2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 octafluoro 1 pentanol Search Results


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  • 99
    Thermo Fisher triton x 100
    Triton X 100, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 22478 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore 1 methyl 2 pyrrolidinone
    1 Methyl 2 Pyrrolidinone, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 260 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore n methyl 2 pyrrolidone nmp
    N Methyl 2 Pyrrolidone Nmp, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 137 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore triton x 100
    Triton X 100, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 65173 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    89
    BioCryst bcx 2798
    Effect of a single intranasal prophylactic dose of <t>BCX</t> 2798 on survival of mice inoculated with a 90% lethal dose of rSeV(hPIV-1HN). 129x1/SvJ mice were administered 1 or 10 mg/kg/d of BCX 2798 in single or multiple (twice daily for five consecutive days)
    Bcx 2798, supplied by BioCryst, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 121 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Otsuka Holdings tolvaptan
    Effect of <t>tolvaptan</t> on free cytosolic calcium content in MDCK cells. ( A ) MDCKI cells, expressing V2R endogenously, were loaded with 7 μM fura‐2‐AM for 15 min. at 37°C in DMEM. Cells were left under basal conditions ( n = 71 cells) or treated with tolvaptan ( n = 97 cells) or tolvaptan in the presence of V1a receptor antagonist (SR49059) ( n = 60 cells). Data are expressed as means ± S.E.Ms (*** P
    Tolvaptan, supplied by Otsuka Holdings, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 91 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore protease inhibitor mixture
    Effect of <t>tolvaptan</t> on free cytosolic calcium content in MDCK cells. ( A ) MDCKI cells, expressing V2R endogenously, were loaded with 7 μM fura‐2‐AM for 15 min. at 37°C in DMEM. Cells were left under basal conditions ( n = 71 cells) or treated with tolvaptan ( n = 97 cells) or tolvaptan in the presence of V1a receptor antagonist (SR49059) ( n = 60 cells). Data are expressed as means ± S.E.Ms (*** P
    Protease Inhibitor Mixture, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 17276 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Millipore skf 38393
    GABA levels obtained from the striatum of the dopamine D1 receptor agonist <t>SKF</t> 38393 in a dose of 0, 1, 5, 10 mg/kg. The data are expressed as means (±S.E.M.). All data were analyzed statistical significance (p
    Skf 38393, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 83 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    89
    Bellicum ap1903
    Administration of <t>AP1903</t> rapidly resolves GVHD symptoms and reduces cytokine release. In Pt. 8, (A) the highest body temperature to the time of AP1903 infusion. (B) Pictures of the skin rash were taken prior to and 25 minutes after beginning the AP1903 infusion. (C) Cytokine production in plasma measured from samples collected 4 hours prior to, 2.5 hours after beginning, and 48 hours after the infusion of AP1903.
    Ap1903, supplied by Bellicum, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 65 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore sch 23390
    Dopamine concentration‐response curves in the absence and presence of L‐NAME in HUA rings (Panel A [control n = 6/6 and L‐NAME 100 µM n = 6/12]) and in HUV rings (Panel B [control n = 5/5 and L‐NAME 100 µM n = 5/10]). Effect of the D1‐like receptor antagonist <t>SCH‐23390</t> on the dopamine concentration‐response curves in HUA rings (Panel C [L‐NAME 100 µM n = 5/10 and L‐NAME + SCH‐23390 10 μM n = 5/10]) and in HUV rings (Panel D [L‐NAME 100 µM n = 5/10 and L‐NAME + SCH‐23390 10 μM n = 5/10]). Effect of the D2‐like receptor antagonist haloperidol on the dopamine concentration‐response curves in HUA rings (Panel E [L‐NAME 100 µM n = 5/10 and L‐NAME + haloperidol 10 μM n = 5/10]) and in HUV rings (Panel F [L‐NAME 100 µM n = 5/10 and L‐NAME + haloperidol 10 μM n = 5/10]). In the six panels, there was a significant difference in the Emax ( P
    Sch 23390, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 71 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    89
    Arena Pharmaceuticals lorcaserin
    Effect of <t>lorcaserin</t> on NA tissue content across the brain. The left, medial, and right bars of histogram correspond to saline (first column), lorcaserin 0.3 mg/kg (second column), and 3 mg/kg (third column) treated rats, respectively. The results correspond to the mean ± SEM of monoamine content (pg/mg tissue) in the 30 different rat brain regions. Lorcaserin has been intraperitoneally administered and the tissue values correspond to 45 min after the administration. The effects of lorcaserin have been compared to saline-treated rats using a one-way ANOVA (see Table 1 for the number of observations and ANOVAs). *p
    Lorcaserin, supplied by Arena Pharmaceuticals, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 41 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    89
    AG Scientific scyllo inositol
    Effect of <t>scyllo-inositol</t> alone and in combination with <t>R-flurbiprofen</t> treatments on spatial learning memory
    Scyllo Inositol, supplied by AG Scientific, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 32 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    98
    Tocris skf 38393
    The effects of dopaminergic compounds on cyp19a1b mRNA levels in RGC culture . Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the cyp19a1b mRNA, normalized to 18s in primary RGC culture after 24 h exposure of different dosages of <t>SKF</t> 38393 (A) , different dosages of Quinpirole (B) , SKF 38393 and/or Flup (C) , SKF 38393 and/or SKF 83566 (D) , SKF 38393 and/or DOM (E) . DMSO was used as a vehicle to dissolve SKF 83566 and DOM, which showed no effects on cyp19a1b mRNA levels in RGC culture (Supplemental Figure 4 , P = 0.4153). Data were defined as fold change relative to control, the bars represent the mean + SEM ( n = 4), each sample was analyzed in duplicate. a,b-Groups marked by different letters are significantly different ( P
    Skf 38393, supplied by Tocris, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 98/100, based on 57 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Thermo Fisher magnesium chloride
    The effects of dopaminergic compounds on cyp19a1b mRNA levels in RGC culture . Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the cyp19a1b mRNA, normalized to 18s in primary RGC culture after 24 h exposure of different dosages of <t>SKF</t> 38393 (A) , different dosages of Quinpirole (B) , SKF 38393 and/or Flup (C) , SKF 38393 and/or SKF 83566 (D) , SKF 38393 and/or DOM (E) . DMSO was used as a vehicle to dissolve SKF 83566 and DOM, which showed no effects on cyp19a1b mRNA levels in RGC culture (Supplemental Figure 4 , P = 0.4153). Data were defined as fold change relative to control, the bars represent the mean + SEM ( n = 4), each sample was analyzed in duplicate. a,b-Groups marked by different letters are significantly different ( P
    Magnesium Chloride, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 2318 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Selleck Chemicals barasertib
    <t>Barasertib</t> prevents chromosome alignment in fulvestrant resistant cell lines. Fluorescence microscopy of Hoechst stained (A and D) parental, (B and E) 182 R -1 and (C and F) 182 R -2 T47D cells treated for 42 hours with DMSO (control; A - C ) or barasertib (50 nM; D - F ). Inserts show higher-magnification images of dividing cells.The experiment was repeated twice and representative images are shown.
    Barasertib, supplied by Selleck Chemicals, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 131 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore mtt
    <t>Barasertib</t> prevents chromosome alignment in fulvestrant resistant cell lines. Fluorescence microscopy of Hoechst stained (A and D) parental, (B and E) 182 R -1 and (C and F) 182 R -2 T47D cells treated for 42 hours with DMSO (control; A - C ) or barasertib (50 nM; D - F ). Inserts show higher-magnification images of dividing cells.The experiment was repeated twice and representative images are shown.
    Mtt, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 26684 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    OXiGENE ca4dp
    Continuous IFP measurements after <t>CA4DP</t> treatment (100 mg/kg), shown as percent pretreatment level (error bars represent SD; they were omitted at time points 1, 2, 3, and 4 minutes for clarity). Treated IFP is not significantly increased at any time point
    Ca4dp, supplied by OXiGENE, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 12 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Thermo Fisher total rna
    Continuous IFP measurements after <t>CA4DP</t> treatment (100 mg/kg), shown as percent pretreatment level (error bars represent SD; they were omitted at time points 1, 2, 3, and 4 minutes for clarity). Treated IFP is not significantly increased at any time point
    Total Rna, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 471882 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Tocris skf 83566
    Effect of ACTH and a dopamine D 1  receptor agonist on steroidogenic enzyme mRNA expression. Steroidogenic enzyme mRNA expression levels in SF-1-transfected OSR1 +  cells treated with 2.4 µM ACTH, 1 µM SKF 83822 and 10 µM SKF 83566. Expression levels are normalised to levels of a housekeeping gene, β-actin. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Kramer test. *P 
    Skf 83566, supplied by Tocris, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 39 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Cilag AG topiramate
    α 2A -adrenoceptor, D 2 -receptor and TH relative gene expressions evaluation in the PFC, ACC and VTA, respectively, of pregabalin (10, 20 or 40 mg·kg −1 , p.o., twice a day for 27 days)- or <t>topiramate</t> (12.5, 25 or 50 mg·kg −1
    Topiramate, supplied by Cilag AG, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 26 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Janssen topamax
    Responder rates (≥70% decrease in frequency of headache from baseline) in patients receiving onabotulinumtoxinA and <t>topiramate</t> (A) for the duration of the study and (B) detailed at 32 weeks. *Odds ratio = 4.1 (95% CI: 2.0‐8.2), P
    Topamax, supplied by Janssen, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Thermo Fisher n methyl 2 pyrrolidone nmp
    Plasma F ROP concentration-time profiles achieved by the SAIB/solvent systems. (□) aqueous solution 1, (☆) aqueous solution 2, (◆) SAIB/ethanol (9:1, w/w), (▲) <t>SAIB/NMP</t> (9:1, w/w), (▼) SAIB/TA (9:1, w/w), (•) SAIB/BB (9:1, w/w). The dose for all the SAIB/solvent systems was 200 mg/kg, while those for the control aqueous solutions 1 and 2 were 15 and 50 mg/kg, respectively. F ROP: FITC-labeled radix ophiopogonis polysaccharide; FITC: fluorescein isothiocyanate; SAIB: sucrose acetate isobutyrate; BB: benzyl benzoate; NMP: <t>N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone;</t> TA: triacetin.
    N Methyl 2 Pyrrolidone Nmp, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Effect of a single intranasal prophylactic dose of BCX 2798 on survival of mice inoculated with a 90% lethal dose of rSeV(hPIV-1HN). 129x1/SvJ mice were administered 1 or 10 mg/kg/d of BCX 2798 in single or multiple (twice daily for five consecutive days)

    Journal: Antiviral therapy

    Article Title: Efficacy of the Novel Parainfluenza Virus Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Inhibitor BCX 2798 in Mice--Further Evaluation

    doi: 10.3851/IMP1420

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of a single intranasal prophylactic dose of BCX 2798 on survival of mice inoculated with a 90% lethal dose of rSeV(hPIV-1HN). 129x1/SvJ mice were administered 1 or 10 mg/kg/d of BCX 2798 in single or multiple (twice daily for five consecutive days)

    Article Snippet: The results for BCX 2798 administered by other than intranasal route to mice in the therapeutic model was consistent with our data obtained for BCX 2798 in the 4-hour prophylactic model.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Effect of a single intranasal prophylactic dose of BCX 2798 on virus titers in the lungs of mice infected with a 90% lethal dose of rSeV(hPIV-1HN). Mice were treated with 10 mg/kg/d of BCX 2798 in multiple (twice daily for five consecutive days; gray

    Journal: Antiviral therapy

    Article Title: Efficacy of the Novel Parainfluenza Virus Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Inhibitor BCX 2798 in Mice--Further Evaluation

    doi: 10.3851/IMP1420

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of a single intranasal prophylactic dose of BCX 2798 on virus titers in the lungs of mice infected with a 90% lethal dose of rSeV(hPIV-1HN). Mice were treated with 10 mg/kg/d of BCX 2798 in multiple (twice daily for five consecutive days; gray

    Article Snippet: The results for BCX 2798 administered by other than intranasal route to mice in the therapeutic model was consistent with our data obtained for BCX 2798 in the 4-hour prophylactic model.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Infection

    Effect of treatment with BCX 2798 on virus titers in mice infected with 100 PFU of rSeV(hPIV-1HN). BCX 2798 at dosages of 0.1 (-■-), 1 (-▲-) and 10 (-○-) mg/kg/d was administered intranasally to 129x1/SvJ mice starting at either

    Journal: Antiviral therapy

    Article Title: Efficacy of the Novel Parainfluenza Virus Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Inhibitor BCX 2798 in Mice--Further Evaluation

    doi: 10.3851/IMP1420

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of treatment with BCX 2798 on virus titers in mice infected with 100 PFU of rSeV(hPIV-1HN). BCX 2798 at dosages of 0.1 (-■-), 1 (-▲-) and 10 (-○-) mg/kg/d was administered intranasally to 129x1/SvJ mice starting at either

    Article Snippet: The results for BCX 2798 administered by other than intranasal route to mice in the therapeutic model was consistent with our data obtained for BCX 2798 in the 4-hour prophylactic model.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Infection

    Effect of treatment with BCX 2798 on histopathologic changes in lungs of mice infected with 100 PFU of rSeV(hPIV-1HN). Infected mice (three per group) were intranasally treated with 10 mg/kg/d of compound or PBS for 5 d starting 24 h after infection.

    Journal: Antiviral therapy

    Article Title: Efficacy of the Novel Parainfluenza Virus Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Inhibitor BCX 2798 in Mice--Further Evaluation

    doi: 10.3851/IMP1420

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of treatment with BCX 2798 on histopathologic changes in lungs of mice infected with 100 PFU of rSeV(hPIV-1HN). Infected mice (three per group) were intranasally treated with 10 mg/kg/d of compound or PBS for 5 d starting 24 h after infection.

    Article Snippet: The results for BCX 2798 administered by other than intranasal route to mice in the therapeutic model was consistent with our data obtained for BCX 2798 in the 4-hour prophylactic model.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Infection

    Prophylactic efficacy of BCX 2798 in mice

    Journal: Antiviral therapy

    Article Title: Efficacy of the Novel Parainfluenza Virus Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Inhibitor BCX 2798 in Mice--Further Evaluation

    doi: 10.3851/IMP1420

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Prophylactic efficacy of BCX 2798 in mice

    Article Snippet: The results for BCX 2798 administered by other than intranasal route to mice in the therapeutic model was consistent with our data obtained for BCX 2798 in the 4-hour prophylactic model.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Effect of tolvaptan on free cytosolic calcium content in MDCK cells. ( A ) MDCKI cells, expressing V2R endogenously, were loaded with 7 μM fura‐2‐AM for 15 min. at 37°C in DMEM. Cells were left under basal conditions ( n = 71 cells) or treated with tolvaptan ( n = 97 cells) or tolvaptan in the presence of V1a receptor antagonist (SR49059) ( n = 60 cells). Data are expressed as means ± S.E.Ms (*** P

    Journal: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine

    Article Title: The V2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan raises cytosolic calcium and prevents AQP2 trafficking and function: an in vitro and in vivo assessment

    doi: 10.1111/jcmm.13098

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of tolvaptan on free cytosolic calcium content in MDCK cells. ( A ) MDCKI cells, expressing V2R endogenously, were loaded with 7 μM fura‐2‐AM for 15 min. at 37°C in DMEM. Cells were left under basal conditions ( n = 71 cells) or treated with tolvaptan ( n = 97 cells) or tolvaptan in the presence of V1a receptor antagonist (SR49059) ( n = 60 cells). Data are expressed as means ± S.E.Ms (*** P

    Article Snippet: Tolvaptan was kindly gifted from Otsuka (Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Tokyo Japan).

    Techniques: Expressing, Mass Spectrometry

    Effect of tolvaptan on urinary excretion of AQP2. ( A ) Evaluation of urinary AQP2 in patient 1 affected by SIAD after 12‐h and 24‐h tolvaptan administration. ( B ) Effect of tolvaptan treatment on natraemia of patient 1. ( C ) Evaluation of urinary AQP2 in patient 2 affected by SIAD after 12‐h and 24‐h tolvaptan administration. ( D ) Effect of tolvaptan treatment on natraemia of patient 2.

    Journal: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine

    Article Title: The V2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan raises cytosolic calcium and prevents AQP2 trafficking and function: an in vitro and in vivo assessment

    doi: 10.1111/jcmm.13098

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of tolvaptan on urinary excretion of AQP2. ( A ) Evaluation of urinary AQP2 in patient 1 affected by SIAD after 12‐h and 24‐h tolvaptan administration. ( B ) Effect of tolvaptan treatment on natraemia of patient 1. ( C ) Evaluation of urinary AQP2 in patient 2 affected by SIAD after 12‐h and 24‐h tolvaptan administration. ( D ) Effect of tolvaptan treatment on natraemia of patient 2.

    Article Snippet: Tolvaptan was kindly gifted from Otsuka (Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Tokyo Japan).

    Techniques:

    Effect of tolvaptan on PP1β activity. Cells were left under basal conditions, or treated as indicated above. Protein phosphatase activity was evaluated with an immunoprecipitation assay kit as described in concise methods. Data are expressed as means ± S.E.Ms (* P

    Journal: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine

    Article Title: The V2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan raises cytosolic calcium and prevents AQP2 trafficking and function: an in vitro and in vivo assessment

    doi: 10.1111/jcmm.13098

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of tolvaptan on PP1β activity. Cells were left under basal conditions, or treated as indicated above. Protein phosphatase activity was evaluated with an immunoprecipitation assay kit as described in concise methods. Data are expressed as means ± S.E.Ms (* P

    Article Snippet: Tolvaptan was kindly gifted from Otsuka (Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Tokyo Japan).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Immunoprecipitation, Mass Spectrometry

    S256 phosphorylation of AQP2 in V1a receptor knockout mice. Fresh kidney slices were left untreated or stimulated as described in concise methods. Equal amount of proteins (15 μg) were immunoblotted with antibodies specific for total AQP2 or for AQP2‐pS256. Densitometric analysis (right panel) and statistical studies (means ± S.E.Ms) revealed that tolvaptan significantly prevented the increase in AQP2‐pS256 elicited by dDAVP (** P

    Journal: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine

    Article Title: The V2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan raises cytosolic calcium and prevents AQP2 trafficking and function: an in vitro and in vivo assessment

    doi: 10.1111/jcmm.13098

    Figure Lengend Snippet: S256 phosphorylation of AQP2 in V1a receptor knockout mice. Fresh kidney slices were left untreated or stimulated as described in concise methods. Equal amount of proteins (15 μg) were immunoblotted with antibodies specific for total AQP2 or for AQP2‐pS256. Densitometric analysis (right panel) and statistical studies (means ± S.E.Ms) revealed that tolvaptan significantly prevented the increase in AQP2‐pS256 elicited by dDAVP (** P

    Article Snippet: Tolvaptan was kindly gifted from Otsuka (Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Tokyo Japan).

    Techniques: Knock-Out, Mouse Assay, Mass Spectrometry

    Effect of tolvaptan on AQP2 S256 phosphorylation in MDCK‐hAQP2 lysates and mouse kidney slices. ( A ) MDCK‐hAQP2 cells were treated as described under concise methods. Equal amount of proteins from cells (30 μg) were immunoblotted for total AQP2 and AQP2 phosphorylated at S256 (AQP2‐pS256). Signals were semiquantified by densitometry (right panel). Statistical analysis (means ± S.E.Ms; *** P

    Journal: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine

    Article Title: The V2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan raises cytosolic calcium and prevents AQP2 trafficking and function: an in vitro and in vivo assessment

    doi: 10.1111/jcmm.13098

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of tolvaptan on AQP2 S256 phosphorylation in MDCK‐hAQP2 lysates and mouse kidney slices. ( A ) MDCK‐hAQP2 cells were treated as described under concise methods. Equal amount of proteins from cells (30 μg) were immunoblotted for total AQP2 and AQP2 phosphorylated at S256 (AQP2‐pS256). Signals were semiquantified by densitometry (right panel). Statistical analysis (means ± S.E.Ms; *** P

    Article Snippet: Tolvaptan was kindly gifted from Otsuka (Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Tokyo Japan).

    Techniques: Mass Spectrometry

    Time constant of cell swelling under hypertonic stimulus. Cells were treated as described in concise methods. The time course of fluorescence changes in calcein‐loaded cells indicates that tolvaptan impaired the dDAVP and forskolin induced cell swelling ability (means ± S.E.Ms). *** P

    Journal: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine

    Article Title: The V2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan raises cytosolic calcium and prevents AQP2 trafficking and function: an in vitro and in vivo assessment

    doi: 10.1111/jcmm.13098

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Time constant of cell swelling under hypertonic stimulus. Cells were treated as described in concise methods. The time course of fluorescence changes in calcein‐loaded cells indicates that tolvaptan impaired the dDAVP and forskolin induced cell swelling ability (means ± S.E.Ms). *** P

    Article Snippet: Tolvaptan was kindly gifted from Otsuka (Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Tokyo Japan).

    Techniques: Fluorescence, Mass Spectrometry

    Effect of tolvaptan on AQP2 localization in MDCK‐hAQP2 cells. MDCK cells were grown on filters and were exposed to different treatments. AQP2 was localized by confocal microscopy. Stimulation with dDAVP caused AQP2 translocation to the apical plasma membrane. In contrast, tolvaptan prevented dDAVP‐induced AQP2 redistribution (dDAVP+TLV). Apparently tolvaptan did not prevent the re‐localization of the bulk of AQP2 to the apical membrane in response to FK.

    Journal: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine

    Article Title: The V2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan raises cytosolic calcium and prevents AQP2 trafficking and function: an in vitro and in vivo assessment

    doi: 10.1111/jcmm.13098

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of tolvaptan on AQP2 localization in MDCK‐hAQP2 cells. MDCK cells were grown on filters and were exposed to different treatments. AQP2 was localized by confocal microscopy. Stimulation with dDAVP caused AQP2 translocation to the apical plasma membrane. In contrast, tolvaptan prevented dDAVP‐induced AQP2 redistribution (dDAVP+TLV). Apparently tolvaptan did not prevent the re‐localization of the bulk of AQP2 to the apical membrane in response to FK.

    Article Snippet: Tolvaptan was kindly gifted from Otsuka (Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Tokyo Japan).

    Techniques: Confocal Microscopy, Translocation Assay

    GABA levels obtained from the striatum of the dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF 38393 in a dose of 0, 1, 5, 10 mg/kg. The data are expressed as means (±S.E.M.). All data were analyzed statistical significance (p

    Journal: Experimental Neurobiology

    Article Title: Differential DAergic Control of D1 and D2 Receptor Agonist Over Locomotor Activity and GABA Level in the Striatum

    doi: 10.5607/en.2011.20.3.153

    Figure Lengend Snippet: GABA levels obtained from the striatum of the dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF 38393 in a dose of 0, 1, 5, 10 mg/kg. The data are expressed as means (±S.E.M.). All data were analyzed statistical significance (p

    Article Snippet: SKF 38393 and quinpirole treatment Hydrochloride salts of SKF 38393 and quinpirole (LY 171555) were obtained from Sigma Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA).

    Techniques:

    Time-course of the effects of (A) the dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF 38393 in a dose of 0, 1, 5, 10 mg/kg, (B) the dopamine D2 receptor agonist quinpirole in a dose of 0, 1, 5, 10 mg/kg measuring throughout 1 hr after treatment. The data are expressed as means (±S.E.M.). All data were analyzed statistical significance (p

    Journal: Experimental Neurobiology

    Article Title: Differential DAergic Control of D1 and D2 Receptor Agonist Over Locomotor Activity and GABA Level in the Striatum

    doi: 10.5607/en.2011.20.3.153

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Time-course of the effects of (A) the dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF 38393 in a dose of 0, 1, 5, 10 mg/kg, (B) the dopamine D2 receptor agonist quinpirole in a dose of 0, 1, 5, 10 mg/kg measuring throughout 1 hr after treatment. The data are expressed as means (±S.E.M.). All data were analyzed statistical significance (p

    Article Snippet: SKF 38393 and quinpirole treatment Hydrochloride salts of SKF 38393 and quinpirole (LY 171555) were obtained from Sigma Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA).

    Techniques:

    Administration of AP1903 rapidly resolves GVHD symptoms and reduces cytokine release. In Pt. 8, (A) the highest body temperature to the time of AP1903 infusion. (B) Pictures of the skin rash were taken prior to and 25 minutes after beginning the AP1903 infusion. (C) Cytokine production in plasma measured from samples collected 4 hours prior to, 2.5 hours after beginning, and 48 hours after the infusion of AP1903.

    Journal: Blood

    Article Title: Inducible caspase-9 suicide gene controls adverse effects from alloreplete T cells after haploidentical stem cell transplantation

    doi: 10.1182/blood-2015-02-628354

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Administration of AP1903 rapidly resolves GVHD symptoms and reduces cytokine release. In Pt. 8, (A) the highest body temperature to the time of AP1903 infusion. (B) Pictures of the skin rash were taken prior to and 25 minutes after beginning the AP1903 infusion. (C) Cytokine production in plasma measured from samples collected 4 hours prior to, 2.5 hours after beginning, and 48 hours after the infusion of AP1903.

    Article Snippet: The pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of AP1903 within the human CNS are currently unknown, and the prodrug’s short half-life (5 hours in PB) could explain the absence of AP1903 in the CSF collected several days after IV administration.

    Techniques:

    iC9-T-cell engraftment and in vivo allodepletion by dimerizer drug. Counts of T-cell subsets in 4 patients who received AP1903. CD3 + CD19 + T cells (A, Pt. 6; B, Pt. 8; C, Pt. 9; D, Pt. 12) and CD3 + CD19 − T cells (E, Pt. 6; F, Pt. 8; G, Pt. 9; H, Pt. 12). ●, □, and ▲ represent the CD3 + , CD4 + , and CD8 + subtypes, respectively. (I) The copy number of the iC9 transgene per microgram of DNA extracted from PBMC, evaluated by Q-PCR. Arrow indicates the time at which the patient was treated with AP1903. Pt., patient.

    Journal: Blood

    Article Title: Inducible caspase-9 suicide gene controls adverse effects from alloreplete T cells after haploidentical stem cell transplantation

    doi: 10.1182/blood-2015-02-628354

    Figure Lengend Snippet: iC9-T-cell engraftment and in vivo allodepletion by dimerizer drug. Counts of T-cell subsets in 4 patients who received AP1903. CD3 + CD19 + T cells (A, Pt. 6; B, Pt. 8; C, Pt. 9; D, Pt. 12) and CD3 + CD19 − T cells (E, Pt. 6; F, Pt. 8; G, Pt. 9; H, Pt. 12). ●, □, and ▲ represent the CD3 + , CD4 + , and CD8 + subtypes, respectively. (I) The copy number of the iC9 transgene per microgram of DNA extracted from PBMC, evaluated by Q-PCR. Arrow indicates the time at which the patient was treated with AP1903. Pt., patient.

    Article Snippet: The pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of AP1903 within the human CNS are currently unknown, and the prodrug’s short half-life (5 hours in PB) could explain the absence of AP1903 in the CSF collected several days after IV administration.

    Techniques: In Vivo, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Antiviral immune reconstitution after iC9–T-cell infusion. Quantification of pathogen-specific T cells detected by IFN-γ ELISPOT at multiple time points for each patient who did not receive AP1903. Pts. 5 (A) and 7 (B) had EBV reactivations, Pt. 12 had CMV reactivation (C), and Pt. 11 had HHV6 reactivation (D) before iC9–T-cell infusion. Pt. 7 had HHV6 infection (E), and Pt. 11 had VZV infection (F) after iC9–T-cell infusion. Black histograms represent response from total T cells and striped histograms represent response from endogenous T cells. The value of their difference represents the response from infused iC9-T cells. The gray dashed line indicates the viral load at multiple time points.

    Journal: Blood

    Article Title: Inducible caspase-9 suicide gene controls adverse effects from alloreplete T cells after haploidentical stem cell transplantation

    doi: 10.1182/blood-2015-02-628354

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Antiviral immune reconstitution after iC9–T-cell infusion. Quantification of pathogen-specific T cells detected by IFN-γ ELISPOT at multiple time points for each patient who did not receive AP1903. Pts. 5 (A) and 7 (B) had EBV reactivations, Pt. 12 had CMV reactivation (C), and Pt. 11 had HHV6 reactivation (D) before iC9–T-cell infusion. Pt. 7 had HHV6 infection (E), and Pt. 11 had VZV infection (F) after iC9–T-cell infusion. Black histograms represent response from total T cells and striped histograms represent response from endogenous T cells. The value of their difference represents the response from infused iC9-T cells. The gray dashed line indicates the viral load at multiple time points.

    Article Snippet: The pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of AP1903 within the human CNS are currently unknown, and the prodrug’s short half-life (5 hours in PB) could explain the absence of AP1903 in the CSF collected several days after IV administration.

    Techniques: Enzyme-linked Immunospot, Infection

    Virus-specific T cells are retained and remain functional after administration of AP1903. Quantification of pathogen-specific T cells detected by IFN-γ ELISPOT in each patient who received AP1903 to control acute GVHD. Patients had viral infection and/or reactivation for: VZV (A, Pt. 6), EBV (B, Pt. 8 and C, Pt. 9), CMV (D, Pt. 8 and E, Pt. 9), BKV (F, Pt. 9). Black histograms represent response from total T cells and striped histograms represent response from endogenous T cells. The value of their difference represents the response from infused iC9-T cells. The gray dashed line indicates the viral load at multiple time points.

    Journal: Blood

    Article Title: Inducible caspase-9 suicide gene controls adverse effects from alloreplete T cells after haploidentical stem cell transplantation

    doi: 10.1182/blood-2015-02-628354

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Virus-specific T cells are retained and remain functional after administration of AP1903. Quantification of pathogen-specific T cells detected by IFN-γ ELISPOT in each patient who received AP1903 to control acute GVHD. Patients had viral infection and/or reactivation for: VZV (A, Pt. 6), EBV (B, Pt. 8 and C, Pt. 9), CMV (D, Pt. 8 and E, Pt. 9), BKV (F, Pt. 9). Black histograms represent response from total T cells and striped histograms represent response from endogenous T cells. The value of their difference represents the response from infused iC9-T cells. The gray dashed line indicates the viral load at multiple time points.

    Article Snippet: The pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of AP1903 within the human CNS are currently unknown, and the prodrug’s short half-life (5 hours in PB) could explain the absence of AP1903 in the CSF collected several days after IV administration.

    Techniques: Functional Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunospot, Infection

    Administration of AP1903 affects iC9-T cells in CSF. Detection of iC9-T cells in CSF and PB by flow cytometry before and after administration of AP1903 (Pt. 6). Nine days before CID treatment in CSF (A) and in PB (B), and 14 days after treatment in CSF (C) and in PB (D). The percentage of CD3 + CD19 + T cells and CD3 + CD19 − T cells was calculated under the gate of CD3 + T cells.

    Journal: Blood

    Article Title: Inducible caspase-9 suicide gene controls adverse effects from alloreplete T cells after haploidentical stem cell transplantation

    doi: 10.1182/blood-2015-02-628354

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Administration of AP1903 affects iC9-T cells in CSF. Detection of iC9-T cells in CSF and PB by flow cytometry before and after administration of AP1903 (Pt. 6). Nine days before CID treatment in CSF (A) and in PB (B), and 14 days after treatment in CSF (C) and in PB (D). The percentage of CD3 + CD19 + T cells and CD3 + CD19 − T cells was calculated under the gate of CD3 + T cells.

    Article Snippet: The pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of AP1903 within the human CNS are currently unknown, and the prodrug’s short half-life (5 hours in PB) could explain the absence of AP1903 in the CSF collected several days after IV administration.

    Techniques: Flow Cytometry, Cytometry

    The kinetics of T-cell subsets after iC9-T-cell infusion in patients not treated with AP1903. Counts of circulating CD3 + (A), CD4 + T cells (B) and CD8 + T cells (C) in 8 patients who did not receive AP1903. Black line with filled circle represents CD19 + T cells, and gray dashed line with diamond represents CD19 − T cells. The number of evaluable patients at each point is 8 (from 0 to month 1), 6 (months 2-4), 4 (months 5 and 6), 2 (month 7), and 1 (month 8, 9, and 12). Data show means ± standard error of mean of patients infused with iC9-T cells.

    Journal: Blood

    Article Title: Inducible caspase-9 suicide gene controls adverse effects from alloreplete T cells after haploidentical stem cell transplantation

    doi: 10.1182/blood-2015-02-628354

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The kinetics of T-cell subsets after iC9-T-cell infusion in patients not treated with AP1903. Counts of circulating CD3 + (A), CD4 + T cells (B) and CD8 + T cells (C) in 8 patients who did not receive AP1903. Black line with filled circle represents CD19 + T cells, and gray dashed line with diamond represents CD19 − T cells. The number of evaluable patients at each point is 8 (from 0 to month 1), 6 (months 2-4), 4 (months 5 and 6), 2 (month 7), and 1 (month 8, 9, and 12). Data show means ± standard error of mean of patients infused with iC9-T cells.

    Article Snippet: The pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of AP1903 within the human CNS are currently unknown, and the prodrug’s short half-life (5 hours in PB) could explain the absence of AP1903 in the CSF collected several days after IV administration.

    Techniques:

    Dopamine concentration‐response curves in the absence and presence of L‐NAME in HUA rings (Panel A [control n = 6/6 and L‐NAME 100 µM n = 6/12]) and in HUV rings (Panel B [control n = 5/5 and L‐NAME 100 µM n = 5/10]). Effect of the D1‐like receptor antagonist SCH‐23390 on the dopamine concentration‐response curves in HUA rings (Panel C [L‐NAME 100 µM n = 5/10 and L‐NAME + SCH‐23390 10 μM n = 5/10]) and in HUV rings (Panel D [L‐NAME 100 µM n = 5/10 and L‐NAME + SCH‐23390 10 μM n = 5/10]). Effect of the D2‐like receptor antagonist haloperidol on the dopamine concentration‐response curves in HUA rings (Panel E [L‐NAME 100 µM n = 5/10 and L‐NAME + haloperidol 10 μM n = 5/10]) and in HUV rings (Panel F [L‐NAME 100 µM n = 5/10 and L‐NAME + haloperidol 10 μM n = 5/10]). In the six panels, there was a significant difference in the Emax ( P

    Journal: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives

    Article Title: Endothelium‐derived dopamine modulates EFS‐induced contractions of human umbilical vessels, et al. Endothelium‐derived dopamine modulates EFS‐induced contractions of human umbilical vessels

    doi: 10.1002/prp2.612

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Dopamine concentration‐response curves in the absence and presence of L‐NAME in HUA rings (Panel A [control n = 6/6 and L‐NAME 100 µM n = 6/12]) and in HUV rings (Panel B [control n = 5/5 and L‐NAME 100 µM n = 5/10]). Effect of the D1‐like receptor antagonist SCH‐23390 on the dopamine concentration‐response curves in HUA rings (Panel C [L‐NAME 100 µM n = 5/10 and L‐NAME + SCH‐23390 10 μM n = 5/10]) and in HUV rings (Panel D [L‐NAME 100 µM n = 5/10 and L‐NAME + SCH‐23390 10 μM n = 5/10]). Effect of the D2‐like receptor antagonist haloperidol on the dopamine concentration‐response curves in HUA rings (Panel E [L‐NAME 100 µM n = 5/10 and L‐NAME + haloperidol 10 μM n = 5/10]) and in HUV rings (Panel F [L‐NAME 100 µM n = 5/10 and L‐NAME + haloperidol 10 μM n = 5/10]). In the six panels, there was a significant difference in the Emax ( P

    Article Snippet: 2.2 Reagents Adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine, adenosine 5′‐triphosphate (ATP), Nω ‐Nitro‐L‐arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L‐NAME), H‐[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3‐a]quinoxalin‐1‐one (ODQ), and SCH‐23390 were purchased from Sigma‐Aldrich Chemicals Co. (St Louis, Missouri, USA).

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    EFS caused a contraction in both HUA (panel A [control n = 5/5 and L‐NAME 100 µM n = 5/5]) and HUV rings (panel B [control n = 6/6 and L‐NAME 100 µM n = 6/6]). The response was significantly potentiated in both HUA and HUV by previous treatment with L‐NAME. The incubation with SCH‐23390 had no effect on the EFS‐induced contractions in either HUA (panel C [L‐NAME 100 µM n = 5/5 and L‐NAME + SCH‐23390 10 μM n = 5/5]) and HUV rings (panel D [L‐NAME 100 µM n = 5/8 and L‐NAME + SCH‐23390 10 μM n = 5/8]). The treatment with haloperidol caused significant reduction in EFS‐induced contractions in both HUA (panel E [L‐NAME 100 µM n = 5/8 and L‐NAME + haloperidol 10 μM n = 5/8]) and HUV rings (panel F [L‐NAME 100 µM n = 5/9 and L‐NAME + haloperidol 10 μM n = 5/9]). Data are expressed as mean ± SEM * P

    Journal: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives

    Article Title: Endothelium‐derived dopamine modulates EFS‐induced contractions of human umbilical vessels, et al. Endothelium‐derived dopamine modulates EFS‐induced contractions of human umbilical vessels

    doi: 10.1002/prp2.612

    Figure Lengend Snippet: EFS caused a contraction in both HUA (panel A [control n = 5/5 and L‐NAME 100 µM n = 5/5]) and HUV rings (panel B [control n = 6/6 and L‐NAME 100 µM n = 6/6]). The response was significantly potentiated in both HUA and HUV by previous treatment with L‐NAME. The incubation with SCH‐23390 had no effect on the EFS‐induced contractions in either HUA (panel C [L‐NAME 100 µM n = 5/5 and L‐NAME + SCH‐23390 10 μM n = 5/5]) and HUV rings (panel D [L‐NAME 100 µM n = 5/8 and L‐NAME + SCH‐23390 10 μM n = 5/8]). The treatment with haloperidol caused significant reduction in EFS‐induced contractions in both HUA (panel E [L‐NAME 100 µM n = 5/8 and L‐NAME + haloperidol 10 μM n = 5/8]) and HUV rings (panel F [L‐NAME 100 µM n = 5/9 and L‐NAME + haloperidol 10 μM n = 5/9]). Data are expressed as mean ± SEM * P

    Article Snippet: 2.2 Reagents Adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine, adenosine 5′‐triphosphate (ATP), Nω ‐Nitro‐L‐arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L‐NAME), H‐[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3‐a]quinoxalin‐1‐one (ODQ), and SCH‐23390 were purchased from Sigma‐Aldrich Chemicals Co. (St Louis, Missouri, USA).

    Techniques: Incubation

    Effect of lorcaserin on NA tissue content across the brain. The left, medial, and right bars of histogram correspond to saline (first column), lorcaserin 0.3 mg/kg (second column), and 3 mg/kg (third column) treated rats, respectively. The results correspond to the mean ± SEM of monoamine content (pg/mg tissue) in the 30 different rat brain regions. Lorcaserin has been intraperitoneally administered and the tissue values correspond to 45 min after the administration. The effects of lorcaserin have been compared to saline-treated rats using a one-way ANOVA (see Table 1 for the number of observations and ANOVAs). *p

    Journal: Frontiers in Pharmacology

    Article Title: Lorcaserin Alters Serotonin and Noradrenaline Tissue Content and Their Interaction With Dopamine in the Rat Brain

    doi: 10.3389/fphar.2020.00962

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of lorcaserin on NA tissue content across the brain. The left, medial, and right bars of histogram correspond to saline (first column), lorcaserin 0.3 mg/kg (second column), and 3 mg/kg (third column) treated rats, respectively. The results correspond to the mean ± SEM of monoamine content (pg/mg tissue) in the 30 different rat brain regions. Lorcaserin has been intraperitoneally administered and the tissue values correspond to 45 min after the administration. The effects of lorcaserin have been compared to saline-treated rats using a one-way ANOVA (see Table 1 for the number of observations and ANOVAs). *p

    Article Snippet: Lorcaserin (a gift from Dr Andrew J Grottick, Arena Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, United States) was freshly diluted as the salt in NaCl 0.9% and injected i.p. (0.3 or 3 mg/kg).

    Techniques:

    Effect of lorcaserin on 5-HT, 5-HIAA and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio across the brain. Upper, middle, and lower panels correspond to 5-HT (A) , 5-HIAA (B) tissue content and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio (C) , respectively. The left, medial, and right bars of histogram correspond to saline-, lorcaserin 0.3 mg/kg, and 3 mg/kg treated rats, respectively. The results correspond to the mean ± SEM of monoamine content (pg/mg tissue) in the 30 different rat brain regions. Lorcaserin has been intraperitoneally administered and the tissue values correspond to 45 min after the administration. The effects of lorcaserin have been compared to saline-treated rats using a one-way ANOVA (see Table 1 for the number of observations). *p

    Journal: Frontiers in Pharmacology

    Article Title: Lorcaserin Alters Serotonin and Noradrenaline Tissue Content and Their Interaction With Dopamine in the Rat Brain

    doi: 10.3389/fphar.2020.00962

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of lorcaserin on 5-HT, 5-HIAA and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio across the brain. Upper, middle, and lower panels correspond to 5-HT (A) , 5-HIAA (B) tissue content and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio (C) , respectively. The left, medial, and right bars of histogram correspond to saline-, lorcaserin 0.3 mg/kg, and 3 mg/kg treated rats, respectively. The results correspond to the mean ± SEM of monoamine content (pg/mg tissue) in the 30 different rat brain regions. Lorcaserin has been intraperitoneally administered and the tissue values correspond to 45 min after the administration. The effects of lorcaserin have been compared to saline-treated rats using a one-way ANOVA (see Table 1 for the number of observations). *p

    Article Snippet: Lorcaserin (a gift from Dr Andrew J Grottick, Arena Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, United States) was freshly diluted as the salt in NaCl 0.9% and injected i.p. (0.3 or 3 mg/kg).

    Techniques:

    Correlative analysis of NA content across rat brain regions. Representation of the range of Pearson’s R values for each linear regression of NA tissues content (pg/mg) between the 30 brain areas in saline (first column), lorcaserin 0.3 mg/kg (second column), and 3 mg/kg (third column) treated rats. Colored boxes correspond to the existence of a correlation between the two parameters (yellow to red, positive; blue, negative) considered after correction for multiple comparisons.

    Journal: Frontiers in Pharmacology

    Article Title: Lorcaserin Alters Serotonin and Noradrenaline Tissue Content and Their Interaction With Dopamine in the Rat Brain

    doi: 10.3389/fphar.2020.00962

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Correlative analysis of NA content across rat brain regions. Representation of the range of Pearson’s R values for each linear regression of NA tissues content (pg/mg) between the 30 brain areas in saline (first column), lorcaserin 0.3 mg/kg (second column), and 3 mg/kg (third column) treated rats. Colored boxes correspond to the existence of a correlation between the two parameters (yellow to red, positive; blue, negative) considered after correction for multiple comparisons.

    Article Snippet: Lorcaserin (a gift from Dr Andrew J Grottick, Arena Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, United States) was freshly diluted as the salt in NaCl 0.9% and injected i.p. (0.3 or 3 mg/kg).

    Techniques:

    Correlative analysis of 5-HT content across rat brain regions. Representation of the range of Pearson’s R values for each linear regression of 5-HT (A) , 5-HIAA (B) tissue contents (pg/mg) as well as 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio (C) between the 30 brain areas in saline (first column), lorcaserin 0.3 mg/kg (second column), and 3 mg/kg (third column) treated rats. The three insets at the level of 5-HT report one linear regression between the 5-HT content in PL and IL cortices of the animals (n = 10 animals/group) for the three groups. It shows that the 5-HT content in these two brain regions correlates in the lorcaserin 0.3 mg/kg group. These results are reported in the matrix of correlations as indicated by the arrow. Colored boxes correspond to the existence of a correlation between the two parameters (yellow to red, positive; blue, negative) considered after correction for multiple comparisons.

    Journal: Frontiers in Pharmacology

    Article Title: Lorcaserin Alters Serotonin and Noradrenaline Tissue Content and Their Interaction With Dopamine in the Rat Brain

    doi: 10.3389/fphar.2020.00962

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Correlative analysis of 5-HT content across rat brain regions. Representation of the range of Pearson’s R values for each linear regression of 5-HT (A) , 5-HIAA (B) tissue contents (pg/mg) as well as 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio (C) between the 30 brain areas in saline (first column), lorcaserin 0.3 mg/kg (second column), and 3 mg/kg (third column) treated rats. The three insets at the level of 5-HT report one linear regression between the 5-HT content in PL and IL cortices of the animals (n = 10 animals/group) for the three groups. It shows that the 5-HT content in these two brain regions correlates in the lorcaserin 0.3 mg/kg group. These results are reported in the matrix of correlations as indicated by the arrow. Colored boxes correspond to the existence of a correlation between the two parameters (yellow to red, positive; blue, negative) considered after correction for multiple comparisons.

    Article Snippet: Lorcaserin (a gift from Dr Andrew J Grottick, Arena Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, United States) was freshly diluted as the salt in NaCl 0.9% and injected i.p. (0.3 or 3 mg/kg).

    Techniques:

    Correlative analysis of monoamine content across rat brain regions. Representation of the range of Pearson’s r values for each linear regression of NA with 5-HT contents (first row), NA with DA contents (second row), DA with 5-HT contents (third row), and the DOPAC/DA and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios (last row) between the 30 brain areas in saline (first column), lorcaserin 0.3 mg/kg (second column) and 3 mg/kg (third column) treated rats. Colored boxes correspond to the existence of a correlation between the two parameters (yellow to red, positive; blue, negative) considered after correction for multiple comparisons.

    Journal: Frontiers in Pharmacology

    Article Title: Lorcaserin Alters Serotonin and Noradrenaline Tissue Content and Their Interaction With Dopamine in the Rat Brain

    doi: 10.3389/fphar.2020.00962

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Correlative analysis of monoamine content across rat brain regions. Representation of the range of Pearson’s r values for each linear regression of NA with 5-HT contents (first row), NA with DA contents (second row), DA with 5-HT contents (third row), and the DOPAC/DA and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios (last row) between the 30 brain areas in saline (first column), lorcaserin 0.3 mg/kg (second column) and 3 mg/kg (third column) treated rats. Colored boxes correspond to the existence of a correlation between the two parameters (yellow to red, positive; blue, negative) considered after correction for multiple comparisons.

    Article Snippet: Lorcaserin (a gift from Dr Andrew J Grottick, Arena Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, United States) was freshly diluted as the salt in NaCl 0.9% and injected i.p. (0.3 or 3 mg/kg).

    Techniques:

    Effect of scyllo-inositol alone and in combination with R-flurbiprofen treatments on spatial learning memory

    Journal: Experimental neurology

    Article Title: Combination therapy in a transgenic model of Alzheimer’s disease

    doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2013.10.001

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of scyllo-inositol alone and in combination with R-flurbiprofen treatments on spatial learning memory

    Article Snippet: Administration of R -flurbiprofen and scyllo-inositol resulted in a significant decrease in Aβ plaque burden in the brains of 8 months old 5XFAD mice however trends towards lower levels of insoluble Aβ40 and Aβ42 were not statistically significant.

    Techniques:

    Effect of scyllo-inositol alone and in combination with R-flurbiprofen treatments on spatial learning memory

    Journal: Experimental neurology

    Article Title: Combination therapy in a transgenic model of Alzheimer’s disease

    doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2013.10.001

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of scyllo-inositol alone and in combination with R-flurbiprofen treatments on spatial learning memory

    Article Snippet: Administration of R -flurbiprofen and scyllo-inositol resulted in a significant decrease in Aβ plaque burden in the brains of 8 months old 5XFAD mice however trends towards lower levels of insoluble Aβ40 and Aβ42 were not statistically significant.

    Techniques:

    A. Representative pictures showing Aβ42 immunostained brain sections of 5XFAD mice from regular (untreated) and treated with scyllo-inositol (SCY), and with scyllo-inositol and R -flurbiprofen (SCY + RF) (Magnification ×20, ×100).

    Journal: Experimental neurology

    Article Title: Combination therapy in a transgenic model of Alzheimer’s disease

    doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2013.10.001

    Figure Lengend Snippet: A. Representative pictures showing Aβ42 immunostained brain sections of 5XFAD mice from regular (untreated) and treated with scyllo-inositol (SCY), and with scyllo-inositol and R -flurbiprofen (SCY + RF) (Magnification ×20, ×100).

    Article Snippet: Administration of R -flurbiprofen and scyllo-inositol resulted in a significant decrease in Aβ plaque burden in the brains of 8 months old 5XFAD mice however trends towards lower levels of insoluble Aβ40 and Aβ42 were not statistically significant.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Average HRMAS spectra from WT (n = 6), regular diet AD (n = 9), scyllo-inositol treated AD (n = 9) and scyllo-inositol + R -flurbiprofen treated AD (n = 10). There is an increase in the scyllo-inositol peak as shown on the bar graph on the right.

    Journal: Experimental neurology

    Article Title: Combination therapy in a transgenic model of Alzheimer’s disease

    doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2013.10.001

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Average HRMAS spectra from WT (n = 6), regular diet AD (n = 9), scyllo-inositol treated AD (n = 9) and scyllo-inositol + R -flurbiprofen treated AD (n = 10). There is an increase in the scyllo-inositol peak as shown on the bar graph on the right.

    Article Snippet: Administration of R -flurbiprofen and scyllo-inositol resulted in a significant decrease in Aβ plaque burden in the brains of 8 months old 5XFAD mice however trends towards lower levels of insoluble Aβ40 and Aβ42 were not statistically significant.

    Techniques:

    Correlations between plaque levels and Aβ levels measured using ELISA with the scyllo-inositol levels measured in the brain using HRMAS. The correlations were all significant at p

    Journal: Experimental neurology

    Article Title: Combination therapy in a transgenic model of Alzheimer’s disease

    doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2013.10.001

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Correlations between plaque levels and Aβ levels measured using ELISA with the scyllo-inositol levels measured in the brain using HRMAS. The correlations were all significant at p

    Article Snippet: Administration of R -flurbiprofen and scyllo-inositol resulted in a significant decrease in Aβ plaque burden in the brains of 8 months old 5XFAD mice however trends towards lower levels of insoluble Aβ40 and Aβ42 were not statistically significant.

    Techniques: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    The effects of dopaminergic compounds on cyp19a1b mRNA levels in RGC culture . Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the cyp19a1b mRNA, normalized to 18s in primary RGC culture after 24 h exposure of different dosages of SKF 38393 (A) , different dosages of Quinpirole (B) , SKF 38393 and/or Flup (C) , SKF 38393 and/or SKF 83566 (D) , SKF 38393 and/or DOM (E) . DMSO was used as a vehicle to dissolve SKF 83566 and DOM, which showed no effects on cyp19a1b mRNA levels in RGC culture (Supplemental Figure 4 , P = 0.4153). Data were defined as fold change relative to control, the bars represent the mean + SEM ( n = 4), each sample was analyzed in duplicate. a,b-Groups marked by different letters are significantly different ( P

    Journal: Frontiers in Neuroscience

    Article Title: Dopamine D1 receptor activation regulates the expression of the estrogen synthesis gene aromatase B in radial glial cells

    doi: 10.3389/fnins.2015.00310

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The effects of dopaminergic compounds on cyp19a1b mRNA levels in RGC culture . Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the cyp19a1b mRNA, normalized to 18s in primary RGC culture after 24 h exposure of different dosages of SKF 38393 (A) , different dosages of Quinpirole (B) , SKF 38393 and/or Flup (C) , SKF 38393 and/or SKF 83566 (D) , SKF 38393 and/or DOM (E) . DMSO was used as a vehicle to dissolve SKF 83566 and DOM, which showed no effects on cyp19a1b mRNA levels in RGC culture (Supplemental Figure 4 , P = 0.4153). Data were defined as fold change relative to control, the bars represent the mean + SEM ( n = 4), each sample was analyzed in duplicate. a,b-Groups marked by different letters are significantly different ( P

    Article Snippet: To investigate DA receptor activation, cAMP and PKA involvement in cyp19a1b mRNA regulation by SKF 38393, cells were pre-exposed to 5 μM Flupentixol (Tocris), 100 μM SKF 83566 (Tocris), 100 μM DOM (Sigma), or 10 μM H89 (Tocris) for 1 h, then exposed to 10 μM SKF 38393 and 8-Br-cAMP (Tocris) for 24 h. The isolation of total RNA was performed by using RNeasy Micro kit (Qiagen).

    Techniques: Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Involvement of D1R/cAMP/PKA/p-CREB signaling pathway in dopaminergic regulation of cyp19a1b mRNA in RGC culture . Total cAMP production rapidly increased by 10 μM SKF 38393 (30 min). Data were normalized to control value and defined as % of control, bars represent the mean + SEM ( n = 3), and values for each sample were determined in duplicate. (A) Regulation of cyp19a1b mRNA in primary RGC culture after 24 h exposure of 8-Br-cAMP (B) , SKF 38393 and/or H89 (C) . Data were defined as fold change relative to control, bars represent the mean + SEM of cyp19a1b ( n = 4), and values for each sample were determined in duplicate. Western blot image showing the effects of SKF 38393 on p-CREB immunoreactivity, where actin served as internal control (D) . The densitometric analysis of western blot is reported as an arbitrary value relative to the average of all bands on the same blot. Data were normalized and defined as fold change relative to control, and bars represent the mean + SEM ( n = 6) (E) . a,b-Groups marked by different letters are significantly different ( P

    Journal: Frontiers in Neuroscience

    Article Title: Dopamine D1 receptor activation regulates the expression of the estrogen synthesis gene aromatase B in radial glial cells

    doi: 10.3389/fnins.2015.00310

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Involvement of D1R/cAMP/PKA/p-CREB signaling pathway in dopaminergic regulation of cyp19a1b mRNA in RGC culture . Total cAMP production rapidly increased by 10 μM SKF 38393 (30 min). Data were normalized to control value and defined as % of control, bars represent the mean + SEM ( n = 3), and values for each sample were determined in duplicate. (A) Regulation of cyp19a1b mRNA in primary RGC culture after 24 h exposure of 8-Br-cAMP (B) , SKF 38393 and/or H89 (C) . Data were defined as fold change relative to control, bars represent the mean + SEM of cyp19a1b ( n = 4), and values for each sample were determined in duplicate. Western blot image showing the effects of SKF 38393 on p-CREB immunoreactivity, where actin served as internal control (D) . The densitometric analysis of western blot is reported as an arbitrary value relative to the average of all bands on the same blot. Data were normalized and defined as fold change relative to control, and bars represent the mean + SEM ( n = 6) (E) . a,b-Groups marked by different letters are significantly different ( P

    Article Snippet: To investigate DA receptor activation, cAMP and PKA involvement in cyp19a1b mRNA regulation by SKF 38393, cells were pre-exposed to 5 μM Flupentixol (Tocris), 100 μM SKF 83566 (Tocris), 100 μM DOM (Sigma), or 10 μM H89 (Tocris) for 1 h, then exposed to 10 μM SKF 38393 and 8-Br-cAMP (Tocris) for 24 h. The isolation of total RNA was performed by using RNeasy Micro kit (Qiagen).

    Techniques: Western Blot

    Barasertib prevents chromosome alignment in fulvestrant resistant cell lines. Fluorescence microscopy of Hoechst stained (A and D) parental, (B and E) 182 R -1 and (C and F) 182 R -2 T47D cells treated for 42 hours with DMSO (control; A - C ) or barasertib (50 nM; D - F ). Inserts show higher-magnification images of dividing cells.The experiment was repeated twice and representative images are shown.

    Journal: BMC Cancer

    Article Title: Aurora kinase B is important for antiestrogen resistant cell growth and a potential biomarker for tamoxifen resistant breast cancer

    doi: 10.1186/s12885-015-1210-4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Barasertib prevents chromosome alignment in fulvestrant resistant cell lines. Fluorescence microscopy of Hoechst stained (A and D) parental, (B and E) 182 R -1 and (C and F) 182 R -2 T47D cells treated for 42 hours with DMSO (control; A - C ) or barasertib (50 nM; D - F ). Inserts show higher-magnification images of dividing cells.The experiment was repeated twice and representative images are shown.

    Article Snippet: Western blot analysis To investigate the effect of barasertib on protein expression and phosphorylation of Aurora kinase A, Aurora kinase B and INCENP, as well as PARP cleavage, parental and fulvestrant resistant T47D cell lines were treated for 4–96 hours with 50 nM barasertib (Selleck Chemicals).

    Techniques: Fluorescence, Microscopy, Staining

    Fulvestrant resistant cell lines exhibit increased Aurora kinase B phosphorylation, and barasertib abolishes phosphorylation of Aurora kinase B and Histone-H3. A . Western blots showing total and phosphorylated (p) form of Aurora kinase B (Thr 232 ) and Aurora kinase A (Thr 288 ) in lysates from parental (T47D) and fulvestrant resistant (182 R -1 and 182 R -2) cells treated with barasertib (50 nM) or DMSO (control) for 4 hours. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) was used as loading control. B . Parental and resistant cells were treated with barasertib (50 nM) or DMSO (control) for 24 hours before the cells were fixed and stained with phospho-Histone-H3 Ser10 antibody and propidium iodide prior analysis and flow cytometry performed using a FACsort flow cytometer. M-phase phospho-Histone-H3 Ser10 positive cells are encircled and the bold numbers indicate percentage of positive cells in each sample. Representative experiments are shown.

    Journal: BMC Cancer

    Article Title: Aurora kinase B is important for antiestrogen resistant cell growth and a potential biomarker for tamoxifen resistant breast cancer

    doi: 10.1186/s12885-015-1210-4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Fulvestrant resistant cell lines exhibit increased Aurora kinase B phosphorylation, and barasertib abolishes phosphorylation of Aurora kinase B and Histone-H3. A . Western blots showing total and phosphorylated (p) form of Aurora kinase B (Thr 232 ) and Aurora kinase A (Thr 288 ) in lysates from parental (T47D) and fulvestrant resistant (182 R -1 and 182 R -2) cells treated with barasertib (50 nM) or DMSO (control) for 4 hours. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) was used as loading control. B . Parental and resistant cells were treated with barasertib (50 nM) or DMSO (control) for 24 hours before the cells were fixed and stained with phospho-Histone-H3 Ser10 antibody and propidium iodide prior analysis and flow cytometry performed using a FACsort flow cytometer. M-phase phospho-Histone-H3 Ser10 positive cells are encircled and the bold numbers indicate percentage of positive cells in each sample. Representative experiments are shown.

    Article Snippet: Western blot analysis To investigate the effect of barasertib on protein expression and phosphorylation of Aurora kinase A, Aurora kinase B and INCENP, as well as PARP cleavage, parental and fulvestrant resistant T47D cell lines were treated for 4–96 hours with 50 nM barasertib (Selleck Chemicals).

    Techniques: Western Blot, Staining, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry

    Aurora kinases are important for growth of tamoxifen resistant cell lines. Parental and tamoxifen resistant T47D cell lines (TR-1 and TR-2) were treated for 5 days with the indicated concentrations of barasertib (A) and parental, fulvestrant and tamoxifen resistant T47D cell lines were treated with JNJ-7706621 (B and C) . Cell number was determined by a crystal violet colorimetric assay and expressed as percent of untreated control. The experiments were performed twice with six sample replicates. Representative experiments with mean ± SD are shown. *P

    Journal: BMC Cancer

    Article Title: Aurora kinase B is important for antiestrogen resistant cell growth and a potential biomarker for tamoxifen resistant breast cancer

    doi: 10.1186/s12885-015-1210-4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Aurora kinases are important for growth of tamoxifen resistant cell lines. Parental and tamoxifen resistant T47D cell lines (TR-1 and TR-2) were treated for 5 days with the indicated concentrations of barasertib (A) and parental, fulvestrant and tamoxifen resistant T47D cell lines were treated with JNJ-7706621 (B and C) . Cell number was determined by a crystal violet colorimetric assay and expressed as percent of untreated control. The experiments were performed twice with six sample replicates. Representative experiments with mean ± SD are shown. *P

    Article Snippet: Western blot analysis To investigate the effect of barasertib on protein expression and phosphorylation of Aurora kinase A, Aurora kinase B and INCENP, as well as PARP cleavage, parental and fulvestrant resistant T47D cell lines were treated for 4–96 hours with 50 nM barasertib (Selleck Chemicals).

    Techniques: Colorimetric Assay

    Barasertib inhibits expression of Aurora kinase B and phosphorylation of INCENP. Western blots showing protein expression of Aurora kinase B, INCENP and phosphorylated INCENP (p-INCENP) in lysates from parental (T47D) and fulvestrant resistant (182 R -1 and 182 R -2) cells treated with barasertib (50 nM) or DMSO (control) for the indicated time periods (4–96 hours). Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) was used as loading control.

    Journal: BMC Cancer

    Article Title: Aurora kinase B is important for antiestrogen resistant cell growth and a potential biomarker for tamoxifen resistant breast cancer

    doi: 10.1186/s12885-015-1210-4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Barasertib inhibits expression of Aurora kinase B and phosphorylation of INCENP. Western blots showing protein expression of Aurora kinase B, INCENP and phosphorylated INCENP (p-INCENP) in lysates from parental (T47D) and fulvestrant resistant (182 R -1 and 182 R -2) cells treated with barasertib (50 nM) or DMSO (control) for the indicated time periods (4–96 hours). Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) was used as loading control.

    Article Snippet: Western blot analysis To investigate the effect of barasertib on protein expression and phosphorylation of Aurora kinase A, Aurora kinase B and INCENP, as well as PARP cleavage, parental and fulvestrant resistant T47D cell lines were treated for 4–96 hours with 50 nM barasertib (Selleck Chemicals).

    Techniques: Expressing, Western Blot

    Barasertib causes growth arrest in the G2/M cells cycle phase. A . Parental (T47D) and fulvestrant resistant (182 R -1 and 182 R -1) cells treated with barasertib (50 nM) or DMSO (control) for 24–96 hours and subsequently stained with propidium iodide. Cell cycle phase distribution in the following phases are shown: G 1 phase, S phase, G 2 /M phase, SubG1 and > 4N (polyploid cells). B . Distribution of cells in G 2 /M, S, G 1 and SubG1 phases and cells with DNA content above 4N are calculated by quantification of the phase fractions seen in A . Duration of barasertib treatment is indicated. Two individual experiments were performed and representative results are shown.

    Journal: BMC Cancer

    Article Title: Aurora kinase B is important for antiestrogen resistant cell growth and a potential biomarker for tamoxifen resistant breast cancer

    doi: 10.1186/s12885-015-1210-4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Barasertib causes growth arrest in the G2/M cells cycle phase. A . Parental (T47D) and fulvestrant resistant (182 R -1 and 182 R -1) cells treated with barasertib (50 nM) or DMSO (control) for 24–96 hours and subsequently stained with propidium iodide. Cell cycle phase distribution in the following phases are shown: G 1 phase, S phase, G 2 /M phase, SubG1 and > 4N (polyploid cells). B . Distribution of cells in G 2 /M, S, G 1 and SubG1 phases and cells with DNA content above 4N are calculated by quantification of the phase fractions seen in A . Duration of barasertib treatment is indicated. Two individual experiments were performed and representative results are shown.

    Article Snippet: Western blot analysis To investigate the effect of barasertib on protein expression and phosphorylation of Aurora kinase A, Aurora kinase B and INCENP, as well as PARP cleavage, parental and fulvestrant resistant T47D cell lines were treated for 4–96 hours with 50 nM barasertib (Selleck Chemicals).

    Techniques: Staining

    The kinase inhibitor barasertib induces preferential growth inhibition of fulvestrant resistant cell lines. A . Parental (T47D) and fulvestrant resistant (182 R -1 and 182 R -2) cell lines were treated for 5 days with a kinase inhibitor library containing 195 different kinase inhibitors (1 μM). Cell number was assessed by a CellTiter-Glo Luminescent Cell Viability Assay. In the generated volcano plot, the box indicates kinase inhibitors with more than two-fold greater growth inhibition of the fulvestrant resistant cells (182 R -1 and 182 R -2) compared to the parental T47D cells (P

    Journal: BMC Cancer

    Article Title: Aurora kinase B is important for antiestrogen resistant cell growth and a potential biomarker for tamoxifen resistant breast cancer

    doi: 10.1186/s12885-015-1210-4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The kinase inhibitor barasertib induces preferential growth inhibition of fulvestrant resistant cell lines. A . Parental (T47D) and fulvestrant resistant (182 R -1 and 182 R -2) cell lines were treated for 5 days with a kinase inhibitor library containing 195 different kinase inhibitors (1 μM). Cell number was assessed by a CellTiter-Glo Luminescent Cell Viability Assay. In the generated volcano plot, the box indicates kinase inhibitors with more than two-fold greater growth inhibition of the fulvestrant resistant cells (182 R -1 and 182 R -2) compared to the parental T47D cells (P

    Article Snippet: Western blot analysis To investigate the effect of barasertib on protein expression and phosphorylation of Aurora kinase A, Aurora kinase B and INCENP, as well as PARP cleavage, parental and fulvestrant resistant T47D cell lines were treated for 4–96 hours with 50 nM barasertib (Selleck Chemicals).

    Techniques: Inhibition, Cell Viability Assay, Generated

    Barasertib induces apoptotic cell death of fulvestrant resistant cell lines. A-B . Parental (T47D) and fulvestrant resistant (182 R -1 and 182 R -2) cells were treated with barasertib (50 nM), cisplatin (20 μM) or DMSO (control) for 96 hours, stained with SYTOX green and analyzed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Percentages of dead (SYTOX green positive) cells are indicated in bold C . Western blots showing total and cleaved form of PARP in lysates from T47D, 182 R -1 and 182 R -2 cells treated with barasertib (50 nM) or DMSO (control) for 4–96 hours. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) was used as loading control. Two individual experiments were performed and data from one representative experiment are shown.

    Journal: BMC Cancer

    Article Title: Aurora kinase B is important for antiestrogen resistant cell growth and a potential biomarker for tamoxifen resistant breast cancer

    doi: 10.1186/s12885-015-1210-4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Barasertib induces apoptotic cell death of fulvestrant resistant cell lines. A-B . Parental (T47D) and fulvestrant resistant (182 R -1 and 182 R -2) cells were treated with barasertib (50 nM), cisplatin (20 μM) or DMSO (control) for 96 hours, stained with SYTOX green and analyzed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Percentages of dead (SYTOX green positive) cells are indicated in bold C . Western blots showing total and cleaved form of PARP in lysates from T47D, 182 R -1 and 182 R -2 cells treated with barasertib (50 nM) or DMSO (control) for 4–96 hours. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) was used as loading control. Two individual experiments were performed and data from one representative experiment are shown.

    Article Snippet: Western blot analysis To investigate the effect of barasertib on protein expression and phosphorylation of Aurora kinase A, Aurora kinase B and INCENP, as well as PARP cleavage, parental and fulvestrant resistant T47D cell lines were treated for 4–96 hours with 50 nM barasertib (Selleck Chemicals).

    Techniques: Staining, Fluorescence, Microscopy, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Western Blot

    Continuous IFP measurements after CA4DP treatment (100 mg/kg), shown as percent pretreatment level (error bars represent SD; they were omitted at time points 1, 2, 3, and 4 minutes for clarity). Treated IFP is not significantly increased at any time point

    Journal:

    Article Title: Early Effects of Combretastatin-A4 Disodium Phosphate on Tumor Perfusion and Interstitial Fluid Pressure 1Early Effects of Combretastatin-A4 Disodium Phosphate on Tumor Perfusion and Interstitial Fluid Pressure 1 2

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Continuous IFP measurements after CA4DP treatment (100 mg/kg), shown as percent pretreatment level (error bars represent SD; they were omitted at time points 1, 2, 3, and 4 minutes for clarity). Treated IFP is not significantly increased at any time point

    Article Snippet: CA4DP was supplied by Oxigene, Inc. (Watertown, MA).

    Techniques:

    CA4DP Decreases Tumor IFP

    Journal:

    Article Title: Early Effects of Combretastatin-A4 Disodium Phosphate on Tumor Perfusion and Interstitial Fluid Pressure 1Early Effects of Combretastatin-A4 Disodium Phosphate on Tumor Perfusion and Interstitial Fluid Pressure 1 2

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: CA4DP Decreases Tumor IFP

    Article Snippet: CA4DP was supplied by Oxigene, Inc. (Watertown, MA).

    Techniques:

    Tumor IFP after treatment with 100 mg/kg CA4DP. For clarity, measurements were normalized to the control level at the relevant time point; error bars represent SD. IFP in the treated group is significantly decreased from 45 minutes after treatment onward

    Journal:

    Article Title: Early Effects of Combretastatin-A4 Disodium Phosphate on Tumor Perfusion and Interstitial Fluid Pressure 1Early Effects of Combretastatin-A4 Disodium Phosphate on Tumor Perfusion and Interstitial Fluid Pressure 1 2

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Tumor IFP after treatment with 100 mg/kg CA4DP. For clarity, measurements were normalized to the control level at the relevant time point; error bars represent SD. IFP in the treated group is significantly decreased from 45 minutes after treatment onward

    Article Snippet: CA4DP was supplied by Oxigene, Inc. (Watertown, MA).

    Techniques:

    LDF perfusion measurements after treatment with 100 mg/kg CA4DP (mean ± SD). CA4DP significantly reduced tumor perfusion 30 minutes after treatment (treated, n = 13; control, n = 9; P = .004). Tumor perfusion stabilized at around 37 PU at about

    Journal:

    Article Title: Early Effects of Combretastatin-A4 Disodium Phosphate on Tumor Perfusion and Interstitial Fluid Pressure 1Early Effects of Combretastatin-A4 Disodium Phosphate on Tumor Perfusion and Interstitial Fluid Pressure 1 2

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: LDF perfusion measurements after treatment with 100 mg/kg CA4DP (mean ± SD). CA4DP significantly reduced tumor perfusion 30 minutes after treatment (treated, n = 13; control, n = 9; P = .004). Tumor perfusion stabilized at around 37 PU at about

    Article Snippet: CA4DP was supplied by Oxigene, Inc. (Watertown, MA).

    Techniques:

    CA4DP Decreases Tumor IFP

    Journal:

    Article Title: Early Effects of Combretastatin-A4 Disodium Phosphate on Tumor Perfusion and Interstitial Fluid Pressure 1Early Effects of Combretastatin-A4 Disodium Phosphate on Tumor Perfusion and Interstitial Fluid Pressure 1 2

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: CA4DP Decreases Tumor IFP

    Article Snippet: CA4DP was supplied by Oxigene, Inc. (Watertown, MA).

    Techniques:

    Effect of ACTH and a dopamine D 1  receptor agonist on steroidogenic enzyme mRNA expression. Steroidogenic enzyme mRNA expression levels in SF-1-transfected OSR1 +  cells treated with 2.4 µM ACTH, 1 µM SKF 83822 and 10 µM SKF 83566. Expression levels are normalised to levels of a housekeeping gene, β-actin. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Kramer test. *P 

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Significance of dopamine D1 receptor signalling for steroidogenic differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-15485-4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of ACTH and a dopamine D 1 receptor agonist on steroidogenic enzyme mRNA expression. Steroidogenic enzyme mRNA expression levels in SF-1-transfected OSR1 + cells treated with 2.4 µM ACTH, 1 µM SKF 83822 and 10 µM SKF 83566. Expression levels are normalised to levels of a housekeeping gene, β-actin. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Kramer test. *P 

    Article Snippet: SKF 83822 and SKF 83566 were purchased from Tocris (Bristol, UK).

    Techniques: Expressing, Transfection

    α 2A -adrenoceptor, D 2 -receptor and TH relative gene expressions evaluation in the PFC, ACC and VTA, respectively, of pregabalin (10, 20 or 40 mg·kg −1 , p.o., twice a day for 27 days)- or topiramate (12.5, 25 or 50 mg·kg −1

    Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

    Article Title: Pregabalin- and topiramate-mediated regulation of cognitive and motor impulsivity in DBA/2 mice

    doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.01981.x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: α 2A -adrenoceptor, D 2 -receptor and TH relative gene expressions evaluation in the PFC, ACC and VTA, respectively, of pregabalin (10, 20 or 40 mg·kg −1 , p.o., twice a day for 27 days)- or topiramate (12.5, 25 or 50 mg·kg −1

    Article Snippet: Pregabalin (Lyrica® by Pfizer, Madrid, Spain) and topiramate (Topamax® by Janssen-Cilag, Madrid, Spain) were dissolved in distilled water.

    Techniques:

    Motor impulsivity evaluation (ineffective responding) in DBA/2 mice treated with pregabalin (10, 20 or 40 mg·kg −1 , p.o., twice a day for 27 days) or topiramate (12.5, 25 or 50 mg·kg −1 , p.o., twice a day for 27 days) in

    Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

    Article Title: Pregabalin- and topiramate-mediated regulation of cognitive and motor impulsivity in DBA/2 mice

    doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.01981.x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Motor impulsivity evaluation (ineffective responding) in DBA/2 mice treated with pregabalin (10, 20 or 40 mg·kg −1 , p.o., twice a day for 27 days) or topiramate (12.5, 25 or 50 mg·kg −1 , p.o., twice a day for 27 days) in

    Article Snippet: Pregabalin (Lyrica® by Pfizer, Madrid, Spain) and topiramate (Topamax® by Janssen-Cilag, Madrid, Spain) were dissolved in distilled water.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Evaluation of anxiety-like behaviour in DBA/2 mice treated with pregabalin (10, 20 or 40 mg·kg −1 , p.o., 1 h before testing) or topiramate (12.5, 25 or 50 mg·kg −1 , p.o., 1 h before testing) in the LDB paradigm. Columns represent

    Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

    Article Title: Pregabalin- and topiramate-mediated regulation of cognitive and motor impulsivity in DBA/2 mice

    doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.01981.x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Evaluation of anxiety-like behaviour in DBA/2 mice treated with pregabalin (10, 20 or 40 mg·kg −1 , p.o., 1 h before testing) or topiramate (12.5, 25 or 50 mg·kg −1 , p.o., 1 h before testing) in the LDB paradigm. Columns represent

    Article Snippet: Pregabalin (Lyrica® by Pfizer, Madrid, Spain) and topiramate (Topamax® by Janssen-Cilag, Madrid, Spain) were dissolved in distilled water.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Assessment of cognitive impulsivity (delay discounting) in DBA/2 mice treated with pregabalin (10, 20 or 40 mg·kg −1 , p.o., twice a day for 27 days) or topiramate (12.5, 25 or 50 mg·kg −1 , p.o., twice a day for 27 days) in

    Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

    Article Title: Pregabalin- and topiramate-mediated regulation of cognitive and motor impulsivity in DBA/2 mice

    doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.01981.x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Assessment of cognitive impulsivity (delay discounting) in DBA/2 mice treated with pregabalin (10, 20 or 40 mg·kg −1 , p.o., twice a day for 27 days) or topiramate (12.5, 25 or 50 mg·kg −1 , p.o., twice a day for 27 days) in

    Article Snippet: Pregabalin (Lyrica® by Pfizer, Madrid, Spain) and topiramate (Topamax® by Janssen-Cilag, Madrid, Spain) were dissolved in distilled water.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Motor impulsivity evaluation (ineffective responding) in DBA/2 mice treated with pregabalin (10, 20 or 40 mg·kg −1 , p.o., for 10 days and 1 h before testing) or topiramate (12.5, 25 or 50 mg·kg −1 , p.o., for 10 days and 1

    Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

    Article Title: Pregabalin- and topiramate-mediated regulation of cognitive and motor impulsivity in DBA/2 mice

    doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.01981.x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Motor impulsivity evaluation (ineffective responding) in DBA/2 mice treated with pregabalin (10, 20 or 40 mg·kg −1 , p.o., for 10 days and 1 h before testing) or topiramate (12.5, 25 or 50 mg·kg −1 , p.o., for 10 days and 1

    Article Snippet: Pregabalin (Lyrica® by Pfizer, Madrid, Spain) and topiramate (Topamax® by Janssen-Cilag, Madrid, Spain) were dissolved in distilled water.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Assessment of cognitive impulsivity (delay discounting) in DBA/2 mice treated with pregabalin (10, 20 or 40 mg·kg −1 , p.o., for 10 days and 1 h before testing) or topiramate (12.5, 25 or 50 mg·kg −1 , p.o., for 10 days and

    Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

    Article Title: Pregabalin- and topiramate-mediated regulation of cognitive and motor impulsivity in DBA/2 mice

    doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.01981.x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Assessment of cognitive impulsivity (delay discounting) in DBA/2 mice treated with pregabalin (10, 20 or 40 mg·kg −1 , p.o., for 10 days and 1 h before testing) or topiramate (12.5, 25 or 50 mg·kg −1 , p.o., for 10 days and

    Article Snippet: Pregabalin (Lyrica® by Pfizer, Madrid, Spain) and topiramate (Topamax® by Janssen-Cilag, Madrid, Spain) were dissolved in distilled water.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Analysis of novelty-seeking behaviour in DBA/2 mice treated with pregabalin (10, 20 or 40 mg·kg −1 , p.o., 1 h prior testing) or topiramate (12.5, 25 or 50 mg·kg −1 , p.o., 1 h before testing) on the HBT. Columns represent

    Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

    Article Title: Pregabalin- and topiramate-mediated regulation of cognitive and motor impulsivity in DBA/2 mice

    doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.01981.x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Analysis of novelty-seeking behaviour in DBA/2 mice treated with pregabalin (10, 20 or 40 mg·kg −1 , p.o., 1 h prior testing) or topiramate (12.5, 25 or 50 mg·kg −1 , p.o., 1 h before testing) on the HBT. Columns represent

    Article Snippet: Pregabalin (Lyrica® by Pfizer, Madrid, Spain) and topiramate (Topamax® by Janssen-Cilag, Madrid, Spain) were dissolved in distilled water.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Responder rates (≥70% decrease in frequency of headache from baseline) in patients receiving onabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate (A) for the duration of the study and (B) detailed at 32 weeks. *Odds ratio = 4.1 (95% CI: 2.0‐8.2), P

    Journal: Headache

    Article Title: FORWARD Study: Evaluating the Comparative Effectiveness of OnabotulinumtoxinA and Topiramate for Headache Prevention in Adults With Chronic Migraine

    doi: 10.1111/head.13653

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Responder rates (≥70% decrease in frequency of headache from baseline) in patients receiving onabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate (A) for the duration of the study and (B) detailed at 32 weeks. *Odds ratio = 4.1 (95% CI: 2.0‐8.2), P

    Article Snippet: Topiramate “immediate release” (Topamax® , Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Titusville, NJ) is approved for prevention of migraine in adults and is commonly prescribed., A first‐line preventive treatment according to practice guidelines, topiramate is associated with systemic AEs such as paresthesia, anorexia, fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, weight decrease, cognitive issues, and mood problems; AE‐associated discontinuation rates can be substantial., For example, in an episodic migraine (EM) trial, the discontinuation rate in topiramate‐treated patients was 27% (at the recommended daily dose of 100 mg) compared with 12% in placebo‐treated patients.

    Techniques:

    Patient disposition. *80 patients randomized to topiramate discontinued and switched to onabotulinumtoxinA treatment; 55 of the 80 (69%) completed the study and 6 (8%) discontinued: treatment ineffective, n = 3 (4%) and other reasons, n = 3 (4%).

    Journal: Headache

    Article Title: FORWARD Study: Evaluating the Comparative Effectiveness of OnabotulinumtoxinA and Topiramate for Headache Prevention in Adults With Chronic Migraine

    doi: 10.1111/head.13653

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Patient disposition. *80 patients randomized to topiramate discontinued and switched to onabotulinumtoxinA treatment; 55 of the 80 (69%) completed the study and 6 (8%) discontinued: treatment ineffective, n = 3 (4%) and other reasons, n = 3 (4%).

    Article Snippet: Topiramate “immediate release” (Topamax® , Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Titusville, NJ) is approved for prevention of migraine in adults and is commonly prescribed., A first‐line preventive treatment according to practice guidelines, topiramate is associated with systemic AEs such as paresthesia, anorexia, fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, weight decrease, cognitive issues, and mood problems; AE‐associated discontinuation rates can be substantial., For example, in an episodic migraine (EM) trial, the discontinuation rate in topiramate‐treated patients was 27% (at the recommended daily dose of 100 mg) compared with 12% in placebo‐treated patients.

    Techniques:

    (A) Headache day frequency per 28‐day period for onabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate at weeks 12, 24, and 32 and (B) HIT‐6 scores for onabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate at week 30. HIT‐6 = 6‐item Headache Impact Test. *Change from baseline at week 32 assessment (weeks 29‐32); P value compares the change from baseline, assessed using analysis of covariance and adjusting for baseline headache days. Other time points were not tested for statistical significance. † Change from baseline for onabotulinumtoxinA vs topiramate at week 30; P value compares the change from baseline, assessed using analysis of covariance and adjusting for baseline headache days.

    Journal: Headache

    Article Title: FORWARD Study: Evaluating the Comparative Effectiveness of OnabotulinumtoxinA and Topiramate for Headache Prevention in Adults With Chronic Migraine

    doi: 10.1111/head.13653

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A) Headache day frequency per 28‐day period for onabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate at weeks 12, 24, and 32 and (B) HIT‐6 scores for onabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate at week 30. HIT‐6 = 6‐item Headache Impact Test. *Change from baseline at week 32 assessment (weeks 29‐32); P value compares the change from baseline, assessed using analysis of covariance and adjusting for baseline headache days. Other time points were not tested for statistical significance. † Change from baseline for onabotulinumtoxinA vs topiramate at week 30; P value compares the change from baseline, assessed using analysis of covariance and adjusting for baseline headache days.

    Article Snippet: Topiramate “immediate release” (Topamax® , Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Titusville, NJ) is approved for prevention of migraine in adults and is commonly prescribed., A first‐line preventive treatment according to practice guidelines, topiramate is associated with systemic AEs such as paresthesia, anorexia, fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, weight decrease, cognitive issues, and mood problems; AE‐associated discontinuation rates can be substantial., For example, in an episodic migraine (EM) trial, the discontinuation rate in topiramate‐treated patients was 27% (at the recommended daily dose of 100 mg) compared with 12% in placebo‐treated patients.

    Techniques:

    Study design. (A) The study comprised a 28‐day pretreatment (run‐in) period followed by randomization to either onabotulinumtoxinA or topiramate treatment that lasted up to 36 weeks. (B) Patients who discontinued topiramate treatment between weeks 12 and 36 could cross over to onabotulinumtoxinA and remain in the study until week 48.

    Journal: Headache

    Article Title: FORWARD Study: Evaluating the Comparative Effectiveness of OnabotulinumtoxinA and Topiramate for Headache Prevention in Adults With Chronic Migraine

    doi: 10.1111/head.13653

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Study design. (A) The study comprised a 28‐day pretreatment (run‐in) period followed by randomization to either onabotulinumtoxinA or topiramate treatment that lasted up to 36 weeks. (B) Patients who discontinued topiramate treatment between weeks 12 and 36 could cross over to onabotulinumtoxinA and remain in the study until week 48.

    Article Snippet: Topiramate “immediate release” (Topamax® , Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Titusville, NJ) is approved for prevention of migraine in adults and is commonly prescribed., A first‐line preventive treatment according to practice guidelines, topiramate is associated with systemic AEs such as paresthesia, anorexia, fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, weight decrease, cognitive issues, and mood problems; AE‐associated discontinuation rates can be substantial., For example, in an episodic migraine (EM) trial, the discontinuation rate in topiramate‐treated patients was 27% (at the recommended daily dose of 100 mg) compared with 12% in placebo‐treated patients.

    Techniques:

    (A) Responder rates (≥50% decrease in frequency of headache from baseline) in patients receiving onabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate and (B) detailed at week 32. *Odds ratio = 2.4 (95% CI: 1.4‐4.1), P

    Journal: Headache

    Article Title: FORWARD Study: Evaluating the Comparative Effectiveness of OnabotulinumtoxinA and Topiramate for Headache Prevention in Adults With Chronic Migraine

    doi: 10.1111/head.13653

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A) Responder rates (≥50% decrease in frequency of headache from baseline) in patients receiving onabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate and (B) detailed at week 32. *Odds ratio = 2.4 (95% CI: 1.4‐4.1), P

    Article Snippet: Topiramate “immediate release” (Topamax® , Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Titusville, NJ) is approved for prevention of migraine in adults and is commonly prescribed., A first‐line preventive treatment according to practice guidelines, topiramate is associated with systemic AEs such as paresthesia, anorexia, fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, weight decrease, cognitive issues, and mood problems; AE‐associated discontinuation rates can be substantial., For example, in an episodic migraine (EM) trial, the discontinuation rate in topiramate‐treated patients was 27% (at the recommended daily dose of 100 mg) compared with 12% in placebo‐treated patients.

    Techniques:

    Plasma F ROP concentration-time profiles achieved by the SAIB/solvent systems. (□) aqueous solution 1, (☆) aqueous solution 2, (◆) SAIB/ethanol (9:1, w/w), (▲) SAIB/NMP (9:1, w/w), (▼) SAIB/TA (9:1, w/w), (•) SAIB/BB (9:1, w/w). The dose for all the SAIB/solvent systems was 200 mg/kg, while those for the control aqueous solutions 1 and 2 were 15 and 50 mg/kg, respectively. F ROP: FITC-labeled radix ophiopogonis polysaccharide; FITC: fluorescein isothiocyanate; SAIB: sucrose acetate isobutyrate; BB: benzyl benzoate; NMP: N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone; TA: triacetin.

    Journal: Drug Delivery

    Article Title: Delivery of radix ophiopogonis polysaccharide via sucrose acetate isobutyrate-based in situ forming systems alone or combined with its mono-PEGylation

    doi: 10.1080/10717544.2018.1425775

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Plasma F ROP concentration-time profiles achieved by the SAIB/solvent systems. (□) aqueous solution 1, (☆) aqueous solution 2, (◆) SAIB/ethanol (9:1, w/w), (▲) SAIB/NMP (9:1, w/w), (▼) SAIB/TA (9:1, w/w), (•) SAIB/BB (9:1, w/w). The dose for all the SAIB/solvent systems was 200 mg/kg, while those for the control aqueous solutions 1 and 2 were 15 and 50 mg/kg, respectively. F ROP: FITC-labeled radix ophiopogonis polysaccharide; FITC: fluorescein isothiocyanate; SAIB: sucrose acetate isobutyrate; BB: benzyl benzoate; NMP: N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone; TA: triacetin.

    Article Snippet: Extra dry dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) were purchased from Acros Organics (Geel, Belgium).

    Techniques: Concentration Assay, Labeling

    Plasma F MP-R concentration-time profiles achieved by the SAIB/PLGA 50k /NMP systems loaded with different molecular weight F MP-R. (□) Aqueous solution 5 ( F MP 20k -R), (^) Aqueous solution 3 ( F MP 30k -R), (☆) aqueous solution 4 ( F MP 30k -R), (△) aqueous solution 6 ( F MP 40k -R), (▪) SAIB/PLGA 50k /NMP (3.5:2:4.5, w/w/w, F MP 20k -R), (•) SAIB/PLGA 50k /NMP (3.5:2:4.5, w/w/w, F MP 30k -R), (▲) SAIB/PLGA 50k / NMP (3.5:2:4.5, w/w/w, F MP 40k -R). The dose for all the SAIB-based systems and aqueous solution 4 was 300 mg/kg, while that for the control aqueous solutions 3, 5, and 6 was 75 mg/kg. F MP 20k -R: FITC-labeled 20 kDa PEG mono-modified ROP; F MP 30k -R: FITC-labeled 30 kDa PEG mono-modified ROP; F MP 40k -R: FITC-labeled 40 kDa PEG mono-modified ROP; FITC: fluorescein isothiocyanate; PEG: polyethylene glycol; ROP: radix ophiopogonis polysaccharide; SAIB: sucrose acetate isobutyrate; PLGA: poly(d,l-lactide-co- glycolide); NMP: N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone; 50k, 50 kDa.

    Journal: Drug Delivery

    Article Title: Delivery of radix ophiopogonis polysaccharide via sucrose acetate isobutyrate-based in situ forming systems alone or combined with its mono-PEGylation

    doi: 10.1080/10717544.2018.1425775

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Plasma F MP-R concentration-time profiles achieved by the SAIB/PLGA 50k /NMP systems loaded with different molecular weight F MP-R. (□) Aqueous solution 5 ( F MP 20k -R), (^) Aqueous solution 3 ( F MP 30k -R), (☆) aqueous solution 4 ( F MP 30k -R), (△) aqueous solution 6 ( F MP 40k -R), (▪) SAIB/PLGA 50k /NMP (3.5:2:4.5, w/w/w, F MP 20k -R), (•) SAIB/PLGA 50k /NMP (3.5:2:4.5, w/w/w, F MP 30k -R), (▲) SAIB/PLGA 50k / NMP (3.5:2:4.5, w/w/w, F MP 40k -R). The dose for all the SAIB-based systems and aqueous solution 4 was 300 mg/kg, while that for the control aqueous solutions 3, 5, and 6 was 75 mg/kg. F MP 20k -R: FITC-labeled 20 kDa PEG mono-modified ROP; F MP 30k -R: FITC-labeled 30 kDa PEG mono-modified ROP; F MP 40k -R: FITC-labeled 40 kDa PEG mono-modified ROP; FITC: fluorescein isothiocyanate; PEG: polyethylene glycol; ROP: radix ophiopogonis polysaccharide; SAIB: sucrose acetate isobutyrate; PLGA: poly(d,l-lactide-co- glycolide); NMP: N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone; 50k, 50 kDa.

    Article Snippet: Extra dry dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) were purchased from Acros Organics (Geel, Belgium).

    Techniques: Concentration Assay, Molecular Weight, Labeling, Modification