vero 76 cells  (ATCC)


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    Name:
    VERO 76
    Description:
    Host Cercopithecus aethiops
    Catalog Number:
    CRL-1587
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    Host:
    Cercopithecus aethiops
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    ATCC vero 76 cells
    Light microscopic images showing distribution and characteristics of PEDV plaques in immunoplaque assay. ( A ) Virus-positive well showing plaques on <t>Vero</t> 76 cells infected with PEDV; ( B ) un-infected control well; ( C ) high magnification of a typical plaque showing viral-induced syncytium (Scale bar: 100 μm); ( D ) comparison of immunoplaque assay with and without agarose overlay. Data presented are average ± SEM from two independent experiments.
    Host Cercopithecus aethiops
    https://www.bioz.com/result/vero 76 cells/product/ATCC
    Average 95 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    vero 76 cells - by Bioz Stars, 2021-06
    95/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Stability of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus on Fomite Materials at Different Temperatures"

    Article Title: Stability of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus on Fomite Materials at Different Temperatures

    Journal: Veterinary Sciences

    doi: 10.3390/vetsci5010021

    Light microscopic images showing distribution and characteristics of PEDV plaques in immunoplaque assay. ( A ) Virus-positive well showing plaques on Vero 76 cells infected with PEDV; ( B ) un-infected control well; ( C ) high magnification of a typical plaque showing viral-induced syncytium (Scale bar: 100 μm); ( D ) comparison of immunoplaque assay with and without agarose overlay. Data presented are average ± SEM from two independent experiments.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Light microscopic images showing distribution and characteristics of PEDV plaques in immunoplaque assay. ( A ) Virus-positive well showing plaques on Vero 76 cells infected with PEDV; ( B ) un-infected control well; ( C ) high magnification of a typical plaque showing viral-induced syncytium (Scale bar: 100 μm); ( D ) comparison of immunoplaque assay with and without agarose overlay. Data presented are average ± SEM from two independent experiments.

    Techniques Used: Infection

    2) Product Images from "Jun?n Virus Infection of Human Hematopoietic Progenitors Impairs In Vitro Proplatelet Formation and Platelet Release via a Bystander Effect Involving Type I IFN Signaling"

    Article Title: Jun?n Virus Infection of Human Hematopoietic Progenitors Impairs In Vitro Proplatelet Formation and Platelet Release via a Bystander Effect Involving Type I IFN Signaling

    Journal: PLoS Pathogens

    doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000847

    JUNV replication in CD34 + cells. CD34 + cells were inoculated with UV-irradiated JUNV or JUNV and stimulated with TPO for ten days. Viral replication was assayed by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. (A) RT-PCR studies. (B) To detect JUNV antigens by immunofluorescence cells were washed, cytocentrifuged on silanized glasses, fixed, permeabilized and incubated first with a pool of specific mAbs against JUNV and a rabbit-anti-human vWF polyclonal Ab to identify megakaryocytes, and then with FITC-conjugated anti-rabbit (green) and Cy3-conjugated anti-mouse Igs (red). The slides were counterstained with DAPI and photographed at 1000× magnification. (C) Cells were stained as in B and then analyzed by flow cytometry. (D) As a positive control, JUNV-susceptible Vero-76 cells were inoculated with JUNV and seven days later were stained with the pool of specific mAbs against JUNV followed by Cy3-anti-mouse Igs. Negative controls in B and C were performed by incubating cells only with secondary Abs. Panels show a representative experiment of three similar replicates.
    Figure Legend Snippet: JUNV replication in CD34 + cells. CD34 + cells were inoculated with UV-irradiated JUNV or JUNV and stimulated with TPO for ten days. Viral replication was assayed by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. (A) RT-PCR studies. (B) To detect JUNV antigens by immunofluorescence cells were washed, cytocentrifuged on silanized glasses, fixed, permeabilized and incubated first with a pool of specific mAbs against JUNV and a rabbit-anti-human vWF polyclonal Ab to identify megakaryocytes, and then with FITC-conjugated anti-rabbit (green) and Cy3-conjugated anti-mouse Igs (red). The slides were counterstained with DAPI and photographed at 1000× magnification. (C) Cells were stained as in B and then analyzed by flow cytometry. (D) As a positive control, JUNV-susceptible Vero-76 cells were inoculated with JUNV and seven days later were stained with the pool of specific mAbs against JUNV followed by Cy3-anti-mouse Igs. Negative controls in B and C were performed by incubating cells only with secondary Abs. Panels show a representative experiment of three similar replicates.

    Techniques Used: Irradiation, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Immunofluorescence, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Incubation, Staining, Positive Control

    3) Product Images from "Inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus replication in a lethal SARS-CoV BALB/c mouse model by stinging nettle lectin, Urtica dioica agglutinin"

    Article Title: Inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus replication in a lethal SARS-CoV BALB/c mouse model by stinging nettle lectin, Urtica dioica agglutinin

    Journal: Antiviral research

    doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2011.02.003

    A . Effect of live SARS-CoV infection by UDA (virus titers: log 10 CCID 50 per 0.18 ml). SARS-CoV was exposed to UDA for 1 h and the UDA-exposed virus suspension was titrated in Vero 76 cells.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A . Effect of live SARS-CoV infection by UDA (virus titers: log 10 CCID 50 per 0.18 ml). SARS-CoV was exposed to UDA for 1 h and the UDA-exposed virus suspension was titrated in Vero 76 cells.

    Techniques Used: Infection

    4) Product Images from "Stability of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus on Fomite Materials at Different Temperatures"

    Article Title: Stability of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus on Fomite Materials at Different Temperatures

    Journal: Veterinary Sciences

    doi: 10.3390/vetsci5010021

    Light microscopic images showing distribution and characteristics of PEDV plaques in immunoplaque assay. ( A ) Virus-positive well showing plaques on Vero 76 cells infected with PEDV; ( B ) un-infected control well; ( C ) high magnification of a typical plaque showing viral-induced syncytium (Scale bar: 100 μm); ( D ) comparison of immunoplaque assay with and without agarose overlay. Data presented are average ± SEM from two independent experiments.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Light microscopic images showing distribution and characteristics of PEDV plaques in immunoplaque assay. ( A ) Virus-positive well showing plaques on Vero 76 cells infected with PEDV; ( B ) un-infected control well; ( C ) high magnification of a typical plaque showing viral-induced syncytium (Scale bar: 100 μm); ( D ) comparison of immunoplaque assay with and without agarose overlay. Data presented are average ± SEM from two independent experiments.

    Techniques Used: Infection

    5) Product Images from "Spike protein disulfide disruption as a potential treatment for SARS-CoV-2"

    Article Title: Spike protein disulfide disruption as a potential treatment for SARS-CoV-2

    Journal: bioRxiv

    doi: 10.1101/2021.01.02.425099

    Virus titer and cell viability as a function of the concentration of A) DTT, B) NAC, C) TCEP, and D) GSH. The viral titer, expressed as a log(%) of the normalized TCID 50 /ml, (left Y -axis) of SARS-CoV-2 and the viability of Vero’76 cell (%) (right Y -axis) were plotted against the dose of the compound (mM) ( X -axis). The compounds were serially diluted and then added individually to both the cells and the SARS-CoV-2 virus (at an m.o.i. of 0.1) for 1 hour at 37°C. After incubation, the virus-compound mixture was added to the cells and incubated for 1 hour at 37°C. After 1 hour, the mixture was removed, replaced with fresh media containing the compounds and the cells incubated for 48 hours, after which the viral supernatants were harvested and titrated by the TCID 50 assay. The viability assay was performed in uninfected cells: after 48 hours of incubation with the compounds, the cell viability was assessed using resazurin assay.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Virus titer and cell viability as a function of the concentration of A) DTT, B) NAC, C) TCEP, and D) GSH. The viral titer, expressed as a log(%) of the normalized TCID 50 /ml, (left Y -axis) of SARS-CoV-2 and the viability of Vero’76 cell (%) (right Y -axis) were plotted against the dose of the compound (mM) ( X -axis). The compounds were serially diluted and then added individually to both the cells and the SARS-CoV-2 virus (at an m.o.i. of 0.1) for 1 hour at 37°C. After incubation, the virus-compound mixture was added to the cells and incubated for 1 hour at 37°C. After 1 hour, the mixture was removed, replaced with fresh media containing the compounds and the cells incubated for 48 hours, after which the viral supernatants were harvested and titrated by the TCID 50 assay. The viability assay was performed in uninfected cells: after 48 hours of incubation with the compounds, the cell viability was assessed using resazurin assay.

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Incubation, Viability Assay, Resazurin Assay

    6) Product Images from "Jun?n Virus Infection of Human Hematopoietic Progenitors Impairs In Vitro Proplatelet Formation and Platelet Release via a Bystander Effect Involving Type I IFN Signaling"

    Article Title: Jun?n Virus Infection of Human Hematopoietic Progenitors Impairs In Vitro Proplatelet Formation and Platelet Release via a Bystander Effect Involving Type I IFN Signaling

    Journal: PLoS Pathogens

    doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000847

    JUNV replication in CD34 + cells. CD34 + cells were inoculated with UV-irradiated JUNV or JUNV and stimulated with TPO for ten days. Viral replication was assayed by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. (A) RT-PCR studies. (B) To detect JUNV antigens by immunofluorescence cells were washed, cytocentrifuged on silanized glasses, fixed, permeabilized and incubated first with a pool of specific mAbs against JUNV and a rabbit-anti-human vWF polyclonal Ab to identify megakaryocytes, and then with FITC-conjugated anti-rabbit (green) and Cy3-conjugated anti-mouse Igs (red). The slides were counterstained with DAPI and photographed at 1000× magnification. (C) Cells were stained as in B and then analyzed by flow cytometry. (D) As a positive control, JUNV-susceptible Vero-76 cells were inoculated with JUNV and seven days later were stained with the pool of specific mAbs against JUNV followed by Cy3-anti-mouse Igs. Negative controls in B and C were performed by incubating cells only with secondary Abs. Panels show a representative experiment of three similar replicates.
    Figure Legend Snippet: JUNV replication in CD34 + cells. CD34 + cells were inoculated with UV-irradiated JUNV or JUNV and stimulated with TPO for ten days. Viral replication was assayed by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. (A) RT-PCR studies. (B) To detect JUNV antigens by immunofluorescence cells were washed, cytocentrifuged on silanized glasses, fixed, permeabilized and incubated first with a pool of specific mAbs against JUNV and a rabbit-anti-human vWF polyclonal Ab to identify megakaryocytes, and then with FITC-conjugated anti-rabbit (green) and Cy3-conjugated anti-mouse Igs (red). The slides were counterstained with DAPI and photographed at 1000× magnification. (C) Cells were stained as in B and then analyzed by flow cytometry. (D) As a positive control, JUNV-susceptible Vero-76 cells were inoculated with JUNV and seven days later were stained with the pool of specific mAbs against JUNV followed by Cy3-anti-mouse Igs. Negative controls in B and C were performed by incubating cells only with secondary Abs. Panels show a representative experiment of three similar replicates.

    Techniques Used: Irradiation, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Immunofluorescence, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Incubation, Staining, Positive Control

    7) Product Images from "Discovery of a Novel Compound with Anti-Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity That Targets the Nonstructural Protein 2"

    Article Title: Discovery of a Novel Compound with Anti-Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity That Targets the Nonstructural Protein 2

    Journal: PLoS Pathogens

    doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004213

    Anti-VEEV activity of CID15997213. ( A ) Dose response curve of CID15997213 in the CPE-based anti-VEEV TC-83 assay using Vero 76 cells from a representative experiment. ( B ) Titer reduction assay results for CID15997213. Vero 76 cells grown in 6-well plates were infected with 0.05 MOI of TC-83 or TrD and then incubated in the presence of CID15997213 at the denoted concentrations. Forty hours later the supernatant was harvested and the titer of the progeny virus was determined. Each point represents the mean from two independent experiments. The horizontal line in the figure indicates the detection limit of the assay. ( C , D ) Viral RNA and protein analysis. Vero 76 cells were infected with VEEV TC-83 at MOI of 5 and then incubated in the presence of DMSO or CID15997213 for 16 hours. In C , viral RNA was quantified using a quantitative real-time RT-PCR method with the total RNA from the cells. In D , proteins from VEEV TC83-infected cell extracts were analyzed by western blot assay. Closed triangles indicate bands corresponding to actin (internal control) and open arrows indicate bands that are specific to the viral proteins.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Anti-VEEV activity of CID15997213. ( A ) Dose response curve of CID15997213 in the CPE-based anti-VEEV TC-83 assay using Vero 76 cells from a representative experiment. ( B ) Titer reduction assay results for CID15997213. Vero 76 cells grown in 6-well plates were infected with 0.05 MOI of TC-83 or TrD and then incubated in the presence of CID15997213 at the denoted concentrations. Forty hours later the supernatant was harvested and the titer of the progeny virus was determined. Each point represents the mean from two independent experiments. The horizontal line in the figure indicates the detection limit of the assay. ( C , D ) Viral RNA and protein analysis. Vero 76 cells were infected with VEEV TC-83 at MOI of 5 and then incubated in the presence of DMSO or CID15997213 for 16 hours. In C , viral RNA was quantified using a quantitative real-time RT-PCR method with the total RNA from the cells. In D , proteins from VEEV TC83-infected cell extracts were analyzed by western blot assay. Closed triangles indicate bands corresponding to actin (internal control) and open arrows indicate bands that are specific to the viral proteins.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Infection, Incubation, Quantitative RT-PCR, Western Blot

    8) Product Images from "Stability of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus on Fomite Materials at Different Temperatures"

    Article Title: Stability of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus on Fomite Materials at Different Temperatures

    Journal: Veterinary Sciences

    doi: 10.3390/vetsci5010021

    Light microscopic images showing distribution and characteristics of PEDV plaques in immunoplaque assay. ( A ) Virus-positive well showing plaques on Vero 76 cells infected with PEDV; ( B ) un-infected control well; ( C ) high magnification of a typical plaque showing viral-induced syncytium (Scale bar: 100 μm); ( D ) comparison of immunoplaque assay with and without agarose overlay. Data presented are average ± SEM from two independent experiments.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Light microscopic images showing distribution and characteristics of PEDV plaques in immunoplaque assay. ( A ) Virus-positive well showing plaques on Vero 76 cells infected with PEDV; ( B ) un-infected control well; ( C ) high magnification of a typical plaque showing viral-induced syncytium (Scale bar: 100 μm); ( D ) comparison of immunoplaque assay with and without agarose overlay. Data presented are average ± SEM from two independent experiments.

    Techniques Used: Infection

    9) Product Images from "Stability of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus on Fomite Materials at Different Temperatures"

    Article Title: Stability of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus on Fomite Materials at Different Temperatures

    Journal: Veterinary Sciences

    doi: 10.3390/vetsci5010021

    Light microscopic images showing distribution and characteristics of PEDV plaques in immunoplaque assay. ( A ) Virus-positive well showing plaques on Vero 76 cells infected with PEDV; ( B ) un-infected control well; ( C ) high magnification of a typical plaque showing viral-induced syncytium (Scale bar: 100 μm); ( D ) comparison of immunoplaque assay with and without agarose overlay. Data presented are average ± SEM from two independent experiments.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Light microscopic images showing distribution and characteristics of PEDV plaques in immunoplaque assay. ( A ) Virus-positive well showing plaques on Vero 76 cells infected with PEDV; ( B ) un-infected control well; ( C ) high magnification of a typical plaque showing viral-induced syncytium (Scale bar: 100 μm); ( D ) comparison of immunoplaque assay with and without agarose overlay. Data presented are average ± SEM from two independent experiments.

    Techniques Used: Infection

    10) Product Images from "Epistastic Interactions within the Junín Virus Envelope Glycoprotein Complex Provide an Evolutionary Barrier to Reversion in the Live-Attenuated Candid#1 Vaccine"

    Article Title: Epistastic Interactions within the Junín Virus Envelope Glycoprotein Complex Provide an Evolutionary Barrier to Reversion in the Live-Attenuated Candid#1 Vaccine

    Journal: Journal of Virology

    doi: 10.1128/JVI.01682-17

    Effect of A168T and F427I mutations on expression and cell-cell fusion activity of ectopically expressed GPC. (A and B) Metabolically labeled Candid#1 and MC2 GPCs were immunoprecipitated from transfected Vero-76 cells using the anti-GP1 MAb BF11 and resolved using NuPAGE. The mature GP1 and GP2 subunits comigrate as glycoproteins (A) and are resolved following deglycosylation by treatment with PNGase F (B). The uncleaved GP1GP2 precursor is labeled, and deglycosylated polypeptides are indicated as pp. GPC expression was quantitated by using a Fuji FLA3000G phosphorimager and ImageGauge software. Photostimulated luminescence (PSL) values in the respective GP1GP2 precursor bands in panel A are 427,881, 174,626, 360,045, 68,087, 339,735, and 53,852. This pattern of expression was confirmed in three replicate analyses. (C) Cell-cell fusion activity of the ectopically expressed MC2 (red) and Candid#1 (blue) GPCs was triggered by exposure to medium adjusted to pH 5.0 and determined using a chemiluminescent β-galactosidase fusion reporter. Relative light units are plotted. Error bars represent the standard errors of the means from replicate fusion reactions. Complete and partial replicates of this experiment ( n > 4) yielded concordant results. A pairwise statistical comparison using a 2-tailed Mann-Whitney analysis, as implemented in GraphPad Prism software, demonstrated that Can GPC is significantly more fusogenic than MC2 GPC ( P = 0.0002).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of A168T and F427I mutations on expression and cell-cell fusion activity of ectopically expressed GPC. (A and B) Metabolically labeled Candid#1 and MC2 GPCs were immunoprecipitated from transfected Vero-76 cells using the anti-GP1 MAb BF11 and resolved using NuPAGE. The mature GP1 and GP2 subunits comigrate as glycoproteins (A) and are resolved following deglycosylation by treatment with PNGase F (B). The uncleaved GP1GP2 precursor is labeled, and deglycosylated polypeptides are indicated as pp. GPC expression was quantitated by using a Fuji FLA3000G phosphorimager and ImageGauge software. Photostimulated luminescence (PSL) values in the respective GP1GP2 precursor bands in panel A are 427,881, 174,626, 360,045, 68,087, 339,735, and 53,852. This pattern of expression was confirmed in three replicate analyses. (C) Cell-cell fusion activity of the ectopically expressed MC2 (red) and Candid#1 (blue) GPCs was triggered by exposure to medium adjusted to pH 5.0 and determined using a chemiluminescent β-galactosidase fusion reporter. Relative light units are plotted. Error bars represent the standard errors of the means from replicate fusion reactions. Complete and partial replicates of this experiment ( n > 4) yielded concordant results. A pairwise statistical comparison using a 2-tailed Mann-Whitney analysis, as implemented in GraphPad Prism software, demonstrated that Can GPC is significantly more fusogenic than MC2 GPC ( P = 0.0002).

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Activity Assay, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Metabolic Labelling, Labeling, Immunoprecipitation, Transfection, Software, MANN-WHITNEY

    11) Product Images from "Inhibition of Enterovirus A71 by a Novel 2-Phenyl-Benzimidazole Derivative"

    Article Title: Inhibition of Enterovirus A71 by a Novel 2-Phenyl-Benzimidazole Derivative

    Journal: Viruses

    doi: 10.3390/v13010058

    ( A ) Yield of infectious EV-A71 viruses produced in infected Vero-76 cells treated with 2b and NM 107. Vero-76 cells were infected with EV-A71 (m.o.i. 0.1). The infected cultures were treated with 2b , at indicated doses. Viral yields in the culture supernatant were determined by a plaque assay at 96 h post-infection. * Statistically significant differences are expressed ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) Yield of infectious EV-A71 viruses produced in infected Vero-76 cells treated with 2b and NM 107. Vero-76 cells were infected with EV-A71 (m.o.i. 0.1). The infected cultures were treated with 2b , at indicated doses. Viral yields in the culture supernatant were determined by a plaque assay at 96 h post-infection. * Statistically significant differences are expressed ( p

    Techniques Used: Produced, Infection, Plaque Assay

    Effect of 2b inhibitor (20 and 80 µM) on the Vero-76-infected monolayers. Control ( A ), treated cells with 20 µM ( B ), treated cells with 80 µM ( C ), infected cells ( D ), infected treated cells (20 µM) ( E ), and infected treated cells (80 µM) ( F ). Pictures of cell morphology were taken at 72 h post-infection using ZOE Fluorescent cell imager (Bio-Rad) (bar size = 100 μm, magnification, 20×).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of 2b inhibitor (20 and 80 µM) on the Vero-76-infected monolayers. Control ( A ), treated cells with 20 µM ( B ), treated cells with 80 µM ( C ), infected cells ( D ), infected treated cells (20 µM) ( E ), and infected treated cells (80 µM) ( F ). Pictures of cell morphology were taken at 72 h post-infection using ZOE Fluorescent cell imager (Bio-Rad) (bar size = 100 μm, magnification, 20×).

    Techniques Used: Infection

    The inhibitory effect of compound 2b on EV-A71-induced apoptosis. The percentage of live, apoptotic, and necrotic cells were measured by flow cytometry using the PI-annexin V assay. Dot plots show cell death in Vero-76 cells: control ( A ), treated cells with 20 µM ( B ), treated cells with 80 µM ( C ), infected cells ( D ), infected treated cells (20 µM) ( E ), and infected treated cells (80 µM) ( F ). Percentage of live, apoptotic, and necrotic cells ( G ). Statistically significant differences are expressed as follows: * = p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The inhibitory effect of compound 2b on EV-A71-induced apoptosis. The percentage of live, apoptotic, and necrotic cells were measured by flow cytometry using the PI-annexin V assay. Dot plots show cell death in Vero-76 cells: control ( A ), treated cells with 20 µM ( B ), treated cells with 80 µM ( C ), infected cells ( D ), infected treated cells (20 µM) ( E ), and infected treated cells (80 µM) ( F ). Percentage of live, apoptotic, and necrotic cells ( G ). Statistically significant differences are expressed as follows: * = p

    Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry, Annexin V Assay, Infection

    Related Articles

    Modification:

    Article Title: TolC-Dependent Secretion of an Ankyrin Repeat-Containing Protein of Rickettsia typhi
    Article Snippet: R. typhi strain Wilmington (ATCC VR-144; Manassas, VA) was propagated in Vero76 (African green monkey kidney cells, ATCC CRL-1587) cells. .. Vero76 and HeLa (human epithelial cervical adenocarcinoma, ATCC CCL-2) cells were grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) supplemented with 4.5 g of glucose/liter with glutamine (Biofluids Inc., MD) and 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS; Gemini, CA) at 34°C with 5% CO2 . .. Escherichia coli C600 (wild type [WT]) and tolC mutant (C600 tolC ::Tn 5 ) strains used in heterologous secretion assays are derivatives of the E. coli K-12 strain and were kindly provided by Philippe Delepelaire from the Institute Pasteur, Paris, France.

    Article Title: Stability of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus on Fomite Materials at Different Temperatures
    Article Snippet: Inanimate objects such as rubber boots, gloves, coveralls, and other equipment are routinely used on swine farms and have the potential of being contaminated with manure from PEDV infected animals, thereby helping the indirect mode of virus transmission. .. PEDV Propagation and Quantification A strain of PEDV (PEDV USA/Colorado/2013; GenBank accession number KF272920) was propagated on Vero 76 cells (ATCC CRL-1587, Manassas, VA, USA) using Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium (DMEM) supplemented with 0.5 μg/mL TPCK-trypsin (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) and 0.3% tryptose phosphate broth (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA). .. The virus was harvested three days post infection (d.p.i.) using one freeze-thaw cycle.

    Article Title: Mumps Virus SH Protein Inhibits NF-κB Activation by Interacting with Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 1, Interleukin-1 Receptor 1, and Toll-Like Receptor 3 Complexes
    Article Snippet: In conclusion, we report that MuV SH protein interferes with NF-κB activation by interacting with the complexes of TNFR1, IL-1R1, and TLR3 in the plasma membrane of infected cells, thereby possibly serving as a virulence factor for MuV replication in vivo . .. 293G (kindly provided by C. Uhlenhaut, Berlin, Germany), Vero76, and A549 cells (both from ATCC) were maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM; Gibco) supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS; PAN Laboratories GmbH), 2 mM l -glutamine (Lonza), 100 U/ml penicillin (Gibco), and 100 μg/ml streptomycin (Gibco). .. BSR-T7 cells (kindly provided by K. K. Conzelmann, Munich, Germany) were cultured in Eagle's minimum essential medium (EMEM; Gibco) supplemented with 5% FBS, 2 mM l -glutamine, 100 U/ml penicillin, and 100 μg/ml streptomycin.

    Article Title: The antiviral activity of naturally occurring proteins and their peptide fragments after chemical modification
    Article Snippet: .. Vero76 cells, used to measure the antiviral activity against HSV-1, Madin–Darby bovine kidney cells (MDBK) and Swine Testicular (ST) cells, used to measure the inhibitory effect of the chemically modified proteins against PIV-3 and PRCV, respectively, were originally purchased from ATCC. ..

    other:

    Article Title: Jun?n Virus Infection of Human Hematopoietic Progenitors Impairs In Vitro Proplatelet Formation and Platelet Release via a Bystander Effect Involving Type I IFN Signaling
    Article Snippet: Vero-76 cells Monolayers of Vero-76 cells (CRL-1587, the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), Manassas, VA) were grown in minimum essential medium (MEM) containing 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) and antibiotics.

    Activity Assay:

    Article Title: The antiviral activity of naturally occurring proteins and their peptide fragments after chemical modification
    Article Snippet: .. Vero76 cells, used to measure the antiviral activity against HSV-1, Madin–Darby bovine kidney cells (MDBK) and Swine Testicular (ST) cells, used to measure the inhibitory effect of the chemically modified proteins against PIV-3 and PRCV, respectively, were originally purchased from ATCC. ..

    Cytotoxicity Assay:

    Article Title: Evaluation of biological safety in vitro and immunogenicity in vivo of recombinant Escherichia coli Shiga toxoids as candidate vaccines in cattle
    Article Snippet: The content of endotoxin was 51 fg/mL or less in rStxWT , rStxmut , and vector control preparations at working dilutions. .. Vero cell cytotoxicity assay (VCA) and Vero cell cytotoxicity neutralization assay (VNA) The VCA was performed in 96-well microtiter plates (Nunc, Wiesbaden, Germany) using Vero cells (ATCC CRL 1587, LGC-Promochem GmbH, Wesel, Germany) as previously described [ ] to determine the cytotoxicity (verocytotoxic doses 50%, CD50 /mL) of the rStxWT preparations and for adjustment of stock solutions (20 000 CD50 /mL). .. The VNA was used for the determination of the neutralization activity in serum of vaccinated calves and was done as previously described [ ] in order to determine the titre of neutralizing antibodies [nAb titre] against either wild type Stx1 or wild type Stx2 (Sigma-Aldrich Chemie GmbH, Taufkirchen, Germany).

    Neutralization:

    Article Title: Evaluation of biological safety in vitro and immunogenicity in vivo of recombinant Escherichia coli Shiga toxoids as candidate vaccines in cattle
    Article Snippet: The content of endotoxin was 51 fg/mL or less in rStxWT , rStxmut , and vector control preparations at working dilutions. .. Vero cell cytotoxicity assay (VCA) and Vero cell cytotoxicity neutralization assay (VNA) The VCA was performed in 96-well microtiter plates (Nunc, Wiesbaden, Germany) using Vero cells (ATCC CRL 1587, LGC-Promochem GmbH, Wesel, Germany) as previously described [ ] to determine the cytotoxicity (verocytotoxic doses 50%, CD50 /mL) of the rStxWT preparations and for adjustment of stock solutions (20 000 CD50 /mL). .. The VNA was used for the determination of the neutralization activity in serum of vaccinated calves and was done as previously described [ ] in order to determine the titre of neutralizing antibodies [nAb titre] against either wild type Stx1 or wild type Stx2 (Sigma-Aldrich Chemie GmbH, Taufkirchen, Germany).

    Y2H Assay:

    Article Title: Asna1/TRC40 that mediates membrane insertion of tail-anchored proteins is required for efficient release of Herpes simplex virus 1 virions
    Article Snippet: .. Cells, yeast 2-hybrid assay and general cloning HeLa (ATCC CCL-2) and Vero cells (ATCC CRL-1587) were grown in DMEM containing 10 % FCS. ..

    Clone Assay:

    Article Title: Asna1/TRC40 that mediates membrane insertion of tail-anchored proteins is required for efficient release of Herpes simplex virus 1 virions
    Article Snippet: .. Cells, yeast 2-hybrid assay and general cloning HeLa (ATCC CCL-2) and Vero cells (ATCC CRL-1587) were grown in DMEM containing 10 % FCS. ..

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    ATCC vero 76 cells
    Light microscopic images showing distribution and characteristics of PEDV plaques in immunoplaque assay. ( A ) Virus-positive well showing plaques on <t>Vero</t> 76 cells infected with PEDV; ( B ) un-infected control well; ( C ) high magnification of a typical plaque showing viral-induced syncytium (Scale bar: 100 μm); ( D ) comparison of immunoplaque assay with and without agarose overlay. Data presented are average ± SEM from two independent experiments.
    Vero 76 Cells, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    97
    ATCC vero cells
    western blot using the Trypanosoma cruzi actin gene (TcActin) antibody. A: different trypanosomatids were probed with detection of a single band of about 42 kDa, except for Phytomonas serpens (Lane 7) where two close faint bands could be observed. Lanes 1-8 contained 10 7 cells (1: T. cruzi ; 2: Trypanosoma brucei ; 3: Leishmania major ; 4: Strigomonas culicis ; 5: Crithidia fasciculata ; 6: Angomonas deanei with symbiont; 7: Phytomonas serpens ; 8: Herpetomonas samuelpessoai ); B: different T. cruzi stages probed against the anti-TcActin antibody (upper bands) and an anti-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase antibody (lower bands) [1: culture epimastigote (CE) in liver infusion tryptose (LIT) medium; 2: metacyclic trypomastigote (MT); 3: <t>amastigote</t> (AM); 4: <t>Vero</t> cells (actin control); 1-4 contained 15 µg protein/lane]; C: actin expression level as evaluated by integrated density of protein bands (using GAPDH band as normaliser) analysed by the ImageJ software (n = 3). To evaluate the actin expression in AM, the Vero cell band signal was subtracted from the AM band signal; MW: molecular weight markers.
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    Image Search Results


    Light microscopic images showing distribution and characteristics of PEDV plaques in immunoplaque assay. ( A ) Virus-positive well showing plaques on Vero 76 cells infected with PEDV; ( B ) un-infected control well; ( C ) high magnification of a typical plaque showing viral-induced syncytium (Scale bar: 100 μm); ( D ) comparison of immunoplaque assay with and without agarose overlay. Data presented are average ± SEM from two independent experiments.

    Journal: Veterinary Sciences

    Article Title: Stability of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus on Fomite Materials at Different Temperatures

    doi: 10.3390/vetsci5010021

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Light microscopic images showing distribution and characteristics of PEDV plaques in immunoplaque assay. ( A ) Virus-positive well showing plaques on Vero 76 cells infected with PEDV; ( B ) un-infected control well; ( C ) high magnification of a typical plaque showing viral-induced syncytium (Scale bar: 100 μm); ( D ) comparison of immunoplaque assay with and without agarose overlay. Data presented are average ± SEM from two independent experiments.

    Article Snippet: PEDV Propagation and Quantification A strain of PEDV (PEDV USA/Colorado/2013; GenBank accession number KF272920) was propagated on Vero 76 cells (ATCC CRL-1587, Manassas, VA, USA) using Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium (DMEM) supplemented with 0.5 μg/mL TPCK-trypsin (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) and 0.3% tryptose phosphate broth (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA).

    Techniques: Infection

    western blot using the Trypanosoma cruzi actin gene (TcActin) antibody. A: different trypanosomatids were probed with detection of a single band of about 42 kDa, except for Phytomonas serpens (Lane 7) where two close faint bands could be observed. Lanes 1-8 contained 10 7 cells (1: T. cruzi ; 2: Trypanosoma brucei ; 3: Leishmania major ; 4: Strigomonas culicis ; 5: Crithidia fasciculata ; 6: Angomonas deanei with symbiont; 7: Phytomonas serpens ; 8: Herpetomonas samuelpessoai ); B: different T. cruzi stages probed against the anti-TcActin antibody (upper bands) and an anti-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase antibody (lower bands) [1: culture epimastigote (CE) in liver infusion tryptose (LIT) medium; 2: metacyclic trypomastigote (MT); 3: amastigote (AM); 4: Vero cells (actin control); 1-4 contained 15 µg protein/lane]; C: actin expression level as evaluated by integrated density of protein bands (using GAPDH band as normaliser) analysed by the ImageJ software (n = 3). To evaluate the actin expression in AM, the Vero cell band signal was subtracted from the AM band signal; MW: molecular weight markers.

    Journal: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

    Article Title: Actin expression in trypanosomatids (Euglenozoa: Kinetoplastea)

    doi: 10.1590/0074-0276108052013015

    Figure Lengend Snippet: western blot using the Trypanosoma cruzi actin gene (TcActin) antibody. A: different trypanosomatids were probed with detection of a single band of about 42 kDa, except for Phytomonas serpens (Lane 7) where two close faint bands could be observed. Lanes 1-8 contained 10 7 cells (1: T. cruzi ; 2: Trypanosoma brucei ; 3: Leishmania major ; 4: Strigomonas culicis ; 5: Crithidia fasciculata ; 6: Angomonas deanei with symbiont; 7: Phytomonas serpens ; 8: Herpetomonas samuelpessoai ); B: different T. cruzi stages probed against the anti-TcActin antibody (upper bands) and an anti-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase antibody (lower bands) [1: culture epimastigote (CE) in liver infusion tryptose (LIT) medium; 2: metacyclic trypomastigote (MT); 3: amastigote (AM); 4: Vero cells (actin control); 1-4 contained 15 µg protein/lane]; C: actin expression level as evaluated by integrated density of protein bands (using GAPDH band as normaliser) analysed by the ImageJ software (n = 3). To evaluate the actin expression in AM, the Vero cell band signal was subtracted from the AM band signal; MW: molecular weight markers.

    Article Snippet: To obtain amastigote forms, metacyclic trypomastigotes derived in vitro were used to infect Vero cells (ATCC CRL-1586), which were then cultivated in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's medium (Sigma) supplemented with 5% FBS and incubated in a humidified atmosphere with 5% CO2 at 37°C.

    Techniques: Western Blot, Expressing, Software, Molecular Weight

    Anti-SARS-CoV-2 profile of selected artemisinins. Vero E6 cells were infected with SARS-CoV-2 at an MOI of 0.01 for treatment with different doses of the indicated antivirals for 24 h. The viral yield in the cell supernatant was then quantified by qRT-PCR. The cytotoxicity of these drugs against Vero E6 cells was measured by performing CCK-8 assays. The red circles and lines indicate the percent inhibition of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The green squares indicate the percent cytotoxicity of the compounds. Results are representative of n = 6 and are shown as mean ± SEM. EC 50 and CC 50 for each compound were calculated by 4-parameter nonlinear regression model and were plotted by GraphPad.

    Journal: ACS Infectious Diseases

    Article Title: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Potential of Artemisinins In Vitro

    doi: 10.1021/acsinfecdis.0c00522

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 profile of selected artemisinins. Vero E6 cells were infected with SARS-CoV-2 at an MOI of 0.01 for treatment with different doses of the indicated antivirals for 24 h. The viral yield in the cell supernatant was then quantified by qRT-PCR. The cytotoxicity of these drugs against Vero E6 cells was measured by performing CCK-8 assays. The red circles and lines indicate the percent inhibition of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The green squares indicate the percent cytotoxicity of the compounds. Results are representative of n = 6 and are shown as mean ± SEM. EC 50 and CC 50 for each compound were calculated by 4-parameter nonlinear regression model and were plotted by GraphPad.

    Article Snippet: Cells and Virus Vero E6 cells (ATCC, no. 1586) were grown and maintained in minimum Eagle’s medium (Gibco Invitrogen) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (Gibco Invitrogen) at 37 °C in 5% CO2 .

    Techniques: Infection, Quantitative RT-PCR, CCK-8 Assay, Inhibition

    Immunoreactivity of wild type (wt) and mutant HTNV glycoproteins with individual anti-Gn and -Gc MAbs. Vero E6 cells were infected with vTF7-3 followed by transfection with wt HTNV M cDNA (pGEM-HTNM) or glycosylation site mutant cDNA as indicated. Cells were then labeled with 50 μCi of [ 35 S]methionine for 15 h and immunoprecipitated with a pair of anti-Gn and anti-Gc MAbs. The resulting immunoprecipitates were analyzed by SDS-10% PAGE under reducing conditions.

    Journal: Journal of Virology

    Article Title: Analysis of N-Linked Glycosylation of Hantaan Virus Glycoproteins and the Role of Oligosaccharide Side Chains in Protein Folding and Intracellular Trafficking

    doi: 10.1128/JVI.78.10.5414-5422.2004

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Immunoreactivity of wild type (wt) and mutant HTNV glycoproteins with individual anti-Gn and -Gc MAbs. Vero E6 cells were infected with vTF7-3 followed by transfection with wt HTNV M cDNA (pGEM-HTNM) or glycosylation site mutant cDNA as indicated. Cells were then labeled with 50 μCi of [ 35 S]methionine for 15 h and immunoprecipitated with a pair of anti-Gn and anti-Gc MAbs. The resulting immunoprecipitates were analyzed by SDS-10% PAGE under reducing conditions.

    Article Snippet: HeLaT4+ cells and Vero E6 cells (ATCC C1008) were grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagles's medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS).

    Techniques: Mutagenesis, Infection, Transfection, Labeling, Immunoprecipitation, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    Biochemical analyses of N-glycan chains on HTNV glycoproteins Gn and Gc. (A) DNJ blocks N-glycan trimming of Gn and Gc. Vero E6 cells were infected with vT-HTN M and radiolabeled with 50 μCi of [ 35 S]methionine for 15 h in the absence (lanes 1 to 3) or presence (lanes 4 to 6) of 2 mM DNJ, and cell lysates were immunoprecipitated with anti-Gn and -Gc MAbs. The resulting precipitates were subjected to digestion with endo H and PNGase F for 20 h as indicated and analyzed by SDS-10% PAGE under reducing conditions. The deglycosylated forms of Gn and Gc are marked dGn and dGc, respectively. (B) endo H and PNGase F digestion of HTNV glycoproteins labeled with [ 3 H]mannose. Vero E6 cells infected with vT-HTN M were labeled with 200 μCi of [ 3 H]mannose for 4 h, and cell lysates were reacted with anti-Gn and -Gc MAbs, followed by digestion with endo H and PNGase F. The gel was exposed for 60 days. (C) Effect of tunicamycin on glycosylation of HTNV glycoproteins. Vero E6 cells were infected with vTF7-3 and then mock transfected (lane 3) or transfected with HTNV M-segment cDNA tagged with FLAG. Cells were labeled with 50 μCi of [ 35 S]methionine for 15 h in the absence or presence of tunicamycin (2 μg/ml) and immunoprecipitated with anti-Gn and -Gc MAbs (lanes 1 to 3) or anti-FLAG and anti-Gc antibodies (lanes 4 to 7). The immunoprecipitates were subjected to digestion with endo H or PNGase F as indicated.

    Journal: Journal of Virology

    Article Title: Analysis of N-Linked Glycosylation of Hantaan Virus Glycoproteins and the Role of Oligosaccharide Side Chains in Protein Folding and Intracellular Trafficking

    doi: 10.1128/JVI.78.10.5414-5422.2004

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Biochemical analyses of N-glycan chains on HTNV glycoproteins Gn and Gc. (A) DNJ blocks N-glycan trimming of Gn and Gc. Vero E6 cells were infected with vT-HTN M and radiolabeled with 50 μCi of [ 35 S]methionine for 15 h in the absence (lanes 1 to 3) or presence (lanes 4 to 6) of 2 mM DNJ, and cell lysates were immunoprecipitated with anti-Gn and -Gc MAbs. The resulting precipitates were subjected to digestion with endo H and PNGase F for 20 h as indicated and analyzed by SDS-10% PAGE under reducing conditions. The deglycosylated forms of Gn and Gc are marked dGn and dGc, respectively. (B) endo H and PNGase F digestion of HTNV glycoproteins labeled with [ 3 H]mannose. Vero E6 cells infected with vT-HTN M were labeled with 200 μCi of [ 3 H]mannose for 4 h, and cell lysates were reacted with anti-Gn and -Gc MAbs, followed by digestion with endo H and PNGase F. The gel was exposed for 60 days. (C) Effect of tunicamycin on glycosylation of HTNV glycoproteins. Vero E6 cells were infected with vTF7-3 and then mock transfected (lane 3) or transfected with HTNV M-segment cDNA tagged with FLAG. Cells were labeled with 50 μCi of [ 35 S]methionine for 15 h in the absence or presence of tunicamycin (2 μg/ml) and immunoprecipitated with anti-Gn and -Gc MAbs (lanes 1 to 3) or anti-FLAG and anti-Gc antibodies (lanes 4 to 7). The immunoprecipitates were subjected to digestion with endo H or PNGase F as indicated.

    Article Snippet: HeLaT4+ cells and Vero E6 cells (ATCC C1008) were grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagles's medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS).

    Techniques: Infection, Immunoprecipitation, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Labeling, Transfection

    Association of HTNV glycoproteins with CNX and CRT. Vero E6 cells were infected with vTF7-3 followed by transfection with wild-type or N glycosylation site mutant HTNV M cDNAs and then labeled for 30 min with 50 μCi of [ 35 S]methionine in the absence (A and B, lanes 1, 3, 5, and 7; C, lanes 1 to 4) or presence (A and B, lanes 2, 4, 6, and 8) of DNJ. Cell lysates were divided into three aliquots for immunoprecipitation with anti-Gn/Gc (A), anti-CNX (B), or anti-CRT (C) antibodies. The resulting immunoprecipitates were analyzed by SDS-10% PAGE under reducing conditions.

    Journal: Journal of Virology

    Article Title: Analysis of N-Linked Glycosylation of Hantaan Virus Glycoproteins and the Role of Oligosaccharide Side Chains in Protein Folding and Intracellular Trafficking

    doi: 10.1128/JVI.78.10.5414-5422.2004

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Association of HTNV glycoproteins with CNX and CRT. Vero E6 cells were infected with vTF7-3 followed by transfection with wild-type or N glycosylation site mutant HTNV M cDNAs and then labeled for 30 min with 50 μCi of [ 35 S]methionine in the absence (A and B, lanes 1, 3, 5, and 7; C, lanes 1 to 4) or presence (A and B, lanes 2, 4, 6, and 8) of DNJ. Cell lysates were divided into three aliquots for immunoprecipitation with anti-Gn/Gc (A), anti-CNX (B), or anti-CRT (C) antibodies. The resulting immunoprecipitates were analyzed by SDS-10% PAGE under reducing conditions.

    Article Snippet: HeLaT4+ cells and Vero E6 cells (ATCC C1008) were grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagles's medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS).

    Techniques: Infection, Transfection, Mutagenesis, Labeling, Immunoprecipitation, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    Expression of single N glycosylation site mutants of HTNV glycoproteins. Vero E6 cells were infected with vTF7-3 followed by transfection with wild type (Wt) or mutated HTNV M cDNA. Cells were labeled with 50 μCi of [ 35 S]methionine for 15 h and then immunoprecipitated with anti-Gn and -Gc MAbs. Immunoprecipitates were analyzed by SDS-10% PAGE under reducing conditions.

    Journal: Journal of Virology

    Article Title: Analysis of N-Linked Glycosylation of Hantaan Virus Glycoproteins and the Role of Oligosaccharide Side Chains in Protein Folding and Intracellular Trafficking

    doi: 10.1128/JVI.78.10.5414-5422.2004

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Expression of single N glycosylation site mutants of HTNV glycoproteins. Vero E6 cells were infected with vTF7-3 followed by transfection with wild type (Wt) or mutated HTNV M cDNA. Cells were labeled with 50 μCi of [ 35 S]methionine for 15 h and then immunoprecipitated with anti-Gn and -Gc MAbs. Immunoprecipitates were analyzed by SDS-10% PAGE under reducing conditions.

    Article Snippet: HeLaT4+ cells and Vero E6 cells (ATCC C1008) were grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagles's medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS).

    Techniques: Expressing, Infection, Transfection, Labeling, Immunoprecipitation, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    Pulse-chase analysis of wild type (wt) and three N glycosylation site mutant glycoproteins. Vero E6 cells were infected with vTF7-3 followed by transfection with wt or mutant cDNA, labeled for 20 min with 80 μCi of [ 35 S]methionine (200 μCi/ml), and then incubated with excess unlabeled methionine for the indicated times. Cell lysates were immunoprecipitated with anti-Gn MAb 16D2 and two anti-Gc MAbs, 11E10 and HCO2. The resulting immunoprecipitates were analyzed by SDS-10% PAGE under reducing conditions (A) or by SDS-8% PAGE under nonreducing conditions (B).

    Journal: Journal of Virology

    Article Title: Analysis of N-Linked Glycosylation of Hantaan Virus Glycoproteins and the Role of Oligosaccharide Side Chains in Protein Folding and Intracellular Trafficking

    doi: 10.1128/JVI.78.10.5414-5422.2004

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Pulse-chase analysis of wild type (wt) and three N glycosylation site mutant glycoproteins. Vero E6 cells were infected with vTF7-3 followed by transfection with wt or mutant cDNA, labeled for 20 min with 80 μCi of [ 35 S]methionine (200 μCi/ml), and then incubated with excess unlabeled methionine for the indicated times. Cell lysates were immunoprecipitated with anti-Gn MAb 16D2 and two anti-Gc MAbs, 11E10 and HCO2. The resulting immunoprecipitates were analyzed by SDS-10% PAGE under reducing conditions (A) or by SDS-8% PAGE under nonreducing conditions (B).

    Article Snippet: HeLaT4+ cells and Vero E6 cells (ATCC C1008) were grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagles's medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS).

    Techniques: Pulse Chase, Mutagenesis, Infection, Transfection, Labeling, Incubation, Immunoprecipitation, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis