α-tocopherol Search Results


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  • 98
    Millipore α tocopherol α toc
    Protection of Px I-III KO cells by Trolox, Dfx and <t>α-Toc.</t> The cells were incubated in the presence of ( A ) different concentrations of Trolox, ( B ) various concentrations of Dfx, ( C ) in medium supplemented with 10 µM Trolox or 20 µM Dfx alone or in combination and ( D ) different concentrations of α-Toc. ( E ) The cells were pre-cultured for 18 hr in the presence or absence of 10 µM α-Toc in medium containing Trolox, washed with PBS and transferred into medium ± α-Toc. After different times, viable cells were counted and the percentage relative to the start cell density was calculated. The data are the mean ± SD of three independent experiments.
    α Tocopherol α Toc, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 98/100, based on 13 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Selleck Chemicals α tocopherol
    Protection of Px I-III KO cells by Trolox, Dfx and <t>α-Toc.</t> The cells were incubated in the presence of ( A ) different concentrations of Trolox, ( B ) various concentrations of Dfx, ( C ) in medium supplemented with 10 µM Trolox or 20 µM Dfx alone or in combination and ( D ) different concentrations of α-Toc. ( E ) The cells were pre-cultured for 18 hr in the presence or absence of 10 µM α-Toc in medium containing Trolox, washed with PBS and transferred into medium ± α-Toc. After different times, viable cells were counted and the percentage relative to the start cell density was calculated. The data are the mean ± SD of three independent experiments.
    α Tocopherol, supplied by Selleck Chemicals, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Kanto Chemical dl α tocopherol α toc
    Protection of Px I-III KO cells by Trolox, Dfx and <t>α-Toc.</t> The cells were incubated in the presence of ( A ) different concentrations of Trolox, ( B ) various concentrations of Dfx, ( C ) in medium supplemented with 10 µM Trolox or 20 µM Dfx alone or in combination and ( D ) different concentrations of α-Toc. ( E ) The cells were pre-cultured for 18 hr in the presence or absence of 10 µM α-Toc in medium containing Trolox, washed with PBS and transferred into medium ± α-Toc. After different times, viable cells were counted and the percentage relative to the start cell density was calculated. The data are the mean ± SD of three independent experiments.
    Dl α Tocopherol α Toc, supplied by Kanto Chemical, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Abcam α tocopherol
    Protection of Px I-III KO cells by Trolox, Dfx and <t>α-Toc.</t> The cells were incubated in the presence of ( A ) different concentrations of Trolox, ( B ) various concentrations of Dfx, ( C ) in medium supplemented with 10 µM Trolox or 20 µM Dfx alone or in combination and ( D ) different concentrations of α-Toc. ( E ) The cells were pre-cultured for 18 hr in the presence or absence of 10 µM α-Toc in medium containing Trolox, washed with PBS and transferred into medium ± α-Toc. After different times, viable cells were counted and the percentage relative to the start cell density was calculated. The data are the mean ± SD of three independent experiments.
    α Tocopherol, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    FUJIFILM α tocopherol
    Quantification of <t>α-tocopherol</t> in WT, lil3:1, lil3:2 , and lil3:1/lil3:2. Error bars indicate SD ( n = 3). P > 0.05 between WT and either lil3:1 or lil3:2 in pairwise comparison with a nonparametric Student's t test. The α-tocopherol
    α Tocopherol, supplied by FUJIFILM, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 15 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Merck & Co α tocopherol
    HPLC chromatogram of reference tocotrienols, tocopherols, and natural purple rice bran oils (NPRBOs). ( A ) Mixed reference tocotrienols and tocopherols, including δ-tocotrienol (a), β-tocotrienol (b), γ-tocotrienol (c), α-tocotrienol (d), δ-tocopherol (e), β-tocopherol (f), γ-tocopherol (g), and <t>α-tocopherol;</t> and NPRBOs including ( B ) Khao’ Gam Leum-Phua and ( C ) Khao’ Gam Pah E-Kaw.
    α Tocopherol, supplied by Merck & Co, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 21 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Iwaki America α tocopherol
    HPLC chromatogram of reference tocotrienols, tocopherols, and natural purple rice bran oils (NPRBOs). ( A ) Mixed reference tocotrienols and tocopherols, including δ-tocotrienol (a), β-tocotrienol (b), γ-tocotrienol (c), α-tocotrienol (d), δ-tocopherol (e), β-tocopherol (f), γ-tocopherol (g), and <t>α-tocopherol;</t> and NPRBOs including ( B ) Khao’ Gam Leum-Phua and ( C ) Khao’ Gam Pah E-Kaw.
    α Tocopherol, supplied by Iwaki America, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 28 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Merck KGaA α tocopherol
    Effect of <t>α-tocopherol</t> on DENV2 infection of HEK293T/17 and HepG2 cells. The cytotoxicity of α-tocopherol was assessed in a uninfected HEK293T/17 (left panel) and HepG2 (right panel) and b DENV 2 infected HEK293T/17 (left panel and HepG2 (right panel) cells. Infected and uninfected cells were incubated with various concentration of α-tocopherol for 24 h and viability was assessed using MTT assay ( ‡ absorbance value of α-tocopherol was removed from all samples to calculate MTT value). The experiments were performed independently in triplicate in parallel with control treatments and mock. A negative of cells plus H 2 O only was included. The standard deviation (SD) of mean are presented as error bars. c HEK293T/17 cells were infected with DENV 2 at MOI 0.5 and 2, and then treated with or without 0.5 and 1 mM of α-tocopherol or with vehicle only. d HepG2 cells were infected with DENV 2 at MOI 2 and 5 and then treated with or without 0.5 and 1 mM of α-tocopherol or with vehicle only. At 24 h post infection cells were analyzed by flow cytometry to determine the percentage infection. All experiments were undertaken independently in triplicate. Error bar showed mean ± SD (*p value ≤ 0.05)
    α Tocopherol, supplied by Merck KGaA, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 78 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Nacalai α tocopherol
    Effect of antioxidant on cell death induced by B deprivation. After pre-culture for 1 h in a standard growth medium supplemented with 0.1 mM of either BHA (a) or <t>α-tocopherol</t> (b), cells were washed with and transferred to a B-free medium supplemented with the same 0.1 mM antioxidant. Cells treated in the same way but without antioxidant were prepared as a control. Each bar shows the mean of results from four randomly selected fields ± SD.
    α Tocopherol, supplied by Nacalai, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Millipore α tocopherol
    Graphical representations of TNFR2 signaling pathways and comparison of the gene- perturbation induced by the treatments ( A ) TNF-α challenge without <t>α-tocopherol</t> pre-treatment; and ( B ) TNF-α challenge with α-tocopherol pre-treatment, respectively. Notes: Red-notes and green-notes indicate up- and down-regulated genes, respectively. For simplication, α-tocopherol treatment is not shown.
    α Tocopherol, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1369 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    S D Fine-Chem α tocopherol
    Graphical representations of TNFR2 signaling pathways and comparison of the gene- perturbation induced by the treatments ( A ) TNF-α challenge without <t>α-tocopherol</t> pre-treatment; and ( B ) TNF-α challenge with α-tocopherol pre-treatment, respectively. Notes: Red-notes and green-notes indicate up- and down-regulated genes, respectively. For simplication, α-tocopherol treatment is not shown.
    α Tocopherol, supplied by S D Fine-Chem, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    GE Healthcare α tocopherol
    Graphical representations of TNFR2 signaling pathways and comparison of the gene- perturbation induced by the treatments ( A ) TNF-α challenge without <t>α-tocopherol</t> pre-treatment; and ( B ) TNF-α challenge with α-tocopherol pre-treatment, respectively. Notes: Red-notes and green-notes indicate up- and down-regulated genes, respectively. For simplication, α-tocopherol treatment is not shown.
    α Tocopherol, supplied by GE Healthcare, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 14 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Thermo Fisher α tocopherol
    SW43‐DOX induces caspase 3/7 activation and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Panc‐1 cells were pretreated with pan‐caspase inhibitor (Z‐VAD‐FMK; 25 μM) or the ROS scavenger <t>α‐Tocopherol</t> (α‐Toco; 200 ug/ml) for 1 h prior to exposure to SW43‐DOX for 24 h (viability assay) or 6 h (ROS detection, caspase 3/7 activity and TUNEL assay). Treatment with SW43‐DOX induced the production of ROS (A), pretreatment with α‐Tocopherol partly reduced the toxicity (B) and could not further be reduced through additional pretreatment with Z‐VAD‐FMK (C) despite a caspase 3/7 activation through SW43‐DOX (D). A sole pretreatment with Z‐VAD‐FMK did also not reduce toxicity (E). SW43‐DOX increased the DNA fragmentation as shown by TUNEL assay (F). Bars represent the means with SE; n ≥ 3; *p
    α Tocopherol, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 80 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Carotech Berhad α tocopherol
    Linoleic acid induced neurotoxicity A, comparison of the doses of linoleic acid (18:2), *, higher than control; B, time-course of toxicity, *, higher than control; C, micromolar, but not nanomolar, concentrations of vitamin E protected against linoleic acid induced toxicity. Solid bar, α-tocotrienol; hatched bar, <t>α-tocopherol.</t> †, higher than control; *, lower than cells challenged with 18:2 alone.
    α Tocopherol, supplied by Carotech Berhad, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    LKT Laboratories α tocopherol
    rCBF in control ischemic rats received vehicle (n = 8) and ischemic rats received <t>α-tocopherol</t> at a dose of 30 mg/kg (n = 8) before MCAO, during MCAO and during reperfusion times.
    α Tocopherol, supplied by LKT Laboratories, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    86
    Merck KGaA α tocopherol α t
    rCBF in control ischemic rats received vehicle (n = 8) and ischemic rats received <t>α-tocopherol</t> at a dose of 30 mg/kg (n = 8) before MCAO, during MCAO and during reperfusion times.
    α Tocopherol α T, supplied by Merck KGaA, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    89
    Tokyo Chemical Industry dl α tocopherol
    Enteral delivery of Toc small interfering RNA (siRNA) to the mouse liver. ( a,b ) Confocal images of mouse livers at 0.5 h ( a ) and 4 h ( b ) after administration of lipid nanoparticles (LNP) to the colorectum. ( c,d ) Four hours after administration of LNP to the colorectum without <t>α-tocopherol</t> conjugation ( c ) and without linoleic acid ( d ) as controls. The dose of Toc-siRNA was 10 mg/kg body weight. Red: Cy3-labeled Toc-siRNA; Green: FITC-Phalloidin, which labels the cytoskeleton; Blue: TO-PRO-3, which labels cell nuclei. Toc: Cy3-labeled Toc-siRNA; LA: linoleic acid. Bar = 20 μm. ( e ) Gel-shift assay of filtered Toc-siRNA incubated with chylomicron (CM) extracted from the lymph. DW, distilled water. ( f ) Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) analyses (diffusion time) of Cy3-labeled Toc-siRNA in lymph extracted from mice 2 h after administration of LNP to the colorectum and from mice administered LNP without an α-tocopherol moiety as controls. n = 10, mean values ± s.e.m.; * P
    Dl α Tocopherol, supplied by Tokyo Chemical Industry, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    Schering-Plough d α tocopherol
    Loading of physiological concentrations of tocopherol in endothelial cells in vitro. Eighty-five percent of confluent monolayers of mHEVa cells were treated overnight with the tocopherols at the concentrations indicated. DMSO at 0.02% is the vehicle control. The cells were washed and weighed, and tocopherol was measured by HPLC/electrochemical detection. A , <t>α</t> -Tocopherol dose curve. B , γ -Tocopherol dose curve. C , Endothelial cells were treated with α -tocopherol and γ -tocopherol individually or together at the indicated concentrations. n = 3–5. *, p
    D α Tocopherol, supplied by Schering-Plough, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Roche α tocopherol acetate
    In vitro release of fluconazole from multilamellar liposomes composed of <t>phosphatidylcholine:cholesterol:α-tocopherol</t> acetate (1:0.8:0.1) in phosphate buffered saline.
    α Tocopherol Acetate, supplied by Roche, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    Eisai α tocopherol standard
    Plasma concentrations of <t>α-tocopherol</t> and cholesterol decreased after probucol treatment. A, Experimental design for α-tocopherol deficiency induction using 1% w/w probucol in the diet. Six-week-old C57BL/6J mice were treated with 1% w/w probucol for 2 weeks. Then, mice were withdrawn from the probucol diet and changed to a standard diet for 2 weeks. Plasma and erythrocyte samples were obtained at day 0, 1, 2, 4, 7, and 14 after starting probucol treatment (n = 5 per group) and 1 or 2 weeks post-withdrawal (n = 3 per group). In addition, the plasma of eight-week-old α-tocopherol transfer protein knockout (α-ttp Δ ) mice fed a standard diet was obtained (n = 3). Plasma α-tocopherol concentrations were measured after probucol treatment (B) and after withdrawal (C). The levels of α-tocopherol in erythrocytes were normalized with the protein concentration (n = 5 per group) (D). Plasma cholesterol concentrations were measured by using the cholesterol E-test after 2 weeks of probucol treatment and after withdrawal (n = 3) (E). All data are expressed as mean ± SE. Statistical analysis was carried out by analysis of variance (ANOVA; multiple comparisons Tukey’s test). *p
    α Tocopherol Standard, supplied by Eisai, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 10 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    89
    Merck KGaA α tocopherol acetate
    Plasma concentrations of <t>α-tocopherol</t> and cholesterol decreased after probucol treatment. A, Experimental design for α-tocopherol deficiency induction using 1% w/w probucol in the diet. Six-week-old C57BL/6J mice were treated with 1% w/w probucol for 2 weeks. Then, mice were withdrawn from the probucol diet and changed to a standard diet for 2 weeks. Plasma and erythrocyte samples were obtained at day 0, 1, 2, 4, 7, and 14 after starting probucol treatment (n = 5 per group) and 1 or 2 weeks post-withdrawal (n = 3 per group). In addition, the plasma of eight-week-old α-tocopherol transfer protein knockout (α-ttp Δ ) mice fed a standard diet was obtained (n = 3). Plasma α-tocopherol concentrations were measured after probucol treatment (B) and after withdrawal (C). The levels of α-tocopherol in erythrocytes were normalized with the protein concentration (n = 5 per group) (D). Plasma cholesterol concentrations were measured by using the cholesterol E-test after 2 weeks of probucol treatment and after withdrawal (n = 3) (E). All data are expressed as mean ± SE. Statistical analysis was carried out by analysis of variance (ANOVA; multiple comparisons Tukey’s test). *p
    α Tocopherol Acetate, supplied by Merck KGaA, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 14 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Protection of Px I-III KO cells by Trolox, Dfx and α-Toc. The cells were incubated in the presence of ( A ) different concentrations of Trolox, ( B ) various concentrations of Dfx, ( C ) in medium supplemented with 10 µM Trolox or 20 µM Dfx alone or in combination and ( D ) different concentrations of α-Toc. ( E ) The cells were pre-cultured for 18 hr in the presence or absence of 10 µM α-Toc in medium containing Trolox, washed with PBS and transferred into medium ± α-Toc. After different times, viable cells were counted and the percentage relative to the start cell density was calculated. The data are the mean ± SD of three independent experiments.

    Journal: eLife

    Article Title: Tryparedoxin peroxidase-deficiency commits trypanosomes to ferroptosis-type cell death

    doi: 10.7554/eLife.37503

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Protection of Px I-III KO cells by Trolox, Dfx and α-Toc. The cells were incubated in the presence of ( A ) different concentrations of Trolox, ( B ) various concentrations of Dfx, ( C ) in medium supplemented with 10 µM Trolox or 20 µM Dfx alone or in combination and ( D ) different concentrations of α-Toc. ( E ) The cells were pre-cultured for 18 hr in the presence or absence of 10 µM α-Toc in medium containing Trolox, washed with PBS and transferred into medium ± α-Toc. After different times, viable cells were counted and the percentage relative to the start cell density was calculated. The data are the mean ± SD of three independent experiments.

    Article Snippet: Materials Tetracycline (Tet), Trolox, α-tocopherol (α-Toc), liproxstatin-1 (Lpx-1), ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1), deferoxamine mesylate (Dfx), DAPI, 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ), iron (III) chloride x 6 H2 O, hemin, penicillin/streptomycin and phleomycin were purchased from Sigma, Munich, Germany.

    Techniques: Incubation, Cell Culture

    Quantification of α-tocopherol in WT, lil3:1, lil3:2 , and lil3:1/lil3:2. Error bars indicate SD ( n = 3). P > 0.05 between WT and either lil3:1 or lil3:2 in pairwise comparison with a nonparametric Student's t test. The α-tocopherol

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: LIL3, a light-harvesting-like protein, plays an essential role in chlorophyll and tocopherol biosynthesis

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1004699107

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Quantification of α-tocopherol in WT, lil3:1, lil3:2 , and lil3:1/lil3:2. Error bars indicate SD ( n = 3). P > 0.05 between WT and either lil3:1 or lil3:2 in pairwise comparison with a nonparametric Student's t test. The α-tocopherol

    Article Snippet: Chl a and Chl b were purchased from Juntec Co. Ltd, and α-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol from Wako Pure Chemical Industries and Cayman Chemical, respectively.

    Techniques:

    HPLC chromatogram of reference tocotrienols, tocopherols, and natural purple rice bran oils (NPRBOs). ( A ) Mixed reference tocotrienols and tocopherols, including δ-tocotrienol (a), β-tocotrienol (b), γ-tocotrienol (c), α-tocotrienol (d), δ-tocopherol (e), β-tocopherol (f), γ-tocopherol (g), and α-tocopherol; and NPRBOs including ( B ) Khao’ Gam Leum-Phua and ( C ) Khao’ Gam Pah E-Kaw.

    Journal: Nutrients

    Article Title: Development of Colorectal-Targeted Dietary Supplement Tablets Containing Natural Purple Rice Bran Oil as a Colorectal Chemopreventive

    doi: 10.3390/nu10040444

    Figure Lengend Snippet: HPLC chromatogram of reference tocotrienols, tocopherols, and natural purple rice bran oils (NPRBOs). ( A ) Mixed reference tocotrienols and tocopherols, including δ-tocotrienol (a), β-tocotrienol (b), γ-tocotrienol (c), α-tocotrienol (d), δ-tocopherol (e), β-tocopherol (f), γ-tocopherol (g), and α-tocopherol; and NPRBOs including ( B ) Khao’ Gam Leum-Phua and ( C ) Khao’ Gam Pah E-Kaw.

    Article Snippet: Chemicals and Materials γ-Oryzanol was purchased from Wako Pure Chemical Industries (Japan). δ-, β-, γ-, and α-tocotrienol, and δ-, β-, γ-, and α-tocopherol were purchased from Merck Co., Ltd. (Kenilworth, NJ, USA).

    Techniques: High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Effect of α-tocopherol on DENV2 infection of HEK293T/17 and HepG2 cells. The cytotoxicity of α-tocopherol was assessed in a uninfected HEK293T/17 (left panel) and HepG2 (right panel) and b DENV 2 infected HEK293T/17 (left panel and HepG2 (right panel) cells. Infected and uninfected cells were incubated with various concentration of α-tocopherol for 24 h and viability was assessed using MTT assay ( ‡ absorbance value of α-tocopherol was removed from all samples to calculate MTT value). The experiments were performed independently in triplicate in parallel with control treatments and mock. A negative of cells plus H 2 O only was included. The standard deviation (SD) of mean are presented as error bars. c HEK293T/17 cells were infected with DENV 2 at MOI 0.5 and 2, and then treated with or without 0.5 and 1 mM of α-tocopherol or with vehicle only. d HepG2 cells were infected with DENV 2 at MOI 2 and 5 and then treated with or without 0.5 and 1 mM of α-tocopherol or with vehicle only. At 24 h post infection cells were analyzed by flow cytometry to determine the percentage infection. All experiments were undertaken independently in triplicate. Error bar showed mean ± SD (*p value ≤ 0.05)

    Journal: BMC Research Notes

    Article Title: Screening of melatonin, α-tocopherol, folic acid, acetyl-l-carnitine and resveratrol for anti-dengue 2 virus activity

    doi: 10.1186/s13104-018-3417-3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of α-tocopherol on DENV2 infection of HEK293T/17 and HepG2 cells. The cytotoxicity of α-tocopherol was assessed in a uninfected HEK293T/17 (left panel) and HepG2 (right panel) and b DENV 2 infected HEK293T/17 (left panel and HepG2 (right panel) cells. Infected and uninfected cells were incubated with various concentration of α-tocopherol for 24 h and viability was assessed using MTT assay ( ‡ absorbance value of α-tocopherol was removed from all samples to calculate MTT value). The experiments were performed independently in triplicate in parallel with control treatments and mock. A negative of cells plus H 2 O only was included. The standard deviation (SD) of mean are presented as error bars. c HEK293T/17 cells were infected with DENV 2 at MOI 0.5 and 2, and then treated with or without 0.5 and 1 mM of α-tocopherol or with vehicle only. d HepG2 cells were infected with DENV 2 at MOI 2 and 5 and then treated with or without 0.5 and 1 mM of α-tocopherol or with vehicle only. At 24 h post infection cells were analyzed by flow cytometry to determine the percentage infection. All experiments were undertaken independently in triplicate. Error bar showed mean ± SD (*p value ≤ 0.05)

    Article Snippet: Cytotoxicity of the natural compounds in the range 0.0001–10 mM (Melatonin, ALCAR and α-tocopherol) or 0.0001–5 mM (folic acid and resveratrol) was evaluated by the MTT assay (Merck KGaA) both in infected and uninfected cells.

    Techniques: Infection, Incubation, Concentration Assay, MTT Assay, Standard Deviation, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry

    Effect of antioxidant on cell death induced by B deprivation. After pre-culture for 1 h in a standard growth medium supplemented with 0.1 mM of either BHA (a) or α-tocopherol (b), cells were washed with and transferred to a B-free medium supplemented with the same 0.1 mM antioxidant. Cells treated in the same way but without antioxidant were prepared as a control. Each bar shows the mean of results from four randomly selected fields ± SD.

    Journal: Plant and Cell Physiology

    Article Title: Boron Nutrition of Tobacco BY-2 Cells. V. Oxidative Damage is the Major Cause of Cell Death Induced by Boron Deprivation

    doi: 10.1093/pcp/pcn184

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of antioxidant on cell death induced by B deprivation. After pre-culture for 1 h in a standard growth medium supplemented with 0.1 mM of either BHA (a) or α-tocopherol (b), cells were washed with and transferred to a B-free medium supplemented with the same 0.1 mM antioxidant. Cells treated in the same way but without antioxidant were prepared as a control. Each bar shows the mean of results from four randomly selected fields ± SD.

    Article Snippet: For BHA or α-tocopherol treatment, cells were pre-cultured in the control medium supplemented with 0.1 mM of either BHA (Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO, USA) or α-tocopherol (Nacalai Tesque, Kyoto, Japan) for 1 h, then washed with and transferred to the medium supplemented with 0.1 mM of BHA or α-tocopherol, as above.

    Techniques:

    Graphical representations of TNFR2 signaling pathways and comparison of the gene- perturbation induced by the treatments ( A ) TNF-α challenge without α-tocopherol pre-treatment; and ( B ) TNF-α challenge with α-tocopherol pre-treatment, respectively. Notes: Red-notes and green-notes indicate up- and down-regulated genes, respectively. For simplication, α-tocopherol treatment is not shown.

    Journal: Gene Regulation and Systems Biology

    Article Title: Alpha-Tocopherol Alters Transcription Activities that Modulates Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-?) Induced Inflammatory Response in Bovine Cells 1

    doi: 10.4137/GRSB.S8303

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Graphical representations of TNFR2 signaling pathways and comparison of the gene- perturbation induced by the treatments ( A ) TNF-α challenge without α-tocopherol pre-treatment; and ( B ) TNF-α challenge with α-tocopherol pre-treatment, respectively. Notes: Red-notes and green-notes indicate up- and down-regulated genes, respectively. For simplication, α-tocopherol treatment is not shown.

    Article Snippet: It is also in a range of concentrations that were extensively used in many in vitro experiments., Stock solution of 10 mM α-tocopherol (Sigma, T3126) was prepared by dissolving α-tocopherol in 100% alcohol.

    Techniques:

    Global Canonical Pathway analysis: Comparison of three datasets (α-tocopherol treatment, TNF-α challenge, and α-tocopherol pretreatment followed by TNF-α challenge, respectively). Notes: Data sets were analyzed by the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis software (Ingenuity ® Systems, http://www.ingenuity.com ). The significance is expressed as a P -value, which was calculated using the right-tailed Fisher’s Exact Test. Figure shows ten major canonical signaling pathways. Threshold: P

    Journal: Gene Regulation and Systems Biology

    Article Title: Alpha-Tocopherol Alters Transcription Activities that Modulates Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-?) Induced Inflammatory Response in Bovine Cells 1

    doi: 10.4137/GRSB.S8303

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Global Canonical Pathway analysis: Comparison of three datasets (α-tocopherol treatment, TNF-α challenge, and α-tocopherol pretreatment followed by TNF-α challenge, respectively). Notes: Data sets were analyzed by the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis software (Ingenuity ® Systems, http://www.ingenuity.com ). The significance is expressed as a P -value, which was calculated using the right-tailed Fisher’s Exact Test. Figure shows ten major canonical signaling pathways. Threshold: P

    Article Snippet: It is also in a range of concentrations that were extensively used in many in vitro experiments., Stock solution of 10 mM α-tocopherol (Sigma, T3126) was prepared by dissolving α-tocopherol in 100% alcohol.

    Techniques: Software

    Venn diagrams show the comparison results of three datasets (α-tocopherol treatment, TNF-α challenge, and α-tocopherol pretreatment followed by TNF-α challenge, respectively). On the top is the comparison of all three datasets. In addition to the unique genes that were modified by the respective treatments, there were 97 genes common in all three datasets, and 615 genes that were at least common in two datasets. The lower panel shows three paired dataset comparisons. Green circle: TNF-α challenge with α-tocopherol pre-treatment; yellow circle: α-tocopherol treatment alone and brown circle: TNF-α challenge without pretreatment of α-tocopherol.

    Journal: Gene Regulation and Systems Biology

    Article Title: Alpha-Tocopherol Alters Transcription Activities that Modulates Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-?) Induced Inflammatory Response in Bovine Cells 1

    doi: 10.4137/GRSB.S8303

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Venn diagrams show the comparison results of three datasets (α-tocopherol treatment, TNF-α challenge, and α-tocopherol pretreatment followed by TNF-α challenge, respectively). On the top is the comparison of all three datasets. In addition to the unique genes that were modified by the respective treatments, there were 97 genes common in all three datasets, and 615 genes that were at least common in two datasets. The lower panel shows three paired dataset comparisons. Green circle: TNF-α challenge with α-tocopherol pre-treatment; yellow circle: α-tocopherol treatment alone and brown circle: TNF-α challenge without pretreatment of α-tocopherol.

    Article Snippet: It is also in a range of concentrations that were extensively used in many in vitro experiments., Stock solution of 10 mM α-tocopherol (Sigma, T3126) was prepared by dissolving α-tocopherol in 100% alcohol.

    Techniques: Modification

    Graphical representations of Microphage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) regulation of innate immunity signaling pathway and comparison of the gene- perturbation induced by the treatments ( A ) TNF-α challenge without α-tocopherol pre-treatment, and ( B ) TNF-α challenge with α-tocopherol pre-treatment respectively. Notes: Red-notes and green-notes indicate up- and down-regulated genes, respectively. For simplication, α-tocopherol treatment is not shown.

    Journal: Gene Regulation and Systems Biology

    Article Title: Alpha-Tocopherol Alters Transcription Activities that Modulates Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-?) Induced Inflammatory Response in Bovine Cells 1

    doi: 10.4137/GRSB.S8303

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Graphical representations of Microphage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) regulation of innate immunity signaling pathway and comparison of the gene- perturbation induced by the treatments ( A ) TNF-α challenge without α-tocopherol pre-treatment, and ( B ) TNF-α challenge with α-tocopherol pre-treatment respectively. Notes: Red-notes and green-notes indicate up- and down-regulated genes, respectively. For simplication, α-tocopherol treatment is not shown.

    Article Snippet: It is also in a range of concentrations that were extensively used in many in vitro experiments., Stock solution of 10 mM α-tocopherol (Sigma, T3126) was prepared by dissolving α-tocopherol in 100% alcohol.

    Techniques: Migration

    Graphical representations of TNFR1 signaling pathways and comparison of the gene- perturbation induced by the treatments. ( A ) TNF-α challenge without α-tocopherol pre-treatment; and ( B ) TNF-α challenge with α-tocopherol pre-treatment, respectively. Notes: Red-notes and green-notes indicate up- and down-regulated genes, respectively. For simplication, α-tocopherol treatment is not shown.

    Journal: Gene Regulation and Systems Biology

    Article Title: Alpha-Tocopherol Alters Transcription Activities that Modulates Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-?) Induced Inflammatory Response in Bovine Cells 1

    doi: 10.4137/GRSB.S8303

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Graphical representations of TNFR1 signaling pathways and comparison of the gene- perturbation induced by the treatments. ( A ) TNF-α challenge without α-tocopherol pre-treatment; and ( B ) TNF-α challenge with α-tocopherol pre-treatment, respectively. Notes: Red-notes and green-notes indicate up- and down-regulated genes, respectively. For simplication, α-tocopherol treatment is not shown.

    Article Snippet: It is also in a range of concentrations that were extensively used in many in vitro experiments., Stock solution of 10 mM α-tocopherol (Sigma, T3126) was prepared by dissolving α-tocopherol in 100% alcohol.

    Techniques:

    Graphical representations of LPS-stimulated MAPK signaling pathway and comparison of the gene-perturbation induced by the treatments ( A ) TNF-α challenge without α-tocopherol pre-treatment, and ( B ) TNF-α challenge with α-tocopherol pre-treatment respectively. Notes: Red-notes and green-notes indicate up- and down-regulated genes, respectively. For simplicity, α-tocopherol treatment is not shown.

    Journal: Gene Regulation and Systems Biology

    Article Title: Alpha-Tocopherol Alters Transcription Activities that Modulates Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-?) Induced Inflammatory Response in Bovine Cells 1

    doi: 10.4137/GRSB.S8303

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Graphical representations of LPS-stimulated MAPK signaling pathway and comparison of the gene-perturbation induced by the treatments ( A ) TNF-α challenge without α-tocopherol pre-treatment, and ( B ) TNF-α challenge with α-tocopherol pre-treatment respectively. Notes: Red-notes and green-notes indicate up- and down-regulated genes, respectively. For simplicity, α-tocopherol treatment is not shown.

    Article Snippet: It is also in a range of concentrations that were extensively used in many in vitro experiments., Stock solution of 10 mM α-tocopherol (Sigma, T3126) was prepared by dissolving α-tocopherol in 100% alcohol.

    Techniques:

    SW43‐DOX induces caspase 3/7 activation and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Panc‐1 cells were pretreated with pan‐caspase inhibitor (Z‐VAD‐FMK; 25 μM) or the ROS scavenger α‐Tocopherol (α‐Toco; 200 ug/ml) for 1 h prior to exposure to SW43‐DOX for 24 h (viability assay) or 6 h (ROS detection, caspase 3/7 activity and TUNEL assay). Treatment with SW43‐DOX induced the production of ROS (A), pretreatment with α‐Tocopherol partly reduced the toxicity (B) and could not further be reduced through additional pretreatment with Z‐VAD‐FMK (C) despite a caspase 3/7 activation through SW43‐DOX (D). A sole pretreatment with Z‐VAD‐FMK did also not reduce toxicity (E). SW43‐DOX increased the DNA fragmentation as shown by TUNEL assay (F). Bars represent the means with SE; n ≥ 3; *p

    Journal: Molecular Oncology

    Article Title: SW43-DOX ± loading onto drug-eluting bead, a potential new targeted drug delivery platform for systemic and locoregional cancer treatment – An in vitro evaluation

    doi: 10.1016/j.molonc.2016.05.003

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SW43‐DOX induces caspase 3/7 activation and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Panc‐1 cells were pretreated with pan‐caspase inhibitor (Z‐VAD‐FMK; 25 μM) or the ROS scavenger α‐Tocopherol (α‐Toco; 200 ug/ml) for 1 h prior to exposure to SW43‐DOX for 24 h (viability assay) or 6 h (ROS detection, caspase 3/7 activity and TUNEL assay). Treatment with SW43‐DOX induced the production of ROS (A), pretreatment with α‐Tocopherol partly reduced the toxicity (B) and could not further be reduced through additional pretreatment with Z‐VAD‐FMK (C) despite a caspase 3/7 activation through SW43‐DOX (D). A sole pretreatment with Z‐VAD‐FMK did also not reduce toxicity (E). SW43‐DOX increased the DNA fragmentation as shown by TUNEL assay (F). Bars represent the means with SE; n ≥ 3; *p

    Article Snippet: Pretreatment with the pan‐caspase inhibitor Z‐VAD‐FMK (25 μM) (R & D Systems, Minneapolis, MN, USA) or α‐Tocopherol (200 μg/ml) (Acros Organics, Geel, Belgium) was started 1 h prior to treatment.

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Viability Assay, Activity Assay, TUNEL Assay

    Linoleic acid induced neurotoxicity A, comparison of the doses of linoleic acid (18:2), *, higher than control; B, time-course of toxicity, *, higher than control; C, micromolar, but not nanomolar, concentrations of vitamin E protected against linoleic acid induced toxicity. Solid bar, α-tocotrienol; hatched bar, α-tocopherol. †, higher than control; *, lower than cells challenged with 18:2 alone.

    Journal: Journal of neurochemistry

    Article Title: Characterization of the potent neuroprotective properties of the natural vitamin E ?-tocotrienol

    doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2006.04000.x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Linoleic acid induced neurotoxicity A, comparison of the doses of linoleic acid (18:2), *, higher than control; B, time-course of toxicity, *, higher than control; C, micromolar, but not nanomolar, concentrations of vitamin E protected against linoleic acid induced toxicity. Solid bar, α-tocotrienol; hatched bar, α-tocopherol. †, higher than control; *, lower than cells challenged with 18:2 alone.

    Article Snippet: L-homocysteic acid, dimethyl sulfoxide, xylenol orange, ammonium ferrous sulfate, sorbitol (Sigma St. Louis, MO); baicalein, 5,6,7,-trihydroxyflavone (BL15; Oxford Biomedical Research, Oxford, MI); herbimycin A, geldanamycin (EMD Biosciences, San Diego, CA); linoleic acid (Nu-Chek Prep, Elysian, MN); α-tocotrienol and α-tocopherol (Carotech Bhd, Malaysia).

    Techniques:

    Protection against homocysteic acid induced toxicity A, HT4 cells were either treated or not with α-tocotrienol (TCT), α-tocopherol (TCP), BL15, herbimycin, or geldanamycin (as indicated) for 5 min and challenged with homocysteic acid (HCA, 1mM) for 24h. B, higher (μM), but not lower (nM), concentration of TCT protected cells when TCT was treated 8h after HCA challenge. HT4 neuronal cells were either treated or not with TCT for 5 min pre or 8h after HCA. Viability was measured 24h after HCA challenge. †, higher than control (no HCA) group. *, lower than group treated with HCA alone.

    Journal: Journal of neurochemistry

    Article Title: Characterization of the potent neuroprotective properties of the natural vitamin E ?-tocotrienol

    doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2006.04000.x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Protection against homocysteic acid induced toxicity A, HT4 cells were either treated or not with α-tocotrienol (TCT), α-tocopherol (TCP), BL15, herbimycin, or geldanamycin (as indicated) for 5 min and challenged with homocysteic acid (HCA, 1mM) for 24h. B, higher (μM), but not lower (nM), concentration of TCT protected cells when TCT was treated 8h after HCA challenge. HT4 neuronal cells were either treated or not with TCT for 5 min pre or 8h after HCA. Viability was measured 24h after HCA challenge. †, higher than control (no HCA) group. *, lower than group treated with HCA alone.

    Article Snippet: L-homocysteic acid, dimethyl sulfoxide, xylenol orange, ammonium ferrous sulfate, sorbitol (Sigma St. Louis, MO); baicalein, 5,6,7,-trihydroxyflavone (BL15; Oxford Biomedical Research, Oxford, MI); herbimycin A, geldanamycin (EMD Biosciences, San Diego, CA); linoleic acid (Nu-Chek Prep, Elysian, MN); α-tocotrienol and α-tocopherol (Carotech Bhd, Malaysia).

    Techniques: High Content Screening, Concentration Assay

    rCBF in control ischemic rats received vehicle (n = 8) and ischemic rats received α-tocopherol at a dose of 30 mg/kg (n = 8) before MCAO, during MCAO and during reperfusion times.

    Journal: Medical Principles and Practice

    Article Title: Alpha-Tocopherol Reduces Brain Edema and Protects Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity following Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

    doi: 10.1159/000450648

    Figure Lengend Snippet: rCBF in control ischemic rats received vehicle (n = 8) and ischemic rats received α-tocopherol at a dose of 30 mg/kg (n = 8) before MCAO, during MCAO and during reperfusion times.

    Article Snippet: Group 3 (α-tocopherol-treated ischemic rats; n = 32), ischemia was induced and reperfusion performed as per group 2, after which α-tocopherol (30 mg/kg; LKT laboratories, St. Paul, MN, USA) was given at the beginning of the reperfusion time, as described previously [ ].

    Techniques:

    Photographs of brains in the sham ( a ), control ischemic ( b ) and α-tocopherol-treated (30 mg/kg; c ) ischemic rats. The intensity of the blue color depicted in b and c (indicated by arrows; color refers to the online version only) is related to the extent of damage of the cerebral vasculature of the lesioned side.

    Journal: Medical Principles and Practice

    Article Title: Alpha-Tocopherol Reduces Brain Edema and Protects Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity following Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

    doi: 10.1159/000450648

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Photographs of brains in the sham ( a ), control ischemic ( b ) and α-tocopherol-treated (30 mg/kg; c ) ischemic rats. The intensity of the blue color depicted in b and c (indicated by arrows; color refers to the online version only) is related to the extent of damage of the cerebral vasculature of the lesioned side.

    Article Snippet: Group 3 (α-tocopherol-treated ischemic rats; n = 32), ischemia was induced and reperfusion performed as per group 2, after which α-tocopherol (30 mg/kg; LKT laboratories, St. Paul, MN, USA) was given at the beginning of the reperfusion time, as described previously [ ].

    Techniques:

    Enteral delivery of Toc small interfering RNA (siRNA) to the mouse liver. ( a,b ) Confocal images of mouse livers at 0.5 h ( a ) and 4 h ( b ) after administration of lipid nanoparticles (LNP) to the colorectum. ( c,d ) Four hours after administration of LNP to the colorectum without α-tocopherol conjugation ( c ) and without linoleic acid ( d ) as controls. The dose of Toc-siRNA was 10 mg/kg body weight. Red: Cy3-labeled Toc-siRNA; Green: FITC-Phalloidin, which labels the cytoskeleton; Blue: TO-PRO-3, which labels cell nuclei. Toc: Cy3-labeled Toc-siRNA; LA: linoleic acid. Bar = 20 μm. ( e ) Gel-shift assay of filtered Toc-siRNA incubated with chylomicron (CM) extracted from the lymph. DW, distilled water. ( f ) Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) analyses (diffusion time) of Cy3-labeled Toc-siRNA in lymph extracted from mice 2 h after administration of LNP to the colorectum and from mice administered LNP without an α-tocopherol moiety as controls. n = 10, mean values ± s.e.m.; * P

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Enteral siRNA delivery technique for therapeutic gene silencing in the liver via the lymphatic route

    doi: 10.1038/srep17035

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Enteral delivery of Toc small interfering RNA (siRNA) to the mouse liver. ( a,b ) Confocal images of mouse livers at 0.5 h ( a ) and 4 h ( b ) after administration of lipid nanoparticles (LNP) to the colorectum. ( c,d ) Four hours after administration of LNP to the colorectum without α-tocopherol conjugation ( c ) and without linoleic acid ( d ) as controls. The dose of Toc-siRNA was 10 mg/kg body weight. Red: Cy3-labeled Toc-siRNA; Green: FITC-Phalloidin, which labels the cytoskeleton; Blue: TO-PRO-3, which labels cell nuclei. Toc: Cy3-labeled Toc-siRNA; LA: linoleic acid. Bar = 20 μm. ( e ) Gel-shift assay of filtered Toc-siRNA incubated with chylomicron (CM) extracted from the lymph. DW, distilled water. ( f ) Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) analyses (diffusion time) of Cy3-labeled Toc-siRNA in lymph extracted from mice 2 h after administration of LNP to the colorectum and from mice administered LNP without an α-tocopherol moiety as controls. n = 10, mean values ± s.e.m.; * P

    Article Snippet: To combine α-tocopherol and siRNAs, dl -α-tocopherol (Tokyo Kasei, Tokyo, Japan) was O -phosphitylated with 2-cyanoethyl-N,N -diisopropylphosphoramidite and diisopropylethylamine in tetrahydrofuran, yielding α-tocopherol phosphoramidite, followed by coupling with the 5′ end of the antisense siRNA .

    Techniques: Small Interfering RNA, Conjugation Assay, Labeling, Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay, Incubation, Fluorescence, Spectroscopy, Diffusion-based Assay, Mouse Assay

    Loading of physiological concentrations of tocopherol in endothelial cells in vitro. Eighty-five percent of confluent monolayers of mHEVa cells were treated overnight with the tocopherols at the concentrations indicated. DMSO at 0.02% is the vehicle control. The cells were washed and weighed, and tocopherol was measured by HPLC/electrochemical detection. A , α -Tocopherol dose curve. B , γ -Tocopherol dose curve. C , Endothelial cells were treated with α -tocopherol and γ -tocopherol individually or together at the indicated concentrations. n = 3–5. *, p

    Journal: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

    Article Title: Isoforms of Vitamin E Have Opposing Immunoregulatory Functions during Inflammation by Regulating Leukocyte Recruitment

    doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.0803659

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Loading of physiological concentrations of tocopherol in endothelial cells in vitro. Eighty-five percent of confluent monolayers of mHEVa cells were treated overnight with the tocopherols at the concentrations indicated. DMSO at 0.02% is the vehicle control. The cells were washed and weighed, and tocopherol was measured by HPLC/electrochemical detection. A , α -Tocopherol dose curve. B , γ -Tocopherol dose curve. C , Endothelial cells were treated with α -tocopherol and γ -tocopherol individually or together at the indicated concentrations. n = 3–5. *, p

    Article Snippet: The mice received 2 mg of d - α -tocopherol (Vital E300; Schering-Plough), 2 mg of d - γ -tocopherol (Sigma-Aldrich), 2 mg of d - α -tocopherol plus 2 mg of d - γ -tocopherol or the vehicle exthoxylated castor oil.

    Techniques: In Vitro, High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    In vitro release of fluconazole from multilamellar liposomes composed of phosphatidylcholine:cholesterol:α-tocopherol acetate (1:0.8:0.1) in phosphate buffered saline.

    Journal: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal : SPJ

    Article Title: Effect of formulation design and freeze-drying on properties of fluconazole multilamellar liposomes

    doi: 10.1016/j.jsps.2010.07.003

    Figure Lengend Snippet: In vitro release of fluconazole from multilamellar liposomes composed of phosphatidylcholine:cholesterol:α-tocopherol acetate (1:0.8:0.1) in phosphate buffered saline.

    Article Snippet: Fluconazole was obtained from Medicorp (city, India) as a gift sample. l -α-Phosphatidylcholine (PC), type X-E from dried egg yolk, cholesterol (Chol), stearylamine (SA), dicetyl phosphate (DP), β-glucose, d -trehalose and β-lactose were purchased from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, USA). α-Tocopherol acetate was purchased from La Roche (France).

    Techniques: In Vitro

    In vitro release of fluconazole from multilamellar liposomes composed of Phosphatidylcholine:cholesterol:α-tocopherol acetate (1:0.6:0.1) in phosphate buffered saline.

    Journal: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal : SPJ

    Article Title: Effect of formulation design and freeze-drying on properties of fluconazole multilamellar liposomes

    doi: 10.1016/j.jsps.2010.07.003

    Figure Lengend Snippet: In vitro release of fluconazole from multilamellar liposomes composed of Phosphatidylcholine:cholesterol:α-tocopherol acetate (1:0.6:0.1) in phosphate buffered saline.

    Article Snippet: Fluconazole was obtained from Medicorp (city, India) as a gift sample. l -α-Phosphatidylcholine (PC), type X-E from dried egg yolk, cholesterol (Chol), stearylamine (SA), dicetyl phosphate (DP), β-glucose, d -trehalose and β-lactose were purchased from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, USA). α-Tocopherol acetate was purchased from La Roche (France).

    Techniques: In Vitro

    Plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol and cholesterol decreased after probucol treatment. A, Experimental design for α-tocopherol deficiency induction using 1% w/w probucol in the diet. Six-week-old C57BL/6J mice were treated with 1% w/w probucol for 2 weeks. Then, mice were withdrawn from the probucol diet and changed to a standard diet for 2 weeks. Plasma and erythrocyte samples were obtained at day 0, 1, 2, 4, 7, and 14 after starting probucol treatment (n = 5 per group) and 1 or 2 weeks post-withdrawal (n = 3 per group). In addition, the plasma of eight-week-old α-tocopherol transfer protein knockout (α-ttp Δ ) mice fed a standard diet was obtained (n = 3). Plasma α-tocopherol concentrations were measured after probucol treatment (B) and after withdrawal (C). The levels of α-tocopherol in erythrocytes were normalized with the protein concentration (n = 5 per group) (D). Plasma cholesterol concentrations were measured by using the cholesterol E-test after 2 weeks of probucol treatment and after withdrawal (n = 3) (E). All data are expressed as mean ± SE. Statistical analysis was carried out by analysis of variance (ANOVA; multiple comparisons Tukey’s test). *p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Probucol-Induced α-Tocopherol Deficiency Protects Mice against Malaria Infection

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0136014

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol and cholesterol decreased after probucol treatment. A, Experimental design for α-tocopherol deficiency induction using 1% w/w probucol in the diet. Six-week-old C57BL/6J mice were treated with 1% w/w probucol for 2 weeks. Then, mice were withdrawn from the probucol diet and changed to a standard diet for 2 weeks. Plasma and erythrocyte samples were obtained at day 0, 1, 2, 4, 7, and 14 after starting probucol treatment (n = 5 per group) and 1 or 2 weeks post-withdrawal (n = 3 per group). In addition, the plasma of eight-week-old α-tocopherol transfer protein knockout (α-ttp Δ ) mice fed a standard diet was obtained (n = 3). Plasma α-tocopherol concentrations were measured after probucol treatment (B) and after withdrawal (C). The levels of α-tocopherol in erythrocytes were normalized with the protein concentration (n = 5 per group) (D). Plasma cholesterol concentrations were measured by using the cholesterol E-test after 2 weeks of probucol treatment and after withdrawal (n = 3) (E). All data are expressed as mean ± SE. Statistical analysis was carried out by analysis of variance (ANOVA; multiple comparisons Tukey’s test). *p

    Article Snippet: A standard curve was prepared by using serial dilutions (1 μM, 500 nM, and 100 nM) of α-tocopherol standard (Eisai Chemical Company; Tokyo, Japan).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Knock-Out, Protein Concentration

    Oxidative response of mice and parasites to α-tocopherol deficiency after infection. Six-week-old C57BL/6J mice were treated with 1% w/w probucol in the diet for 2 weeks and then infected with 0.2 mL of 1 × 10 5 erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium yoelii XL-17. Plasma, total blood, and liver samples were obtained on day 0, 4, 7, 12, 19, and 22 post-infection (n = 2 to 7). The plasma level of α-tocopherol (A) and the mRNA expression of α-ttp in liver (B) were analyzed. The mRNA expression of the parasite antioxidant enzymes, P . y 1-Cys Prx (C) and P . y Tpx-1 (D), and the oxidative stress response protein P . y Hsp-70 (E) were analyzed using parasite-specific primers and probes. All data are expressed as mean ± SE. Statistical analysis was carried out by analysis of variance (ANOVA). * p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Probucol-Induced α-Tocopherol Deficiency Protects Mice against Malaria Infection

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0136014

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Oxidative response of mice and parasites to α-tocopherol deficiency after infection. Six-week-old C57BL/6J mice were treated with 1% w/w probucol in the diet for 2 weeks and then infected with 0.2 mL of 1 × 10 5 erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium yoelii XL-17. Plasma, total blood, and liver samples were obtained on day 0, 4, 7, 12, 19, and 22 post-infection (n = 2 to 7). The plasma level of α-tocopherol (A) and the mRNA expression of α-ttp in liver (B) were analyzed. The mRNA expression of the parasite antioxidant enzymes, P . y 1-Cys Prx (C) and P . y Tpx-1 (D), and the oxidative stress response protein P . y Hsp-70 (E) were analyzed using parasite-specific primers and probes. All data are expressed as mean ± SE. Statistical analysis was carried out by analysis of variance (ANOVA). * p

    Article Snippet: A standard curve was prepared by using serial dilutions (1 μM, 500 nM, and 100 nM) of α-tocopherol standard (Eisai Chemical Company; Tokyo, Japan).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Infection, Expressing