β-mercaptoethanol Search Results


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  • 99
    Millipore β mercaptoethanol β me
    Identification of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and schematic of the experimental design. a Primary ASCs grew in clusters and had a rounded spindle-like shape. b ASCs at passage 2 could differentiate into adipocytes, and the visual field in photographs was filled with red lipid droplets stained with Oil Red O solution. c ASCs differentiated into osteocytes formed calcium nodules with burrs, which were stained red by Alizarin Red solution. d In cartilage pellets, many cartilage lacunae were found, and the glycosaminoglycans around the chondrocytes were stained purple-blue by Toluidine Blue O solution. e Flow cytometry showed that more than 98% of ASCs were immunopositive for the MSC markers CD29, CD44, and CD90, while less than 6% of ASCs were immunopositive for the hematopoietic stem cell markers CD34, CD45, and CD86. f Schematic showing the experimental groups and induction methods. bFGF, basic fibroblast growth factor; <t>β-ME,</t> <t>β-mercaptoethanol;</t> dASC, differentiated ASC; DMEM, Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium; FBS, fetal bovine serum; PDGF, platelet-derived growth factor; SC, Schwann cell; uASC, undifferentiated ASC
    β Mercaptoethanol β Me, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 197 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Bio-Rad β mercaptoethanol β me
    SDP disulfide bond formation is not essential for SDP activity and is independent of SdpAB. (A) β-Galactosidase activity of SdpC cysteine mutants in the presence and absence of SdpAB. All strains contain P sdpRI - lacZ ( pyrD ::P sdpRI -lacZ + ). The figures are labeled for their relevant sdp genotypes and are as follows: ABC + (TPM1476), C + (TPM1352), ABC C141A (TPM1505), C C141A (TPM1158), ABC C147A (TPM1507), C C147A (TPM1112), ABC C141A C147A (TPM1506), and C C141A C147A (TPM1207). The β-galactosidase activity assays were performed in triplicate as described in Materials and Methods. The averages and standard deviations are shown. (B) Toxic effect of SDP cysteine single and double mutants on SDP-sensitive (SdpI − ) cells (CDE433) and SDP-resistant (SdpI + ) cells (TPM758). The figures are labeled for their relevant sdp genotypes and are as follows: ABC + (TPM1476), C + (TPM1352), ABC C141A (TPM1505), C C141A (TPM1158), ABC C147A (TPM1507), C C147A (TPM1112), ABC C141A C147A (TPM1506), and C C141A C147A (TPM1207). (C) SdpC 33–203 disulfide bond formation in the presence and absence of SdpAB. Whole-cell cultures were prepared as described in Materials and Methods. Final samples were resuspended in 2× sample buffer with (+) or without (−) <t>β-mercaptoethanol.</t> The figures are labeled with their relevant sdp genotypes, as follows: ABC + (TPM1476) and C + (TPM1352).
    β Mercaptoethanol β Me, supplied by Bio-Rad, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 25 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Fisher Scientific β mercaptoethanol β me
    SDP disulfide bond formation is not essential for SDP activity and is independent of SdpAB. (A) β-Galactosidase activity of SdpC cysteine mutants in the presence and absence of SdpAB. All strains contain P sdpRI - lacZ ( pyrD ::P sdpRI -lacZ + ). The figures are labeled for their relevant sdp genotypes and are as follows: ABC + (TPM1476), C + (TPM1352), ABC C141A (TPM1505), C C141A (TPM1158), ABC C147A (TPM1507), C C147A (TPM1112), ABC C141A C147A (TPM1506), and C C141A C147A (TPM1207). The β-galactosidase activity assays were performed in triplicate as described in Materials and Methods. The averages and standard deviations are shown. (B) Toxic effect of SDP cysteine single and double mutants on SDP-sensitive (SdpI − ) cells (CDE433) and SDP-resistant (SdpI + ) cells (TPM758). The figures are labeled for their relevant sdp genotypes and are as follows: ABC + (TPM1476), C + (TPM1352), ABC C141A (TPM1505), C C141A (TPM1158), ABC C147A (TPM1507), C C147A (TPM1112), ABC C141A C147A (TPM1506), and C C141A C147A (TPM1207). (C) SdpC 33–203 disulfide bond formation in the presence and absence of SdpAB. Whole-cell cultures were prepared as described in Materials and Methods. Final samples were resuspended in 2× sample buffer with (+) or without (−) <t>β-mercaptoethanol.</t> The figures are labeled with their relevant sdp genotypes, as follows: ABC + (TPM1476) and C + (TPM1352).
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    91
    Mallinckrodt β mercaptoethanol β me
    SDP disulfide bond formation is not essential for SDP activity and is independent of SdpAB. (A) β-Galactosidase activity of SdpC cysteine mutants in the presence and absence of SdpAB. All strains contain P sdpRI - lacZ ( pyrD ::P sdpRI -lacZ + ). The figures are labeled for their relevant sdp genotypes and are as follows: ABC + (TPM1476), C + (TPM1352), ABC C141A (TPM1505), C C141A (TPM1158), ABC C147A (TPM1507), C C147A (TPM1112), ABC C141A C147A (TPM1506), and C C141A C147A (TPM1207). The β-galactosidase activity assays were performed in triplicate as described in Materials and Methods. The averages and standard deviations are shown. (B) Toxic effect of SDP cysteine single and double mutants on SDP-sensitive (SdpI − ) cells (CDE433) and SDP-resistant (SdpI + ) cells (TPM758). The figures are labeled for their relevant sdp genotypes and are as follows: ABC + (TPM1476), C + (TPM1352), ABC C141A (TPM1505), C C141A (TPM1158), ABC C147A (TPM1507), C C147A (TPM1112), ABC C141A C147A (TPM1506), and C C141A C147A (TPM1207). (C) SdpC 33–203 disulfide bond formation in the presence and absence of SdpAB. Whole-cell cultures were prepared as described in Materials and Methods. Final samples were resuspended in 2× sample buffer with (+) or without (−) <t>β-mercaptoethanol.</t> The figures are labeled with their relevant sdp genotypes, as follows: ABC + (TPM1476) and C + (TPM1352).
    β Mercaptoethanol β Me, supplied by Mallinckrodt, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Thermo Fisher β mercaptoethanol β mer
    ATF4 deficiency results in apoptotic cell death and reactive oxygen species generation, which is rescued by <t>β-mercaptoethanol</t> and non-essential amino acid supplementation. A , LDH release assay showed significantly increased cell death in ATF4
    β Mercaptoethanol β Mer, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Mediatech β mercaptoethanol β me
    ATF4 deficiency results in apoptotic cell death and reactive oxygen species generation, which is rescued by <t>β-mercaptoethanol</t> and non-essential amino acid supplementation. A , LDH release assay showed significantly increased cell death in ATF4
    β Mercaptoethanol β Me, supplied by Mediatech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Merck KGaA β mercaptoethanol β me
    ATF4 deficiency results in apoptotic cell death and reactive oxygen species generation, which is rescued by <t>β-mercaptoethanol</t> and non-essential amino acid supplementation. A , LDH release assay showed significantly increased cell death in ATF4
    β Mercaptoethanol β Me, supplied by Merck KGaA, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    GE Healthcare β mercaptoethanol
    Molecular Docking and Isothermal calorimetry experiments. ( A ) Docking modes of l -serine with MtSerB2 . l -serine was docked against the binding sites predicted in the ACTI and ACTII domains respectively. Interactions of l -serine with ACTI ( top ) and ACTII ( bottom ) domains are shown here. Key interacting residues are labeled in black and shown in stick representation while the rest of the site is shown in cartoon representation. l -serine is depicted in ball- and-stick representation. ( B ) ITC experiments involving interactions of l -serine with MtSerB2 . Titration of l -serine (300 µM) into MtSerB2 solution (30 µM). The experiments were performed in 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, and 50 mM NaCl and 2 mM β <t>mercaptoethanol</t> at 25°C. The cell volume was 1.43 ml while the injection volume was 6 µl.
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    Merck & Co β mercaptoethanol
    Molecular Docking and Isothermal calorimetry experiments. ( A ) Docking modes of l -serine with MtSerB2 . l -serine was docked against the binding sites predicted in the ACTI and ACTII domains respectively. Interactions of l -serine with ACTI ( top ) and ACTII ( bottom ) domains are shown here. Key interacting residues are labeled in black and shown in stick representation while the rest of the site is shown in cartoon representation. l -serine is depicted in ball- and-stick representation. ( B ) ITC experiments involving interactions of l -serine with MtSerB2 . Titration of l -serine (300 µM) into MtSerB2 solution (30 µM). The experiments were performed in 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, and 50 mM NaCl and 2 mM β <t>mercaptoethanol</t> at 25°C. The cell volume was 1.43 ml while the injection volume was 6 µl.
    β Mercaptoethanol, supplied by Merck & Co, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Nacalai β mercaptoethanol
    Molecular Docking and Isothermal calorimetry experiments. ( A ) Docking modes of l -serine with MtSerB2 . l -serine was docked against the binding sites predicted in the ACTI and ACTII domains respectively. Interactions of l -serine with ACTI ( top ) and ACTII ( bottom ) domains are shown here. Key interacting residues are labeled in black and shown in stick representation while the rest of the site is shown in cartoon representation. l -serine is depicted in ball- and-stick representation. ( B ) ITC experiments involving interactions of l -serine with MtSerB2 . Titration of l -serine (300 µM) into MtSerB2 solution (30 µM). The experiments were performed in 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, and 50 mM NaCl and 2 mM β <t>mercaptoethanol</t> at 25°C. The cell volume was 1.43 ml while the injection volume was 6 µl.
    β Mercaptoethanol, supplied by Nacalai, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    PAA Laboratories β mercaptoethanol
    Molecular Docking and Isothermal calorimetry experiments. ( A ) Docking modes of l -serine with MtSerB2 . l -serine was docked against the binding sites predicted in the ACTI and ACTII domains respectively. Interactions of l -serine with ACTI ( top ) and ACTII ( bottom ) domains are shown here. Key interacting residues are labeled in black and shown in stick representation while the rest of the site is shown in cartoon representation. l -serine is depicted in ball- and-stick representation. ( B ) ITC experiments involving interactions of l -serine with MtSerB2 . Titration of l -serine (300 µM) into MtSerB2 solution (30 µM). The experiments were performed in 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, and 50 mM NaCl and 2 mM β <t>mercaptoethanol</t> at 25°C. The cell volume was 1.43 ml while the injection volume was 6 µl.
    β Mercaptoethanol, supplied by PAA Laboratories, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    FUJIFILM β mercaptoethanol
    Establishment of the ES cell differentiation system to detect precise period length. ( A ) Schematic diagram of ES cell differentiation system. ( B ) Real-time monitoring of luminescence of Per2::Luc KI/KI ES cells on day 20 with photomultiplier tube; cpm, counts per min. ( C ) Histogram and ( D ) dot plot of results of autocorrelation analysis of period length using Per2::Luc KI/KI ES cells. Values in ( C ) are mean % of total samples of six independent experiments. Values in ( D ) represent individual samples in six independent experiments. GMEM, Glasgow Minimum Essential Medium; KSR, KnockOut Serum Replacement; FBS, foetal bovine serum; 2i, 2 inhibitors (CHIR99021 and PD0325901); LIF, leukaemia inhibitory factor; DMEM, Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium; NEAA, Non-Essential Amino Acids; L-Glu: L-glutamine. β-ME: <t>β-mercaptoethanol;</t> RA, retinoic acid. Each line and dot indicates each 35-mm dish sample.
    β Mercaptoethanol, supplied by FUJIFILM, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 12 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    GENEALL BIOTECHNOLOGY β mercaptoethanol
    Establishment of the ES cell differentiation system to detect precise period length. ( A ) Schematic diagram of ES cell differentiation system. ( B ) Real-time monitoring of luminescence of Per2::Luc KI/KI ES cells on day 20 with photomultiplier tube; cpm, counts per min. ( C ) Histogram and ( D ) dot plot of results of autocorrelation analysis of period length using Per2::Luc KI/KI ES cells. Values in ( C ) are mean % of total samples of six independent experiments. Values in ( D ) represent individual samples in six independent experiments. GMEM, Glasgow Minimum Essential Medium; KSR, KnockOut Serum Replacement; FBS, foetal bovine serum; 2i, 2 inhibitors (CHIR99021 and PD0325901); LIF, leukaemia inhibitory factor; DMEM, Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium; NEAA, Non-Essential Amino Acids; L-Glu: L-glutamine. β-ME: <t>β-mercaptoethanol;</t> RA, retinoic acid. Each line and dot indicates each 35-mm dish sample.
    β Mercaptoethanol, supplied by GENEALL BIOTECHNOLOGY, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    scharlau β mercaptoethanol
    Establishment of the ES cell differentiation system to detect precise period length. ( A ) Schematic diagram of ES cell differentiation system. ( B ) Real-time monitoring of luminescence of Per2::Luc KI/KI ES cells on day 20 with photomultiplier tube; cpm, counts per min. ( C ) Histogram and ( D ) dot plot of results of autocorrelation analysis of period length using Per2::Luc KI/KI ES cells. Values in ( C ) are mean % of total samples of six independent experiments. Values in ( D ) represent individual samples in six independent experiments. GMEM, Glasgow Minimum Essential Medium; KSR, KnockOut Serum Replacement; FBS, foetal bovine serum; 2i, 2 inhibitors (CHIR99021 and PD0325901); LIF, leukaemia inhibitory factor; DMEM, Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium; NEAA, Non-Essential Amino Acids; L-Glu: L-glutamine. β-ME: <t>β-mercaptoethanol;</t> RA, retinoic acid. Each line and dot indicates each 35-mm dish sample.
    β Mercaptoethanol, supplied by scharlau, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Carl Roth GmbH β mercaptoethanol
    Electron microscopy of the nucleoproteins of influenza A and B viruses in the absence or presence of different RNA and different buffers. The A/NP or B/NP were incubated overnight at room temperature with or without 5′ phosphate-polyUC-FAM 3′ in 20 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5, 5 mM <t>β-mercaptoethanol</t> (β-ME), and different NaCl concentrations from 50 to 300 mM. Samples were negatively stained with sodium silicotungstate. Electron micrographs show different oligomeric states depending on the salt concentration and the RNA used. The scale bar corresponds to 100 nm.
    β Mercaptoethanol, supplied by Carl Roth GmbH, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 28 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Amresco β mercaptoethanol
    Electron microscopy of the nucleoproteins of influenza A and B viruses in the absence or presence of different RNA and different buffers. The A/NP or B/NP were incubated overnight at room temperature with or without 5′ phosphate-polyUC-FAM 3′ in 20 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5, 5 mM <t>β-mercaptoethanol</t> (β-ME), and different NaCl concentrations from 50 to 300 mM. Samples were negatively stained with sodium silicotungstate. Electron micrographs show different oligomeric states depending on the salt concentration and the RNA used. The scale bar corresponds to 100 nm.
    β Mercaptoethanol, supplied by Amresco, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Roche β mercaptoethanol
    Electron microscopy of the nucleoproteins of influenza A and B viruses in the absence or presence of different RNA and different buffers. The A/NP or B/NP were incubated overnight at room temperature with or without 5′ phosphate-polyUC-FAM 3′ in 20 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5, 5 mM <t>β-mercaptoethanol</t> (β-ME), and different NaCl concentrations from 50 to 300 mM. Samples were negatively stained with sodium silicotungstate. Electron micrographs show different oligomeric states depending on the salt concentration and the RNA used. The scale bar corresponds to 100 nm.
    β Mercaptoethanol, supplied by Roche, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 349 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Biowest SAS β mercaptoethanol
    Electron microscopy of the nucleoproteins of influenza A and B viruses in the absence or presence of different RNA and different buffers. The A/NP or B/NP were incubated overnight at room temperature with or without 5′ phosphate-polyUC-FAM 3′ in 20 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5, 5 mM <t>β-mercaptoethanol</t> (β-ME), and different NaCl concentrations from 50 to 300 mM. Samples were negatively stained with sodium silicotungstate. Electron micrographs show different oligomeric states depending on the salt concentration and the RNA used. The scale bar corresponds to 100 nm.
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    Beyotime β mercaptoethanol
    Electron microscopy of the nucleoproteins of influenza A and B viruses in the absence or presence of different RNA and different buffers. The A/NP or B/NP were incubated overnight at room temperature with or without 5′ phosphate-polyUC-FAM 3′ in 20 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5, 5 mM <t>β-mercaptoethanol</t> (β-ME), and different NaCl concentrations from 50 to 300 mM. Samples were negatively stained with sodium silicotungstate. Electron micrographs show different oligomeric states depending on the salt concentration and the RNA used. The scale bar corresponds to 100 nm.
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    Valiant β mercaptoethanol
    Electron microscopy of the nucleoproteins of influenza A and B viruses in the absence or presence of different RNA and different buffers. The A/NP or B/NP were incubated overnight at room temperature with or without 5′ phosphate-polyUC-FAM 3′ in 20 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5, 5 mM <t>β-mercaptoethanol</t> (β-ME), and different NaCl concentrations from 50 to 300 mM. Samples were negatively stained with sodium silicotungstate. Electron micrographs show different oligomeric states depending on the salt concentration and the RNA used. The scale bar corresponds to 100 nm.
    β Mercaptoethanol, supplied by Valiant, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 14 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Identification of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and schematic of the experimental design. a Primary ASCs grew in clusters and had a rounded spindle-like shape. b ASCs at passage 2 could differentiate into adipocytes, and the visual field in photographs was filled with red lipid droplets stained with Oil Red O solution. c ASCs differentiated into osteocytes formed calcium nodules with burrs, which were stained red by Alizarin Red solution. d In cartilage pellets, many cartilage lacunae were found, and the glycosaminoglycans around the chondrocytes were stained purple-blue by Toluidine Blue O solution. e Flow cytometry showed that more than 98% of ASCs were immunopositive for the MSC markers CD29, CD44, and CD90, while less than 6% of ASCs were immunopositive for the hematopoietic stem cell markers CD34, CD45, and CD86. f Schematic showing the experimental groups and induction methods. bFGF, basic fibroblast growth factor; β-ME, β-mercaptoethanol; dASC, differentiated ASC; DMEM, Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium; FBS, fetal bovine serum; PDGF, platelet-derived growth factor; SC, Schwann cell; uASC, undifferentiated ASC

    Journal: Stem Cell Research & Therapy

    Article Title: Differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells into Schwann cell-like cells through intermittent induction: potential advantage of cellular transient memory function

    doi: 10.1186/s13287-018-0884-3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Identification of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and schematic of the experimental design. a Primary ASCs grew in clusters and had a rounded spindle-like shape. b ASCs at passage 2 could differentiate into adipocytes, and the visual field in photographs was filled with red lipid droplets stained with Oil Red O solution. c ASCs differentiated into osteocytes formed calcium nodules with burrs, which were stained red by Alizarin Red solution. d In cartilage pellets, many cartilage lacunae were found, and the glycosaminoglycans around the chondrocytes were stained purple-blue by Toluidine Blue O solution. e Flow cytometry showed that more than 98% of ASCs were immunopositive for the MSC markers CD29, CD44, and CD90, while less than 6% of ASCs were immunopositive for the hematopoietic stem cell markers CD34, CD45, and CD86. f Schematic showing the experimental groups and induction methods. bFGF, basic fibroblast growth factor; β-ME, β-mercaptoethanol; dASC, differentiated ASC; DMEM, Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium; FBS, fetal bovine serum; PDGF, platelet-derived growth factor; SC, Schwann cell; uASC, undifferentiated ASC

    Article Snippet: The experimental grouping and specific induction methods were as follows (Fig. ): (i) uASCs: undifferentiated ASCs (uASCs) at passage 2 were used; (ii–v) ASCs at passage 2 were pre-induced for 24 h with pre-induction medium I consisting of serum-free Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) containing 1 mM β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME) (M3148; Sigma).

    Techniques: Derivative Assay, Staining, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Modification

    pH dependence of Chl d chemical synthesis from Chl a . Chromatograms (spectrum maximum plots) of detergent solubilised Chl a reacted with β-mercaptoethanol and heme in a 50 mM Tris buffer at the indicated pH. Unreacted Chl a , Chl d and 3 1 -sulfoxide of β-mercaptoethanol derivatives (a_I and a_II) are marked. Proportions of the major products and remaining Chl a and Chl a ’ (the C13 2 -Chl a epimer) are indicated in the pie charts for each pH tested.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: In vitro Conversion of Vinyl to Formyl Groups in Naturally Occurring Chlorophylls

    doi: 10.1038/srep06069

    Figure Lengend Snippet: pH dependence of Chl d chemical synthesis from Chl a . Chromatograms (spectrum maximum plots) of detergent solubilised Chl a reacted with β-mercaptoethanol and heme in a 50 mM Tris buffer at the indicated pH. Unreacted Chl a , Chl d and 3 1 -sulfoxide of β-mercaptoethanol derivatives (a_I and a_II) are marked. Proportions of the major products and remaining Chl a and Chl a ’ (the C13 2 -Chl a epimer) are indicated in the pie charts for each pH tested.

    Article Snippet: Reaction conditions Under standard reaction conditions, 10 µl of acetone dissolved chlorophyll was added to 3 ml of 0.02% (w/v) n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside (Sigma) or 0.02% (v/v/) Triton X-100 in 50 mM Tris buffer, pH 8.0 plus 10 µM hemin chloride (MP Biochemicals) and 50 mM β-mercaptoethanol (Sigma).

    Techniques:

    Substitutions at the C3 position of ring A of Chl a mediated by β-mercaptoethanol. The C3 vinyl position of Chl a is targeted by the thiol group of β-mercaptoethanol yielding a sulfoxide derivative of [3 1 -β-mercaptoethanol] Chl a (product a_II), which can react further with β-mercaptoethanol to yield an unkown product (a_I) with a mass of a_II plus 76 Da. An alternate, competing reaction also targets the C3 vinyl group of Chl a , oxidatively cleaving it to yield [3-formyl]-Chl a (Chl d ). As is the case for product a_II, [3-formyl]-Chl a also reacts further with β-mercaptoethanol to yield an unknown product (a_III) with a mass of [3-formyl]-Chl a plus 76 Da. Structure of product a_II and synthesized Chl d is confirmed by NMR anaylsis (details see supplementary information ).

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: In vitro Conversion of Vinyl to Formyl Groups in Naturally Occurring Chlorophylls

    doi: 10.1038/srep06069

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Substitutions at the C3 position of ring A of Chl a mediated by β-mercaptoethanol. The C3 vinyl position of Chl a is targeted by the thiol group of β-mercaptoethanol yielding a sulfoxide derivative of [3 1 -β-mercaptoethanol] Chl a (product a_II), which can react further with β-mercaptoethanol to yield an unkown product (a_I) with a mass of a_II plus 76 Da. An alternate, competing reaction also targets the C3 vinyl group of Chl a , oxidatively cleaving it to yield [3-formyl]-Chl a (Chl d ). As is the case for product a_II, [3-formyl]-Chl a also reacts further with β-mercaptoethanol to yield an unknown product (a_III) with a mass of [3-formyl]-Chl a plus 76 Da. Structure of product a_II and synthesized Chl d is confirmed by NMR anaylsis (details see supplementary information ).

    Article Snippet: Reaction conditions Under standard reaction conditions, 10 µl of acetone dissolved chlorophyll was added to 3 ml of 0.02% (w/v) n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside (Sigma) or 0.02% (v/v/) Triton X-100 in 50 mM Tris buffer, pH 8.0 plus 10 µM hemin chloride (MP Biochemicals) and 50 mM β-mercaptoethanol (Sigma).

    Techniques: Synthesized, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Reaction of monovinyl chlorophylls with β-mercaptoethanol in aqueous and methanolic environments. (a) Spectrum maximum (maximum absorbance reading at the range of 630–710 nm) RP-HPLC chromatograms of the aqueous buffer reaction mixture after reaction with β-mercaptoethanol using purified Chl a , Chl d , Chl b or Chl f as reactant. Dotted vertical lines mark the retention time of product a_III and Chl d . For more details regarding products a_I, a_II, a_III, b_I and f_I refer to the text and Table 1 . (b) RP-HPLC chromatograms of Chl a prior to (top panel) and following (two middle panels) reaction with β-mercaptoethanol in methanol, detected at indicated wavelengths. Chromatogram of Chl d from Acaryochloris (lower chromatogram) is shown for comparison with the chemically synthesised [3-formyl]-Chl a (Chl d ). Dotted vertical line marks the retention time of Chl d and Chl a . (c) Online spectra of the major derivatives synthesised from Chl a . The absorption spectra of Chl a and Chl d are plotted and their Q y maxima are marked with vertical lines for comparison with synthesised products. Q y maxima are indicated (in nm).

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: In vitro Conversion of Vinyl to Formyl Groups in Naturally Occurring Chlorophylls

    doi: 10.1038/srep06069

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Reaction of monovinyl chlorophylls with β-mercaptoethanol in aqueous and methanolic environments. (a) Spectrum maximum (maximum absorbance reading at the range of 630–710 nm) RP-HPLC chromatograms of the aqueous buffer reaction mixture after reaction with β-mercaptoethanol using purified Chl a , Chl d , Chl b or Chl f as reactant. Dotted vertical lines mark the retention time of product a_III and Chl d . For more details regarding products a_I, a_II, a_III, b_I and f_I refer to the text and Table 1 . (b) RP-HPLC chromatograms of Chl a prior to (top panel) and following (two middle panels) reaction with β-mercaptoethanol in methanol, detected at indicated wavelengths. Chromatogram of Chl d from Acaryochloris (lower chromatogram) is shown for comparison with the chemically synthesised [3-formyl]-Chl a (Chl d ). Dotted vertical line marks the retention time of Chl d and Chl a . (c) Online spectra of the major derivatives synthesised from Chl a . The absorption spectra of Chl a and Chl d are plotted and their Q y maxima are marked with vertical lines for comparison with synthesised products. Q y maxima are indicated (in nm).

    Article Snippet: Reaction conditions Under standard reaction conditions, 10 µl of acetone dissolved chlorophyll was added to 3 ml of 0.02% (w/v) n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside (Sigma) or 0.02% (v/v/) Triton X-100 in 50 mM Tris buffer, pH 8.0 plus 10 µM hemin chloride (MP Biochemicals) and 50 mM β-mercaptoethanol (Sigma).

    Techniques: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Purification

    Dithiothreitol and benzyl mercaptan also facilitate the conversion of the C3 vinyl of Chl a (a) and Chl b (b) to a formyl. RP-HPLC chromatograms (top panels) demonstrate retention times of the 3 1 -formyl derivatives of Chl a and Chl b were identical and are marked with vertical lines. Spectra (bottom panels) were identical to the 3 1 -formyl derivatives formed in the presence of β-mercaptoethanol (β-merc.). Note, in the case of the reaction of Chl a with benzyl mercaptan, another product spectrally similar to Chl a has a similar retention time to Chl d , causing the mixed online absorption spectrum. Q y for [3-formyl]-Chl a (Chl d ) and [3-formyl]-Chl b are marked. Dotted line, β-mercaptoethanol; dashed line, dithiothreitol; solid line, benzyl mercaptan.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: In vitro Conversion of Vinyl to Formyl Groups in Naturally Occurring Chlorophylls

    doi: 10.1038/srep06069

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Dithiothreitol and benzyl mercaptan also facilitate the conversion of the C3 vinyl of Chl a (a) and Chl b (b) to a formyl. RP-HPLC chromatograms (top panels) demonstrate retention times of the 3 1 -formyl derivatives of Chl a and Chl b were identical and are marked with vertical lines. Spectra (bottom panels) were identical to the 3 1 -formyl derivatives formed in the presence of β-mercaptoethanol (β-merc.). Note, in the case of the reaction of Chl a with benzyl mercaptan, another product spectrally similar to Chl a has a similar retention time to Chl d , causing the mixed online absorption spectrum. Q y for [3-formyl]-Chl a (Chl d ) and [3-formyl]-Chl b are marked. Dotted line, β-mercaptoethanol; dashed line, dithiothreitol; solid line, benzyl mercaptan.

    Article Snippet: Reaction conditions Under standard reaction conditions, 10 µl of acetone dissolved chlorophyll was added to 3 ml of 0.02% (w/v) n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside (Sigma) or 0.02% (v/v/) Triton X-100 in 50 mM Tris buffer, pH 8.0 plus 10 µM hemin chloride (MP Biochemicals) and 50 mM β-mercaptoethanol (Sigma).

    Techniques: High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    RP-HPLC chromatogram and online absorption spectra of 8-vinyl Chl a formyl and sulfoxide of β-mercaptoethanol derivatives. (a) RP-HPLC spectrum maximum plot of an incomplete 8-vinyl Chl a reaction after 2 h. Products with either a C3 or C8 conversion (one conversion) are marked in blue, and those products where both the C3 and C8 vinyl have reacted (two conversions) are marked with red. (b) Online spectra of 8-vinyl Chl a and the major formyl and sulfoxide of β-mercaptoethanol derivatives. The Soret and Q y maxima of 8-vinyl Chl a are marked with vertical red lines. Spectra are arithmetically shifted for clarity. βME, sulfoxide of β-mercaptoethanol.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: In vitro Conversion of Vinyl to Formyl Groups in Naturally Occurring Chlorophylls

    doi: 10.1038/srep06069

    Figure Lengend Snippet: RP-HPLC chromatogram and online absorption spectra of 8-vinyl Chl a formyl and sulfoxide of β-mercaptoethanol derivatives. (a) RP-HPLC spectrum maximum plot of an incomplete 8-vinyl Chl a reaction after 2 h. Products with either a C3 or C8 conversion (one conversion) are marked in blue, and those products where both the C3 and C8 vinyl have reacted (two conversions) are marked with red. (b) Online spectra of 8-vinyl Chl a and the major formyl and sulfoxide of β-mercaptoethanol derivatives. The Soret and Q y maxima of 8-vinyl Chl a are marked with vertical red lines. Spectra are arithmetically shifted for clarity. βME, sulfoxide of β-mercaptoethanol.

    Article Snippet: Reaction conditions Under standard reaction conditions, 10 µl of acetone dissolved chlorophyll was added to 3 ml of 0.02% (w/v) n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside (Sigma) or 0.02% (v/v/) Triton X-100 in 50 mM Tris buffer, pH 8.0 plus 10 µM hemin chloride (MP Biochemicals) and 50 mM β-mercaptoethanol (Sigma).

    Techniques: High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    SDP disulfide bond formation is not essential for SDP activity and is independent of SdpAB. (A) β-Galactosidase activity of SdpC cysteine mutants in the presence and absence of SdpAB. All strains contain P sdpRI - lacZ ( pyrD ::P sdpRI -lacZ + ). The figures are labeled for their relevant sdp genotypes and are as follows: ABC + (TPM1476), C + (TPM1352), ABC C141A (TPM1505), C C141A (TPM1158), ABC C147A (TPM1507), C C147A (TPM1112), ABC C141A C147A (TPM1506), and C C141A C147A (TPM1207). The β-galactosidase activity assays were performed in triplicate as described in Materials and Methods. The averages and standard deviations are shown. (B) Toxic effect of SDP cysteine single and double mutants on SDP-sensitive (SdpI − ) cells (CDE433) and SDP-resistant (SdpI + ) cells (TPM758). The figures are labeled for their relevant sdp genotypes and are as follows: ABC + (TPM1476), C + (TPM1352), ABC C141A (TPM1505), C C141A (TPM1158), ABC C147A (TPM1507), C C147A (TPM1112), ABC C141A C147A (TPM1506), and C C141A C147A (TPM1207). (C) SdpC 33–203 disulfide bond formation in the presence and absence of SdpAB. Whole-cell cultures were prepared as described in Materials and Methods. Final samples were resuspended in 2× sample buffer with (+) or without (−) β-mercaptoethanol. The figures are labeled with their relevant sdp genotypes, as follows: ABC + (TPM1476) and C + (TPM1352).

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    Article Title: Production of the Cannibalism Toxin SDP Is a Multistep Process That Requires SdpA and SdpB

    doi: 10.1128/JB.00407-13

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SDP disulfide bond formation is not essential for SDP activity and is independent of SdpAB. (A) β-Galactosidase activity of SdpC cysteine mutants in the presence and absence of SdpAB. All strains contain P sdpRI - lacZ ( pyrD ::P sdpRI -lacZ + ). The figures are labeled for their relevant sdp genotypes and are as follows: ABC + (TPM1476), C + (TPM1352), ABC C141A (TPM1505), C C141A (TPM1158), ABC C147A (TPM1507), C C147A (TPM1112), ABC C141A C147A (TPM1506), and C C141A C147A (TPM1207). The β-galactosidase activity assays were performed in triplicate as described in Materials and Methods. The averages and standard deviations are shown. (B) Toxic effect of SDP cysteine single and double mutants on SDP-sensitive (SdpI − ) cells (CDE433) and SDP-resistant (SdpI + ) cells (TPM758). The figures are labeled for their relevant sdp genotypes and are as follows: ABC + (TPM1476), C + (TPM1352), ABC C141A (TPM1505), C C141A (TPM1158), ABC C147A (TPM1507), C C147A (TPM1112), ABC C141A C147A (TPM1506), and C C141A C147A (TPM1207). (C) SdpC 33–203 disulfide bond formation in the presence and absence of SdpAB. Whole-cell cultures were prepared as described in Materials and Methods. Final samples were resuspended in 2× sample buffer with (+) or without (−) β-mercaptoethanol. The figures are labeled with their relevant sdp genotypes, as follows: ABC + (TPM1476) and C + (TPM1352).

    Article Snippet: The samples were vortexed and centrifuged at 13,000 × g for 10 min. Precipitated extracts containing protein were resuspended in 100 μl sample buffer (65.8 mM Tris-HCl [pH 6.8], 2% SDS, 26.3% [wt/vol] glycerol, 0.01% bromophenol blue, and 5% β-mercaptoethanol) with or without β-mercaptoethanol (Bio-Rad).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Labeling

    ATF4 deficiency results in apoptotic cell death and reactive oxygen species generation, which is rescued by β-mercaptoethanol and non-essential amino acid supplementation. A , LDH release assay showed significantly increased cell death in ATF4

    Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Article Title: Integrated Stress Response Modulates Cellular Redox State via Induction of Cystathionine ?-Lyase

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.304576

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ATF4 deficiency results in apoptotic cell death and reactive oxygen species generation, which is rescued by β-mercaptoethanol and non-essential amino acid supplementation. A , LDH release assay showed significantly increased cell death in ATF4

    Article Snippet: The ATF4−/− MEFs and the CSE−/− MEFs were cultured in the base medium supplemented with 1× non-essential amino acids (NEAA) containing the amino acids (glycine, l -alanine, l -asparagine, l -aspartic acid, l -glutamic acid, l -proline, and l -serine) (Invitrogen) and 55 μ m β-mercaptoethanol (β-Mer) (Invitrogen) (DM++).

    Techniques: Lactate Dehydrogenase Assay

    Molecular Docking and Isothermal calorimetry experiments. ( A ) Docking modes of l -serine with MtSerB2 . l -serine was docked against the binding sites predicted in the ACTI and ACTII domains respectively. Interactions of l -serine with ACTI ( top ) and ACTII ( bottom ) domains are shown here. Key interacting residues are labeled in black and shown in stick representation while the rest of the site is shown in cartoon representation. l -serine is depicted in ball- and-stick representation. ( B ) ITC experiments involving interactions of l -serine with MtSerB2 . Titration of l -serine (300 µM) into MtSerB2 solution (30 µM). The experiments were performed in 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, and 50 mM NaCl and 2 mM β mercaptoethanol at 25°C. The cell volume was 1.43 ml while the injection volume was 6 µl.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Characterization of M. tuberculosis SerB2, an Essential HAD-Family Phosphatase, Reveals Novel Properties

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0115409

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Molecular Docking and Isothermal calorimetry experiments. ( A ) Docking modes of l -serine with MtSerB2 . l -serine was docked against the binding sites predicted in the ACTI and ACTII domains respectively. Interactions of l -serine with ACTI ( top ) and ACTII ( bottom ) domains are shown here. Key interacting residues are labeled in black and shown in stick representation while the rest of the site is shown in cartoon representation. l -serine is depicted in ball- and-stick representation. ( B ) ITC experiments involving interactions of l -serine with MtSerB2 . Titration of l -serine (300 µM) into MtSerB2 solution (30 µM). The experiments were performed in 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, and 50 mM NaCl and 2 mM β mercaptoethanol at 25°C. The cell volume was 1.43 ml while the injection volume was 6 µl.

    Article Snippet: Pellet was resuspended in 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 50 mM NaCl, 5 mM β-mercaptoethanol (Buffer C) and further applied onto Superdex S200 (GE Healthcare ) gel-filtration column pre-equilibrated with buffer C. Protein was pooled and concentrated to 20 mg/ml using 10-kDa cutoff centricons (Amicon ).

    Techniques: Binding Assay, Labeling, Titration, Injection

    Establishment of the ES cell differentiation system to detect precise period length. ( A ) Schematic diagram of ES cell differentiation system. ( B ) Real-time monitoring of luminescence of Per2::Luc KI/KI ES cells on day 20 with photomultiplier tube; cpm, counts per min. ( C ) Histogram and ( D ) dot plot of results of autocorrelation analysis of period length using Per2::Luc KI/KI ES cells. Values in ( C ) are mean % of total samples of six independent experiments. Values in ( D ) represent individual samples in six independent experiments. GMEM, Glasgow Minimum Essential Medium; KSR, KnockOut Serum Replacement; FBS, foetal bovine serum; 2i, 2 inhibitors (CHIR99021 and PD0325901); LIF, leukaemia inhibitory factor; DMEM, Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium; NEAA, Non-Essential Amino Acids; L-Glu: L-glutamine. β-ME: β-mercaptoethanol; RA, retinoic acid. Each line and dot indicates each 35-mm dish sample.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Rigid Cooperation of Per1 and Per2 proteins

    doi: 10.1038/srep32769

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Establishment of the ES cell differentiation system to detect precise period length. ( A ) Schematic diagram of ES cell differentiation system. ( B ) Real-time monitoring of luminescence of Per2::Luc KI/KI ES cells on day 20 with photomultiplier tube; cpm, counts per min. ( C ) Histogram and ( D ) dot plot of results of autocorrelation analysis of period length using Per2::Luc KI/KI ES cells. Values in ( C ) are mean % of total samples of six independent experiments. Values in ( D ) represent individual samples in six independent experiments. GMEM, Glasgow Minimum Essential Medium; KSR, KnockOut Serum Replacement; FBS, foetal bovine serum; 2i, 2 inhibitors (CHIR99021 and PD0325901); LIF, leukaemia inhibitory factor; DMEM, Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium; NEAA, Non-Essential Amino Acids; L-Glu: L-glutamine. β-ME: β-mercaptoethanol; RA, retinoic acid. Each line and dot indicates each 35-mm dish sample.

    Article Snippet: Cells were cultured in ES medium consisting of Glasgow Minimum Essential Medium (GMEM, Gibco), 10% KnockOut™ Serum Replacement (KSR; Gibco), 1% foetal bovine serum (FBS), 1 mM sodium pyruvate (Gibco), 1 × MEM Non-Essential Amino Acids (Gibco), 100 μM β-mercaptoethanol (Wako, β-ME).

    Techniques: Cell Differentiation, Knock-Out, Modification

    Electron microscopy of the nucleoproteins of influenza A and B viruses in the absence or presence of different RNA and different buffers. The A/NP or B/NP were incubated overnight at room temperature with or without 5′ phosphate-polyUC-FAM 3′ in 20 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5, 5 mM β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME), and different NaCl concentrations from 50 to 300 mM. Samples were negatively stained with sodium silicotungstate. Electron micrographs show different oligomeric states depending on the salt concentration and the RNA used. The scale bar corresponds to 100 nm.

    Journal: Viruses

    Article Title: Binding of RNA by the Nucleoproteins of Influenza Viruses A and B

    doi: 10.3390/v8090247

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Electron microscopy of the nucleoproteins of influenza A and B viruses in the absence or presence of different RNA and different buffers. The A/NP or B/NP were incubated overnight at room temperature with or without 5′ phosphate-polyUC-FAM 3′ in 20 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5, 5 mM β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME), and different NaCl concentrations from 50 to 300 mM. Samples were negatively stained with sodium silicotungstate. Electron micrographs show different oligomeric states depending on the salt concentration and the RNA used. The scale bar corresponds to 100 nm.

    Article Snippet: Pellets were resuspended and sonicated in lysis buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5, 300 mM NaCl, 1 M NDSB201 (Sigma, Saint-Quentin Fallavier, France), 5 mM β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME; Roth, Lagny-sur-Marne, France) containing a cOmplete™ protease inhibitor cocktail (Roche, Meylan, France).

    Techniques: Electron Microscopy, Incubation, Staining, Concentration Assay