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  • 99
    Cell Signaling Technology Inc akt
    The effects of estrogen stimulation on the expression of miR-182, miR-223, and miR-142-3p and their targets in infant female quadriceps femoris -derived myoblasts. (A) Quantitative PCR analyses of miRNA transcripts normalized with RNU44 in human myoblasts treated for 72 h with 100 n m estradiol or mock. Note: The expression of miR-182 in these myoblasts was too low to be accurately measured. (B) qPCR analyses of target mRNAs (IGF-1, FOXO3A, FOXO1A) in human myoblasts treated with 10 n m and 100 n m estradiol or mock for 72 h. (C) Representative Western blots of target proteins, IGF-1R, FOXO3A and FOXO1A, and GAPDH, in human myoblasts treated with 10 n m and 100 n m estradiol or mock for 72 h. (D) Densitometry data of Western blots normalized with GAPDH. (E) Representative Western blots showing phosphorylation of <t>AKT</t> and <t>mTOR</t> proteins in myoblasts treated with 10 n m and 100 n m estradiol or mock for 72 h. (F) Densitometry data of Western blots normalized with GAPDH. Data are presented as percentage of control (mock) and reported as means ± SD of three independent experiments. OD indicates optical density. t -test, *** P
    Akt, supplied by Cell Signaling Technology Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 49010 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Cell Signaling Technology Inc anti akt
    Inhibition of <t>FOXO1</t> transcriptional activity through the <t>melatonin-PI3K-AKT</t> axis protects GCs from H 2 O 2 -induced autophagic PCD. (A) GCs transfected with Foxo1 siRNA or scrambled control siRNA for 24 h were cultured in media containing various concentrations of melatonin (0, 5, 10, 20 μM). 24 h later, cells were rinsed with PBS, and exposed to H 2 O 2 (200 μM) incubation for another 2 h. The expression of phosphorylated FOXO1 (p-FOXO1) was determined by western blotting. (B) The phosphorylation level of FOXO1 was quantified by densitometric analysis. TUBA1A served as the control for loading. Data represent mean ± S.E; n = 3. ** Represents P
    Anti Akt, supplied by Cell Signaling Technology Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 20821 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Cell Signaling Technology Inc phospho akt
    Inhibition of <t>FOXO1</t> transcriptional activity through the <t>melatonin-PI3K-AKT</t> axis protects GCs from H 2 O 2 -induced autophagic PCD. (A) GCs transfected with Foxo1 siRNA or scrambled control siRNA for 24 h were cultured in media containing various concentrations of melatonin (0, 5, 10, 20 μM). 24 h later, cells were rinsed with PBS, and exposed to H 2 O 2 (200 μM) incubation for another 2 h. The expression of phosphorylated FOXO1 (p-FOXO1) was determined by western blotting. (B) The phosphorylation level of FOXO1 was quantified by densitometric analysis. TUBA1A served as the control for loading. Data represent mean ± S.E; n = 3. ** Represents P
    Phospho Akt, supplied by Cell Signaling Technology Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 16290 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Cell Signaling Technology Inc anti p akt
    Inhibition of <t>FOXO1</t> transcriptional activity through the <t>melatonin-PI3K-AKT</t> axis protects GCs from H 2 O 2 -induced autophagic PCD. (A) GCs transfected with Foxo1 siRNA or scrambled control siRNA for 24 h were cultured in media containing various concentrations of melatonin (0, 5, 10, 20 μM). 24 h later, cells were rinsed with PBS, and exposed to H 2 O 2 (200 μM) incubation for another 2 h. The expression of phosphorylated FOXO1 (p-FOXO1) was determined by western blotting. (B) The phosphorylation level of FOXO1 was quantified by densitometric analysis. TUBA1A served as the control for loading. Data represent mean ± S.E; n = 3. ** Represents P
    Anti P Akt, supplied by Cell Signaling Technology Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 3724 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Cell Signaling Technology Inc rabbit anti akt
    Inhibition of <t>FOXO1</t> transcriptional activity through the <t>melatonin-PI3K-AKT</t> axis protects GCs from H 2 O 2 -induced autophagic PCD. (A) GCs transfected with Foxo1 siRNA or scrambled control siRNA for 24 h were cultured in media containing various concentrations of melatonin (0, 5, 10, 20 μM). 24 h later, cells were rinsed with PBS, and exposed to H 2 O 2 (200 μM) incubation for another 2 h. The expression of phosphorylated FOXO1 (p-FOXO1) was determined by western blotting. (B) The phosphorylation level of FOXO1 was quantified by densitometric analysis. TUBA1A served as the control for loading. Data represent mean ± S.E; n = 3. ** Represents P
    Rabbit Anti Akt, supplied by Cell Signaling Technology Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 3713 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Santa Cruz Biotechnology anti akt
    Decreased PDYN expression and suppressed <t>PI3K/Akt/Nrf2/HO-1</t> pathway in epileptiform hippocampal neurons MDA content and SOD activity (a) using commercial kits, cell apoptosis (b) using flow cytometry, mRNA expression of DYN and HO-1 (c) using RT-qPCR, and protein expression of PDYN, total Nrf2, nuclear Nrf2, HO-1, PI3K, as well as phosphorylation level of Akt (p-Akt) (d-e) using western blot, in cultured hippocampal neurons exposed to Mg 2+ -free solution or not. *p
    Anti Akt, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 2421 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Cell Signaling Technology Inc rabbit anti phospho akt
    GPR84 signaling activates <t>AKT,</t> <t>ERK,</t> and NFκβ in WT, but not in GPR84 −/− macrophages. (A) Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were treated with 0.1 µg/ml LPS for 2 h before stimulated with either vehicle (0.3% DMSO) or 1 µM 6-OAU for 1, 5, 10, 30, and 60 min. Cell lysates were prepared and western blotting conducted for either phosphorylated Akt (P-AKT) or ERK 1/2 (P-ERK), followed by stripping and re-staining for β-actin as a loading control. Representative images from n = 3 independent experiments are shown. (B) BMDMs were treated with LPS (0.1 µg/ml) for 2 h before stimulation with vehicle (0.3% DMSO) or 1 µM 6-OAU for 30 min followed by p65 staining. Confocal microscopy images are illustrative of two separate experiments. (C) BMDMs were treated with LPS (0.1 µg/ml) for 2 h before stimulation with either vehicle (0.3% DMSO) or 1 µM 6-OAU for 5, 10, 30, and 60 min. Western blotting for p65 was performed using samples from cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions of cell lysates, followed by stripping and re-staining for histone-3 in the nuclear fraction and α-tubulin in the cytoplasmic fraction as a loading control. Representative images from n = 3 independent experiments are shown.
    Rabbit Anti Phospho Akt, supplied by Cell Signaling Technology Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1932 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Cell Signaling Technology Inc phospho akt s473
    GPR84 signaling activates <t>AKT,</t> <t>ERK,</t> and NFκβ in WT, but not in GPR84 −/− macrophages. (A) Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were treated with 0.1 µg/ml LPS for 2 h before stimulated with either vehicle (0.3% DMSO) or 1 µM 6-OAU for 1, 5, 10, 30, and 60 min. Cell lysates were prepared and western blotting conducted for either phosphorylated Akt (P-AKT) or ERK 1/2 (P-ERK), followed by stripping and re-staining for β-actin as a loading control. Representative images from n = 3 independent experiments are shown. (B) BMDMs were treated with LPS (0.1 µg/ml) for 2 h before stimulation with vehicle (0.3% DMSO) or 1 µM 6-OAU for 30 min followed by p65 staining. Confocal microscopy images are illustrative of two separate experiments. (C) BMDMs were treated with LPS (0.1 µg/ml) for 2 h before stimulation with either vehicle (0.3% DMSO) or 1 µM 6-OAU for 5, 10, 30, and 60 min. Western blotting for p65 was performed using samples from cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions of cell lysates, followed by stripping and re-staining for histone-3 in the nuclear fraction and α-tubulin in the cytoplasmic fraction as a loading control. Representative images from n = 3 independent experiments are shown.
    Phospho Akt S473, supplied by Cell Signaling Technology Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 2416 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Cell Signaling Technology Inc phospho akt thr308
    GPR84 signaling activates <t>AKT,</t> <t>ERK,</t> and NFκβ in WT, but not in GPR84 −/− macrophages. (A) Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were treated with 0.1 µg/ml LPS for 2 h before stimulated with either vehicle (0.3% DMSO) or 1 µM 6-OAU for 1, 5, 10, 30, and 60 min. Cell lysates were prepared and western blotting conducted for either phosphorylated Akt (P-AKT) or ERK 1/2 (P-ERK), followed by stripping and re-staining for β-actin as a loading control. Representative images from n = 3 independent experiments are shown. (B) BMDMs were treated with LPS (0.1 µg/ml) for 2 h before stimulation with vehicle (0.3% DMSO) or 1 µM 6-OAU for 30 min followed by p65 staining. Confocal microscopy images are illustrative of two separate experiments. (C) BMDMs were treated with LPS (0.1 µg/ml) for 2 h before stimulation with either vehicle (0.3% DMSO) or 1 µM 6-OAU for 5, 10, 30, and 60 min. Western blotting for p65 was performed using samples from cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions of cell lysates, followed by stripping and re-staining for histone-3 in the nuclear fraction and α-tubulin in the cytoplasmic fraction as a loading control. Representative images from n = 3 independent experiments are shown.
    Phospho Akt Thr308, supplied by Cell Signaling Technology Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 1440 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Abcam anti akt
    APS reduced LPS-induced inflammation injury by down-regulating miR-127 and inhibiting NF-κB and JNK and promoting <t>PI3K/AKT</t> signaling pathways in H9c2 cells. (a) H9c2 cells were treated with LPS or co-treated with APS and LPS, and then expression levels of miR-127 in H9c2 cells were measured by qRT-PCR. (b)–(d) Protein expression levels of p65/p-p65, lκBα/p-lκBα JNK/p-JNK, c-Jun/p-c-Jun, PI3K/p-PI3K, and AKT/p-AKT were detected by western blot. Different letters above the bars (a, b, c) indicate that the means of different groups were significantly different ( P
    Anti Akt, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1086 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Cell Signaling Technology Inc anti phospho akt thr308
    APS reduced LPS-induced inflammation injury by down-regulating miR-127 and inhibiting NF-κB and JNK and promoting <t>PI3K/AKT</t> signaling pathways in H9c2 cells. (a) H9c2 cells were treated with LPS or co-treated with APS and LPS, and then expression levels of miR-127 in H9c2 cells were measured by qRT-PCR. (b)–(d) Protein expression levels of p65/p-p65, lκBα/p-lκBα JNK/p-JNK, c-Jun/p-c-Jun, PI3K/p-PI3K, and AKT/p-AKT were detected by western blot. Different letters above the bars (a, b, c) indicate that the means of different groups were significantly different ( P
    Anti Phospho Akt Thr308, supplied by Cell Signaling Technology Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 571 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    The effects of estrogen stimulation on the expression of miR-182, miR-223, and miR-142-3p and their targets in infant female quadriceps femoris -derived myoblasts. (A) Quantitative PCR analyses of miRNA transcripts normalized with RNU44 in human myoblasts treated for 72 h with 100 n m estradiol or mock. Note: The expression of miR-182 in these myoblasts was too low to be accurately measured. (B) qPCR analyses of target mRNAs (IGF-1, FOXO3A, FOXO1A) in human myoblasts treated with 10 n m and 100 n m estradiol or mock for 72 h. (C) Representative Western blots of target proteins, IGF-1R, FOXO3A and FOXO1A, and GAPDH, in human myoblasts treated with 10 n m and 100 n m estradiol or mock for 72 h. (D) Densitometry data of Western blots normalized with GAPDH. (E) Representative Western blots showing phosphorylation of AKT and mTOR proteins in myoblasts treated with 10 n m and 100 n m estradiol or mock for 72 h. (F) Densitometry data of Western blots normalized with GAPDH. Data are presented as percentage of control (mock) and reported as means ± SD of three independent experiments. OD indicates optical density. t -test, *** P

    Journal: Aging Cell

    Article Title: Hormone replacement therapy enhances IGF-1 signaling in skeletal muscle by diminishing miR-182 and miR-223 expressions: a study on postmenopausal monozygotic twin pairs

    doi: 10.1111/acel.12245

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The effects of estrogen stimulation on the expression of miR-182, miR-223, and miR-142-3p and their targets in infant female quadriceps femoris -derived myoblasts. (A) Quantitative PCR analyses of miRNA transcripts normalized with RNU44 in human myoblasts treated for 72 h with 100 n m estradiol or mock. Note: The expression of miR-182 in these myoblasts was too low to be accurately measured. (B) qPCR analyses of target mRNAs (IGF-1, FOXO3A, FOXO1A) in human myoblasts treated with 10 n m and 100 n m estradiol or mock for 72 h. (C) Representative Western blots of target proteins, IGF-1R, FOXO3A and FOXO1A, and GAPDH, in human myoblasts treated with 10 n m and 100 n m estradiol or mock for 72 h. (D) Densitometry data of Western blots normalized with GAPDH. (E) Representative Western blots showing phosphorylation of AKT and mTOR proteins in myoblasts treated with 10 n m and 100 n m estradiol or mock for 72 h. (F) Densitometry data of Western blots normalized with GAPDH. Data are presented as percentage of control (mock) and reported as means ± SD of three independent experiments. OD indicates optical density. t -test, *** P

    Article Snippet: Experiments for phosphorylation of AKT and mTOR Myoblasts were treated for 72 h with 10 nm E2 , 100 nm E2 , or solvent alone and analyzed in Western blots to detect phosphorylation of AKT (SER 473, Cell Signalling #9271) and mTOR (SER 2448, Cell Signalling #2971).

    Techniques: Expressing, Derivative Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Western Blot

    GSK-3 phosphorylates RacE at Ser192 in response to the chemoattractant. a , WT and RacE-KO cells were stimulated with the chemoattractant cAMP (1 μM). Total amounts of RacE and its phosphorylation at Ser192 were analyzed by immunoblotting with antibodies to RacE and phospho-RacE(Ser192). b , WT cells expressing GFP fused to WT RacE, phospho-defective RacE S192A or phospho-mimetic RacE S192D were stimulated with cAMP. Whole cell lysates prepared at the indicated time points were analyzed by immunoblotting with antibodies to RacE and phospho-RacE(S192). c , The amino acid sequence in the vicinity of the phosphorylation site (Ser192, red) of RacE. A consensus motif for GSK-3 phosphorylation — a cluster of (S/TXXXS/T) — is underlined. A phosphopeptide used to raise anti-phospho-RacE (S192P) is highlighted. d , The location of serine 192 in a modeled RacE 3-D structure. (e–h) WT cells were treated with inhibitors to GSK-3 (250 nM LY2090314 in e and 10 mM lithium in f ), PI3K (250 μM LY294002 in g ), mTORC2 (0.5 μM PP242 in g ), or AKT (5 μM afuresertib in h ) for 10 min. Cells were then stimulated by the chemoattractant cAMP for the indicated amounts of time. Whole cell lysates were analyzed by immunoblotting with antibodies to RacE and phospho-RacE(Ser192). i , WT and cells lacking AKT (PkbA-KO or PkbR1-KO) were stimulated with cAMP for 30 s. Whole cell lysates were analyzed by immunoblotting with the indicated antibodies. j , Purified human GSK-3β was incubated with purified WT, GDP-bound RacE T25N or phospho-defective RacE S192A for 15 min. Ser192 phosphorylation of RacE was tested by immunoblotting. k , WT or GDP-bound RacE T25N was mixed with GSK-3β in the presence or absence of the GSK-3 inhibitor LY2090314 (10 nM) and examined for Ser192 phosphorylation using immunoblotting. l , Summary of the data. Experiments were repeated independently three times with similar results in a, b and e - k .

    Journal: Nature cell biology

    Article Title: Phosphorylated Rho-GDP Directly Activates mTORC2 Kinase Toward AKT Through Dimerization with Ras-GTP to Regulate Cell Migration

    doi: 10.1038/s41556-019-0348-8

    Figure Lengend Snippet: GSK-3 phosphorylates RacE at Ser192 in response to the chemoattractant. a , WT and RacE-KO cells were stimulated with the chemoattractant cAMP (1 μM). Total amounts of RacE and its phosphorylation at Ser192 were analyzed by immunoblotting with antibodies to RacE and phospho-RacE(Ser192). b , WT cells expressing GFP fused to WT RacE, phospho-defective RacE S192A or phospho-mimetic RacE S192D were stimulated with cAMP. Whole cell lysates prepared at the indicated time points were analyzed by immunoblotting with antibodies to RacE and phospho-RacE(S192). c , The amino acid sequence in the vicinity of the phosphorylation site (Ser192, red) of RacE. A consensus motif for GSK-3 phosphorylation — a cluster of (S/TXXXS/T) — is underlined. A phosphopeptide used to raise anti-phospho-RacE (S192P) is highlighted. d , The location of serine 192 in a modeled RacE 3-D structure. (e–h) WT cells were treated with inhibitors to GSK-3 (250 nM LY2090314 in e and 10 mM lithium in f ), PI3K (250 μM LY294002 in g ), mTORC2 (0.5 μM PP242 in g ), or AKT (5 μM afuresertib in h ) for 10 min. Cells were then stimulated by the chemoattractant cAMP for the indicated amounts of time. Whole cell lysates were analyzed by immunoblotting with antibodies to RacE and phospho-RacE(Ser192). i , WT and cells lacking AKT (PkbA-KO or PkbR1-KO) were stimulated with cAMP for 30 s. Whole cell lysates were analyzed by immunoblotting with the indicated antibodies. j , Purified human GSK-3β was incubated with purified WT, GDP-bound RacE T25N or phospho-defective RacE S192A for 15 min. Ser192 phosphorylation of RacE was tested by immunoblotting. k , WT or GDP-bound RacE T25N was mixed with GSK-3β in the presence or absence of the GSK-3 inhibitor LY2090314 (10 nM) and examined for Ser192 phosphorylation using immunoblotting. l , Summary of the data. Experiments were repeated independently three times with similar results in a, b and e - k .

    Article Snippet: AKT phosphorylation was detected by immunoblotting with anti-phospho-AKT (serine 473) antibodies (Cell Signaling, 9271).

    Techniques: Expressing, Sequencing, Purification, Incubation

    RacE-GDP promotes chemoattractant-induced, mTORC2-mediated AKT phosphorylation in cells. The indicated Dictyostelium cell lines were stimulated with the chemoattractant cAMP (1 μM). a - f , WT cells and RacE-KO cells expressing different GFP-RacE constructs were analyzed. g and h , WT cells and RacE-KO cells expressing GFP-RacE were pretreated with 0.5 μM of the mTORC2 inhibitor PP242 for 10 min and then stimulated with cAMP. i and j , WT and RacE-KO cells expressing FLAG-tagged RasC or GTP-bound RasC Q62L were analyzed. a - j , Total amounts of two AKT homologs (PKBR1 and PKBA) and their phosphorylation (Red: hydrophobic motif, Green: activation loop) were analyzed by immunoblotting. PVDF membranes were stained with CBB as loading controls in a, c, e, g, and i . The band intensity of phosphorylated AKTs was quantified in b, d, f, h, and j : WT cells at 30 s (b, d, f and h) and WT cells expressing RasC at 30 s (j) were set at 100%. Values are average ± SD (n = 3 independent experiments).

    Journal: Nature cell biology

    Article Title: Phosphorylated Rho-GDP Directly Activates mTORC2 Kinase Toward AKT Through Dimerization with Ras-GTP to Regulate Cell Migration

    doi: 10.1038/s41556-019-0348-8

    Figure Lengend Snippet: RacE-GDP promotes chemoattractant-induced, mTORC2-mediated AKT phosphorylation in cells. The indicated Dictyostelium cell lines were stimulated with the chemoattractant cAMP (1 μM). a - f , WT cells and RacE-KO cells expressing different GFP-RacE constructs were analyzed. g and h , WT cells and RacE-KO cells expressing GFP-RacE were pretreated with 0.5 μM of the mTORC2 inhibitor PP242 for 10 min and then stimulated with cAMP. i and j , WT and RacE-KO cells expressing FLAG-tagged RasC or GTP-bound RasC Q62L were analyzed. a - j , Total amounts of two AKT homologs (PKBR1 and PKBA) and their phosphorylation (Red: hydrophobic motif, Green: activation loop) were analyzed by immunoblotting. PVDF membranes were stained with CBB as loading controls in a, c, e, g, and i . The band intensity of phosphorylated AKTs was quantified in b, d, f, h, and j : WT cells at 30 s (b, d, f and h) and WT cells expressing RasC at 30 s (j) were set at 100%. Values are average ± SD (n = 3 independent experiments).

    Article Snippet: AKT phosphorylation was detected by immunoblotting with anti-phospho-AKT (serine 473) antibodies (Cell Signaling, 9271).

    Techniques: Expressing, Construct, Activation Assay, Staining

    RacE-GDP specifically interacts with mTORC2. a , Dictyostelium cell lysates carrying GFP fused to the indicated forms of RacE were incubated with cell lysates carrying FLAG-Tor and subjected to immunoprecipitation with GFP-Trap. Quantification of interaction is shown. The band intensity of FLAG-Tor in immunoprecipitates of cells expressing WT RacE was set 100% (n=6, 6, 6 and 3 independent experiments for RacE, RacE T25N , RacE G20V and RacE T43A , respectively). Values are average ± SD. Significance was calculated using ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey. p values are shown for comparison between RacE and others. b , Dictyostelium cell lysates carrying the indicated GFP-RacE were subject to immunoprecipitation with GFP-Trap to analyze its association with endogenous PiaA. The band intensity of PiaA in immunoprecipitates of cells expressing WT RacE was set 100% (n = 3 independent experiments). Values are average ± SD. Significance was calculated using ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey. p values are shown for comparison betwen RacE with others. c , Dictyostelium cell lysates carrying GFP fused to the indicated forms of Rac1A and RacE were incubated with cell lysates carrying FLAG-Tor and subjected to immunoprecipitation with GFP-Trap. Experiment was repeated independently three times with similar results. d , HEK293T cells were transfected with YFP fused to the indicated constructs of human Rac1 and RhoA and subjected to immunoprecipitation using GFP-Trap. The band intensities of Tor and rictor in immunoprecipitates of cells expressing WT RhoA was set 100% (n = 3 and n = 4 independent experiments for Tor and Rictor, respectively). Values are average ± SD. Significance was calculated using ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey. p values are shown for comparison between YFP-RhoA and others. e , Summary of the data. f , AKTs are phosphorylated in the hydrophobic motif by mTORC2 and in the activation loop by PDK. g and h , WT, RacE-KO, and PiaA-KO Dictyostelium cells were stimulated with the chemoattractant cAMP (1 μM). (n = 3 independent experiments). The total amounts of two AKT homologs (PkbR1 and PkbA) and their phosphorylation (Red: hydrophobic motif, Green: activation loop) were analyzed by immunoblotting. PVDF membranes were stained with CBB as loading controls. The band intensity of phosphorylated AKTs was quantified in h : WT cells at 30 s were set at 100%. Values are average ± SD.

    Journal: Nature cell biology

    Article Title: Phosphorylated Rho-GDP Directly Activates mTORC2 Kinase Toward AKT Through Dimerization with Ras-GTP to Regulate Cell Migration

    doi: 10.1038/s41556-019-0348-8

    Figure Lengend Snippet: RacE-GDP specifically interacts with mTORC2. a , Dictyostelium cell lysates carrying GFP fused to the indicated forms of RacE were incubated with cell lysates carrying FLAG-Tor and subjected to immunoprecipitation with GFP-Trap. Quantification of interaction is shown. The band intensity of FLAG-Tor in immunoprecipitates of cells expressing WT RacE was set 100% (n=6, 6, 6 and 3 independent experiments for RacE, RacE T25N , RacE G20V and RacE T43A , respectively). Values are average ± SD. Significance was calculated using ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey. p values are shown for comparison between RacE and others. b , Dictyostelium cell lysates carrying the indicated GFP-RacE were subject to immunoprecipitation with GFP-Trap to analyze its association with endogenous PiaA. The band intensity of PiaA in immunoprecipitates of cells expressing WT RacE was set 100% (n = 3 independent experiments). Values are average ± SD. Significance was calculated using ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey. p values are shown for comparison betwen RacE with others. c , Dictyostelium cell lysates carrying GFP fused to the indicated forms of Rac1A and RacE were incubated with cell lysates carrying FLAG-Tor and subjected to immunoprecipitation with GFP-Trap. Experiment was repeated independently three times with similar results. d , HEK293T cells were transfected with YFP fused to the indicated constructs of human Rac1 and RhoA and subjected to immunoprecipitation using GFP-Trap. The band intensities of Tor and rictor in immunoprecipitates of cells expressing WT RhoA was set 100% (n = 3 and n = 4 independent experiments for Tor and Rictor, respectively). Values are average ± SD. Significance was calculated using ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey. p values are shown for comparison between YFP-RhoA and others. e , Summary of the data. f , AKTs are phosphorylated in the hydrophobic motif by mTORC2 and in the activation loop by PDK. g and h , WT, RacE-KO, and PiaA-KO Dictyostelium cells were stimulated with the chemoattractant cAMP (1 μM). (n = 3 independent experiments). The total amounts of two AKT homologs (PkbR1 and PkbA) and their phosphorylation (Red: hydrophobic motif, Green: activation loop) were analyzed by immunoblotting. PVDF membranes were stained with CBB as loading controls. The band intensity of phosphorylated AKTs was quantified in h : WT cells at 30 s were set at 100%. Values are average ± SD.

    Article Snippet: AKT phosphorylation was detected by immunoblotting with anti-phospho-AKT (serine 473) antibodies (Cell Signaling, 9271).

    Techniques: Incubation, Immunoprecipitation, Expressing, Transfection, Construct, Activation Assay, Staining

    Ser192 phosphorylated RacE-GDP forms a supercomplex with Tor and Ras-GTP. a and b , The indicated GFP-RacE proteins were purified from Dictyostelium cells with or without 1 μM cAMP stimulation for 30 s. FLAG-RasC proteins were purified without cAMP stimulation. GFP-RacE was incubated with FLAG-RasC and pulled down using GFP-Trap. The pellet fraction was analyzed by immunoblotting using antibodies to GFP and FLAG. c , GFP-RacE, GFP-RasC or GFP-RasG was incubated with FLAG-Tor that was purified in a high-salt condition and pulled down with GFP-Trap. The pellet fraction was analyzed by immunoblotting using antibodies to GFP and FLAG. d , GFP fused to GDP-bound RacE T25N or GTP-bound RacE G20V were purified from Dictyostelium cells under a high salt condition after stimulation with the chemoattractant cAMP. These GFP fusion proteins were incubated with high-salt washed FLAG-Tor and/or FLAG-RasC proteins. GFP-RacE was pulled down with GFP-Trap, and the pellet fractions were analyzed by immunoblotting. e , RacE forms a complex with Tor and RasC. The indicated proteins were purified under high-salt conditions and mixed for 15 min at room temperature. GFP-RasC proteins were pulled down with GFP-Trap, and the pellet fraction was analyzed by immunoblotting. f and g , Different GFP-RacE proteins were purified from Dictyostelium cells with or without 1 μM cAMP stimulation for 30 s in the presence or absence of the GSK-3 inhibitor LY2090314 (250 nM). GFP-RacE was incubated with FLAG-RasC in f or FLAG-Tor in g and pulled down using GFP-Trap. The pellet fraction was analyzed by immunoblotting using antibodies to GFP and FLAG. h , Model for GPCR-mediated mTORC2-AKT signaling. In response to GPCR activation by chemoattractant, Rho-GDP becomes phosphorylated by GSK-3 and assembles the super signaling complex with Ras-GTP and mTORC2 to promote AKT phosphorylation. Experiments were repeated independently three times with similar results in a - g .

    Journal: Nature cell biology

    Article Title: Phosphorylated Rho-GDP Directly Activates mTORC2 Kinase Toward AKT Through Dimerization with Ras-GTP to Regulate Cell Migration

    doi: 10.1038/s41556-019-0348-8

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Ser192 phosphorylated RacE-GDP forms a supercomplex with Tor and Ras-GTP. a and b , The indicated GFP-RacE proteins were purified from Dictyostelium cells with or without 1 μM cAMP stimulation for 30 s. FLAG-RasC proteins were purified without cAMP stimulation. GFP-RacE was incubated with FLAG-RasC and pulled down using GFP-Trap. The pellet fraction was analyzed by immunoblotting using antibodies to GFP and FLAG. c , GFP-RacE, GFP-RasC or GFP-RasG was incubated with FLAG-Tor that was purified in a high-salt condition and pulled down with GFP-Trap. The pellet fraction was analyzed by immunoblotting using antibodies to GFP and FLAG. d , GFP fused to GDP-bound RacE T25N or GTP-bound RacE G20V were purified from Dictyostelium cells under a high salt condition after stimulation with the chemoattractant cAMP. These GFP fusion proteins were incubated with high-salt washed FLAG-Tor and/or FLAG-RasC proteins. GFP-RacE was pulled down with GFP-Trap, and the pellet fractions were analyzed by immunoblotting. e , RacE forms a complex with Tor and RasC. The indicated proteins were purified under high-salt conditions and mixed for 15 min at room temperature. GFP-RasC proteins were pulled down with GFP-Trap, and the pellet fraction was analyzed by immunoblotting. f and g , Different GFP-RacE proteins were purified from Dictyostelium cells with or without 1 μM cAMP stimulation for 30 s in the presence or absence of the GSK-3 inhibitor LY2090314 (250 nM). GFP-RacE was incubated with FLAG-RasC in f or FLAG-Tor in g and pulled down using GFP-Trap. The pellet fraction was analyzed by immunoblotting using antibodies to GFP and FLAG. h , Model for GPCR-mediated mTORC2-AKT signaling. In response to GPCR activation by chemoattractant, Rho-GDP becomes phosphorylated by GSK-3 and assembles the super signaling complex with Ras-GTP and mTORC2 to promote AKT phosphorylation. Experiments were repeated independently three times with similar results in a - g .

    Article Snippet: AKT phosphorylation was detected by immunoblotting with anti-phospho-AKT (serine 473) antibodies (Cell Signaling, 9271).

    Techniques: Purification, Incubation, Activation Assay

    Phosphorylated RacE-GDP activates mTORC2 in vitro . mTORC2-mediated AKT phosphorylation was reconstituted using purified proteins. mTORC2 (FLAG-Tor, -PiaA or -Lst8), FLAG-RacE, and FLAG-RasC/G were purified from Dictyostelium cells. +cAMP indicates that cells were stimulated by the chemoattractant for 30 s before purification of FLAG-RacE. Purified proteins were mixed in the presence or absence of ATP and human unactive AKT for 5 min at room temperature. AKT phosphorylation was analyzed by immunoblotting using anti-phospho AKT (serine 473) antibodies. a , mTORC2 phosphorylates AKT in the presence of RacE and RasC. b and c , mTORC2 activation requires PiaA and Lst8, but not the mSIN1 homolog Rip3. FLAG-PiaA or FLAG-Lst8 was added to FLAG-Tor purified from the indicated KO cell lines in b . FLAG-PiaA and/or FLAG-Lst8 were incubated with high-salt washed FLAG-Tor in c . d , mTORC2 activation requires RacE-GDP. Purified RacE was incubated with EDTA (25 mM), GTPγS (0.5 mM) or GTPγS then GDP (2.5 mM) (GTPγS → GDP) before reconstitution. e , WT RacE or GDP-bound RacE T25N , but not GTP-bound RacE G20V , activates mTORC2 after the chemoattractant stimulation. f , mTORC2 activation needs RasC-GTP but not RasG-GTP. g , RacE phosphorylation controls mTORC2 activation. Phospho-mimetic mutation S192D in GDP-bound RacE T25N activates mTORC2 without chemoattractant stimulation, while the phospho-defective S192A mutation blocks it. h , mTORC2 activation requires RasC-GTP. Purified RacC was incubated with EDTA followed by either GTPγS or GDP before reconstitution. i , Summary of the data. j , RacE G23V -GDP activates mTORC2. Purified RacE T25N and RacE G23V were incubated with EDTA followed by GTPγS or GDP prior to reconstitution. Experiments were repeated independently three times with similar results in a - h and j .

    Journal: Nature cell biology

    Article Title: Phosphorylated Rho-GDP Directly Activates mTORC2 Kinase Toward AKT Through Dimerization with Ras-GTP to Regulate Cell Migration

    doi: 10.1038/s41556-019-0348-8

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Phosphorylated RacE-GDP activates mTORC2 in vitro . mTORC2-mediated AKT phosphorylation was reconstituted using purified proteins. mTORC2 (FLAG-Tor, -PiaA or -Lst8), FLAG-RacE, and FLAG-RasC/G were purified from Dictyostelium cells. +cAMP indicates that cells were stimulated by the chemoattractant for 30 s before purification of FLAG-RacE. Purified proteins were mixed in the presence or absence of ATP and human unactive AKT for 5 min at room temperature. AKT phosphorylation was analyzed by immunoblotting using anti-phospho AKT (serine 473) antibodies. a , mTORC2 phosphorylates AKT in the presence of RacE and RasC. b and c , mTORC2 activation requires PiaA and Lst8, but not the mSIN1 homolog Rip3. FLAG-PiaA or FLAG-Lst8 was added to FLAG-Tor purified from the indicated KO cell lines in b . FLAG-PiaA and/or FLAG-Lst8 were incubated with high-salt washed FLAG-Tor in c . d , mTORC2 activation requires RacE-GDP. Purified RacE was incubated with EDTA (25 mM), GTPγS (0.5 mM) or GTPγS then GDP (2.5 mM) (GTPγS → GDP) before reconstitution. e , WT RacE or GDP-bound RacE T25N , but not GTP-bound RacE G20V , activates mTORC2 after the chemoattractant stimulation. f , mTORC2 activation needs RasC-GTP but not RasG-GTP. g , RacE phosphorylation controls mTORC2 activation. Phospho-mimetic mutation S192D in GDP-bound RacE T25N activates mTORC2 without chemoattractant stimulation, while the phospho-defective S192A mutation blocks it. h , mTORC2 activation requires RasC-GTP. Purified RacC was incubated with EDTA followed by either GTPγS or GDP before reconstitution. i , Summary of the data. j , RacE G23V -GDP activates mTORC2. Purified RacE T25N and RacE G23V were incubated with EDTA followed by GTPγS or GDP prior to reconstitution. Experiments were repeated independently three times with similar results in a - h and j .

    Article Snippet: AKT phosphorylation was detected by immunoblotting with anti-phospho-AKT (serine 473) antibodies (Cell Signaling, 9271).

    Techniques: In Vitro, Purification, Activation Assay, Incubation, Mutagenesis

    Inhibition of FOXO1 transcriptional activity through the melatonin-PI3K-AKT axis protects GCs from H 2 O 2 -induced autophagic PCD. (A) GCs transfected with Foxo1 siRNA or scrambled control siRNA for 24 h were cultured in media containing various concentrations of melatonin (0, 5, 10, 20 μM). 24 h later, cells were rinsed with PBS, and exposed to H 2 O 2 (200 μM) incubation for another 2 h. The expression of phosphorylated FOXO1 (p-FOXO1) was determined by western blotting. (B) The phosphorylation level of FOXO1 was quantified by densitometric analysis. TUBA1A served as the control for loading. Data represent mean ± S.E; n = 3. ** Represents P

    Journal: Redox Biology

    Article Title: Melatonin protects mouse granulosa cells against oxidative damage by inhibiting FOXO1-mediated autophagy: Implication of an antioxidation-independent mechanism

    doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2018.07.004

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Inhibition of FOXO1 transcriptional activity through the melatonin-PI3K-AKT axis protects GCs from H 2 O 2 -induced autophagic PCD. (A) GCs transfected with Foxo1 siRNA or scrambled control siRNA for 24 h were cultured in media containing various concentrations of melatonin (0, 5, 10, 20 μM). 24 h later, cells were rinsed with PBS, and exposed to H 2 O 2 (200 μM) incubation for another 2 h. The expression of phosphorylated FOXO1 (p-FOXO1) was determined by western blotting. (B) The phosphorylation level of FOXO1 was quantified by densitometric analysis. TUBA1A served as the control for loading. Data represent mean ± S.E; n = 3. ** Represents P

    Article Snippet: Antibodies against AKT (9272), phospho-AKT (4060), FOXO1 (2880), phospho-FOXO1 (9461), FLAG (2908), BECN1 (3495), MTOR (2983), ATG3 (3415), ATG5 (8540), ATG7 (2631), and ATG12 (4180) were obtained from Cell Signaling Technology (Beverly, MA, USA).

    Techniques: Inhibition, Activity Assay, Transfection, Cell Culture, Incubation, Expressing, Western Blot

    Oligomeric Aβ 1–42 specifically binds to TREM2 and activates TREM2 signaling pathway . a Schematic representation of human TREM2 extracellular domain (sTREM2, amino acid residues 1–171) tagged with human IgG1 Fc. SP: signal peptide. b The cDNA encoding sTREM2-Fc, sTREM1-Fc or Fc alone was transfected into HEK 293 T cells. Each protein was purified from the conditioned medium and analyzed by silver stained SDS-PAGE. c The prepared oAβ 1–42 peptides were analyzed by Western blotting using 4–12% Bis-Tris NuPAGE gel. d Solid phase binding assay showing the saturation binding curve and equilibrium dissociation constant (K D ) of oAβ 1–42 binding to sTREM2-Fc. Fc and sTREM1-Fc served as negative controls ( n = 3). e The Fc, sTREM2-Fc or sTREM1-Fc control was pre-bound to protein A agarose beads and used as baits for immunoprecipitation of oAβ 1–42 . The precipitated products were separated on 4–12% Bis-Tris NuPAGE gel and further subjected to Western blotting. ( f and g ) The binding profiles of oAβ 1–42 to different concentrations of sTREM2-Fc f or Fc g were generated by SPR assay. h The prepared monomeric Aβ 1–42 (mAβ 1–42 ) peptides were analyzed by Western blotting using 4–12% Bis-Tris NuPAGE gel. i The binding profiles of mAβ 1–42 to different concentrations of sTREM2-Fc were generated by SPR assay. j The binding profiles of scrambled Aβ 42 (scAβ 42 ) to different concentrations of sTREM2-Fc were generated by SPR assay. k Wild-type (WT) or Trem2 -knockout (KO) microglia were stimulated with 1.0 μM oAβ 1–42 for 1 h. Cell lysates were analyzed by Western blotting using antibodies specific for either total (T-Syk) or phosphorylated form (p-Syk) of Syk. l Quantification of Western blots as ratios of p-Syk/T-Syk. β-Actin was used as an internal control ( n = 3, two-way ANOVA). m WT or Trem2 -KO microglia were stimulated with 1.0 μM oAβ 1–42 for the indicated time. Cell lysates at each time point were analyzed by Western blotting using antibodies specific for either total (T-Akt) or phosphorylated form (p-Akt) of Akt. n Quantification of Western blots as ratios of p-Akt/T-Akt. β-Actin was used as an internal control (n = 3, two-way ANOVA). Data information: Data represent mean ± SD. **, p

    Journal: Molecular Neurodegeneration

    Article Title: Amyloid-beta modulates microglial responses by binding to the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2)

    doi: 10.1186/s13024-018-0247-7

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Oligomeric Aβ 1–42 specifically binds to TREM2 and activates TREM2 signaling pathway . a Schematic representation of human TREM2 extracellular domain (sTREM2, amino acid residues 1–171) tagged with human IgG1 Fc. SP: signal peptide. b The cDNA encoding sTREM2-Fc, sTREM1-Fc or Fc alone was transfected into HEK 293 T cells. Each protein was purified from the conditioned medium and analyzed by silver stained SDS-PAGE. c The prepared oAβ 1–42 peptides were analyzed by Western blotting using 4–12% Bis-Tris NuPAGE gel. d Solid phase binding assay showing the saturation binding curve and equilibrium dissociation constant (K D ) of oAβ 1–42 binding to sTREM2-Fc. Fc and sTREM1-Fc served as negative controls ( n = 3). e The Fc, sTREM2-Fc or sTREM1-Fc control was pre-bound to protein A agarose beads and used as baits for immunoprecipitation of oAβ 1–42 . The precipitated products were separated on 4–12% Bis-Tris NuPAGE gel and further subjected to Western blotting. ( f and g ) The binding profiles of oAβ 1–42 to different concentrations of sTREM2-Fc f or Fc g were generated by SPR assay. h The prepared monomeric Aβ 1–42 (mAβ 1–42 ) peptides were analyzed by Western blotting using 4–12% Bis-Tris NuPAGE gel. i The binding profiles of mAβ 1–42 to different concentrations of sTREM2-Fc were generated by SPR assay. j The binding profiles of scrambled Aβ 42 (scAβ 42 ) to different concentrations of sTREM2-Fc were generated by SPR assay. k Wild-type (WT) or Trem2 -knockout (KO) microglia were stimulated with 1.0 μM oAβ 1–42 for 1 h. Cell lysates were analyzed by Western blotting using antibodies specific for either total (T-Syk) or phosphorylated form (p-Syk) of Syk. l Quantification of Western blots as ratios of p-Syk/T-Syk. β-Actin was used as an internal control ( n = 3, two-way ANOVA). m WT or Trem2 -KO microglia were stimulated with 1.0 μM oAβ 1–42 for the indicated time. Cell lysates at each time point were analyzed by Western blotting using antibodies specific for either total (T-Akt) or phosphorylated form (p-Akt) of Akt. n Quantification of Western blots as ratios of p-Akt/T-Akt. β-Actin was used as an internal control (n = 3, two-way ANOVA). Data information: Data represent mean ± SD. **, p

    Article Snippet: Anti-Phospho-Syk (Tyr525/526) (2711 s), anti-total-Syk (13,198 s), anti-Phospho-Akt (Ser473) (4060 s), anti-total-Akt (4685 s) and anti-β-actin antibody (4970 s) were purchased from Cell Signaling Technology.

    Techniques: Transfection, Purification, Staining, SDS Page, Western Blot, Binding Assay, Immunoprecipitation, Generated, SPR Assay, Knock-Out

    Decreased PDYN expression and suppressed PI3K/Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway in epileptiform hippocampal neurons MDA content and SOD activity (a) using commercial kits, cell apoptosis (b) using flow cytometry, mRNA expression of DYN and HO-1 (c) using RT-qPCR, and protein expression of PDYN, total Nrf2, nuclear Nrf2, HO-1, PI3K, as well as phosphorylation level of Akt (p-Akt) (d-e) using western blot, in cultured hippocampal neurons exposed to Mg 2+ -free solution or not. *p

    Journal: Cell Cycle

    Article Title: Dynorphin activation of kappa opioid receptor protects against epilepsy and seizure-induced brain injury via PI3K/Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway

    doi: 10.1080/15384101.2018.1562286

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Decreased PDYN expression and suppressed PI3K/Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway in epileptiform hippocampal neurons MDA content and SOD activity (a) using commercial kits, cell apoptosis (b) using flow cytometry, mRNA expression of DYN and HO-1 (c) using RT-qPCR, and protein expression of PDYN, total Nrf2, nuclear Nrf2, HO-1, PI3K, as well as phosphorylation level of Akt (p-Akt) (d-e) using western blot, in cultured hippocampal neurons exposed to Mg 2+ -free solution or not. *p

    Article Snippet: After being blocked with 5% non-fat milk, the membrane was incubated with the following primary antibodies: anti-PDYN (OriGene, Rockville, MD, USA), anti-PI3K (Cell Signaling Technology Inc., Danvers, MA, USA), anti-p-Akt (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Dallas, TX, USA), anti-Akt (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), and anti-Nrf2 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), anti-HO-1 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), followed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled secondary antibodies (Beyotime).

    Techniques: Expressing, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Activity Assay, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Quantitative RT-PCR, Western Blot, Cell Culture

    Decreased PDYN expression and suppressed PI3K/Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway in a rat model of epilepsy Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-2, and IL-6 (a) using ELISA, MDA content and SOD activity (b) using commercial kits in control and epileptic model rats. In situ cell apoptosis (c) using TUNEL staining (Scale bar: 25.0 μm in overview; 2 μm in CA1 and CA3), mRNA expression of PDYN and HO-1 (d) using RT-qPCR, and protein expression of PDYN, total Nrf2, nuclear Nrf2, HO-1, PI3K, as well as phosphorylation level of Akt (p-Akt) (e) using western blot, in the hippocampus of control and epileptic model rats. n = 8/group. *p

    Journal: Cell Cycle

    Article Title: Dynorphin activation of kappa opioid receptor protects against epilepsy and seizure-induced brain injury via PI3K/Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway

    doi: 10.1080/15384101.2018.1562286

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Decreased PDYN expression and suppressed PI3K/Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway in a rat model of epilepsy Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-2, and IL-6 (a) using ELISA, MDA content and SOD activity (b) using commercial kits in control and epileptic model rats. In situ cell apoptosis (c) using TUNEL staining (Scale bar: 25.0 μm in overview; 2 μm in CA1 and CA3), mRNA expression of PDYN and HO-1 (d) using RT-qPCR, and protein expression of PDYN, total Nrf2, nuclear Nrf2, HO-1, PI3K, as well as phosphorylation level of Akt (p-Akt) (e) using western blot, in the hippocampus of control and epileptic model rats. n = 8/group. *p

    Article Snippet: After being blocked with 5% non-fat milk, the membrane was incubated with the following primary antibodies: anti-PDYN (OriGene, Rockville, MD, USA), anti-PI3K (Cell Signaling Technology Inc., Danvers, MA, USA), anti-p-Akt (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Dallas, TX, USA), anti-Akt (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), and anti-Nrf2 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), anti-HO-1 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), followed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled secondary antibodies (Beyotime).

    Techniques: Expressing, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Activity Assay, In Situ, TUNEL Assay, Staining, Quantitative RT-PCR, Western Blot

    Dynorphin activation of KOR alleviated seizure-like neuron injury via activation of PI3K/Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway MDA content and SOD activity (a) using commercial kits, cell apoptosis (b) using flow cytometry, mRNA expression of HO-1 (c) using RT-qPCR, and protein expression of total Nrf2, nuclear Nrf2 and HO-1 (d) using western blot, in cultured hippocampal neurons exposed to Mg 2+ -free solution, followed by treatment with dynorphin-A and LY294002 (an inhibitor of PI3K/Akt pathway)/ZnPPIX (an HO-1 inhibitor), both alone or in combination. Cultured hippocampal neurons without any treatment served as the control group. DMSO served as the vehicle of LY294002 and ZnPPIX. Dyn-A, dynorphin-A. LY, LY294002. *p

    Journal: Cell Cycle

    Article Title: Dynorphin activation of kappa opioid receptor protects against epilepsy and seizure-induced brain injury via PI3K/Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway

    doi: 10.1080/15384101.2018.1562286

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Dynorphin activation of KOR alleviated seizure-like neuron injury via activation of PI3K/Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway MDA content and SOD activity (a) using commercial kits, cell apoptosis (b) using flow cytometry, mRNA expression of HO-1 (c) using RT-qPCR, and protein expression of total Nrf2, nuclear Nrf2 and HO-1 (d) using western blot, in cultured hippocampal neurons exposed to Mg 2+ -free solution, followed by treatment with dynorphin-A and LY294002 (an inhibitor of PI3K/Akt pathway)/ZnPPIX (an HO-1 inhibitor), both alone or in combination. Cultured hippocampal neurons without any treatment served as the control group. DMSO served as the vehicle of LY294002 and ZnPPIX. Dyn-A, dynorphin-A. LY, LY294002. *p

    Article Snippet: After being blocked with 5% non-fat milk, the membrane was incubated with the following primary antibodies: anti-PDYN (OriGene, Rockville, MD, USA), anti-PI3K (Cell Signaling Technology Inc., Danvers, MA, USA), anti-p-Akt (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Dallas, TX, USA), anti-Akt (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), and anti-Nrf2 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), anti-HO-1 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), followed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled secondary antibodies (Beyotime).

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Activity Assay, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Western Blot, Cell Culture

    Dynorphin activation of KOR activated PI3K/Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway and alleviated seizure-like neuron injury MDA content and SOD activity (a) using commercial kits, cell apoptosis (b) using flow cytometry, mRNA expression of HO-1 (c) using RT-qPCR, and protein expression of total Nrf2, nuclear Nrf2, HO-1, PI3K, as well as phosphorylation level of Akt (p-Akt) (d) using western blot, in cultured hippocampal neurons exposed to Mg 2+ -free solution, followed by treatment with the KOR agonist dynorphin-A and the KOR antagonist GNTI, both alone or in combination. Cultured hippocampal neurons without any treatment served as the control group. Dyn-A, dynorphin-A. *p

    Journal: Cell Cycle

    Article Title: Dynorphin activation of kappa opioid receptor protects against epilepsy and seizure-induced brain injury via PI3K/Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway

    doi: 10.1080/15384101.2018.1562286

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Dynorphin activation of KOR activated PI3K/Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway and alleviated seizure-like neuron injury MDA content and SOD activity (a) using commercial kits, cell apoptosis (b) using flow cytometry, mRNA expression of HO-1 (c) using RT-qPCR, and protein expression of total Nrf2, nuclear Nrf2, HO-1, PI3K, as well as phosphorylation level of Akt (p-Akt) (d) using western blot, in cultured hippocampal neurons exposed to Mg 2+ -free solution, followed by treatment with the KOR agonist dynorphin-A and the KOR antagonist GNTI, both alone or in combination. Cultured hippocampal neurons without any treatment served as the control group. Dyn-A, dynorphin-A. *p

    Article Snippet: After being blocked with 5% non-fat milk, the membrane was incubated with the following primary antibodies: anti-PDYN (OriGene, Rockville, MD, USA), anti-PI3K (Cell Signaling Technology Inc., Danvers, MA, USA), anti-p-Akt (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Dallas, TX, USA), anti-Akt (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), and anti-Nrf2 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), anti-HO-1 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), followed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled secondary antibodies (Beyotime).

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Activity Assay, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Western Blot, Cell Culture

    PDYN overexpression alleviated pilocarpine-induced epilepsy and neuronal apoptosis in rats Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-2, and IL-6 (a) using ELISA, MDA content and SOD activity (b) using commercial kits, in the groups of model, LV-NC, and LV-Dyn. In situ cell apoptosis (c) using TUNEL staining (scale bar: 25.0 μm in overview; 2 μm in CA1 and CA3), mRNA expression of PDYN (d) and HO-1 (e) using RT-qPCR, and protein expression of PDYN, total Nrf2, nuclear Nrf2, HO-1, PI3K, as well as phosphorylation level of Akt (p-Akt) (f) using western blot, in the rat hippocampus in the groups of model, LV-NC, and LV-PDYN. n = 8/group. *p

    Journal: Cell Cycle

    Article Title: Dynorphin activation of kappa opioid receptor protects against epilepsy and seizure-induced brain injury via PI3K/Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway

    doi: 10.1080/15384101.2018.1562286

    Figure Lengend Snippet: PDYN overexpression alleviated pilocarpine-induced epilepsy and neuronal apoptosis in rats Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-2, and IL-6 (a) using ELISA, MDA content and SOD activity (b) using commercial kits, in the groups of model, LV-NC, and LV-Dyn. In situ cell apoptosis (c) using TUNEL staining (scale bar: 25.0 μm in overview; 2 μm in CA1 and CA3), mRNA expression of PDYN (d) and HO-1 (e) using RT-qPCR, and protein expression of PDYN, total Nrf2, nuclear Nrf2, HO-1, PI3K, as well as phosphorylation level of Akt (p-Akt) (f) using western blot, in the rat hippocampus in the groups of model, LV-NC, and LV-PDYN. n = 8/group. *p

    Article Snippet: After being blocked with 5% non-fat milk, the membrane was incubated with the following primary antibodies: anti-PDYN (OriGene, Rockville, MD, USA), anti-PI3K (Cell Signaling Technology Inc., Danvers, MA, USA), anti-p-Akt (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Dallas, TX, USA), anti-Akt (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), and anti-Nrf2 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), anti-HO-1 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), followed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled secondary antibodies (Beyotime).

    Techniques: Over Expression, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Activity Assay, In Situ, TUNEL Assay, Staining, Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Western Blot

    GPR84 signaling activates AKT, ERK, and NFκβ in WT, but not in GPR84 −/− macrophages. (A) Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were treated with 0.1 µg/ml LPS for 2 h before stimulated with either vehicle (0.3% DMSO) or 1 µM 6-OAU for 1, 5, 10, 30, and 60 min. Cell lysates were prepared and western blotting conducted for either phosphorylated Akt (P-AKT) or ERK 1/2 (P-ERK), followed by stripping and re-staining for β-actin as a loading control. Representative images from n = 3 independent experiments are shown. (B) BMDMs were treated with LPS (0.1 µg/ml) for 2 h before stimulation with vehicle (0.3% DMSO) or 1 µM 6-OAU for 30 min followed by p65 staining. Confocal microscopy images are illustrative of two separate experiments. (C) BMDMs were treated with LPS (0.1 µg/ml) for 2 h before stimulation with either vehicle (0.3% DMSO) or 1 µM 6-OAU for 5, 10, 30, and 60 min. Western blotting for p65 was performed using samples from cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions of cell lysates, followed by stripping and re-staining for histone-3 in the nuclear fraction and α-tubulin in the cytoplasmic fraction as a loading control. Representative images from n = 3 independent experiments are shown.

    Journal: Frontiers in Immunology

    Article Title: Activation of the Immune-Metabolic Receptor GPR84 Enhances Inflammation and Phagocytosis in Macrophages

    doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.01419

    Figure Lengend Snippet: GPR84 signaling activates AKT, ERK, and NFκβ in WT, but not in GPR84 −/− macrophages. (A) Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were treated with 0.1 µg/ml LPS for 2 h before stimulated with either vehicle (0.3% DMSO) or 1 µM 6-OAU for 1, 5, 10, 30, and 60 min. Cell lysates were prepared and western blotting conducted for either phosphorylated Akt (P-AKT) or ERK 1/2 (P-ERK), followed by stripping and re-staining for β-actin as a loading control. Representative images from n = 3 independent experiments are shown. (B) BMDMs were treated with LPS (0.1 µg/ml) for 2 h before stimulation with vehicle (0.3% DMSO) or 1 µM 6-OAU for 30 min followed by p65 staining. Confocal microscopy images are illustrative of two separate experiments. (C) BMDMs were treated with LPS (0.1 µg/ml) for 2 h before stimulation with either vehicle (0.3% DMSO) or 1 µM 6-OAU for 5, 10, 30, and 60 min. Western blotting for p65 was performed using samples from cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions of cell lysates, followed by stripping and re-staining for histone-3 in the nuclear fraction and α-tubulin in the cytoplasmic fraction as a loading control. Representative images from n = 3 independent experiments are shown.

    Article Snippet: Rabbit anti-phospho-ERK (D13.14.4E), rabbit anti-total-ERK, rabbit anti-phospho-Akt (D9E), rabbit anti-total-Akt, β-actin, were purchased from Cell Signaling Technologies (Danvers, MA, USA).

    Techniques: Derivative Assay, Western Blot, Stripping Membranes, Staining, Confocal Microscopy

    GPR84 antagonist abrogates the enhanced inflammatory response mediated by 6-OAU. (A) Intracellular cyclic AMP levels were measured in CHO-GPR84 cells pre-treated with the antagonist followed by forskolin and 6-OAU stimulation. Data are represented as the mean ± SEM of the percentage of the response to forskolin in the absence of agonists n = 3 independent experiments. (B–H) Bone marrow-derived macrophages were treated with LPS (0.1 µg/ml) for 2 h before pre-treatment with vehicle (0.3% DMSO), 10 µM antagonist for 30 min, or 200 ng/ml Pertussis toxin for 90 min. Afterward cells were stimulated with either vehicle (0.3% DMSO) or 1 µM 6-OAU for either 10′ for protein isolation or 1 h for RNA extraction. (B) Cell lysates were prepared and western blotting conducted for either phosphorylated Akt (P-AKT) or ERK 1/2 (P-ERK), followed by stripping and re-staining for β-actin as a loading control. Representative images from n = 3 independent experiments. (C–H) mRNA expression of Tnf α (C) , Il-6 (D) , Il-12 (E) , Ccl5 (F) , Ccl2 (G) , and Cxcl1 (H) was analyzed by q-PCR. Data are presented as mean ± SEM of n = 4–7 separate experiments. Statistical significance was assessed using one-way ANOVA with Dunnett’s multiple comparison post hoc test. * P ≤ 0.05, ** P ≤ 0.01, *** P ≤ 0.001 versus vehicle; # P ≤ 0.05, ## P ≤ 0.01, ### P ≤ 0.001 versus 6-OAU.

    Journal: Frontiers in Immunology

    Article Title: Activation of the Immune-Metabolic Receptor GPR84 Enhances Inflammation and Phagocytosis in Macrophages

    doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.01419

    Figure Lengend Snippet: GPR84 antagonist abrogates the enhanced inflammatory response mediated by 6-OAU. (A) Intracellular cyclic AMP levels were measured in CHO-GPR84 cells pre-treated with the antagonist followed by forskolin and 6-OAU stimulation. Data are represented as the mean ± SEM of the percentage of the response to forskolin in the absence of agonists n = 3 independent experiments. (B–H) Bone marrow-derived macrophages were treated with LPS (0.1 µg/ml) for 2 h before pre-treatment with vehicle (0.3% DMSO), 10 µM antagonist for 30 min, or 200 ng/ml Pertussis toxin for 90 min. Afterward cells were stimulated with either vehicle (0.3% DMSO) or 1 µM 6-OAU for either 10′ for protein isolation or 1 h for RNA extraction. (B) Cell lysates were prepared and western blotting conducted for either phosphorylated Akt (P-AKT) or ERK 1/2 (P-ERK), followed by stripping and re-staining for β-actin as a loading control. Representative images from n = 3 independent experiments. (C–H) mRNA expression of Tnf α (C) , Il-6 (D) , Il-12 (E) , Ccl5 (F) , Ccl2 (G) , and Cxcl1 (H) was analyzed by q-PCR. Data are presented as mean ± SEM of n = 4–7 separate experiments. Statistical significance was assessed using one-way ANOVA with Dunnett’s multiple comparison post hoc test. * P ≤ 0.05, ** P ≤ 0.01, *** P ≤ 0.001 versus vehicle; # P ≤ 0.05, ## P ≤ 0.01, ### P ≤ 0.001 versus 6-OAU.

    Article Snippet: Rabbit anti-phospho-ERK (D13.14.4E), rabbit anti-total-ERK, rabbit anti-phospho-Akt (D9E), rabbit anti-total-Akt, β-actin, were purchased from Cell Signaling Technologies (Danvers, MA, USA).

    Techniques: Derivative Assay, Isolation, RNA Extraction, Western Blot, Stripping Membranes, Staining, Expressing, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    APS reduced LPS-induced inflammation injury by down-regulating miR-127 and inhibiting NF-κB and JNK and promoting PI3K/AKT signaling pathways in H9c2 cells. (a) H9c2 cells were treated with LPS or co-treated with APS and LPS, and then expression levels of miR-127 in H9c2 cells were measured by qRT-PCR. (b)–(d) Protein expression levels of p65/p-p65, lκBα/p-lκBα JNK/p-JNK, c-Jun/p-c-Jun, PI3K/p-PI3K, and AKT/p-AKT were detected by western blot. Different letters above the bars (a, b, c) indicate that the means of different groups were significantly different ( P

    Journal: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology

    Article Title: Astragalus polysaccharide alleviates LPS-induced inflammation injury by regulating miR-127 in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts

    doi: 10.1177/2058738418759180

    Figure Lengend Snippet: APS reduced LPS-induced inflammation injury by down-regulating miR-127 and inhibiting NF-κB and JNK and promoting PI3K/AKT signaling pathways in H9c2 cells. (a) H9c2 cells were treated with LPS or co-treated with APS and LPS, and then expression levels of miR-127 in H9c2 cells were measured by qRT-PCR. (b)–(d) Protein expression levels of p65/p-p65, lκBα/p-lκBα JNK/p-JNK, c-Jun/p-c-Jun, PI3K/p-PI3K, and AKT/p-AKT were detected by western blot. Different letters above the bars (a, b, c) indicate that the means of different groups were significantly different ( P

    Article Snippet: The primary antibodies used in this study included anti-Bax (ab32503, 1:1000), anti-pro-Caspase3 (ab44976, 1:500), anti-cleaved-Caspase3 (ab13847, 1:500), anti-Caspase9 (ab25758, 1:200), anti-IL-6 (ab9770, 1:5000), anti-IL-8 (ab7747, 1:10), anti-TNF-α (ab6671, 1:1000), anti-p65 (ab16502, 1:2000), anti-toll-like receptor 4 (anti-TLR4, ab13556, 1:500), anti-p-p65 (ab86299, 1:2000), anti-IκBα (ab7217, 1:2000), anti-JNK (ab179461, 1:1000), anti-p-JNK (ab124956, 1:5000), anti-c-Jun (ab32137, 1:1000) and anti-p-c-Jun (ab32385, 1:1000), anti-PI3K (ab191606, 1:1000), anti-p-PI3K (ab182651, 1:1000), anti-AKT (ab32505, 1:2000), anti-p-AKT (ab131443, 1:1000), all purchased from Abcam (Cambridge, UK).

    Techniques: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Western Blot