC2 activation requires RacE-GDP. Purified RacE was incubated with EDTA (25 mM), GTPγS (0.5 mM) or GTPγS then GDP (2.5 mM) (GTPγS → GDP) before reconstitution. e , WT RacE or GDP-bound RacE T25N , but not GTP-bound RacE G20V , activates mTORC2 after the chemoattractant stimulation. f , mTORC2 activation needs RasC-GTP but not RasG-GTP. g , RacE phosphorylation controls mTORC2 activation. Phospho-mimetic mutation S192D in GDP-bound RacE T25N activates mTORC2 without chemoattractant stimulation, while the phospho-defective S192A mutation blocks it. h , mTORC2 activation requires RasC-GTP. Purified RacC was incubated with EDTA followed by either GTPγS or GDP before reconstitution. i , Summary of the data. j , RacE G23V -GDP activates mTORC2. Purified RacE T25N and RacE G23V were incubated with EDTA followed by GTPγS or GDP prior to reconstitution. Experiments were repeated independently three times with similar results in a - h and j .

    Journal: Nature cell biology

    Article Title: Phosphorylated Rho-GDP Directly Activates mTORC2 Kinase Toward AKT Through Dimerization with Ras-GTP to Regulate Cell Migration

    doi: 10.1038/s41556-019-0348-8

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Phosphorylated RacE-GDP activates mTORC2 in vitro . mTORC2-mediated AKT phosphorylation was reconstituted using purified proteins. mTORC2 (FLAG-Tor, -PiaA or -Lst8), FLAG-RacE, and FLAG-RasC/G were purified from Dictyostelium cells. +cAMP indicates that cells were stimulated by the chemoattractant for 30 s before purification of FLAG-RacE. Purified proteins were mixed in the presence or absence of ATP and human unactive AKT for 5 min at room temperature. AKT phosphorylation was analyzed by immunoblotting using anti-phospho AKT (serine 473) antibodies. a , mTORC2 phosphorylates AKT in the presence of RacE and RasC. b and c , mTORC2 activation requires PiaA and Lst8, but not the mSIN1 homolog Rip3. FLAG-PiaA or FLAG-Lst8 was added to FLAG-Tor purified from the indicated KO cell lines in b . FLAG-PiaA and/or FLAG-Lst8 were incubated with high-salt washed FLAG-Tor in c . d , mTORC2 activation requires RacE-GDP. Purified RacE was incubated with EDTA (25 mM), GTPγS (0.5 mM) or GTPγS then GDP (2.5 mM) (GTPγS → GDP) before reconstitution. e , WT RacE or GDP-bound RacE T25N , but not GTP-bound RacE G20V , activates mTORC2 after the chemoattractant stimulation. f , mTORC2 activation needs RasC-GTP but not RasG-GTP. g , RacE phosphorylation controls mTORC2 activation. Phospho-mimetic mutation S192D in GDP-bound RacE T25N activates mTORC2 without chemoattractant stimulation, while the phospho-defective S192A mutation blocks it. h , mTORC2 activation requires RasC-GTP. Purified RacC was incubated with EDTA followed by either GTPγS or GDP before reconstitution. i , Summary of the data. j , RacE G23V -GDP activates mTORC2. Purified RacE T25N and RacE G23V were incubated with EDTA followed by GTPγS or GDP prior to reconstitution. Experiments were repeated independently three times with similar results in a - h and j .

    Article Snippet: AKT phosphorylation was detected by immunoblotting with anti-phospho-AKT (serine 473) antibodies (Cell Signaling, 9271).

    Techniques: In Vitro, Purification, Activation Assay, Incubation, Mutagenesis

    The effects of estrogen stimulation on the expression of miR-182, miR-223, and miR-142-3p and their targets in infant female quadriceps femoris -derived myoblasts. (A) Quantitative PCR analyses of miRNA transcripts normalized with RNU44 in human myoblasts treated for 72 h with 100 n m estradiol or mock. Note: The expression of miR-182 in these myoblasts was too low to be accurately measured. (B) qPCR analyses of target mRNAs (IGF-1, FOXO3A, FOXO1A) in human myoblasts treated with 10 n m and 100 n m estradiol or mock for 72 h. (C) Representative Western blots of target proteins, IGF-1R, FOXO3A and FOXO1A, and GAPDH, in human myoblasts treated with 10 n m and 100 n m estradiol or mock for 72 h. (D) Densitometry data of Western blots normalized with GAPDH. (E) Representative Western blots showing phosphorylation of AKT and mTOR proteins in myoblasts treated with 10 n m and 100 n m estradiol or mock for 72 h. (F) Densitometry data of Western blots normalized with GAPDH. Data are presented as percentage of control (mock) and reported as means ± SD of three independent experiments. OD indicates optical density. t -test, *** P

    Journal: Aging Cell

    Article Title: Hormone replacement therapy enhances IGF-1 signaling in skeletal muscle by diminishing miR-182 and miR-223 expressions: a study on postmenopausal monozygotic twin pairs

    doi: 10.1111/acel.12245

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The effects of estrogen stimulation on the expression of miR-182, miR-223, and miR-142-3p and their targets in infant female quadriceps femoris -derived myoblasts. (A) Quantitative PCR analyses of miRNA transcripts normalized with RNU44 in human myoblasts treated for 72 h with 100 n m estradiol or mock. Note: The expression of miR-182 in these myoblasts was too low to be accurately measured. (B) qPCR analyses of target mRNAs (IGF-1, FOXO3A, FOXO1A) in human myoblasts treated with 10 n m and 100 n m estradiol or mock for 72 h. (C) Representative Western blots of target proteins, IGF-1R, FOXO3A and FOXO1A, and GAPDH, in human myoblasts treated with 10 n m and 100 n m estradiol or mock for 72 h. (D) Densitometry data of Western blots normalized with GAPDH. (E) Representative Western blots showing phosphorylation of AKT and mTOR proteins in myoblasts treated with 10 n m and 100 n m estradiol or mock for 72 h. (F) Densitometry data of Western blots normalized with GAPDH. Data are presented as percentage of control (mock) and reported as means ± SD of three independent experiments. OD indicates optical density. t -test, *** P

    Article Snippet: Experiments for phosphorylation of AKT and mTOR Myoblasts were treated for 72 h with 10 nm E2 , 100 nm E2 , or solvent alone and analyzed in Western blots to detect phosphorylation of AKT (SER 473, Cell Signalling #9271) and mTOR (SER 2448, Cell Signalling #2971).

    Techniques: Expressing, Derivative Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Western Blot

    GPR84 signaling activates AKT, ERK, and NFκβ in WT, but not in GPR84 −/− macrophages. (A) Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were treated with 0.1 µg/ml LPS for 2 h before stimulated with either vehicle (0.3% DMSO) or 1 µM 6-OAU for 1, 5, 10, 30, and 60 min. Cell lysates were prepared and western blotting conducted for either phosphorylated Akt (P-AKT) or ERK 1/2 (P-ERK), followed by stripping and re-staining for β-actin as a loading control. Representative images from n = 3 independent experiments are shown. (B) BMDMs were treated with LPS (0.1 µg/ml) for 2 h before stimulation with vehicle (0.3% DMSO) or 1 µM 6-OAU for 30 min followed by p65 staining. Confocal microscopy images are illustrative of two separate experiments. (C) BMDMs were treated with LPS (0.1 µg/ml) for 2 h before stimulation with either vehicle (0.3% DMSO) or 1 µM 6-OAU for 5, 10, 30, and 60 min. Western blotting for p65 was performed using samples from cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions of cell lysates, followed by stripping and re-staining for histone-3 in the nuclear fraction and α-tubulin in the cytoplasmic fraction as a loading control. Representative images from n = 3 independent experiments are shown.

    Journal: Frontiers in Immunology

    Article Title: Activation of the Immune-Metabolic Receptor GPR84 Enhances Inflammation and Phagocytosis in Macrophages

    doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.01419

    Figure Lengend Snippet: GPR84 signaling activates AKT, ERK, and NFκβ in WT, but not in GPR84 −/− macrophages. (A) Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were treated with 0.1 µg/ml LPS for 2 h before stimulated with either vehicle (0.3% DMSO) or 1 µM 6-OAU for 1, 5, 10, 30, and 60 min. Cell lysates were prepared and western blotting conducted for either phosphorylated Akt (P-AKT) or ERK 1/2 (P-ERK), followed by stripping and re-staining for β-actin as a loading control. Representative images from n = 3 independent experiments are shown. (B) BMDMs were treated with LPS (0.1 µg/ml) for 2 h before stimulation with vehicle (0.3% DMSO) or 1 µM 6-OAU for 30 min followed by p65 staining. Confocal microscopy images are illustrative of two separate experiments. (C) BMDMs were treated with LPS (0.1 µg/ml) for 2 h before stimulation with either vehicle (0.3% DMSO) or 1 µM 6-OAU for 5, 10, 30, and 60 min. Western blotting for p65 was performed using samples from cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions of cell lysates, followed by stripping and re-staining for histone-3 in the nuclear fraction and α-tubulin in the cytoplasmic fraction as a loading control. Representative images from n = 3 independent experiments are shown.

    Article Snippet: Rabbit anti-phospho-ERK (D13.14.4E), rabbit anti-total-ERK, rabbit anti-phospho-Akt (D9E), rabbit anti-total-Akt, β-actin, were purchased from Cell Signaling Technologies (Danvers, MA, USA).

    Techniques: Derivative Assay, Western Blot, Stripping Membranes, Staining, Confocal Microscopy

    GPR84 antagonist abrogates the enhanced inflammatory response mediated by 6-OAU. (A) Intracellular cyclic AMP levels were measured in CHO-GPR84 cells pre-treated with the antagonist followed by forskolin and 6-OAU stimulation. Data are represented as the mean ± SEM of the percentage of the response to forskolin in the absence of agonists n = 3 independent experiments. (B–H) Bone marrow-derived macrophages were treated with LPS (0.1 µg/ml) for 2 h before pre-treatment with vehicle (0.3% DMSO), 10 µM antagonist for 30 min, or 200 ng/ml Pertussis toxin for 90 min. Afterward cells were stimulated with either vehicle (0.3% DMSO) or 1 µM 6-OAU for either 10′ for protein isolation or 1 h for RNA extraction. (B) Cell lysates were prepared and western blotting conducted for either phosphorylated Akt (P-AKT) or ERK 1/2 (P-ERK), followed by stripping and re-staining for β-actin as a loading control. Representative images from n = 3 independent experiments. (C–H) mRNA expression of Tnf α (C) , Il-6 (D) , Il-12 (E) , Ccl5 (F) , Ccl2 (G) , and Cxcl1 (H) was analyzed by q-PCR. Data are presented as mean ± SEM of n = 4–7 separate experiments. Statistical significance was assessed using one-way ANOVA with Dunnett’s multiple comparison post hoc test. * P ≤ 0.05, ** P ≤ 0.01, *** P ≤ 0.001 versus vehicle; # P ≤ 0.05, ## P ≤ 0.01, ### P ≤ 0.001 versus 6-OAU.

    Journal: Frontiers in Immunology

    Article Title: Activation of the Immune-Metabolic Receptor GPR84 Enhances Inflammation and Phagocytosis in Macrophages

    doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.01419

    Figure Lengend Snippet: GPR84 antagonist abrogates the enhanced inflammatory response mediated by 6-OAU. (A) Intracellular cyclic AMP levels were measured in CHO-GPR84 cells pre-treated with the antagonist followed by forskolin and 6-OAU stimulation. Data are represented as the mean ± SEM of the percentage of the response to forskolin in the absence of agonists n = 3 independent experiments. (B–H) Bone marrow-derived macrophages were treated with LPS (0.1 µg/ml) for 2 h before pre-treatment with vehicle (0.3% DMSO), 10 µM antagonist for 30 min, or 200 ng/ml Pertussis toxin for 90 min. Afterward cells were stimulated with either vehicle (0.3% DMSO) or 1 µM 6-OAU for either 10′ for protein isolation or 1 h for RNA extraction. (B) Cell lysates were prepared and western blotting conducted for either phosphorylated Akt (P-AKT) or ERK 1/2 (P-ERK), followed by stripping and re-staining for β-actin as a loading control. Representative images from n = 3 independent experiments. (C–H) mRNA expression of Tnf α (C) , Il-6 (D) , Il-12 (E) , Ccl5 (F) , Ccl2 (G) , and Cxcl1 (H) was analyzed by q-PCR. Data are presented as mean ± SEM of n = 4–7 separate experiments. Statistical significance was assessed using one-way ANOVA with Dunnett’s multiple comparison post hoc test. * P ≤ 0.05, ** P ≤ 0.01, *** P ≤ 0.001 versus vehicle; # P ≤ 0.05, ## P ≤ 0.01, ### P ≤ 0.001 versus 6-OAU.

    Article Snippet: Rabbit anti-phospho-ERK (D13.14.4E), rabbit anti-total-ERK, rabbit anti-phospho-Akt (D9E), rabbit anti-total-Akt, β-actin, were purchased from Cell Signaling Technologies (Danvers, MA, USA).

    Techniques: Derivative Assay, Isolation, RNA Extraction, Western Blot, Stripping Membranes, Staining, Expressing, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Genetic targeting of SOS enhances efficacy of MEK inhibition in KRAS -amplified gastric cancer models in vitro and in vivo Representative western blot analysis (of n= 3 independent experiments) of GC KRAS amplified (HUG1N/KE39) and KRAS mutant (GSU) was performed on cells following transfection with a combination of 20 nM pooled siRNAs specific to SOS1 and SOS2 (siSOS1/2) or 20 nM non-targeting control siRNA for 48 hours and then treated with 100 nM GSK1120212 for 24 hours. Protein lysates were harvested and probed for antibodies to SOS1, SOS2, pAKT (Ser473), total AKT, pERK1/2 and total ERK1/2 with B-actin used as a loading control Bar graph measuring percentage cell viability (of n= 3 independent experiments) in KRAS amplified (KE39/HUG1N) and KRAS mutant (GSU) GC lines following transfection with SOS1 and SOS2 siRNAs for 48 hours followed by treatment with 100 nM GSK1120212 for 72 hours. Cell viability was determined using Cell Titer Glo cell viability assay. Bar graphs display mean ± s.d. Comparisons were made using 2-tailed Student’s t-test (*) P

    Journal: Nature medicine

    Article Title: Targeting wild-type KRAS amplified gastroesophageal cancer through combined MEK and SHP2

    doi: 10.1038/s41591-018-0022-x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Genetic targeting of SOS enhances efficacy of MEK inhibition in KRAS -amplified gastric cancer models in vitro and in vivo Representative western blot analysis (of n= 3 independent experiments) of GC KRAS amplified (HUG1N/KE39) and KRAS mutant (GSU) was performed on cells following transfection with a combination of 20 nM pooled siRNAs specific to SOS1 and SOS2 (siSOS1/2) or 20 nM non-targeting control siRNA for 48 hours and then treated with 100 nM GSK1120212 for 24 hours. Protein lysates were harvested and probed for antibodies to SOS1, SOS2, pAKT (Ser473), total AKT, pERK1/2 and total ERK1/2 with B-actin used as a loading control Bar graph measuring percentage cell viability (of n= 3 independent experiments) in KRAS amplified (KE39/HUG1N) and KRAS mutant (GSU) GC lines following transfection with SOS1 and SOS2 siRNAs for 48 hours followed by treatment with 100 nM GSK1120212 for 72 hours. Cell viability was determined using Cell Titer Glo cell viability assay. Bar graphs display mean ± s.d. Comparisons were made using 2-tailed Student’s t-test (*) P

    Article Snippet: Primary antibodies against phospho ERK1/2 T202/Y204 (#4370), total ERK1/2 (#4695), phospho-AKT Ser473 (#4060), total AKT (#9272), phospho-HER3 Y1222 (#4784), total HER3 (#4754), phospho-IGF1Rβ Y1135 (#2918), total IGF1Rβ (#3027) and SOS1 (#5890) were purchased from Cell Signaling Technologies.

    Techniques: Inhibition, Amplification, In Vitro, In Vivo, Western Blot, Mutagenesis, Transfection, Viability Assay

    Role of NF-κB, PI3K and AKT pathways in ASC-mediated latency-reactivation of U1 cells. ( A ) Effect of NF-κB inhibitor, bardoxolone-methyl (BM; a.k.a. CDDO-Me) on HIV-1 p24 production by U1 cells, stimulated with either ASC-CM (50%) or PMA (10 ng/mL). Exposure to BM (50 nM) decreased HIV-1 p24 production in both PMA-induced and ASC-CM-stimulated U1 cells. ( B,C ) effect of PI3K inhibitors, ( B ) LY294002 (10 μM) or ( C ) PX866 (500 nM) on HIV-1 p24 production in ASC-CM (50%) stimulated U1 cells. PI3K inhibitors suppressed latency-reactivation by ASC-CM. ( D,E ) effects of AKT inhibition by 124005 (5 μM) and AKT activation by SC-79 (2.5 μM) on ASC-CM (50%) induced HIV-1 p24 production. Latency-reactivation by ASC-CM is increased following AKT inhibition and decreased following AKT induction. ( F ) Effect of heat-inactivation (HI) of ASC-CM or BMSC-CM on HIV-1 LTR-directed GFP expression (MFI) by the U-494 cells. Heat labile factors in CMs are responsible for LTR activation. ( G ) Effect of PI3K and NF-κB inhibitors on HIV-1 LTR function in U-494 cells, stimulated with either ASC-CM (50%) or PMA (10 ng/mL). GFP expression (MFI) was monitored after 48 h and fold change (compared to control media) are shown. Both LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor) and BM (NFκB inhibitor) suppressed HIV-1 LTR function, but 124005 (AKT inhibitor) showed an inductive effect. Error bars show ± SEM and significant changes are represented as P-values (*p

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Mesenchymal stem cells are attracted to latent HIV-1-infected cells and enable virus reactivation via a non-canonical PI3K-NFκB signaling pathway

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-32657-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Role of NF-κB, PI3K and AKT pathways in ASC-mediated latency-reactivation of U1 cells. ( A ) Effect of NF-κB inhibitor, bardoxolone-methyl (BM; a.k.a. CDDO-Me) on HIV-1 p24 production by U1 cells, stimulated with either ASC-CM (50%) or PMA (10 ng/mL). Exposure to BM (50 nM) decreased HIV-1 p24 production in both PMA-induced and ASC-CM-stimulated U1 cells. ( B,C ) effect of PI3K inhibitors, ( B ) LY294002 (10 μM) or ( C ) PX866 (500 nM) on HIV-1 p24 production in ASC-CM (50%) stimulated U1 cells. PI3K inhibitors suppressed latency-reactivation by ASC-CM. ( D,E ) effects of AKT inhibition by 124005 (5 μM) and AKT activation by SC-79 (2.5 μM) on ASC-CM (50%) induced HIV-1 p24 production. Latency-reactivation by ASC-CM is increased following AKT inhibition and decreased following AKT induction. ( F ) Effect of heat-inactivation (HI) of ASC-CM or BMSC-CM on HIV-1 LTR-directed GFP expression (MFI) by the U-494 cells. Heat labile factors in CMs are responsible for LTR activation. ( G ) Effect of PI3K and NF-κB inhibitors on HIV-1 LTR function in U-494 cells, stimulated with either ASC-CM (50%) or PMA (10 ng/mL). GFP expression (MFI) was monitored after 48 h and fold change (compared to control media) are shown. Both LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor) and BM (NFκB inhibitor) suppressed HIV-1 LTR function, but 124005 (AKT inhibitor) showed an inductive effect. Error bars show ± SEM and significant changes are represented as P-values (*p

    Article Snippet: Antibodies against AKT, phospho-AKT and PI3K p110β were purchased from Cell signaling (Danvers, MA).

    Techniques: Inhibition, Activation Assay, Expressing

    Putative molecular effects of MSC-secretome on latency-reactivation from tissue HIV-1 reservoirs. ( A ) Schematics of possible interactions between MSCs latently-infected cells within tissue HIV-1 reservoirs. The following steps may be involved in persistence, propagation and transmission of HIV-1 from reservoirs microenvironments: (1) Factors secreted from latently-infected cells (MACs THLs) may recruit tissue-resident MSCs; (2) these reservoir-recruited MSCs may closely interact with latently-infected cells, where reciprocal signaling (cell-to-cell and/or secretome-mediated) may facilitate virus reactivation; (3) the reservoir-recruited MSCs may also be activated to secrete factors that constantly reactivate HIV-1 from latency, generating an inflammatory microenvironment that enable further recruitment of infectable cells; and (4) these productively infected reservoir cells may then migrate into the blood and enable rapid viral rebound. ( B ) Signaling pathways involved in MSC-secretome (ASC-CM) mediated HIV-1 reactivation from latently-infected MACs (U1 cells). The potent suppressive effects of LY294002 PX-866 implicate a direct role for the PI3K signaling pathway. The potent effect of Bardoxolone-Methyl (CDDO-Me) also suggests that NF-κB activation is a mechanism of this latency-reactivation. Interestingly however, increased reactivation by the AKT inhibitor (124005) and decreased reactivation by the AKT activator (SC-79) also suggest the involvement of a non-canonical PI3K-NFκB dependent pathway, where the downstream AKT pathway has a negative regulatory effect on MSC-mediated latency-reactivation from tissue resident MACs.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Mesenchymal stem cells are attracted to latent HIV-1-infected cells and enable virus reactivation via a non-canonical PI3K-NFκB signaling pathway

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-32657-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Putative molecular effects of MSC-secretome on latency-reactivation from tissue HIV-1 reservoirs. ( A ) Schematics of possible interactions between MSCs latently-infected cells within tissue HIV-1 reservoirs. The following steps may be involved in persistence, propagation and transmission of HIV-1 from reservoirs microenvironments: (1) Factors secreted from latently-infected cells (MACs THLs) may recruit tissue-resident MSCs; (2) these reservoir-recruited MSCs may closely interact with latently-infected cells, where reciprocal signaling (cell-to-cell and/or secretome-mediated) may facilitate virus reactivation; (3) the reservoir-recruited MSCs may also be activated to secrete factors that constantly reactivate HIV-1 from latency, generating an inflammatory microenvironment that enable further recruitment of infectable cells; and (4) these productively infected reservoir cells may then migrate into the blood and enable rapid viral rebound. ( B ) Signaling pathways involved in MSC-secretome (ASC-CM) mediated HIV-1 reactivation from latently-infected MACs (U1 cells). The potent suppressive effects of LY294002 PX-866 implicate a direct role for the PI3K signaling pathway. The potent effect of Bardoxolone-Methyl (CDDO-Me) also suggests that NF-κB activation is a mechanism of this latency-reactivation. Interestingly however, increased reactivation by the AKT inhibitor (124005) and decreased reactivation by the AKT activator (SC-79) also suggest the involvement of a non-canonical PI3K-NFκB dependent pathway, where the downstream AKT pathway has a negative regulatory effect on MSC-mediated latency-reactivation from tissue resident MACs.

    Article Snippet: Antibodies against AKT, phospho-AKT and PI3K p110β were purchased from Cell signaling (Danvers, MA).

    Techniques: Infection, Transmission Assay, Magnetic Cell Separation, Activation Assay

    ERK/AKT signaling pathway is involved in the activation of the TNF/caspase-3 cascade within ovarian cancer cells. (A) Inhibition of ERKIR decreased caspase-3 expression levels within CAOV-3 cells compared with in the control group. (B) Inhibition of ERKIR inhibited TNF-induced CAOV-3 cell apoptosis compared with in the control group. (C) PL-PTX-induced CAOV-3 cell apoptosis was inhibited via an ERK inhibitor compared with in the control group. **P

    Journal: Molecular Medicine Reports

    Article Title: Pegylated liposomal-paclitaxel induces ovarian cancer cell apoptosis via TNF-induced ERK/AKT signaling pathway

    doi: 10.3892/mmr.2018.8811

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ERK/AKT signaling pathway is involved in the activation of the TNF/caspase-3 cascade within ovarian cancer cells. (A) Inhibition of ERKIR decreased caspase-3 expression levels within CAOV-3 cells compared with in the control group. (B) Inhibition of ERKIR inhibited TNF-induced CAOV-3 cell apoptosis compared with in the control group. (C) PL-PTX-induced CAOV-3 cell apoptosis was inhibited via an ERK inhibitor compared with in the control group. **P

    Article Snippet: The primary antibodies used were against: Caspase-9 (1:1,200; ab32539), ERK (1:1,000; ab54230) and phosphorylayed (p)ERK 1/2 (phospho-Thr202/Tyr204; 1:1,000; ab214362), caspase-3 (1:1,200; ab2171), protein kinase B (AKT; 1:1,000; ab8805), p-AKT (phosphor-S473; 1:1,000; ab8932) and β-actin (1:500; ab8226; all Abcam) for 12 h at 4°C.

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Inhibition, Expressing