anti-f4 Search Results


  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 94
    Millipore rat anti f4 80
    Increased immune cell infiltration in β-FoxM1* mice. A–C, No macrophages are observed near the islets of RIP-rtTA (A) or β-FoxM1* 14 (B) mice, but spleen serves as an internal control for <t>F4/80</t> immunolabeling (C). D and E, Immunolabeling
    Rat Anti F4 80, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 28 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/rat anti f4 80/product/Millipore
    Average 94 stars, based on 28 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    rat anti f4 80 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    98
    Abcam anti f4
    Hypothalamic inflammation following short-term HFD consumption. (A) Confocal images illustrating <t>F4/80+</t> cells (red) and nuclear labeling with TO-PRO-3® (blue) in the ARC, in coronal brain sections (15-μm) from mice fed with standard chow (SC) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 days; (B) Quantitation of the number of F4/80+ cells in the ARC of mice fed with SC or a HFD (SC, n = 5 and HFD, n = 5); (C) Confocal images illustrating F4/80+ cells (red) and nuclear labeling with TO-PRO-3® (blue) in the ME, in coronal brain sections (15-μm) from mice fed with SC or a HFD for 3 days; (D) Quantitation of the number of F4/80 + cells in the ME of mice fed with SC or a HFD (SC, n = 5 and HFD, n = 5); (E) Confocal images illustrating GFAP+ cells (red) and nuclear labeling with TO-PRO-3® (blue) in the ARC, in coronal brain sections (15-μm) from mice fed with SC or a HFD (3 days); (F) Quantitation of the number of GFAP+ cells in the ARC of mice fed with SC or a HFD (SC, n = 5 and HFD, n = 5). V3, third ventricle; ME, median eminence. The bars represent the mean ± SEM. * Means significantly different as shown by unpaired t- tests ( * p
    Anti F4, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 98/100, based on 36 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/anti f4/product/Abcam
    Average 98 stars, based on 36 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    anti f4 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
    98/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    88
    Thermo Fisher anti f4
    Hypothalamic inflammation following short-term HFD consumption. (A) Confocal images illustrating <t>F4/80+</t> cells (red) and nuclear labeling with TO-PRO-3® (blue) in the ARC, in coronal brain sections (15-μm) from mice fed with standard chow (SC) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 days; (B) Quantitation of the number of F4/80+ cells in the ARC of mice fed with SC or a HFD (SC, n = 5 and HFD, n = 5); (C) Confocal images illustrating F4/80+ cells (red) and nuclear labeling with TO-PRO-3® (blue) in the ME, in coronal brain sections (15-μm) from mice fed with SC or a HFD for 3 days; (D) Quantitation of the number of F4/80 + cells in the ME of mice fed with SC or a HFD (SC, n = 5 and HFD, n = 5); (E) Confocal images illustrating GFAP+ cells (red) and nuclear labeling with TO-PRO-3® (blue) in the ARC, in coronal brain sections (15-μm) from mice fed with SC or a HFD (3 days); (F) Quantitation of the number of GFAP+ cells in the ARC of mice fed with SC or a HFD (SC, n = 5 and HFD, n = 5). V3, third ventricle; ME, median eminence. The bars represent the mean ± SEM. * Means significantly different as shown by unpaired t- tests ( * p
    Anti F4, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 29 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/anti f4/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 88 stars, based on 29 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    anti f4 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
    88/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    95
    Abcam anti f4 80
    Serpin treatment decreased macrophage infiltration in pancreatic cancer xenografts Macrophages in the tumor tissue were stained with <t>F4/80</t> antibody. Positive cells in five randomly selected high power fields (HPFs) were counted for each tumor section. The averages for positive cell counts from each treatment group were compared by ANOVA. (A–C) Representative tumor sections immunostained for macrophages (brown stain) in pancreatic cancer tissue are provided from saline (A), NSP (B) and Serp-1 (C) treatment groups. (D–F) Positively stained macrophage cells in breast cancer tissue from saline (D), NSP (E), and Serp-1 (F) treatment groups are also shown. (G) Positively stained macrophages in pancreatic cancer tissues were significantly decreased after serpin treatment (P
    Anti F4 80, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 1393 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/anti f4 80/product/Abcam
    Average 95 stars, based on 1393 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    anti f4 80 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
    95/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Abcam murine anti f4 80
    Stromal expression of periostin and the number of CD163 + M2 macrophages are significantly elevated in melanomas in inflamed mice, but not the number of CD3 + cells and <t>F4/80</t> + cells. Left panels show representative immunohistochemical staining of ( A ) periostin, ( B ) CD163, ( C ) CD3, and ( D ) F4/80 in melanomas in control and inflamed mice. ×100 magnification. Right panels show scoring of the expression of periostin and the number of infiltrated CD163 + cells, CD3 + cells, F4/80 + cells. t -test, * p
    Murine Anti F4 80, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 28 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/murine anti f4 80/product/Abcam
    Average 99 stars, based on 28 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    murine anti f4 80 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    93
    Abcam rat anti mouse f4 80
    Studies with transplanted mouse HSCs in neu -tg mice carrying MMC tumors . ( a ) Scheme of experiment. A total of 5 × 10 5 of mock- or LV-transduced HSCs were transplanted into lethally irradiated neu -tg mice via tail vein injection. Six weeks after HSCs engraftment, MMC tumors were established via injection of 5 × 10 5 MMC cells subcutaneously. Mice received intraperitoneal injection of PBS or Dox (0.5 mg/mouse in 500 µl PBS) starting at day 7 after MMC cell transplantation and then every other day. ( b ) Tumor homing of gene modified cells. Left panel: GFP expression in HSCs before transplantation, middle panel: representative MMC tumor section from mice that received LV-GFP transduced HSCs. Right panel: <t>F4/80</t> and GFP flow cytometry analyses of MMC tumors from mice that received LV-GFP transduced HSCs. Tumors were digested with collagenase to generate single cell suspensions. The gated sections P4 and P5 represent GFP + /F4/80 + and GFP + /F4/40 − cells, respectively. Shown is a representative sample. ( c ) Therapy study with mice that received mock-transduced (upper panels) and Ins-SIN-LV-Rlx-transduced (lower panels) mouse HSCs. Dox or PBS was injected intraperitoneally at day 7 after MMC cell implantation and then every other day. Rlx/Dox− versus Rlx/Dox+: P = 0.0021 for day 19. The P value has been calculated based data from three independent experiments with different numbers of inoculated tumor cells in each experiment. The figure shows the data from animals injected with 5 × 10 5 MMC cells. ( d ) Representative sections stained for basement membrane using Jones' periodic acid silver staining method. Basement membrane appears in dark brown/black. Dox, doxycycline; GFP, green fluorescent protein; HSC, hematopoietic stem cell; LV, lentivirus; MMC, mammary carcinoma cell; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; Rlx, relaxin.
    Rat Anti Mouse F4 80, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 331 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/rat anti mouse f4 80/product/Abcam
    Average 93 stars, based on 331 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    rat anti mouse f4 80 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
    93/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    96
    Abcam antibody anti f4 80
    Tamoxifen-induced GRK2 loss protects against the development of NAFLD and associated inflammation in the liver ( A ) Liver sections from HFD-fed control (Cre −/− GRK2 fl/fl ) and Tam-GRK2 −/− mice were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (scale bar 50 μm). Images are representative of 4–5 mice per genotype. ( B ) Liver weight in control and Tam-GRK2 −/− mice. ( C ) Representative immunoblots and densitometric analysis are shown for FAS, PPARγ and GAPDH. ( D ) qPCR was used to measure the expression of mRNAs encoding PPARγ ( pparg ), FAS ( fasn ) and CPT1 ( cpt1a ). Results were normalized against ywhaz and gapdh mRNAs. Data in (B), (C), and (E) are means ± SEM of 7–8 mice per genotype. ( E and F ) Immunohistochemical analysis of liver sections stained with <t>F4/80</t> antibody and counterstained with hematoxylin. Representative photomicrographs are shown and characteristic macrophage arrangements known as hepatic crown-like structures (hCLS) are indicated by arrows (E). Positively stained area was quantified using Image J Software in at least four different randomly chosen fields per mouse, in 4–5 mice per genotype (F). ( G and H ) qPCR was used to measure the hepatic expression of the F4/80-encoding mRNA (G) and the ratio between mRNAs encoding mannose receptor C type 1 ( mrc1 ), and inducible nitric oxide synthase ( nos2 ) as M2 and M1 markers respectively (H). Results were normalized against ywhaz and gapdh mRNAs. Values are represented as fold change over control mice and are means ± SEM of 6 mice per genotype. Statistical significance was analyzed by unpaired two-tailed t test. *P
    Antibody Anti F4 80, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 13 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/antibody anti f4 80/product/Abcam
    Average 96 stars, based on 13 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    antibody anti f4 80 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
    96/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Abcam rat anti f4 80 antibody
    Effects of TPCA-1-loaded PLGA microparticles on macrophage recruitment to the laser lesions. Retrobulbar injection of 100-μL microparticle suspensions containing either PLGA (10 mg) alone or PLGA loaded with TPCA-1 (10 mg/0.8 mg) was performed on the mice at age of 8-week-old, and followed immediately by laser burn of Bruch’s membrane. After 24, 48, or 72 hours, mice were euthanized, and the eyes were dissected and fixed in 4% PFA. The posterior eye cups with attached RPE layer were washed with 1xPBS, stained with <t>F4/80</t> antibody, and flat-mounted for fluorescent imaging. (A) The representative flat-mount images show that F4/80-stained macrophages appear to have migrated to CNV lesions at 24, 48, or 72 hrs post-laser. Images 1–8 of the laser lesion area on the whole-mounted eye cups were taken at low magnification, and the images 9–14 were taken at higher-magnification. The white arrows indicate optic disks. The scale bar in image A1 represents the magnification of images A1–8, and the scale bar in A9 represents the magnification of A9–14. Scale bar, 250 μm. (B) The number of anti-F4/80-stained macrophages in the choroid/RPE surface were counted and expressed as mean±SD, n = 4 eyes for each condition. Statistics were performed using a two-tailed Student’s t -test to compare the values between the PLGA and PLGA/TPCA-1-treated eyes. *** p
    Rat Anti F4 80 Antibody, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 118 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/rat anti f4 80 antibody/product/Abcam
    Average 99 stars, based on 118 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    rat anti f4 80 antibody - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    Image Search Results


    Increased immune cell infiltration in β-FoxM1* mice. A–C, No macrophages are observed near the islets of RIP-rtTA (A) or β-FoxM1* 14 (B) mice, but spleen serves as an internal control for F4/80 immunolabeling (C). D and E, Immunolabeling

    Journal: Molecular Endocrinology

    Article Title: Activated FoxM1 Attenuates Streptozotocin-Mediated β-Cell Death

    doi: 10.1210/me.2014-1024

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Increased immune cell infiltration in β-FoxM1* mice. A–C, No macrophages are observed near the islets of RIP-rtTA (A) or β-FoxM1* 14 (B) mice, but spleen serves as an internal control for F4/80 immunolabeling (C). D and E, Immunolabeling

    Article Snippet: Antibodies and staining kits used were the following: mouse anti-HA (1:100; Cell Signaling); mouse anti-Ki67 (1:500; BD Biosciences); rabbit anti-Ki67 (1:500; Abcam); guinea pig anti-insulin (1:1000; Dako); rat anti-F4/80 (1:100; Millipore); rat-anti CD3 (1:100, BD Pharmingen); rat-anti CD45 (1:100; BD Pharmingen); rat-anti B220 (1:100; BD Pharmingen); and the ApoAlert DNA fragmentation assay (Clontech).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Immunolabeling

    The differential degeneration of DA neurons is not attributable to different inflammatory reactions. A , LPS-induced activation of microglia in the mouse SN. One week after the injection, brain sections were immunostained with an antibody against F4/80 to determine the activation status of the microglia. In the NS-injected SN, microglia exhibited the typical ramified morphology of resting microglia. In the LPS-injected SN, microglia were highly activated with the characteristics of larger size, irregular shape, and dramatically increased expression of the F4/80 antigen. Note that the activation status of microglia appeared similar in all genotypes. B , Western blot analysis showed strikingly increased expression of F4/80 in the mouse midbrain 1 week after LPS injection. The levels of F4/80 expression were not different among different mouse genotypes. C , Midbrain neuron-enriched cultures from SYNKO or M7KO mice were supplemented with 5 × 10 4 microglia per well prepared from either SYNKO or M7KO mice. After 24 h, the cultures were treated with NS or 10 ng/ml LPS, and [ 3 H]DAuptakewasdetermined7dafterthetreatment. p

    Journal: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

    Article Title: Neuroinflammation and Oxidation/Nitration of ?-Synuclein Linked to Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0143-07.2008

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The differential degeneration of DA neurons is not attributable to different inflammatory reactions. A , LPS-induced activation of microglia in the mouse SN. One week after the injection, brain sections were immunostained with an antibody against F4/80 to determine the activation status of the microglia. In the NS-injected SN, microglia exhibited the typical ramified morphology of resting microglia. In the LPS-injected SN, microglia were highly activated with the characteristics of larger size, irregular shape, and dramatically increased expression of the F4/80 antigen. Note that the activation status of microglia appeared similar in all genotypes. B , Western blot analysis showed strikingly increased expression of F4/80 in the mouse midbrain 1 week after LPS injection. The levels of F4/80 expression were not different among different mouse genotypes. C , Midbrain neuron-enriched cultures from SYNKO or M7KO mice were supplemented with 5 × 10 4 microglia per well prepared from either SYNKO or M7KO mice. After 24 h, the cultures were treated with NS or 10 ng/ml LPS, and [ 3 H]DAuptakewasdetermined7dafterthetreatment. p

    Article Snippet: Immunostaining was performed with the following primary antibodies: anti-F4/80 antigen, anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein antiserum, antibodies against a neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) , anti-synaptophysin antibody (1:5000; Millipore), LB509, SYN211 and SYN505 (1:500; specific to human SYN), affinity-purified SNL1 (1:1200; recognizing both human and mouse SYN), nSYN14 (specific to nitrated α- and β-synuclein) , and anti-SYN phosphorylated at Ser129 ( ).

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Injection, Expressing, Western Blot, Mouse Assay

    Photomicrographs of staining of TNF-α and F4/80 in an MCMV infected cultured retina at day 11 p.i. Most of the TNF-α positive cells were F4/80 positive activated microglia (arrow) (TNF-α –A, F4/80 – B, DAPI –

    Journal:

    Article Title: Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection and Apoptosis in Organotypic Retinal Cultures Short title: MCMV Infection in Retinal Culture

    doi: 10.1167/iovs.07-0612

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Photomicrographs of staining of TNF-α and F4/80 in an MCMV infected cultured retina at day 11 p.i. Most of the TNF-α positive cells were F4/80 positive activated microglia (arrow) (TNF-α –A, F4/80 – B, DAPI –

    Article Snippet: Monoclonal antibody to a MCMV early antigen (EA) ( ) and the antibody rat anti-F4/80, which was used to identify activated microglia, were labeled with FITC (Sigma, St. Louis, MO) or biotinylated with Sulfo-NHS-LC-Biotin (Pierce, Rockford, IL) according to the manufacturer's instructions.

    Techniques: Staining, Infection, Cell Culture

    Immunohistochemical staining 48 h after alkali burn at 100× magnification. A , B : The control group; C , D : the amniotic membrane (AM) suspension group; E , F : the serum eyedrop group; and G , H : the comparison group without any manipulation. The figure is representative of the experiments. Cell nuclei were stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI; blue; A , C , E , F ), and the F4/80 expressions (red) on the section of cornea 48 h after alkali burn were noted ( B , D , F , H ) The amount of F4/80 expression was largest in the control group. However, F4/80 expression is hardly seen in the AM suspension and serum eyedrop groups. Note that there is no expression of F4/80 in the comparison group without any manipulation.

    Journal: Molecular Vision

    Article Title: Effects of amniotic membrane suspension in the rat alkali burn model

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Immunohistochemical staining 48 h after alkali burn at 100× magnification. A , B : The control group; C , D : the amniotic membrane (AM) suspension group; E , F : the serum eyedrop group; and G , H : the comparison group without any manipulation. The figure is representative of the experiments. Cell nuclei were stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI; blue; A , C , E , F ), and the F4/80 expressions (red) on the section of cornea 48 h after alkali burn were noted ( B , D , F , H ) The amount of F4/80 expression was largest in the control group. However, F4/80 expression is hardly seen in the AM suspension and serum eyedrop groups. Note that there is no expression of F4/80 in the comparison group without any manipulation.

    Article Snippet: Rat anti-F4/80 antibody (a macrophage marker) was employed to evaluate the acute inflammatory reaction; this antibody (1:1,000; Sigma Aldrich, St.Louis, MO) was administered and incubated for 1 h at RT.

    Techniques: Immunohistochemistry, Staining, Expressing

    Numbers of stained cells expressing F4/80 on the section of cornea 48 h after alkali burn. The number of stained cells was significantly higher in the control group compared to the AM suspension and serum eyedrop group. (p=0.027) Note there were almost no stained cells in the comparison group without any manipulation.

    Journal: Molecular Vision

    Article Title: Effects of amniotic membrane suspension in the rat alkali burn model

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Numbers of stained cells expressing F4/80 on the section of cornea 48 h after alkali burn. The number of stained cells was significantly higher in the control group compared to the AM suspension and serum eyedrop group. (p=0.027) Note there were almost no stained cells in the comparison group without any manipulation.

    Article Snippet: Rat anti-F4/80 antibody (a macrophage marker) was employed to evaluate the acute inflammatory reaction; this antibody (1:1,000; Sigma Aldrich, St.Louis, MO) was administered and incubated for 1 h at RT.

    Techniques: Staining, Expressing

    Hypothalamic inflammation following short-term HFD consumption. (A) Confocal images illustrating F4/80+ cells (red) and nuclear labeling with TO-PRO-3® (blue) in the ARC, in coronal brain sections (15-μm) from mice fed with standard chow (SC) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 days; (B) Quantitation of the number of F4/80+ cells in the ARC of mice fed with SC or a HFD (SC, n = 5 and HFD, n = 5); (C) Confocal images illustrating F4/80+ cells (red) and nuclear labeling with TO-PRO-3® (blue) in the ME, in coronal brain sections (15-μm) from mice fed with SC or a HFD for 3 days; (D) Quantitation of the number of F4/80 + cells in the ME of mice fed with SC or a HFD (SC, n = 5 and HFD, n = 5); (E) Confocal images illustrating GFAP+ cells (red) and nuclear labeling with TO-PRO-3® (blue) in the ARC, in coronal brain sections (15-μm) from mice fed with SC or a HFD (3 days); (F) Quantitation of the number of GFAP+ cells in the ARC of mice fed with SC or a HFD (SC, n = 5 and HFD, n = 5). V3, third ventricle; ME, median eminence. The bars represent the mean ± SEM. * Means significantly different as shown by unpaired t- tests ( * p

    Journal: Frontiers in Immunology

    Article Title: Short-Term High-Fat Diet Consumption Reduces Hypothalamic Expression of the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α7 Subunit (α7nAChR) and Affects the Anti-inflammatory Response in a Mouse Model of Sepsis

    doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.00565

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Hypothalamic inflammation following short-term HFD consumption. (A) Confocal images illustrating F4/80+ cells (red) and nuclear labeling with TO-PRO-3® (blue) in the ARC, in coronal brain sections (15-μm) from mice fed with standard chow (SC) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 days; (B) Quantitation of the number of F4/80+ cells in the ARC of mice fed with SC or a HFD (SC, n = 5 and HFD, n = 5); (C) Confocal images illustrating F4/80+ cells (red) and nuclear labeling with TO-PRO-3® (blue) in the ME, in coronal brain sections (15-μm) from mice fed with SC or a HFD for 3 days; (D) Quantitation of the number of F4/80 + cells in the ME of mice fed with SC or a HFD (SC, n = 5 and HFD, n = 5); (E) Confocal images illustrating GFAP+ cells (red) and nuclear labeling with TO-PRO-3® (blue) in the ARC, in coronal brain sections (15-μm) from mice fed with SC or a HFD (3 days); (F) Quantitation of the number of GFAP+ cells in the ARC of mice fed with SC or a HFD (SC, n = 5 and HFD, n = 5). V3, third ventricle; ME, median eminence. The bars represent the mean ± SEM. * Means significantly different as shown by unpaired t- tests ( * p

    Article Snippet: The primary antibodies used were: anti-CHRNA7 1:500 (bs-1049r—Bioss, Woburn, MA, USA); anti-GFAP 1:250 (sc-33673—Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA, USA); anti-F4/80 1:500 (ab6640—Abcam, Cambridge, MA, USA), and anti-NeuN (ab-104224—Abcam, Cambridge, MA, USA).

    Techniques: Labeling, Mouse Assay, Quantitation Assay

    NF- κ B1-deficient mice have more severe glomerular injury after NTS-induced glomerulonephritis. Average number of neutrophils (NIMP+) per glomerular cross-section in WT and nfκb1 −/− renal tissues 2 and 24 h post-NTS injection and representative NIMP IHP pictures at 2 h showing neutrophil infiltration (red arrows) in a glomeruli ( a ). Average mean fluorescence intensity of F4/80+ staining per glomerular cross-section in WT and nfκb1 −/− renal tissues 2 and 24 h post-NTS injection and representative F4/80 IHP pictures at 24 h showing macrophage positive staining in a glomeruli ( b ). Glomerular injury score in WT and nfκb1 −/− mice 24 h post-NTS injection and representative PAS pictures showing areas of glomerular thrombosis (red arrows) in a glomeruli ( c ). N =6, unpaired t -test, * P ⩽0.05 or ** P ⩽0.01

    Journal: Cell Death & Disease

    Article Title: The NF-κB1 is a key regulator of acute but not chronic renal injury

    doi: 10.1038/cddis.2017.233

    Figure Lengend Snippet: NF- κ B1-deficient mice have more severe glomerular injury after NTS-induced glomerulonephritis. Average number of neutrophils (NIMP+) per glomerular cross-section in WT and nfκb1 −/− renal tissues 2 and 24 h post-NTS injection and representative NIMP IHP pictures at 2 h showing neutrophil infiltration (red arrows) in a glomeruli ( a ). Average mean fluorescence intensity of F4/80+ staining per glomerular cross-section in WT and nfκb1 −/− renal tissues 2 and 24 h post-NTS injection and representative F4/80 IHP pictures at 24 h showing macrophage positive staining in a glomeruli ( b ). Glomerular injury score in WT and nfκb1 −/− mice 24 h post-NTS injection and representative PAS pictures showing areas of glomerular thrombosis (red arrows) in a glomeruli ( c ). N =6, unpaired t -test, * P ⩽0.05 or ** P ⩽0.01

    Article Snippet: Blocking solution was added followed by F4/80 antibody (Abcam) overnight.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Injection, Fluorescence, Staining

    Serpin treatment decreased macrophage infiltration in pancreatic cancer xenografts Macrophages in the tumor tissue were stained with F4/80 antibody. Positive cells in five randomly selected high power fields (HPFs) were counted for each tumor section. The averages for positive cell counts from each treatment group were compared by ANOVA. (A–C) Representative tumor sections immunostained for macrophages (brown stain) in pancreatic cancer tissue are provided from saline (A), NSP (B) and Serp-1 (C) treatment groups. (D–F) Positively stained macrophage cells in breast cancer tissue from saline (D), NSP (E), and Serp-1 (F) treatment groups are also shown. (G) Positively stained macrophages in pancreatic cancer tissues were significantly decreased after serpin treatment (P

    Journal: Journal of cancer science & therapy

    Article Title: Myxomaviral Anti-Inflammatory Serpin Reduces Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells and Human Pancreatic Cancer Cell Growth in Mice

    doi: 10.4172/1948-5956.1000219

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Serpin treatment decreased macrophage infiltration in pancreatic cancer xenografts Macrophages in the tumor tissue were stained with F4/80 antibody. Positive cells in five randomly selected high power fields (HPFs) were counted for each tumor section. The averages for positive cell counts from each treatment group were compared by ANOVA. (A–C) Representative tumor sections immunostained for macrophages (brown stain) in pancreatic cancer tissue are provided from saline (A), NSP (B) and Serp-1 (C) treatment groups. (D–F) Positively stained macrophage cells in breast cancer tissue from saline (D), NSP (E), and Serp-1 (F) treatment groups are also shown. (G) Positively stained macrophages in pancreatic cancer tissues were significantly decreased after serpin treatment (P

    Article Snippet: Anti-Ki67 monoclonal antibody (ab16667) and anti-F4/80 monoclonal antibody (ab111101) were purchased from Abcam Inc. (Cambridge, MA, USA) for immunohistochemistry.

    Techniques: Staining

    Infiltration of inflammatory cells in the dermis of WT and ET B KO mice after BLM treatment. The average cell counts of a myeloperoxidase, b CD3, and c F4/80-positive cells in the dermis. The cells were counted per field of view at 100× magnification; n = 5–10 mice per group. ( * p

    Journal: Arthritis Research & Therapy

    Article Title: Knockout of endothelin type B receptor signaling attenuates bleomycin-induced skin sclerosis in mice

    doi: 10.1186/s13075-016-1011-4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Infiltration of inflammatory cells in the dermis of WT and ET B KO mice after BLM treatment. The average cell counts of a myeloperoxidase, b CD3, and c F4/80-positive cells in the dermis. The cells were counted per field of view at 100× magnification; n = 5–10 mice per group. ( * p

    Article Snippet: For immunohistochemistry experiments, anti-alpha smooth-muscle actin (αSMA) antibody (ab32575), anti-collagen 1 antibody (ab21286), anti-CD3 antibody (ab16669), anti-F4/80 antibody (ab111101) and rabbit polyclonal IgG (ab27472) were purchased from Abcam (Cambridge, UK), and anti-myeloperoxidase antibody (PA5-16672) purchased from Thermo Fisher Scientific (Waltham, MA, USA).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Up-regulation of immune activity evident within TUBO tumors 48 hrs following radiation-enhanced delivery of amph-CpG. A) The increase in circulating monocytes seen after radiation-enhanced delivery coincided with an observed macrophage increase in tumor sections by IHC (brown = F4/80, macrophages). B) CD8 + T lymphocytes in tumor sections displayed increased Granzyme B immunoreactivity (brown) after IR. C) NK cell activity (brown = IFNγ) appeared up-regulated in tumor sections following IR + amph-CpG. In all IHC images, purple = hematoxylin, nuclei. Scale bar = 100 μm. Inset = 4X zoom. Qualitative scoring: (−−−) negative, (+) faint staining of some cells, (++) moderate staining of many cells, (+++) intense staining of many cells. Representative images shown of n = 3 tumors per data set stained.

    Journal: Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society

    Article Title: Radiation-enhanced delivery of systemically administered amphiphilic-CpG oligodeoxynucleotide

    doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2017.09.043

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Up-regulation of immune activity evident within TUBO tumors 48 hrs following radiation-enhanced delivery of amph-CpG. A) The increase in circulating monocytes seen after radiation-enhanced delivery coincided with an observed macrophage increase in tumor sections by IHC (brown = F4/80, macrophages). B) CD8 + T lymphocytes in tumor sections displayed increased Granzyme B immunoreactivity (brown) after IR. C) NK cell activity (brown = IFNγ) appeared up-regulated in tumor sections following IR + amph-CpG. In all IHC images, purple = hematoxylin, nuclei. Scale bar = 100 μm. Inset = 4X zoom. Qualitative scoring: (−−−) negative, (+) faint staining of some cells, (++) moderate staining of many cells, (+++) intense staining of many cells. Representative images shown of n = 3 tumors per data set stained.

    Article Snippet: Antibodies for Granzyme B (Abcam, Cambridge, MA, USA, ab4059, 1:600), F4/80 (Abcam, ab111101, 1:2000), and Interferon-γ (Novus Biologicals, Littleton, CO, USA, NBP-19761, 1:8000) were used for IHC of tissue sections.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    Stromal expression of periostin and the number of CD163 + M2 macrophages are significantly elevated in melanomas in inflamed mice, but not the number of CD3 + cells and F4/80 + cells. Left panels show representative immunohistochemical staining of ( A ) periostin, ( B ) CD163, ( C ) CD3, and ( D ) F4/80 in melanomas in control and inflamed mice. ×100 magnification. Right panels show scoring of the expression of periostin and the number of infiltrated CD163 + cells, CD3 + cells, F4/80 + cells. t -test, * p

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    Article Title: Periostin Links Skin Inflammation to Melanoma Progression in Humans and Mice

    doi: 10.3390/ijms20010169

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Stromal expression of periostin and the number of CD163 + M2 macrophages are significantly elevated in melanomas in inflamed mice, but not the number of CD3 + cells and F4/80 + cells. Left panels show representative immunohistochemical staining of ( A ) periostin, ( B ) CD163, ( C ) CD3, and ( D ) F4/80 in melanomas in control and inflamed mice. ×100 magnification. Right panels show scoring of the expression of periostin and the number of infiltrated CD163 + cells, CD3 + cells, F4/80 + cells. t -test, * p

    Article Snippet: For immunohistochemical staining, primary antibodies were used at the following dilutions: human and murine anti-periostin (0.3 µg/mL, clone no. SS19C), human and murine anti-CD163 (1:500, ab182422; Abcam, Cambridge, UK), murine anti-CD3 (1:100, ab5690; Abcam), murine anti-F4/80 (1:100, ab100790; Abcam).

    Techniques: Expressing, Mouse Assay, Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) reduced the infiltration of F4/80 positive macrophages during initiation of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Confocal microscopy analysis for cellular localization of macrophages in renal sections. ( a ) Immunofluorescence images of F4/80 positive cells (green label) in glomeruli, ( b ) quantification of F4/80 positive per glomerular area (fluorescence intensity), ( c ) macrophage infiltration (F4/80 cells) into the interstitial space of proximal tubule (red label, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2, SGLT2, was used as a specific marker of proximal tubules), and ( d ) quantification of tubulointerstitial F4/80 infiltration. Nuclei were counterstained with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI, blue label). Western blot analysis of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) in ( e ) isolated glomeruli and ( f ) isolated proximal tubules. In early stage of DN increased in renal macrophage infiltration and MCP-1 expression was elevated but was suppressed with ATRA treatment. Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was used as loading control. Data are representative of three independent experiments, and values are expressed in mean ± SD. * p

    Journal: Biomolecules

    Article Title: All-Trans Retinoic Acid Attenuates Fibrotic Processes by Downregulating TGF-β1/Smad3 in Early Diabetic Nephropathy

    doi: 10.3390/biom9100525

    Figure Lengend Snippet: All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) reduced the infiltration of F4/80 positive macrophages during initiation of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Confocal microscopy analysis for cellular localization of macrophages in renal sections. ( a ) Immunofluorescence images of F4/80 positive cells (green label) in glomeruli, ( b ) quantification of F4/80 positive per glomerular area (fluorescence intensity), ( c ) macrophage infiltration (F4/80 cells) into the interstitial space of proximal tubule (red label, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2, SGLT2, was used as a specific marker of proximal tubules), and ( d ) quantification of tubulointerstitial F4/80 infiltration. Nuclei were counterstained with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI, blue label). Western blot analysis of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) in ( e ) isolated glomeruli and ( f ) isolated proximal tubules. In early stage of DN increased in renal macrophage infiltration and MCP-1 expression was elevated but was suppressed with ATRA treatment. Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was used as loading control. Data are representative of three independent experiments, and values are expressed in mean ± SD. * p

    Article Snippet: Rabbit anti-F4/80, rabbit anti-Smad3 (phospho serine 423/425) and mouse anti-Smad7 were obtained from Abcam (Cambridge, UK).

    Techniques: Confocal Microscopy, Immunofluorescence, Fluorescence, Marker, Western Blot, Isolation, Expressing

    Gross view ( A – D ), H E ( E – H ), F4/80 ( I – L ), and TNF-α ( M – P ) stainings of tissue sections of the repaired flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons of the untreated control group and the experimental groups treated with Seprafilm ® , HAFB, and HAIFB 3 weeks post-operation. Bar = 100 μm. T: tendon; S: suture; M: membrane; black arrows: sites where adhesion occurred.

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    Article Title: Ibuprofen-Loaded Hyaluronic Acid Nanofibrous Membranes for Prevention of Postoperative Tendon Adhesion through Reduction of Inflammation

    doi: 10.3390/ijms20205038

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Gross view ( A – D ), H E ( E – H ), F4/80 ( I – L ), and TNF-α ( M – P ) stainings of tissue sections of the repaired flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons of the untreated control group and the experimental groups treated with Seprafilm ® , HAFB, and HAIFB 3 weeks post-operation. Bar = 100 μm. T: tendon; S: suture; M: membrane; black arrows: sites where adhesion occurred.

    Article Snippet: For immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of F4/80 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), mouse anti-TNF-α (Novus NBP2-34301, Centennial, CO, USA) and rabbit anti-F4/80 antibody (Abcam ab240946, Cambridge, UK) were used as the primary antibody.

    Techniques:

    Studies with transplanted mouse HSCs in neu -tg mice carrying MMC tumors . ( a ) Scheme of experiment. A total of 5 × 10 5 of mock- or LV-transduced HSCs were transplanted into lethally irradiated neu -tg mice via tail vein injection. Six weeks after HSCs engraftment, MMC tumors were established via injection of 5 × 10 5 MMC cells subcutaneously. Mice received intraperitoneal injection of PBS or Dox (0.5 mg/mouse in 500 µl PBS) starting at day 7 after MMC cell transplantation and then every other day. ( b ) Tumor homing of gene modified cells. Left panel: GFP expression in HSCs before transplantation, middle panel: representative MMC tumor section from mice that received LV-GFP transduced HSCs. Right panel: F4/80 and GFP flow cytometry analyses of MMC tumors from mice that received LV-GFP transduced HSCs. Tumors were digested with collagenase to generate single cell suspensions. The gated sections P4 and P5 represent GFP + /F4/80 + and GFP + /F4/40 − cells, respectively. Shown is a representative sample. ( c ) Therapy study with mice that received mock-transduced (upper panels) and Ins-SIN-LV-Rlx-transduced (lower panels) mouse HSCs. Dox or PBS was injected intraperitoneally at day 7 after MMC cell implantation and then every other day. Rlx/Dox− versus Rlx/Dox+: P = 0.0021 for day 19. The P value has been calculated based data from three independent experiments with different numbers of inoculated tumor cells in each experiment. The figure shows the data from animals injected with 5 × 10 5 MMC cells. ( d ) Representative sections stained for basement membrane using Jones' periodic acid silver staining method. Basement membrane appears in dark brown/black. Dox, doxycycline; GFP, green fluorescent protein; HSC, hematopoietic stem cell; LV, lentivirus; MMC, mammary carcinoma cell; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; Rlx, relaxin.

    Journal: Molecular Therapy

    Article Title: Controlled Extracellular Matrix Degradation in Breast Cancer Tumors Improves Therapy by Trastuzumab

    doi: 10.1038/mt.2010.256

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Studies with transplanted mouse HSCs in neu -tg mice carrying MMC tumors . ( a ) Scheme of experiment. A total of 5 × 10 5 of mock- or LV-transduced HSCs were transplanted into lethally irradiated neu -tg mice via tail vein injection. Six weeks after HSCs engraftment, MMC tumors were established via injection of 5 × 10 5 MMC cells subcutaneously. Mice received intraperitoneal injection of PBS or Dox (0.5 mg/mouse in 500 µl PBS) starting at day 7 after MMC cell transplantation and then every other day. ( b ) Tumor homing of gene modified cells. Left panel: GFP expression in HSCs before transplantation, middle panel: representative MMC tumor section from mice that received LV-GFP transduced HSCs. Right panel: F4/80 and GFP flow cytometry analyses of MMC tumors from mice that received LV-GFP transduced HSCs. Tumors were digested with collagenase to generate single cell suspensions. The gated sections P4 and P5 represent GFP + /F4/80 + and GFP + /F4/40 − cells, respectively. Shown is a representative sample. ( c ) Therapy study with mice that received mock-transduced (upper panels) and Ins-SIN-LV-Rlx-transduced (lower panels) mouse HSCs. Dox or PBS was injected intraperitoneally at day 7 after MMC cell implantation and then every other day. Rlx/Dox− versus Rlx/Dox+: P = 0.0021 for day 19. The P value has been calculated based data from three independent experiments with different numbers of inoculated tumor cells in each experiment. The figure shows the data from animals injected with 5 × 10 5 MMC cells. ( d ) Representative sections stained for basement membrane using Jones' periodic acid silver staining method. Basement membrane appears in dark brown/black. Dox, doxycycline; GFP, green fluorescent protein; HSC, hematopoietic stem cell; LV, lentivirus; MMC, mammary carcinoma cell; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; Rlx, relaxin.

    Article Snippet: The following antibodies were used in immunohistochemical studies: rat anti-mouse CD31 (BD Pharmingen, San Jose, CA), rat anti-mouse CD45 (BD Pharmingen), rat anti-mouse F4/80 (Abcam, Cambridge, MA), goat antihuman collagen IV (Southern Technology, Longwood, FL), rabbit anti-laminin (DAKO, Glostrup, Denmark), mouse anti-Her2/ neu (Abcam), anti-mouse Ig-AlexaFluor 488 (green) (Invitrogen, Molecular Probes, Eugene OR), anti-rabbit Ig-AlexaFluor 568 (red) (Molecular Probes).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Irradiation, Injection, Transplantation Assay, Modification, Expressing, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Staining, Silver Staining

    Infiltration of human breast cancer tumors by mouse TAMs . ( a ) BT474-M1 and ( b ) HCC1954 tumors were established in CB17-SCID-beige mice. Tumors were harvested at 4 weeks after tumor cell injection and sections analyzed for vascularization using antibodies against mouse CD31 (endothelial marker); for tumor ECM, using antibodies against mouse laminin; for leukocyte infiltration using antibodies against mouse CD45; and for TAM infiltration using antibodies against mouse F4/80. Bar = 40 µm. TAM, tumor-associated macrophage.

    Journal: Molecular Therapy

    Article Title: Controlled Extracellular Matrix Degradation in Breast Cancer Tumors Improves Therapy by Trastuzumab

    doi: 10.1038/mt.2010.256

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Infiltration of human breast cancer tumors by mouse TAMs . ( a ) BT474-M1 and ( b ) HCC1954 tumors were established in CB17-SCID-beige mice. Tumors were harvested at 4 weeks after tumor cell injection and sections analyzed for vascularization using antibodies against mouse CD31 (endothelial marker); for tumor ECM, using antibodies against mouse laminin; for leukocyte infiltration using antibodies against mouse CD45; and for TAM infiltration using antibodies against mouse F4/80. Bar = 40 µm. TAM, tumor-associated macrophage.

    Article Snippet: The following antibodies were used in immunohistochemical studies: rat anti-mouse CD31 (BD Pharmingen, San Jose, CA), rat anti-mouse CD45 (BD Pharmingen), rat anti-mouse F4/80 (Abcam, Cambridge, MA), goat antihuman collagen IV (Southern Technology, Longwood, FL), rabbit anti-laminin (DAKO, Glostrup, Denmark), mouse anti-Her2/ neu (Abcam), anti-mouse Ig-AlexaFluor 488 (green) (Invitrogen, Molecular Probes, Eugene OR), anti-rabbit Ig-AlexaFluor 568 (red) (Molecular Probes).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Injection, Marker

    Tamoxifen-induced GRK2 loss protects against the development of NAFLD and associated inflammation in the liver ( A ) Liver sections from HFD-fed control (Cre −/− GRK2 fl/fl ) and Tam-GRK2 −/− mice were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (scale bar 50 μm). Images are representative of 4–5 mice per genotype. ( B ) Liver weight in control and Tam-GRK2 −/− mice. ( C ) Representative immunoblots and densitometric analysis are shown for FAS, PPARγ and GAPDH. ( D ) qPCR was used to measure the expression of mRNAs encoding PPARγ ( pparg ), FAS ( fasn ) and CPT1 ( cpt1a ). Results were normalized against ywhaz and gapdh mRNAs. Data in (B), (C), and (E) are means ± SEM of 7–8 mice per genotype. ( E and F ) Immunohistochemical analysis of liver sections stained with F4/80 antibody and counterstained with hematoxylin. Representative photomicrographs are shown and characteristic macrophage arrangements known as hepatic crown-like structures (hCLS) are indicated by arrows (E). Positively stained area was quantified using Image J Software in at least four different randomly chosen fields per mouse, in 4–5 mice per genotype (F). ( G and H ) qPCR was used to measure the hepatic expression of the F4/80-encoding mRNA (G) and the ratio between mRNAs encoding mannose receptor C type 1 ( mrc1 ), and inducible nitric oxide synthase ( nos2 ) as M2 and M1 markers respectively (H). Results were normalized against ywhaz and gapdh mRNAs. Values are represented as fold change over control mice and are means ± SEM of 6 mice per genotype. Statistical significance was analyzed by unpaired two-tailed t test. *P

    Journal: Science signaling

    Article Title: Reversal of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance by inducible genetic ablation of GRK2

    doi: 10.1126/scisignal.aaa4374

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Tamoxifen-induced GRK2 loss protects against the development of NAFLD and associated inflammation in the liver ( A ) Liver sections from HFD-fed control (Cre −/− GRK2 fl/fl ) and Tam-GRK2 −/− mice were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (scale bar 50 μm). Images are representative of 4–5 mice per genotype. ( B ) Liver weight in control and Tam-GRK2 −/− mice. ( C ) Representative immunoblots and densitometric analysis are shown for FAS, PPARγ and GAPDH. ( D ) qPCR was used to measure the expression of mRNAs encoding PPARγ ( pparg ), FAS ( fasn ) and CPT1 ( cpt1a ). Results were normalized against ywhaz and gapdh mRNAs. Data in (B), (C), and (E) are means ± SEM of 7–8 mice per genotype. ( E and F ) Immunohistochemical analysis of liver sections stained with F4/80 antibody and counterstained with hematoxylin. Representative photomicrographs are shown and characteristic macrophage arrangements known as hepatic crown-like structures (hCLS) are indicated by arrows (E). Positively stained area was quantified using Image J Software in at least four different randomly chosen fields per mouse, in 4–5 mice per genotype (F). ( G and H ) qPCR was used to measure the hepatic expression of the F4/80-encoding mRNA (G) and the ratio between mRNAs encoding mannose receptor C type 1 ( mrc1 ), and inducible nitric oxide synthase ( nos2 ) as M2 and M1 markers respectively (H). Results were normalized against ywhaz and gapdh mRNAs. Values are represented as fold change over control mice and are means ± SEM of 6 mice per genotype. Statistical significance was analyzed by unpaired two-tailed t test. *P

    Article Snippet: Liver tissue sections were de-paraffinized and rehydrated, and slides were incubated overnight with the primary antibody anti-F4/80 (clone BM8, Abcam) to perform immunohistochemical detection as previously described ( , ).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Staining, Western Blot, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing, Immunohistochemistry, Software, Two Tailed Test

    Effects of TPCA-1-loaded PLGA microparticles on macrophage recruitment to the laser lesions. Retrobulbar injection of 100-μL microparticle suspensions containing either PLGA (10 mg) alone or PLGA loaded with TPCA-1 (10 mg/0.8 mg) was performed on the mice at age of 8-week-old, and followed immediately by laser burn of Bruch’s membrane. After 24, 48, or 72 hours, mice were euthanized, and the eyes were dissected and fixed in 4% PFA. The posterior eye cups with attached RPE layer were washed with 1xPBS, stained with F4/80 antibody, and flat-mounted for fluorescent imaging. (A) The representative flat-mount images show that F4/80-stained macrophages appear to have migrated to CNV lesions at 24, 48, or 72 hrs post-laser. Images 1–8 of the laser lesion area on the whole-mounted eye cups were taken at low magnification, and the images 9–14 were taken at higher-magnification. The white arrows indicate optic disks. The scale bar in image A1 represents the magnification of images A1–8, and the scale bar in A9 represents the magnification of A9–14. Scale bar, 250 μm. (B) The number of anti-F4/80-stained macrophages in the choroid/RPE surface were counted and expressed as mean±SD, n = 4 eyes for each condition. Statistics were performed using a two-tailed Student’s t -test to compare the values between the PLGA and PLGA/TPCA-1-treated eyes. *** p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: IKK2 Inhibition Using TPCA-1-Loaded PLGA Microparticles Attenuates Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularization and Macrophage Recruitment

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121185

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of TPCA-1-loaded PLGA microparticles on macrophage recruitment to the laser lesions. Retrobulbar injection of 100-μL microparticle suspensions containing either PLGA (10 mg) alone or PLGA loaded with TPCA-1 (10 mg/0.8 mg) was performed on the mice at age of 8-week-old, and followed immediately by laser burn of Bruch’s membrane. After 24, 48, or 72 hours, mice were euthanized, and the eyes were dissected and fixed in 4% PFA. The posterior eye cups with attached RPE layer were washed with 1xPBS, stained with F4/80 antibody, and flat-mounted for fluorescent imaging. (A) The representative flat-mount images show that F4/80-stained macrophages appear to have migrated to CNV lesions at 24, 48, or 72 hrs post-laser. Images 1–8 of the laser lesion area on the whole-mounted eye cups were taken at low magnification, and the images 9–14 were taken at higher-magnification. The white arrows indicate optic disks. The scale bar in image A1 represents the magnification of images A1–8, and the scale bar in A9 represents the magnification of A9–14. Scale bar, 250 μm. (B) The number of anti-F4/80-stained macrophages in the choroid/RPE surface were counted and expressed as mean±SD, n = 4 eyes for each condition. Statistics were performed using a two-tailed Student’s t -test to compare the values between the PLGA and PLGA/TPCA-1-treated eyes. *** p

    Article Snippet: Using a dissecting microscopy, the posterior eye cup with attached RPE was separated for macrophage staining of the choroid/RPE, washed with 1xPBS, and incubated with rat anti-F4/80 antibody (ab6640, 1:100, Abcam, Cambridge, MA, USA) overnight at 4°C.

    Techniques: Injection, Mouse Assay, Staining, Imaging, Two Tailed Test