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  • 99
    Thermo Fisher 1h 1h 7h dodecafluoro 1 heptanol
    1h 1h 7h Dodecafluoro 1 Heptanol, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    96
    Millipore 1 heptanol
    Odor-mediated calcium changes in the antenna of female flies are affected by the levels of G o/i subgroup of G proteins. (A) Morphological view of an antenna of a female Drosophila melanogaster ; black dotted lines mark the margin of the antenna. Image was taken from a CCD camera. (B) False color-coded picture of the response to ethyl butyrate 10 −5 m dilution measured on the antenna; the black circle indicates the area from which responses were calculated. Orientation as in A. (C) Mean traces of response to ethyl butyrate 10 −4 m dilution for different stimulation protocols and genotypes tested (shading indicates SEM, n = 5–7 flies for every genotype). Gray bars in the plot indicate the time and duration of odor delivery. Red, green and blue colors indicate control, Gα i RNAi (downregulation of Gα i ) and PTX (reduction of Gα o ) groups of flies, respectively, and the color coding is maintained throughout the figure. Response magnitudes of the phasic response, adapted response and tonic response were calculated from the traces labeled with the same names (for more details see Materials and methods). (D–F) Dose–response curves (mean ± SEM) for the phasic response, adapted response and tonic response, respectively, for ethyl hexanoate (left most), ethyl butyrate (middle left), <t>1-heptanol</t> (middle right) and 4-methoxy benzene (right most) to the genotypes tested. Asterisks indicate statistical significance compared with the control group for all the concentrations tested, two-way anova (treatment and concentration are used as factors; *** P
    1 Heptanol, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 114 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Millipore 2 heptanol
    Odor-mediated calcium changes in the antenna of female flies are affected by the levels of G o/i subgroup of G proteins. (A) Morphological view of an antenna of a female Drosophila melanogaster ; black dotted lines mark the margin of the antenna. Image was taken from a CCD camera. (B) False color-coded picture of the response to ethyl butyrate 10 −5 m dilution measured on the antenna; the black circle indicates the area from which responses were calculated. Orientation as in A. (C) Mean traces of response to ethyl butyrate 10 −4 m dilution for different stimulation protocols and genotypes tested (shading indicates SEM, n = 5–7 flies for every genotype). Gray bars in the plot indicate the time and duration of odor delivery. Red, green and blue colors indicate control, Gα i RNAi (downregulation of Gα i ) and PTX (reduction of Gα o ) groups of flies, respectively, and the color coding is maintained throughout the figure. Response magnitudes of the phasic response, adapted response and tonic response were calculated from the traces labeled with the same names (for more details see Materials and methods). (D–F) Dose–response curves (mean ± SEM) for the phasic response, adapted response and tonic response, respectively, for ethyl hexanoate (left most), ethyl butyrate (middle left), <t>1-heptanol</t> (middle right) and 4-methoxy benzene (right most) to the genotypes tested. Asterisks indicate statistical significance compared with the control group for all the concentrations tested, two-way anova (treatment and concentration are used as factors; *** P
    2 Heptanol, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    Thermo Fisher n heptanol
    Odor-mediated calcium changes in the antenna of female flies are affected by the levels of G o/i subgroup of G proteins. (A) Morphological view of an antenna of a female Drosophila melanogaster ; black dotted lines mark the margin of the antenna. Image was taken from a CCD camera. (B) False color-coded picture of the response to ethyl butyrate 10 −5 m dilution measured on the antenna; the black circle indicates the area from which responses were calculated. Orientation as in A. (C) Mean traces of response to ethyl butyrate 10 −4 m dilution for different stimulation protocols and genotypes tested (shading indicates SEM, n = 5–7 flies for every genotype). Gray bars in the plot indicate the time and duration of odor delivery. Red, green and blue colors indicate control, Gα i RNAi (downregulation of Gα i ) and PTX (reduction of Gα o ) groups of flies, respectively, and the color coding is maintained throughout the figure. Response magnitudes of the phasic response, adapted response and tonic response were calculated from the traces labeled with the same names (for more details see Materials and methods). (D–F) Dose–response curves (mean ± SEM) for the phasic response, adapted response and tonic response, respectively, for ethyl hexanoate (left most), ethyl butyrate (middle left), <t>1-heptanol</t> (middle right) and 4-methoxy benzene (right most) to the genotypes tested. Asterisks indicate statistical significance compared with the control group for all the concentrations tested, two-way anova (treatment and concentration are used as factors; *** P
    N Heptanol, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    89
    FUJIFILM heptanol
    Role of innexin-2 gap junctions in contractile behavior. (a) and (b) Schematic representation of contractile behavior over one hour interval based on time-lapse videos (see Supplemental movie 1 and 2). Data are shown for three individual polyps for each treatment. A single contraction is represented by a vertical bar (red); contraction bursts are represented by a vertical bar (red) followed by a grey bar showing the duration of the burst. Animals were treated with DMSO alone (control) or with DMSO and anti-innexin-2 antibody. (c) Contractile behavior of 3 individual polyps treated with 0.06% <t>heptanol.</t>
    Heptanol, supplied by FUJIFILM, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Merck KGaA 1 heptanol
    Subthreshold oscillation of the membrane potential and EPSPs in magnocellular neurones A , voltage dependence of the initiation of subthreshold oscillation of the membrane potential in a magnocellular neurone. Shallow oscillation waves are generated at -48 mV, a membrane potential 5 mV positive to resting membrane potential of -53 mV. Close to the threshold for the initiation of action potentials, prominent oscillation waves with varying amplitude are generated. B , in another neurone with identical resting membrane potential spontaneously occurring EPSPs are recorded at rest. The decay phase of EPSPs is markedly slower compared to that of oscillation waves. C , application of 2 mM <t>1-heptanol</t> did not block the generation of membrane potential oscillation. D , close to the threshold for initiation of action potentials large amplitude oscillation waves are generated. E , relaxation from long-lasting hyperpolarization is followed by a rebound depolarization, resulting in the generation of subthreshold oscillation with waxing amplitude finally inducing a short burst of action potentials. The lower trace in E represents current recording. The initial hyperpolarized part of the voltage trace is out of range. Records are truncated in C-E.
    1 Heptanol, supplied by Merck KGaA, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 7 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore 3 heptanol
    Subthreshold oscillation of the membrane potential and EPSPs in magnocellular neurones A , voltage dependence of the initiation of subthreshold oscillation of the membrane potential in a magnocellular neurone. Shallow oscillation waves are generated at -48 mV, a membrane potential 5 mV positive to resting membrane potential of -53 mV. Close to the threshold for the initiation of action potentials, prominent oscillation waves with varying amplitude are generated. B , in another neurone with identical resting membrane potential spontaneously occurring EPSPs are recorded at rest. The decay phase of EPSPs is markedly slower compared to that of oscillation waves. C , application of 2 mM <t>1-heptanol</t> did not block the generation of membrane potential oscillation. D , close to the threshold for initiation of action potentials large amplitude oscillation waves are generated. E , relaxation from long-lasting hyperpolarization is followed by a rebound depolarization, resulting in the generation of subthreshold oscillation with waxing amplitude finally inducing a short burst of action potentials. The lower trace in E represents current recording. The initial hyperpolarized part of the voltage trace is out of range. Records are truncated in C-E.
    3 Heptanol, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Millipore claycomb medium
    Subthreshold oscillation of the membrane potential and EPSPs in magnocellular neurones A , voltage dependence of the initiation of subthreshold oscillation of the membrane potential in a magnocellular neurone. Shallow oscillation waves are generated at -48 mV, a membrane potential 5 mV positive to resting membrane potential of -53 mV. Close to the threshold for the initiation of action potentials, prominent oscillation waves with varying amplitude are generated. B , in another neurone with identical resting membrane potential spontaneously occurring EPSPs are recorded at rest. The decay phase of EPSPs is markedly slower compared to that of oscillation waves. C , application of 2 mM <t>1-heptanol</t> did not block the generation of membrane potential oscillation. D , close to the threshold for initiation of action potentials large amplitude oscillation waves are generated. E , relaxation from long-lasting hyperpolarization is followed by a rebound depolarization, resulting in the generation of subthreshold oscillation with waxing amplitude finally inducing a short burst of action potentials. The lower trace in E represents current recording. The initial hyperpolarized part of the voltage trace is out of range. Records are truncated in C-E.
    Claycomb Medium, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1397 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Loba Chemie n heptanol
    Effect of co-solvent addition (triangle- n -hexanol, filled square - n -butanol and filled diamond - n -propanol) during back extraction of LF from CTAB/ n <t>-Heptanol</t> RM phase using aqueous stripping solution at a pH of 6
    N Heptanol, supplied by Loba Chemie, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Merck & Co 2 heptanol
    Olfactory discrimination deficiency in Tbr 1 +/− mice. a Flow chart of our odor preference test (upper panel) and olfactory sensation-habituation-dishabituation test (lower panel). b The results of the preference test. Wild-type (WT) and Tbr1 +/− mice spend similar amounts of time sniffing limonene (L) and <t>2-heptanol</t> (H). c The results of olfactory sensation. Sniffing time of limonene by WT and Tbr1 +/− mice is comparable in the first trial of our olfactory discrimination test. d The results of trials 1–5 of the sensation-habituation-dishabituation test. Olfactory habituation to limonene (L) is similar between WT and Tbr1 +/− mice. But Tbr1 +/− mice exhibit an olfactory discrimination deficiency in distinguishing 2-heptanol and limonene in trial 6. e Sniffing time of limonene (L) and 2-heptanol (H) by WT and Tbr1 +/− mice during trial 6. f Odor preference index from trials 1 and 6. The equations to calculate the odor preference index are indicated. Data are presented as mean plus SEM in ( b ), ( c ), ( d ), and ( f ). Data from individual mice are also indicated in ( b ), ( c ), ( e ), and ( f ). ** p
    2 Heptanol, supplied by Merck & Co, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    97
    Thermo Fisher 2 heptanol
    Olfactory discrimination deficiency in Tbr 1 +/− mice. a Flow chart of our odor preference test (upper panel) and olfactory sensation-habituation-dishabituation test (lower panel). b The results of the preference test. Wild-type (WT) and Tbr1 +/− mice spend similar amounts of time sniffing limonene (L) and <t>2-heptanol</t> (H). c The results of olfactory sensation. Sniffing time of limonene by WT and Tbr1 +/− mice is comparable in the first trial of our olfactory discrimination test. d The results of trials 1–5 of the sensation-habituation-dishabituation test. Olfactory habituation to limonene (L) is similar between WT and Tbr1 +/− mice. But Tbr1 +/− mice exhibit an olfactory discrimination deficiency in distinguishing 2-heptanol and limonene in trial 6. e Sniffing time of limonene (L) and 2-heptanol (H) by WT and Tbr1 +/− mice during trial 6. f Odor preference index from trials 1 and 6. The equations to calculate the odor preference index are indicated. Data are presented as mean plus SEM in ( b ), ( c ), ( d ), and ( f ). Data from individual mice are also indicated in ( b ), ( c ), ( e ), and ( f ). ** p
    2 Heptanol, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    TCI Tokyo Chemical Industry 4 heptanol
    Olfactory discrimination deficiency in Tbr 1 +/− mice. a Flow chart of our odor preference test (upper panel) and olfactory sensation-habituation-dishabituation test (lower panel). b The results of the preference test. Wild-type (WT) and Tbr1 +/− mice spend similar amounts of time sniffing limonene (L) and <t>2-heptanol</t> (H). c The results of olfactory sensation. Sniffing time of limonene by WT and Tbr1 +/− mice is comparable in the first trial of our olfactory discrimination test. d The results of trials 1–5 of the sensation-habituation-dishabituation test. Olfactory habituation to limonene (L) is similar between WT and Tbr1 +/− mice. But Tbr1 +/− mice exhibit an olfactory discrimination deficiency in distinguishing 2-heptanol and limonene in trial 6. e Sniffing time of limonene (L) and 2-heptanol (H) by WT and Tbr1 +/− mice during trial 6. f Odor preference index from trials 1 and 6. The equations to calculate the odor preference index are indicated. Data are presented as mean plus SEM in ( b ), ( c ), ( d ), and ( f ). Data from individual mice are also indicated in ( b ), ( c ), ( e ), and ( f ). ** p
    4 Heptanol, supplied by TCI Tokyo Chemical Industry, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Millipore 6 methyl 2 heptanol
    Olfactory discrimination deficiency in Tbr 1 +/− mice. a Flow chart of our odor preference test (upper panel) and olfactory sensation-habituation-dishabituation test (lower panel). b The results of the preference test. Wild-type (WT) and Tbr1 +/− mice spend similar amounts of time sniffing limonene (L) and <t>2-heptanol</t> (H). c The results of olfactory sensation. Sniffing time of limonene by WT and Tbr1 +/− mice is comparable in the first trial of our olfactory discrimination test. d The results of trials 1–5 of the sensation-habituation-dishabituation test. Olfactory habituation to limonene (L) is similar between WT and Tbr1 +/− mice. But Tbr1 +/− mice exhibit an olfactory discrimination deficiency in distinguishing 2-heptanol and limonene in trial 6. e Sniffing time of limonene (L) and 2-heptanol (H) by WT and Tbr1 +/− mice during trial 6. f Odor preference index from trials 1 and 6. The equations to calculate the odor preference index are indicated. Data are presented as mean plus SEM in ( b ), ( c ), ( d ), and ( f ). Data from individual mice are also indicated in ( b ), ( c ), ( e ), and ( f ). ** p
    6 Methyl 2 Heptanol, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Thermo Fisher 7 bromo 1 heptanol
    Olfactory discrimination deficiency in Tbr 1 +/− mice. a Flow chart of our odor preference test (upper panel) and olfactory sensation-habituation-dishabituation test (lower panel). b The results of the preference test. Wild-type (WT) and Tbr1 +/− mice spend similar amounts of time sniffing limonene (L) and <t>2-heptanol</t> (H). c The results of olfactory sensation. Sniffing time of limonene by WT and Tbr1 +/− mice is comparable in the first trial of our olfactory discrimination test. d The results of trials 1–5 of the sensation-habituation-dishabituation test. Olfactory habituation to limonene (L) is similar between WT and Tbr1 +/− mice. But Tbr1 +/− mice exhibit an olfactory discrimination deficiency in distinguishing 2-heptanol and limonene in trial 6. e Sniffing time of limonene (L) and 2-heptanol (H) by WT and Tbr1 +/− mice during trial 6. f Odor preference index from trials 1 and 6. The equations to calculate the odor preference index are indicated. Data are presented as mean plus SEM in ( b ), ( c ), ( d ), and ( f ). Data from individual mice are also indicated in ( b ), ( c ), ( e ), and ( f ). ** p
    7 Bromo 1 Heptanol, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    ICN Biomedicals hexanol heptanol
    Olfactory discrimination deficiency in Tbr 1 +/− mice. a Flow chart of our odor preference test (upper panel) and olfactory sensation-habituation-dishabituation test (lower panel). b The results of the preference test. Wild-type (WT) and Tbr1 +/− mice spend similar amounts of time sniffing limonene (L) and <t>2-heptanol</t> (H). c The results of olfactory sensation. Sniffing time of limonene by WT and Tbr1 +/− mice is comparable in the first trial of our olfactory discrimination test. d The results of trials 1–5 of the sensation-habituation-dishabituation test. Olfactory habituation to limonene (L) is similar between WT and Tbr1 +/− mice. But Tbr1 +/− mice exhibit an olfactory discrimination deficiency in distinguishing 2-heptanol and limonene in trial 6. e Sniffing time of limonene (L) and 2-heptanol (H) by WT and Tbr1 +/− mice during trial 6. f Odor preference index from trials 1 and 6. The equations to calculate the odor preference index are indicated. Data are presented as mean plus SEM in ( b ), ( c ), ( d ), and ( f ). Data from individual mice are also indicated in ( b ), ( c ), ( e ), and ( f ). ** p
    Hexanol Heptanol, supplied by ICN Biomedicals, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Odor-mediated calcium changes in the antenna of female flies are affected by the levels of G o/i subgroup of G proteins. (A) Morphological view of an antenna of a female Drosophila melanogaster ; black dotted lines mark the margin of the antenna. Image was taken from a CCD camera. (B) False color-coded picture of the response to ethyl butyrate 10 −5 m dilution measured on the antenna; the black circle indicates the area from which responses were calculated. Orientation as in A. (C) Mean traces of response to ethyl butyrate 10 −4 m dilution for different stimulation protocols and genotypes tested (shading indicates SEM, n = 5–7 flies for every genotype). Gray bars in the plot indicate the time and duration of odor delivery. Red, green and blue colors indicate control, Gα i RNAi (downregulation of Gα i ) and PTX (reduction of Gα o ) groups of flies, respectively, and the color coding is maintained throughout the figure. Response magnitudes of the phasic response, adapted response and tonic response were calculated from the traces labeled with the same names (for more details see Materials and methods). (D–F) Dose–response curves (mean ± SEM) for the phasic response, adapted response and tonic response, respectively, for ethyl hexanoate (left most), ethyl butyrate (middle left), 1-heptanol (middle right) and 4-methoxy benzene (right most) to the genotypes tested. Asterisks indicate statistical significance compared with the control group for all the concentrations tested, two-way anova (treatment and concentration are used as factors; *** P

    Journal: The European Journal of Neuroscience

    Article Title: Role of Go/i subgroup of G proteins in olfactory signaling of Drosophila melanogaster

    doi: 10.1111/ejn.12481

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Odor-mediated calcium changes in the antenna of female flies are affected by the levels of G o/i subgroup of G proteins. (A) Morphological view of an antenna of a female Drosophila melanogaster ; black dotted lines mark the margin of the antenna. Image was taken from a CCD camera. (B) False color-coded picture of the response to ethyl butyrate 10 −5 m dilution measured on the antenna; the black circle indicates the area from which responses were calculated. Orientation as in A. (C) Mean traces of response to ethyl butyrate 10 −4 m dilution for different stimulation protocols and genotypes tested (shading indicates SEM, n = 5–7 flies for every genotype). Gray bars in the plot indicate the time and duration of odor delivery. Red, green and blue colors indicate control, Gα i RNAi (downregulation of Gα i ) and PTX (reduction of Gα o ) groups of flies, respectively, and the color coding is maintained throughout the figure. Response magnitudes of the phasic response, adapted response and tonic response were calculated from the traces labeled with the same names (for more details see Materials and methods). (D–F) Dose–response curves (mean ± SEM) for the phasic response, adapted response and tonic response, respectively, for ethyl hexanoate (left most), ethyl butyrate (middle left), 1-heptanol (middle right) and 4-methoxy benzene (right most) to the genotypes tested. Asterisks indicate statistical significance compared with the control group for all the concentrations tested, two-way anova (treatment and concentration are used as factors; *** P

    Article Snippet: Odorant preparation and application Odorants [ethyl butyrate (EtBE), ethyl hexanoate (EtHE), 1-heptanol (HepL), 4-methoxybenzene (MeBM) and 1-butanol] were > 99.5% pure or of the highest purity available (Sigma-Aldrich, Taufkirchen, Germany).

    Techniques: Labeling, Concentration Assay

    Role of innexin-2 gap junctions in contractile behavior. (a) and (b) Schematic representation of contractile behavior over one hour interval based on time-lapse videos (see Supplemental movie 1 and 2). Data are shown for three individual polyps for each treatment. A single contraction is represented by a vertical bar (red); contraction bursts are represented by a vertical bar (red) followed by a grey bar showing the duration of the burst. Animals were treated with DMSO alone (control) or with DMSO and anti-innexin-2 antibody. (c) Contractile behavior of 3 individual polyps treated with 0.06% heptanol.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Innexin gap junctions in nerve cells coordinate spontaneous contractile behavior in Hydra polyps

    doi: 10.1038/srep03573

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Role of innexin-2 gap junctions in contractile behavior. (a) and (b) Schematic representation of contractile behavior over one hour interval based on time-lapse videos (see Supplemental movie 1 and 2). Data are shown for three individual polyps for each treatment. A single contraction is represented by a vertical bar (red); contraction bursts are represented by a vertical bar (red) followed by a grey bar showing the duration of the burst. Animals were treated with DMSO alone (control) or with DMSO and anti-innexin-2 antibody. (c) Contractile behavior of 3 individual polyps treated with 0.06% heptanol.

    Article Snippet: In some experiments, animals were treated with heptanol (0.06%; Wako) and, after incubation for 1 hour, analyzed for contractile activity.

    Techniques:

    Contractile behavior induced by mechanical stimulation. (a–e) Contraction of the body column was induced by pinching with forceps. Control hydra (a), nerve-free hydra (b), innexin-2 antibody treated hydra (c), heptanol treated normal hydra (d) and heptanol treated nerve-free hydra (e). The number of animals responding with body column contraction is shown on the right.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Innexin gap junctions in nerve cells coordinate spontaneous contractile behavior in Hydra polyps

    doi: 10.1038/srep03573

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Contractile behavior induced by mechanical stimulation. (a–e) Contraction of the body column was induced by pinching with forceps. Control hydra (a), nerve-free hydra (b), innexin-2 antibody treated hydra (c), heptanol treated normal hydra (d) and heptanol treated nerve-free hydra (e). The number of animals responding with body column contraction is shown on the right.

    Article Snippet: In some experiments, animals were treated with heptanol (0.06%; Wako) and, after incubation for 1 hour, analyzed for contractile activity.

    Techniques:

    Subthreshold oscillation of the membrane potential and EPSPs in magnocellular neurones A , voltage dependence of the initiation of subthreshold oscillation of the membrane potential in a magnocellular neurone. Shallow oscillation waves are generated at -48 mV, a membrane potential 5 mV positive to resting membrane potential of -53 mV. Close to the threshold for the initiation of action potentials, prominent oscillation waves with varying amplitude are generated. B , in another neurone with identical resting membrane potential spontaneously occurring EPSPs are recorded at rest. The decay phase of EPSPs is markedly slower compared to that of oscillation waves. C , application of 2 mM 1-heptanol did not block the generation of membrane potential oscillation. D , close to the threshold for initiation of action potentials large amplitude oscillation waves are generated. E , relaxation from long-lasting hyperpolarization is followed by a rebound depolarization, resulting in the generation of subthreshold oscillation with waxing amplitude finally inducing a short burst of action potentials. The lower trace in E represents current recording. The initial hyperpolarized part of the voltage trace is out of range. Records are truncated in C-E.

    Journal: The Journal of Physiology

    Article Title: Subthreshold oscillation of the membrane potential in magnocellular neurones of the rat supraoptic nucleus

    doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7793.2000.t01-1-00115.x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Subthreshold oscillation of the membrane potential and EPSPs in magnocellular neurones A , voltage dependence of the initiation of subthreshold oscillation of the membrane potential in a magnocellular neurone. Shallow oscillation waves are generated at -48 mV, a membrane potential 5 mV positive to resting membrane potential of -53 mV. Close to the threshold for the initiation of action potentials, prominent oscillation waves with varying amplitude are generated. B , in another neurone with identical resting membrane potential spontaneously occurring EPSPs are recorded at rest. The decay phase of EPSPs is markedly slower compared to that of oscillation waves. C , application of 2 mM 1-heptanol did not block the generation of membrane potential oscillation. D , close to the threshold for initiation of action potentials large amplitude oscillation waves are generated. E , relaxation from long-lasting hyperpolarization is followed by a rebound depolarization, resulting in the generation of subthreshold oscillation with waxing amplitude finally inducing a short burst of action potentials. The lower trace in E represents current recording. The initial hyperpolarized part of the voltage trace is out of range. Records are truncated in C-E.

    Article Snippet: Mechanisms involved in the generation of rhythmic membrane potential fluctuations were pharmacologically characterized by addition of specific agents to the bath: 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 0.5-5 mM; Sigma), apamin (50-500 nM; Alomone, Israel), bicuculline methochloride (1-50 μM; Sigma), carbamylcholine chloride (carbachol, 50-100 μM; Sigma), charybdotoxin (ChTX, 5-15 nM; Alomone), 1-heptanol (2-3 mM; Merck, Germany), iberiotoxin (IbTX, 50-200 nM; Alomone), kynurenic acid (2-3 mM; Sigma), procaine (100 μM; Sigma), TEA (1-15 mM; Sigma), TTX (1.25-2.5 μM; Sigma), BaCl2 (1-2 mM; Sigma), CdCl2 (0.3-1 mM; Merck) and CsCl (2-6 mM; Sigma).

    Techniques: Generated, Blocking Assay

    Effect of co-solvent addition (triangle- n -hexanol, filled square - n -butanol and filled diamond - n -propanol) during back extraction of LF from CTAB/ n -Heptanol RM phase using aqueous stripping solution at a pH of 6

    Journal: Journal of Food Science and Technology

    Article Title: Reverse micellar extraction of lactoferrin from its synthetic solution using CTAB/n-heptanol system

    doi: 10.1007/s13197-017-2824-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of co-solvent addition (triangle- n -hexanol, filled square - n -butanol and filled diamond - n -propanol) during back extraction of LF from CTAB/ n -Heptanol RM phase using aqueous stripping solution at a pH of 6

    Article Snippet: Other organic solvents, n -heptanol, n -butanol, n -heptanol, n -decanol were obtained from Loba Chemie, India.

    Techniques: Stripping Membranes

    Effect of CTAB concentrations on LF solubilisation ( triangle ) into CTAB/ n -heptanol reverse micelles and water content ( filled diamond ) at an initial aqueous phase pH of 7.5

    Journal: Journal of Food Science and Technology

    Article Title: Reverse micellar extraction of lactoferrin from its synthetic solution using CTAB/n-heptanol system

    doi: 10.1007/s13197-017-2824-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of CTAB concentrations on LF solubilisation ( triangle ) into CTAB/ n -heptanol reverse micelles and water content ( filled diamond ) at an initial aqueous phase pH of 7.5

    Article Snippet: Other organic solvents, n -heptanol, n -butanol, n -heptanol, n -decanol were obtained from Loba Chemie, India.

    Techniques:

    Olfactory discrimination deficiency in Tbr 1 +/− mice. a Flow chart of our odor preference test (upper panel) and olfactory sensation-habituation-dishabituation test (lower panel). b The results of the preference test. Wild-type (WT) and Tbr1 +/− mice spend similar amounts of time sniffing limonene (L) and 2-heptanol (H). c The results of olfactory sensation. Sniffing time of limonene by WT and Tbr1 +/− mice is comparable in the first trial of our olfactory discrimination test. d The results of trials 1–5 of the sensation-habituation-dishabituation test. Olfactory habituation to limonene (L) is similar between WT and Tbr1 +/− mice. But Tbr1 +/− mice exhibit an olfactory discrimination deficiency in distinguishing 2-heptanol and limonene in trial 6. e Sniffing time of limonene (L) and 2-heptanol (H) by WT and Tbr1 +/− mice during trial 6. f Odor preference index from trials 1 and 6. The equations to calculate the odor preference index are indicated. Data are presented as mean plus SEM in ( b ), ( c ), ( d ), and ( f ). Data from individual mice are also indicated in ( b ), ( c ), ( e ), and ( f ). ** p

    Journal: Molecular Autism

    Article Title: Haploinsufficiency of autism causative gene Tbr1 impairs olfactory discrimination and neuronal activation of the olfactory system in mice

    doi: 10.1186/s13229-019-0257-5

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Olfactory discrimination deficiency in Tbr 1 +/− mice. a Flow chart of our odor preference test (upper panel) and olfactory sensation-habituation-dishabituation test (lower panel). b The results of the preference test. Wild-type (WT) and Tbr1 +/− mice spend similar amounts of time sniffing limonene (L) and 2-heptanol (H). c The results of olfactory sensation. Sniffing time of limonene by WT and Tbr1 +/− mice is comparable in the first trial of our olfactory discrimination test. d The results of trials 1–5 of the sensation-habituation-dishabituation test. Olfactory habituation to limonene (L) is similar between WT and Tbr1 +/− mice. But Tbr1 +/− mice exhibit an olfactory discrimination deficiency in distinguishing 2-heptanol and limonene in trial 6. e Sniffing time of limonene (L) and 2-heptanol (H) by WT and Tbr1 +/− mice during trial 6. f Odor preference index from trials 1 and 6. The equations to calculate the odor preference index are indicated. Data are presented as mean plus SEM in ( b ), ( c ), ( d ), and ( f ). Data from individual mice are also indicated in ( b ), ( c ), ( e ), and ( f ). ** p

    Article Snippet: Limonene (Cat. No. 8.1840, Merck) and 2-heptanol (Cat. No. 8.20619, Merck), two very different odorants, were spotted individually onto filter papers placed at the two ends of the home cage of test mice.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Flow Cytometry