vancomycin resistant e faecium  (ATCC)


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    Structured Review

    ATCC vancomycin resistant e faecium
    Photodynamic inactivation studies employing PAN-Por (+) . ( A ) Gram-positive species: methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) ATCC-2913 and the vancomycin-resistant E. <t>faecium</t> (VRE) ATCC-2320 strain. ( B ) Gram-negative species: E. coli BL21-(Dε3)pLysS, K. pneumoniae ATCC-2146, and A. baumannii ATCC-19606. For both panels, displayed are the material-free (cells-only) dark control set to 100% (black), as well as the dark control of PAN-Por (+) (maroon) and the illuminated PAN-Por (+) (red) studies, both as the percent survival of the material-free (cells-only) dark control. For all bacteria, the illumination conditions were as follows: 30 min, 400–700 nm, 65 ± 5 mW/cm 2 (total fluence of 118 J/cm 2 ). As the plating technique employed to determine % survival did not allow for detection of survival rates of
    Vancomycin Resistant E Faecium, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Images

    1) Product Images from "Photosensitizer-Embedded Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibers as Antimicrobial Non-Woven Textile"

    Article Title: Photosensitizer-Embedded Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibers as Antimicrobial Non-Woven Textile

    Journal: Nanomaterials

    doi: 10.3390/nano6040077

    Photodynamic inactivation studies employing PAN-Por (+) . ( A ) Gram-positive species: methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) ATCC-2913 and the vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) ATCC-2320 strain. ( B ) Gram-negative species: E. coli BL21-(Dε3)pLysS, K. pneumoniae ATCC-2146, and A. baumannii ATCC-19606. For both panels, displayed are the material-free (cells-only) dark control set to 100% (black), as well as the dark control of PAN-Por (+) (maroon) and the illuminated PAN-Por (+) (red) studies, both as the percent survival of the material-free (cells-only) dark control. For all bacteria, the illumination conditions were as follows: 30 min, 400–700 nm, 65 ± 5 mW/cm 2 (total fluence of 118 J/cm 2 ). As the plating technique employed to determine % survival did not allow for detection of survival rates of
    Figure Legend Snippet: Photodynamic inactivation studies employing PAN-Por (+) . ( A ) Gram-positive species: methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) ATCC-2913 and the vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) ATCC-2320 strain. ( B ) Gram-negative species: E. coli BL21-(Dε3)pLysS, K. pneumoniae ATCC-2146, and A. baumannii ATCC-19606. For both panels, displayed are the material-free (cells-only) dark control set to 100% (black), as well as the dark control of PAN-Por (+) (maroon) and the illuminated PAN-Por (+) (red) studies, both as the percent survival of the material-free (cells-only) dark control. For all bacteria, the illumination conditions were as follows: 30 min, 400–700 nm, 65 ± 5 mW/cm 2 (total fluence of 118 J/cm 2 ). As the plating technique employed to determine % survival did not allow for detection of survival rates of

    Techniques Used:

    2) Product Images from "Innovative qPCR using interfacial effects to enable low threshold cycle detection and inhibition relief"

    Article Title: Innovative qPCR using interfacial effects to enable low threshold cycle detection and inhibition relief

    Journal: Science Advances

    doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1400061

    Interfacial tension and fluorescence qPCR inhibition of the IE model. ( A ) Protein concentrations of the aortic, mitral, and tricuspid valve sections excised from a porcine heart and ground using a micro–mortar and pestle. The total protein concentration of the tissue model is 1.6 ± 0.1 mg/ml. ( B ) The interfacial tensions (γ) of clean and contaminated PCR mixtures are 25.55 and 27.60 mN/m, respectively. ( C ) Free-body force diagram with the interfacial layer. The forces on the droplet include the interfacial tension force ( F γ ), the buoyancy force ( F B ), the weight of the droplet ( F mg ), and the thermocouple force ( F TC ). ( D ) Fluorescence qPCR amplification curves for 16 S rRNA hypervariable regions V1-V2 and vanA gene from intact vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) with and without tissue contamination. The C t values for 16 S rRNA V1-V2 without tissue, 16 S rRNA V1-V2 with tissue, vanA without tissue, and vanA with tissue are 28.4, 30.0, 34.0, and 39.4, respectively. The tissue contamination inhibits fluorescence qPCR, as seen by the upward shift of 1.6 cycles for the 16 S rRNA V1-V2 target and 5.4 cycles for the vanA target. Additionally, NTC samples for each primer set are plotted. ( E ) Protein diffusion to the interface is calculated on the basis of typical blood and tissue concentrations, using diffusivities from literature and Fick’s equation. For comparison, the diffusion of Taq polymerase to the interface is also calculated. ( F and G ) The porcine heart from which heart valves were excised, sectioned, inoculated, ground, and used as the PCR target.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Interfacial tension and fluorescence qPCR inhibition of the IE model. ( A ) Protein concentrations of the aortic, mitral, and tricuspid valve sections excised from a porcine heart and ground using a micro–mortar and pestle. The total protein concentration of the tissue model is 1.6 ± 0.1 mg/ml. ( B ) The interfacial tensions (γ) of clean and contaminated PCR mixtures are 25.55 and 27.60 mN/m, respectively. ( C ) Free-body force diagram with the interfacial layer. The forces on the droplet include the interfacial tension force ( F γ ), the buoyancy force ( F B ), the weight of the droplet ( F mg ), and the thermocouple force ( F TC ). ( D ) Fluorescence qPCR amplification curves for 16 S rRNA hypervariable regions V1-V2 and vanA gene from intact vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) with and without tissue contamination. The C t values for 16 S rRNA V1-V2 without tissue, 16 S rRNA V1-V2 with tissue, vanA without tissue, and vanA with tissue are 28.4, 30.0, 34.0, and 39.4, respectively. The tissue contamination inhibits fluorescence qPCR, as seen by the upward shift of 1.6 cycles for the 16 S rRNA V1-V2 target and 5.4 cycles for the vanA target. Additionally, NTC samples for each primer set are plotted. ( E ) Protein diffusion to the interface is calculated on the basis of typical blood and tissue concentrations, using diffusivities from literature and Fick’s equation. For comparison, the diffusion of Taq polymerase to the interface is also calculated. ( F and G ) The porcine heart from which heart valves were excised, sectioned, inoculated, ground, and used as the PCR target.

    Techniques Used: Fluorescence, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Inhibition, Protein Concentration, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Diffusion-based Assay

    Specificity, limit of detection, and speed of DOT thermocycling. ( A ) Gel electropherogram showing the differentiation of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) and vancomycin-sensitive E. faecalis (VSE) by multiplexed amplification of the 377-bp vanA amplicon directly from bacterial culture. Simultaneous thermocycling was achieved by mounting three droplets on different thermocouples on the same motor arm. Lane 1, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder; lane 2, VRE; lane 3, VSE; lane 4, NTC; lane 5, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder. ( B ) Gel electropherogram showing the limit of detection at the sub-picogram level by amplification of the 196-bp 16 S rRNA V3 amplicon from 0.7 pg of K. pneumoniae genomic DNA (equivalent to 1.4 × 10 2 genomic copies) at a speed of 48 s/cycle. Lane 1, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder; lane 2, 0.7-pg genomic DNA. ( C ) Gel electropherogram showing rapid amplification of the 16 S rRNA V3 amplicon and vanA amplicon in the presence of tissue contaminants in 30 cycles. Lane 1, vanA amplified at 40 s/cycle (20 min) from 7 × 10 5 CFU VRE inoculated to valve tissue (V3 amplified from 7 × 10 5 CFU VRE inoculated to valve tissue); lane 2, at 40 s/cycle (20 min); lane 3, at 32 s/cycle (16 min); lane 4, at 28 s/cycle (14 min); lane 5, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder (see Fig. 2D for V3 NTC results).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Specificity, limit of detection, and speed of DOT thermocycling. ( A ) Gel electropherogram showing the differentiation of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) and vancomycin-sensitive E. faecalis (VSE) by multiplexed amplification of the 377-bp vanA amplicon directly from bacterial culture. Simultaneous thermocycling was achieved by mounting three droplets on different thermocouples on the same motor arm. Lane 1, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder; lane 2, VRE; lane 3, VSE; lane 4, NTC; lane 5, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder. ( B ) Gel electropherogram showing the limit of detection at the sub-picogram level by amplification of the 196-bp 16 S rRNA V3 amplicon from 0.7 pg of K. pneumoniae genomic DNA (equivalent to 1.4 × 10 2 genomic copies) at a speed of 48 s/cycle. Lane 1, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder; lane 2, 0.7-pg genomic DNA. ( C ) Gel electropherogram showing rapid amplification of the 16 S rRNA V3 amplicon and vanA amplicon in the presence of tissue contaminants in 30 cycles. Lane 1, vanA amplified at 40 s/cycle (20 min) from 7 × 10 5 CFU VRE inoculated to valve tissue (V3 amplified from 7 × 10 5 CFU VRE inoculated to valve tissue); lane 2, at 40 s/cycle (20 min); lane 3, at 32 s/cycle (16 min); lane 4, at 28 s/cycle (14 min); lane 5, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder (see Fig. 2D for V3 NTC results).

    Techniques Used: Amplification

    3) Product Images from "Innovative qPCR using interfacial effects to enable low threshold cycle detection and inhibition relief"

    Article Title: Innovative qPCR using interfacial effects to enable low threshold cycle detection and inhibition relief

    Journal: Science Advances

    doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1400061

    Interfacial tension and fluorescence qPCR inhibition of the IE model. ( A ) Protein concentrations of the aortic, mitral, and tricuspid valve sections excised from a porcine heart and ground using a micro–mortar and pestle. The total protein concentration of the tissue model is 1.6 ± 0.1 mg/ml. ( B ) The interfacial tensions (γ) of clean and contaminated PCR mixtures are 25.55 and 27.60 mN/m, respectively. ( C ) Free-body force diagram with the interfacial layer. The forces on the droplet include the interfacial tension force ( F γ ), the buoyancy force ( F B ), the weight of the droplet ( F mg ), and the thermocouple force ( F TC ). ( D ) Fluorescence qPCR amplification curves for 16 S rRNA hypervariable regions V1-V2 and vanA gene from intact vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) with and without tissue contamination. The C t values for 16 S rRNA V1-V2 without tissue, 16 S rRNA V1-V2 with tissue, vanA without tissue, and vanA with tissue are 28.4, 30.0, 34.0, and 39.4, respectively. The tissue contamination inhibits fluorescence qPCR, as seen by the upward shift of 1.6 cycles for the 16 S rRNA V1-V2 target and 5.4 cycles for the vanA target. Additionally, NTC samples for each primer set are plotted. ( E ) Protein diffusion to the interface is calculated on the basis of typical blood and tissue concentrations, using diffusivities from literature and Fick’s equation. For comparison, the diffusion of Taq polymerase to the interface is also calculated. ( F and G ) The porcine heart from which heart valves were excised, sectioned, inoculated, ground, and used as the PCR target.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Interfacial tension and fluorescence qPCR inhibition of the IE model. ( A ) Protein concentrations of the aortic, mitral, and tricuspid valve sections excised from a porcine heart and ground using a micro–mortar and pestle. The total protein concentration of the tissue model is 1.6 ± 0.1 mg/ml. ( B ) The interfacial tensions (γ) of clean and contaminated PCR mixtures are 25.55 and 27.60 mN/m, respectively. ( C ) Free-body force diagram with the interfacial layer. The forces on the droplet include the interfacial tension force ( F γ ), the buoyancy force ( F B ), the weight of the droplet ( F mg ), and the thermocouple force ( F TC ). ( D ) Fluorescence qPCR amplification curves for 16 S rRNA hypervariable regions V1-V2 and vanA gene from intact vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) with and without tissue contamination. The C t values for 16 S rRNA V1-V2 without tissue, 16 S rRNA V1-V2 with tissue, vanA without tissue, and vanA with tissue are 28.4, 30.0, 34.0, and 39.4, respectively. The tissue contamination inhibits fluorescence qPCR, as seen by the upward shift of 1.6 cycles for the 16 S rRNA V1-V2 target and 5.4 cycles for the vanA target. Additionally, NTC samples for each primer set are plotted. ( E ) Protein diffusion to the interface is calculated on the basis of typical blood and tissue concentrations, using diffusivities from literature and Fick’s equation. For comparison, the diffusion of Taq polymerase to the interface is also calculated. ( F and G ) The porcine heart from which heart valves were excised, sectioned, inoculated, ground, and used as the PCR target.

    Techniques Used: Fluorescence, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Inhibition, Protein Concentration, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Diffusion-based Assay

    Specificity, limit of detection, and speed of DOT thermocycling. ( A ) Gel electropherogram showing the differentiation of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) and vancomycin-sensitive E. faecalis (VSE) by multiplexed amplification of the 377-bp vanA amplicon directly from bacterial culture. Simultaneous thermocycling was achieved by mounting three droplets on different thermocouples on the same motor arm. Lane 1, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder; lane 2, VRE; lane 3, VSE; lane 4, NTC; lane 5, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder. ( B ) Gel electropherogram showing the limit of detection at the sub-picogram level by amplification of the 196-bp 16 S rRNA V3 amplicon from 0.7 pg of K. pneumoniae genomic DNA (equivalent to 1.4 × 10 2 genomic copies) at a speed of 48 s/cycle. Lane 1, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder; lane 2, 0.7-pg genomic DNA. ( C ) Gel electropherogram showing rapid amplification of the 16 S rRNA V3 amplicon and vanA amplicon in the presence of tissue contaminants in 30 cycles. Lane 1, vanA amplified at 40 s/cycle (20 min) from 7 × 10 5 CFU VRE inoculated to valve tissue (V3 amplified from 7 × 10 5 CFU VRE inoculated to valve tissue); lane 2, at 40 s/cycle (20 min); lane 3, at 32 s/cycle (16 min); lane 4, at 28 s/cycle (14 min); lane 5, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder (see Fig. 2D for V3 NTC results).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Specificity, limit of detection, and speed of DOT thermocycling. ( A ) Gel electropherogram showing the differentiation of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) and vancomycin-sensitive E. faecalis (VSE) by multiplexed amplification of the 377-bp vanA amplicon directly from bacterial culture. Simultaneous thermocycling was achieved by mounting three droplets on different thermocouples on the same motor arm. Lane 1, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder; lane 2, VRE; lane 3, VSE; lane 4, NTC; lane 5, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder. ( B ) Gel electropherogram showing the limit of detection at the sub-picogram level by amplification of the 196-bp 16 S rRNA V3 amplicon from 0.7 pg of K. pneumoniae genomic DNA (equivalent to 1.4 × 10 2 genomic copies) at a speed of 48 s/cycle. Lane 1, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder; lane 2, 0.7-pg genomic DNA. ( C ) Gel electropherogram showing rapid amplification of the 16 S rRNA V3 amplicon and vanA amplicon in the presence of tissue contaminants in 30 cycles. Lane 1, vanA amplified at 40 s/cycle (20 min) from 7 × 10 5 CFU VRE inoculated to valve tissue (V3 amplified from 7 × 10 5 CFU VRE inoculated to valve tissue); lane 2, at 40 s/cycle (20 min); lane 3, at 32 s/cycle (16 min); lane 4, at 28 s/cycle (14 min); lane 5, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder (see Fig. 2D for V3 NTC results).

    Techniques Used: Amplification

    Related Articles

    Centrifugation:

    Article Title: Innovative qPCR using interfacial effects to enable low threshold cycle detection and inhibition relief
    Article Snippet: .. Vancomycin-sensitive E. faecalis (VSE, ATCC 33186) and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE, Enterococcus ATCC 700221) were propagated, according to the procedure outlined in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) product sheet, to 108 CFU/ml, pelleted by centrifugation at 6000g for 10 min, resuspended in 100 μl of molecular grade water, and heat-killed at 95°C for 15 min. Purified K. pneumoniae strain Z026 genomic DNA was purchased from ZeptoMetrix. .. The plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance gene vanA was targeted by the following vanA primers ( ): forward, 5′-TCTGCAATAGAGATAGCCGC-3′; reverse, 5′-GGAGTAGCTATCCCAGCATT-3′.

    Amplification:

    Article Title: Innovative qPCR using interfacial effects to enable low threshold cycle detection and inhibition relief
    Article Snippet: Vancomycin-sensitive E. faecalis (VSE, ATCC 33186) and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE, Enterococcus ATCC 700221) were propagated, according to the procedure outlined in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) product sheet, to 108 CFU/ml, pelleted by centrifugation at 6000g for 10 min, resuspended in 100 μl of molecular grade water, and heat-killed at 95°C for 15 min. Purified K. pneumoniae strain Z026 genomic DNA was purchased from ZeptoMetrix. .. The vanA amplicon was 377 bp in length.

    Article Title: Characterization of Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci in Hospitalized Patients and Role of Gut Colonization
    Article Snippet: Briefly initial denaturation at 94°C for five minutes followed by 30 cycles of denaturation at 94°C for one minute, annealing temperature (differs according to the genes) for one minute, amplification at 72°C for one minute for 30 cycles and final extension at 72°C for 10 minutes. .. The quality control strains used were Staphylococcus aureus ATCC® 25923™ , E. faecalis ATCC® 29212™ , E. faecalis ATCC® 51299™ , E. faecium ATCC® 700221™ , E. faecium ATCC® 19434™ .

    X-ray Spectroscopy:

    Article Title: Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Using the Endophytic Bacterium Pantoea ananatis are Promising Antimicrobial Agents against Multidrug Resistant Bacteria
    Article Snippet: The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), and Zeta potential. .. The antimicrobial potential of the AgNPs against pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus (ATCC 11632), Bacillus cereus (ATCC 10876), Escherichia coli (ATCC 10536), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 10145) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), and multidrug resistant (MDR) Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 700677), Enterococcus faecium (ATCC 700221) Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 33592) Escherichia coli (NCTC 13351) was investigated.

    Positive Control:

    Article Title: Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Using the Endophytic Bacterium Pantoea ananatis are Promising Antimicrobial Agents against Multidrug Resistant Bacteria
    Article Snippet: On the other hand, the synthesized AgNPs exhibited lower ZOIs of 15.12 ± 0.08 mm (MIC: 3.25 μg/mL) and 8.02 ± 0.08 mm (MIC: 1.75 µg/mL) against the Gram negative bacteria E. coli (ATCC 10536) and P. aeruginosa (ATCC 10145), respectively, in comparison to ciprofloxacin (5 μg/disc) in the positive control group. .. The synthesized AgNPs were found to exhibit a pronounced antibacterial activity against MDR strains of S. pneumonia (ATCC 700677), E. faecium (ATCC 700221), S. aureus subsp. aureus (ATCC 33592) and E. coli (NCTC 13351) with ZOIs of 10.20 ± 0.07 mm (MIC: 2.75 μg/mL), 12.16 ± 0.05 mm (MIC: 2.25 µg/mL) and 12.24 ± 0.05 mm (MIC: 3.5 µg/mL), respectively.

    Synthesized:

    Article Title: Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Using the Endophytic Bacterium Pantoea ananatis are Promising Antimicrobial Agents against Multidrug Resistant Bacteria
    Article Snippet: .. The synthesized AgNPs were found to exhibit a pronounced antibacterial activity against MDR strains of S. pneumonia (ATCC 700677), E. faecium (ATCC 700221), S. aureus subsp. aureus (ATCC 33592) and E. coli (NCTC 13351) with ZOIs of 10.20 ± 0.07 mm (MIC: 2.75 μg/mL), 12.16 ± 0.05 mm (MIC: 2.25 µg/mL) and 12.24 ± 0.05 mm (MIC: 3.5 µg/mL), respectively. .. No significant difference was found (p < 0.05) in the mean ZOI with the synthesized AgNPs between E. faecium (ATCC 700221) and E. coli (NCTC 13351), and S. pneumoniae (ATCC700677) and S. aureus subsp. aureus (ATCC33592).

    Article Title: Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Using the Endophytic Bacterium Pantoea ananatis are Promising Antimicrobial Agents against Multidrug Resistant Bacteria
    Article Snippet: The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), and Zeta potential. .. The antimicrobial potential of the AgNPs against pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus (ATCC 11632), Bacillus cereus (ATCC 10876), Escherichia coli (ATCC 10536), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 10145) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), and multidrug resistant (MDR) Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 700677), Enterococcus faecium (ATCC 700221) Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 33592) Escherichia coli (NCTC 13351) was investigated.

    Article Title: Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Using the Endophytic Bacterium Pantoea ananatis are Promising Antimicrobial Agents against Multidrug Resistant Bacteria
    Article Snippet: .. No significant difference was found (p < 0.05) in the mean ZOI with the synthesized AgNPs between E. faecium (ATCC 700221) and E. coli (NCTC 13351), and S. pneumoniae (ATCC700677) and S. aureus subsp. aureus (ATCC33592). .. On the other hand, the antifungal activity of the synthesized AgNPs against the pathogenic fungus, C. albicans (ATCC 10231) was promising with a ZOI of 7.16 ± 0.09 mm (MIC: 1.75 µg/mL), while the pathogen was found to be resistant in the control group treated with itraconazole (10 µg/disc).

    Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction:

    Article Title: Innovative qPCR using interfacial effects to enable low threshold cycle detection and inhibition relief
    Article Snippet: The real-time PCR (qPCR) modalities are termed fluorescence qPCR and DOTS qPCR. .. Vancomycin-sensitive E. faecalis (VSE, ATCC 33186) and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE, Enterococcus ATCC 700221) were propagated, according to the procedure outlined in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) product sheet, to 108 CFU/ml, pelleted by centrifugation at 6000g for 10 min, resuspended in 100 μl of molecular grade water, and heat-killed at 95°C for 15 min. Purified K. pneumoniae strain Z026 genomic DNA was purchased from ZeptoMetrix.

    Incubation:

    Article Title: Innovative qPCR using interfacial effects to enable low threshold cycle detection and inhibition relief
    Article Snippet: To ensure sterility, the valve sections were incubated overnight on a 12-well tissue culture plate in antibiotic-containing M199 tissue culture medium at 4°C. .. The sections were inoculated with 10 μl of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE, ATCC 700221) in nuclease-free water at 109 CFU/ml, and then 10 μl of nuclease-free water was added.

    Article Title: Defining conditions for biofilm inhibition and eradication assays for Gram-positive clinical reference strains
    Article Snippet: Assessment of biofilm biomass and cell numbers In this study, biofilm production of six bacterial strains (Table ) on six different media: MHB, TS, TSG, TS2G, BHI, BHIG, after 24 h and 48 h incubation for Staphylococci and Enterococci , respectively, was evaluated. .. Both E. faecium strains had the lowest biofilm mass in MHB compared with other tested strains, with an average of 0.149 for E. faecium ATCC 35667 (Fig. ) and 0.109 for vancomycin resistant E. faecium (VRE) ATCC 700221 (Fig. ).

    Activity Assay:

    Article Title: Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Using the Endophytic Bacterium Pantoea ananatis are Promising Antimicrobial Agents against Multidrug Resistant Bacteria
    Article Snippet: .. The synthesized AgNPs were found to exhibit a pronounced antibacterial activity against MDR strains of S. pneumonia (ATCC 700677), E. faecium (ATCC 700221), S. aureus subsp. aureus (ATCC 33592) and E. coli (NCTC 13351) with ZOIs of 10.20 ± 0.07 mm (MIC: 2.75 μg/mL), 12.16 ± 0.05 mm (MIC: 2.25 µg/mL) and 12.24 ± 0.05 mm (MIC: 3.5 µg/mL), respectively. .. No significant difference was found (p < 0.05) in the mean ZOI with the synthesized AgNPs between E. faecium (ATCC 700221) and E. coli (NCTC 13351), and S. pneumoniae (ATCC700677) and S. aureus subsp. aureus (ATCC33592).

    Article Title: Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Using the Endophytic Bacterium Pantoea ananatis are Promising Antimicrobial Agents against Multidrug Resistant Bacteria
    Article Snippet: The antimicrobial potential of the AgNPs against pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus (ATCC 11632), Bacillus cereus (ATCC 10876), Escherichia coli (ATCC 10536), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 10145) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), and multidrug resistant (MDR) Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 700677), Enterococcus faecium (ATCC 700221) Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 33592) Escherichia coli (NCTC 13351) was investigated. .. The synthesized spherical-shaped AgNPs with a size range of 8.06 nm to 91.32 nm exhibited significant antimicrobial activity at 6 μg/disc concentration against Bacillus cereus (ATCC 10876) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) which were found to be resistant to conventional antibiotics.

    Article Title: Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Using the Endophytic Bacterium Pantoea ananatis are Promising Antimicrobial Agents against Multidrug Resistant Bacteria
    Article Snippet: The synthesized AgNPs were found to exhibit a pronounced antibacterial activity against MDR strains of S. pneumonia (ATCC 700677), E. faecium (ATCC 700221), S. aureus subsp. aureus (ATCC 33592) and E. coli (NCTC 13351) with ZOIs of 10.20 ± 0.07 mm (MIC: 2.75 μg/mL), 12.16 ± 0.05 mm (MIC: 2.25 µg/mL) and 12.24 ± 0.05 mm (MIC: 3.5 µg/mL), respectively. .. No significant difference was found (p < 0.05) in the mean ZOI with the synthesized AgNPs between E. faecium (ATCC 700221) and E. coli (NCTC 13351), and S. pneumoniae (ATCC700677) and S. aureus subsp. aureus (ATCC33592).

    Article Title: A Novel Antimicrobial–Phytochemical Conjugate With Antimicrobial Activity Against Streptococcus uberis, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus faecalis
    Article Snippet: .. Hybrid 1 not only showed much stronger activity than sulfamethoxazole towards Streptococcus uberis 19436, Enterococcus faecium 700221, and Enterococcus faecalis 29212, which were purchased from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), but also exhibited a promising antimicrobial effect against two E. faecalis clinical isolates, one of which was multidrug-resistant. .. Further studies are warranted to establish the in vivo antimicrobial activity for Hybrid 1 and develop more potent sulfamethoxazole–gallic acid-based antimicrobial conjugates using hybrid 1 as a lead compound.

    Infection:

    Article Title: Phenylthiazole Antibacterial Agents Targeting Cell Wall Synthesis Exhibit Potent Activity In Vitro and In Vivo against Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci
    Article Snippet: However, combination therapy using two or more antibiotics has multiple potential advantages over monotherapy including reducing the size and frequency of doses needed to resolve infection, and mitigating toxicity issues associated with single agents (such as vancomycin). .. Phenylthiazole 1 was able to resensitize E. faecium ATCC 700221 to the effect of vancomycin —a 256-fold decrease in the MIC being observed ( ).

    Sterility:

    Article Title: Innovative qPCR using interfacial effects to enable low threshold cycle detection and inhibition relief
    Article Snippet: To ensure sterility, the valve sections were incubated overnight on a 12-well tissue culture plate in antibiotic-containing M199 tissue culture medium at 4°C. .. The sections were inoculated with 10 μl of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE, ATCC 700221) in nuclease-free water at 109 CFU/ml, and then 10 μl of nuclease-free water was added.

    Electron Microscopy:

    Article Title: Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Using the Endophytic Bacterium Pantoea ananatis are Promising Antimicrobial Agents against Multidrug Resistant Bacteria
    Article Snippet: The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), and Zeta potential. .. The antimicrobial potential of the AgNPs against pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus (ATCC 11632), Bacillus cereus (ATCC 10876), Escherichia coli (ATCC 10536), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 10145) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), and multidrug resistant (MDR) Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 700677), Enterococcus faecium (ATCC 700221) Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 33592) Escherichia coli (NCTC 13351) was investigated.

    Peptide Mass Fingerprinting:

    Article Title: Phenylthiazole Antibacterial Agents Targeting Cell Wall Synthesis Exhibit Potent Activity In Vitro and In Vivo against Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci
    Article Snippet: The roles of YubA and YubD are currently unknown, but based on bioinformatics and computational modeling they are both predicted to be transporters (with some template models being PMF-driven multi-drug efflux pumps). .. Closer inspection of the susceptibility data of these strains to vancomycin suggested one reason for this behavior: the MIC of vancomycin against E. faecium ATCC 700221 was 256 μg/mL, but in the remaining strains, the MIC of vancomycin was ≥ 512 μg/mL or higher.

    Cell Culture:

    Article Title: Antimicrobial Photodynamic therapy enhanced by the peptide aurein 1.2
    Article Snippet: E . faecalis was cultured in blood agar (defibrinated sheep blood 5%; BHI 2,6%; TSA 2%; yeast extract 1%) at 35 °C. .. Other strains used were: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC® 25923™), Acinetobacter baumannii (ATCC® 19606™), Escherichia coli (ATCC® 25922™) and Enterococcus faecium VRE (ATCC® 700221™), all kindly provided by Dr. Nilton Lincopan (Biomedical Sciences Institute of the University of Sao Paulo).

    Article Title: Antimicrobial Photodynamic therapy enhanced by the peptide aurein 1.2
    Article Snippet: E . faecalis was cultured in blood agar (defibrinated sheep blood 5%; BHI 2,6%; TSA 2%; yeast extract 1%) at 35 °C. .. Other strains used were: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC® 25923™), Acinetobacter baumannii (ATCC® 19606™), Escherichia coli (ATCC® 25922™) and Enterococcus faecium VRE (ATCC® 700221™), all kindly provided by Dr. Nilton Lincopan (Biomedical Sciences Institute of the University of Sao Paulo).

    Inhibition:

    Article Title: Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Using the Endophytic Bacterium Pantoea ananatis are Promising Antimicrobial Agents against Multidrug Resistant Bacteria
    Article Snippet: The zones of inhibition (ZOI) displayed by the synthesized AgNPs for different pathogenic microorganisms in the present study was significantly different (p < 0.05). .. The synthesized AgNPs were found to exhibit a pronounced antibacterial activity against MDR strains of S. pneumonia (ATCC 700677), E. faecium (ATCC 700221), S. aureus subsp. aureus (ATCC 33592) and E. coli (NCTC 13351) with ZOIs of 10.20 ± 0.07 mm (MIC: 2.75 μg/mL), 12.16 ± 0.05 mm (MIC: 2.25 µg/mL) and 12.24 ± 0.05 mm (MIC: 3.5 µg/mL), respectively.

    Article Title: Innovative qPCR using interfacial effects to enable low threshold cycle detection and inhibition relief
    Article Snippet: The sections were inoculated with 10 μl of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE, ATCC 700221) in nuclease-free water at 109 CFU/ml, and then 10 μl of nuclease-free water was added. .. To evaluate the inhibition effect of the tissue contamination, the Applied Biosystems ABI Prism 7000 Sequence Detection System was used, and the C t values were calculated with an F t of 1.0.

    Transmission Assay:

    Article Title: Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Using the Endophytic Bacterium Pantoea ananatis are Promising Antimicrobial Agents against Multidrug Resistant Bacteria
    Article Snippet: The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), and Zeta potential. .. The antimicrobial potential of the AgNPs against pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus (ATCC 11632), Bacillus cereus (ATCC 10876), Escherichia coli (ATCC 10536), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 10145) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), and multidrug resistant (MDR) Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 700677), Enterococcus faecium (ATCC 700221) Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 33592) Escherichia coli (NCTC 13351) was investigated.

    Polymerase Chain Reaction:

    Article Title: Innovative qPCR using interfacial effects to enable low threshold cycle detection and inhibition relief
    Article Snippet: Paragraph title: Polymerase chain reaction ... Vancomycin-sensitive E. faecalis (VSE, ATCC 33186) and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE, Enterococcus ATCC 700221) were propagated, according to the procedure outlined in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) product sheet, to 108 CFU/ml, pelleted by centrifugation at 6000g for 10 min, resuspended in 100 μl of molecular grade water, and heat-killed at 95°C for 15 min. Purified K. pneumoniae strain Z026 genomic DNA was purchased from ZeptoMetrix.

    Article Title: Innovative qPCR using interfacial effects to enable low threshold cycle detection and inhibition relief
    Article Snippet: To prepare the tissue samples for PCR, the valve sections were thawed, the tissue culture medium was removed, and the tissue was washed twice with nuclease-free water. .. The sections were inoculated with 10 μl of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE, ATCC 700221) in nuclease-free water at 109 CFU/ml, and then 10 μl of nuclease-free water was added.

    Article Title: Characterization of Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci in Hospitalized Patients and Role of Gut Colonization
    Article Snippet: Each 25 μL reaction mixture contained 2.5 μL 10X PCR buffer, 2.5 μL 1.5 mmol MgCl2 , 2 μL 0.2 mmol dNTPmix, 0.5 μL of 10 pmol each of forward and reverse primers, 0.2 μL Taq DNA polymerase (1 unit/reaction) and sterile double distilled water to make the final volume. .. The quality control strains used were Staphylococcus aureus ATCC® 25923™ , E. faecalis ATCC® 29212™ , E. faecalis ATCC® 51299™ , E. faecium ATCC® 700221™ , E. faecium ATCC® 19434™ .

    Transmission Electron Microscopy:

    Article Title: Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Using the Endophytic Bacterium Pantoea ananatis are Promising Antimicrobial Agents against Multidrug Resistant Bacteria
    Article Snippet: The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), and Zeta potential. .. The antimicrobial potential of the AgNPs against pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus (ATCC 11632), Bacillus cereus (ATCC 10876), Escherichia coli (ATCC 10536), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 10145) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), and multidrug resistant (MDR) Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 700677), Enterococcus faecium (ATCC 700221) Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 33592) Escherichia coli (NCTC 13351) was investigated.

    In Vivo:

    Article Title: A Novel Antimicrobial–Phytochemical Conjugate With Antimicrobial Activity Against Streptococcus uberis, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus faecalis
    Article Snippet: Hybrid 1 not only showed much stronger activity than sulfamethoxazole towards Streptococcus uberis 19436, Enterococcus faecium 700221, and Enterococcus faecalis 29212, which were purchased from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), but also exhibited a promising antimicrobial effect against two E. faecalis clinical isolates, one of which was multidrug-resistant. .. Further studies are warranted to establish the in vivo antimicrobial activity for Hybrid 1 and develop more potent sulfamethoxazole–gallic acid-based antimicrobial conjugates using hybrid 1 as a lead compound.

    Fluorescence:

    Article Title: Innovative qPCR using interfacial effects to enable low threshold cycle detection and inhibition relief
    Article Snippet: The real-time PCR (qPCR) modalities are termed fluorescence qPCR and DOTS qPCR. .. Vancomycin-sensitive E. faecalis (VSE, ATCC 33186) and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE, Enterococcus ATCC 700221) were propagated, according to the procedure outlined in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) product sheet, to 108 CFU/ml, pelleted by centrifugation at 6000g for 10 min, resuspended in 100 μl of molecular grade water, and heat-killed at 95°C for 15 min. Purified K. pneumoniae strain Z026 genomic DNA was purchased from ZeptoMetrix.

    Negative Control:

    Article Title: Characterization of Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci in Hospitalized Patients and Role of Gut Colonization
    Article Snippet: The quality control strains used were Staphylococcus aureus ATCC® 25923™ , E. faecalis ATCC® 29212™ , E. faecalis ATCC® 51299™ , E. faecium ATCC® 700221™ , E. faecium ATCC® 19434™ . .. Mili-Q water was used as negative control. (GenBank Accession number of VanA, VanB, VanC1-E. faecalis and E. faecium genes are , , , and respectively).

    Microscopy:

    Article Title: Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Using the Endophytic Bacterium Pantoea ananatis are Promising Antimicrobial Agents against Multidrug Resistant Bacteria
    Article Snippet: The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), and Zeta potential. .. The antimicrobial potential of the AgNPs against pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus (ATCC 11632), Bacillus cereus (ATCC 10876), Escherichia coli (ATCC 10536), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 10145) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), and multidrug resistant (MDR) Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 700677), Enterococcus faecium (ATCC 700221) Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 33592) Escherichia coli (NCTC 13351) was investigated.

    Purification:

    Article Title: Innovative qPCR using interfacial effects to enable low threshold cycle detection and inhibition relief
    Article Snippet: .. Vancomycin-sensitive E. faecalis (VSE, ATCC 33186) and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE, Enterococcus ATCC 700221) were propagated, according to the procedure outlined in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) product sheet, to 108 CFU/ml, pelleted by centrifugation at 6000g for 10 min, resuspended in 100 μl of molecular grade water, and heat-killed at 95°C for 15 min. Purified K. pneumoniae strain Z026 genomic DNA was purchased from ZeptoMetrix. .. The plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance gene vanA was targeted by the following vanA primers ( ): forward, 5′-TCTGCAATAGAGATAGCCGC-3′; reverse, 5′-GGAGTAGCTATCCCAGCATT-3′.

    Article Title: Innovative qPCR using interfacial effects to enable low threshold cycle detection and inhibition relief
    Article Snippet: The sections were inoculated with 10 μl of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE, ATCC 700221) in nuclease-free water at 109 CFU/ml, and then 10 μl of nuclease-free water was added. .. The liquid phase of the ground tissue was used as the PCR target without further purification.

    Sequencing:

    Article Title: Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Using the Endophytic Bacterium Pantoea ananatis are Promising Antimicrobial Agents against Multidrug Resistant Bacteria
    Article Snippet: The endophytic bacteria, Pantoea ananatis (GenBank accession no. HQ650772), identified earlier by 16S rRNA sequencing [ ], was obtained from the laboratory of the Faculty of Applied Sciences, AIMST University, Malaysia. .. Pathogenic bacterial strains of Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus (ATCC 11632), Bacillus cereus (ATCC 10876), Escherichia coli (ATCC 10536), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 10145), fungal strains of Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) and MDR strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 700677), Enterococcus faecium (ATCC 700221), Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus (ATCC 33592), Escherichia coli (NCTC13351) were obtained from Bio-Focus Saintifik Sdn Bhd, (Selangor, Malaysia).

    Article Title: Innovative qPCR using interfacial effects to enable low threshold cycle detection and inhibition relief
    Article Snippet: The sections were inoculated with 10 μl of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE, ATCC 700221) in nuclease-free water at 109 CFU/ml, and then 10 μl of nuclease-free water was added. .. To evaluate the inhibition effect of the tissue contamination, the Applied Biosystems ABI Prism 7000 Sequence Detection System was used, and the C t values were calculated with an F t of 1.0.

    Mouse Assay:

    Article Title: Cooperating commensals restore colonization resistance to vancomycin- resistant Enterococcus faecium
    Article Snippet: .. For VRE challenge, 6–8 week old female C57BL/6 mice from Jackson Laboratories were treated with 0.5 g/L ampicillin (Fisher) in their drinking water and inoculated with 5x104 VRE CFUs ( E. faecium , ATCC 700221) in 200μl by gavage. ..

    Plasmid Preparation:

    Article Title: Innovative qPCR using interfacial effects to enable low threshold cycle detection and inhibition relief
    Article Snippet: Vancomycin-sensitive E. faecalis (VSE, ATCC 33186) and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE, Enterococcus ATCC 700221) were propagated, according to the procedure outlined in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) product sheet, to 108 CFU/ml, pelleted by centrifugation at 6000g for 10 min, resuspended in 100 μl of molecular grade water, and heat-killed at 95°C for 15 min. Purified K. pneumoniae strain Z026 genomic DNA was purchased from ZeptoMetrix. .. The plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance gene vanA was targeted by the following vanA primers ( ): forward, 5′-TCTGCAATAGAGATAGCCGC-3′; reverse, 5′-GGAGTAGCTATCCCAGCATT-3′.

    Multiplex Assay:

    Article Title: Characterization of Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci in Hospitalized Patients and Role of Gut Colonization
    Article Snippet: The quality control strains used were Staphylococcus aureus ATCC® 25923™ , E. faecalis ATCC® 29212™ , E. faecalis ATCC® 51299™ , E. faecium ATCC® 700221™ , E. faecium ATCC® 19434™ . .. Multiplex PCR (Eppendorf, USA) was carried out to detect the presence of genes encoding for vancomycin resistance.

    Concentration Assay:

    Article Title: Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Using the Endophytic Bacterium Pantoea ananatis are Promising Antimicrobial Agents against Multidrug Resistant Bacteria
    Article Snippet: The antimicrobial potential of the AgNPs against pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus (ATCC 11632), Bacillus cereus (ATCC 10876), Escherichia coli (ATCC 10536), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 10145) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), and multidrug resistant (MDR) Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 700677), Enterococcus faecium (ATCC 700221) Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 33592) Escherichia coli (NCTC 13351) was investigated. .. The synthesized spherical-shaped AgNPs with a size range of 8.06 nm to 91.32 nm exhibited significant antimicrobial activity at 6 μg/disc concentration against Bacillus cereus (ATCC 10876) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) which were found to be resistant to conventional antibiotics.

    Article Title: Phenylthiazole Antibacterial Agents Targeting Cell Wall Synthesis Exhibit Potent Activity In Vitro and In Vivo against Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci
    Article Snippet: We therefore next examined whether VRE exposed to a sub-inhibitory concentration (½ × MIC) of compound 1 were resensitized to the effects of vancomycin and gentamicin. .. Phenylthiazole 1 was able to resensitize E. faecium ATCC 700221 to the effect of vancomycin —a 256-fold decrease in the MIC being observed ( ).

    Article Title: Phenylthiazole Antibacterial Agents Targeting Cell Wall Synthesis Exhibit Potent Activity In Vitro and In Vivo against Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci
    Article Snippet: .. Likewise, a sub-inhibitory concentration of 1 was unable to resensitize either E. faecium (ATCC 700221) or E. faecalis (ATCC 51299) to the effect of gentamicin (data not shown). ..

    Article Title: Phenylthiazole Antibacterial Agents Targeting Cell Wall Synthesis Exhibit Potent Activity In Vitro and In Vivo against Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci
    Article Snippet: When similar experiments were conducted with compound 1 against VRE, only one strain of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (ATCC 700221) was resensitized, with a large improvement in the MIC being observed in the presence of a sub-inhibitory concentration of 1 . .. Closer inspection of the susceptibility data of these strains to vancomycin suggested one reason for this behavior: the MIC of vancomycin against E. faecium ATCC 700221 was 256 μg/mL, but in the remaining strains, the MIC of vancomycin was ≥ 512 μg/mL or higher.

    UV-Vis Spectroscopy:

    Article Title: Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Using the Endophytic Bacterium Pantoea ananatis are Promising Antimicrobial Agents against Multidrug Resistant Bacteria
    Article Snippet: The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), and Zeta potential. .. The antimicrobial potential of the AgNPs against pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus (ATCC 11632), Bacillus cereus (ATCC 10876), Escherichia coli (ATCC 10536), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 10145) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), and multidrug resistant (MDR) Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 700677), Enterococcus faecium (ATCC 700221) Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 33592) Escherichia coli (NCTC 13351) was investigated.

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    ATCC vancomycin resistant e faecium vre atcc 700221
    Assessment of metabolic activity of biofilm cells by resazurin. Quantification of biofilm production of six bacterial strains, using three concentrations of resazurin solution (2, 4 and 8 μg/mL): ( a ) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, ( c ) Enterococcus <t>faecium</t> ATCC 35667, ( d ) Enterococcus faecium <t>VRE</t> ATCC 700221, ( e ) Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, ( F ) Enterococcus faecalis VRE ATCC 51575, incubated at 25 °C and 37 °C. Relative fluorescence measurements were taken at 20, 40, 60 and 80 min
    Vancomycin Resistant E Faecium Vre Atcc 700221, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/vancomycin resistant e faecium vre atcc 700221/product/ATCC
    Average 99 stars, based on 6 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    vancomycin resistant e faecium vre atcc 700221 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-03
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    99
    ATCC e faecium atcc 51299
    Bacterial reduction ( BR ) vs. time of the Cu plate, Al plate and Cu-dotted oxide coating tested with (a) E. coli ATCC 25922, (b) MRSA ATCC 43300 and (c) E. <t>faecium</t> <t>ATCC</t> 51299 . The oxide coatings without Cu were also included in (b) and (c).
    E Faecium Atcc 51299, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/e faecium atcc 51299/product/ATCC
    Average 99 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    e faecium atcc 51299 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-03
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    Assessment of metabolic activity of biofilm cells by resazurin. Quantification of biofilm production of six bacterial strains, using three concentrations of resazurin solution (2, 4 and 8 μg/mL): ( a ) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, ( c ) Enterococcus faecium ATCC 35667, ( d ) Enterococcus faecium VRE ATCC 700221, ( e ) Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, ( F ) Enterococcus faecalis VRE ATCC 51575, incubated at 25 °C and 37 °C. Relative fluorescence measurements were taken at 20, 40, 60 and 80 min

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: Defining conditions for biofilm inhibition and eradication assays for Gram-positive clinical reference strains

    doi: 10.1186/s12866-018-1321-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Assessment of metabolic activity of biofilm cells by resazurin. Quantification of biofilm production of six bacterial strains, using three concentrations of resazurin solution (2, 4 and 8 μg/mL): ( a ) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, ( c ) Enterococcus faecium ATCC 35667, ( d ) Enterococcus faecium VRE ATCC 700221, ( e ) Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, ( F ) Enterococcus faecalis VRE ATCC 51575, incubated at 25 °C and 37 °C. Relative fluorescence measurements were taken at 20, 40, 60 and 80 min

    Article Snippet: Both E. faecium strains had the lowest biofilm mass in MHB compared with other tested strains, with an average of 0.149 for E. faecium ATCC 35667 (Fig. ) and 0.109 for vancomycin resistant E. faecium (VRE) ATCC 700221 (Fig. ).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Incubation, Fluorescence

    Assessment of biofilm biomass by crystal violet staining and cell enumeration by colony count. Biofilm production analysis through crystal violet staining (OD 570 nm, bars) and cell enumeration (log 10 CFU/mL, lines) of six bacterial strains: ( a ) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, ( c ) Enterococcus faecium ATCC 35667, ( d ) Enterococcus faecium VRE ATCC 700221, ( e ) Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and ( f ) Enterococcus faecalis VRE ATCC 51575, incubated in six different media: Mueller Hinton (MH), Tryptic Soy (TS), Tryptic Soy supplemented with 1% glucose (TSG), Tryptic Soy supplemented with 2% glucose (TS2G), Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) and Brain Heart Infusion supplemented with 1% glucose (BHIG). Error bars represent standard deviation of two independent experiments in triplicate. Lowercase letters indicate significant differences amongst media used for biofilm production. Similar letters denote no significant difference ( P > 0.05)

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: Defining conditions for biofilm inhibition and eradication assays for Gram-positive clinical reference strains

    doi: 10.1186/s12866-018-1321-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Assessment of biofilm biomass by crystal violet staining and cell enumeration by colony count. Biofilm production analysis through crystal violet staining (OD 570 nm, bars) and cell enumeration (log 10 CFU/mL, lines) of six bacterial strains: ( a ) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, ( c ) Enterococcus faecium ATCC 35667, ( d ) Enterococcus faecium VRE ATCC 700221, ( e ) Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and ( f ) Enterococcus faecalis VRE ATCC 51575, incubated in six different media: Mueller Hinton (MH), Tryptic Soy (TS), Tryptic Soy supplemented with 1% glucose (TSG), Tryptic Soy supplemented with 2% glucose (TS2G), Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) and Brain Heart Infusion supplemented with 1% glucose (BHIG). Error bars represent standard deviation of two independent experiments in triplicate. Lowercase letters indicate significant differences amongst media used for biofilm production. Similar letters denote no significant difference ( P > 0.05)

    Article Snippet: Both E. faecium strains had the lowest biofilm mass in MHB compared with other tested strains, with an average of 0.149 for E. faecium ATCC 35667 (Fig. ) and 0.109 for vancomycin resistant E. faecium (VRE) ATCC 700221 (Fig. ).

    Techniques: Staining, Incubation, Standard Deviation

    Interfacial tension and fluorescence qPCR inhibition of the IE model. ( A ) Protein concentrations of the aortic, mitral, and tricuspid valve sections excised from a porcine heart and ground using a micro–mortar and pestle. The total protein concentration of the tissue model is 1.6 ± 0.1 mg/ml. ( B ) The interfacial tensions (γ) of clean and contaminated PCR mixtures are 25.55 and 27.60 mN/m, respectively. ( C ) Free-body force diagram with the interfacial layer. The forces on the droplet include the interfacial tension force ( F γ ), the buoyancy force ( F B ), the weight of the droplet ( F mg ), and the thermocouple force ( F TC ). ( D ) Fluorescence qPCR amplification curves for 16 S rRNA hypervariable regions V1-V2 and vanA gene from intact vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) with and without tissue contamination. The C t values for 16 S rRNA V1-V2 without tissue, 16 S rRNA V1-V2 with tissue, vanA without tissue, and vanA with tissue are 28.4, 30.0, 34.0, and 39.4, respectively. The tissue contamination inhibits fluorescence qPCR, as seen by the upward shift of 1.6 cycles for the 16 S rRNA V1-V2 target and 5.4 cycles for the vanA target. Additionally, NTC samples for each primer set are plotted. ( E ) Protein diffusion to the interface is calculated on the basis of typical blood and tissue concentrations, using diffusivities from literature and Fick’s equation. For comparison, the diffusion of Taq polymerase to the interface is also calculated. ( F and G ) The porcine heart from which heart valves were excised, sectioned, inoculated, ground, and used as the PCR target.

    Journal: Science Advances

    Article Title: Innovative qPCR using interfacial effects to enable low threshold cycle detection and inhibition relief

    doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1400061

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Interfacial tension and fluorescence qPCR inhibition of the IE model. ( A ) Protein concentrations of the aortic, mitral, and tricuspid valve sections excised from a porcine heart and ground using a micro–mortar and pestle. The total protein concentration of the tissue model is 1.6 ± 0.1 mg/ml. ( B ) The interfacial tensions (γ) of clean and contaminated PCR mixtures are 25.55 and 27.60 mN/m, respectively. ( C ) Free-body force diagram with the interfacial layer. The forces on the droplet include the interfacial tension force ( F γ ), the buoyancy force ( F B ), the weight of the droplet ( F mg ), and the thermocouple force ( F TC ). ( D ) Fluorescence qPCR amplification curves for 16 S rRNA hypervariable regions V1-V2 and vanA gene from intact vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) with and without tissue contamination. The C t values for 16 S rRNA V1-V2 without tissue, 16 S rRNA V1-V2 with tissue, vanA without tissue, and vanA with tissue are 28.4, 30.0, 34.0, and 39.4, respectively. The tissue contamination inhibits fluorescence qPCR, as seen by the upward shift of 1.6 cycles for the 16 S rRNA V1-V2 target and 5.4 cycles for the vanA target. Additionally, NTC samples for each primer set are plotted. ( E ) Protein diffusion to the interface is calculated on the basis of typical blood and tissue concentrations, using diffusivities from literature and Fick’s equation. For comparison, the diffusion of Taq polymerase to the interface is also calculated. ( F and G ) The porcine heart from which heart valves were excised, sectioned, inoculated, ground, and used as the PCR target.

    Article Snippet: Vancomycin-sensitive E. faecalis (VSE, ATCC 33186) and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE, Enterococcus ATCC 700221) were propagated, according to the procedure outlined in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) product sheet, to 108 CFU/ml, pelleted by centrifugation at 6000g for 10 min, resuspended in 100 μl of molecular grade water, and heat-killed at 95°C for 15 min. Purified K. pneumoniae strain Z026 genomic DNA was purchased from ZeptoMetrix.

    Techniques: Fluorescence, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Inhibition, Protein Concentration, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Diffusion-based Assay

    Specificity, limit of detection, and speed of DOT thermocycling. ( A ) Gel electropherogram showing the differentiation of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) and vancomycin-sensitive E. faecalis (VSE) by multiplexed amplification of the 377-bp vanA amplicon directly from bacterial culture. Simultaneous thermocycling was achieved by mounting three droplets on different thermocouples on the same motor arm. Lane 1, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder; lane 2, VRE; lane 3, VSE; lane 4, NTC; lane 5, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder. ( B ) Gel electropherogram showing the limit of detection at the sub-picogram level by amplification of the 196-bp 16 S rRNA V3 amplicon from 0.7 pg of K. pneumoniae genomic DNA (equivalent to 1.4 × 10 2 genomic copies) at a speed of 48 s/cycle. Lane 1, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder; lane 2, 0.7-pg genomic DNA. ( C ) Gel electropherogram showing rapid amplification of the 16 S rRNA V3 amplicon and vanA amplicon in the presence of tissue contaminants in 30 cycles. Lane 1, vanA amplified at 40 s/cycle (20 min) from 7 × 10 5 CFU VRE inoculated to valve tissue (V3 amplified from 7 × 10 5 CFU VRE inoculated to valve tissue); lane 2, at 40 s/cycle (20 min); lane 3, at 32 s/cycle (16 min); lane 4, at 28 s/cycle (14 min); lane 5, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder (see Fig. 2D for V3 NTC results).

    Journal: Science Advances

    Article Title: Innovative qPCR using interfacial effects to enable low threshold cycle detection and inhibition relief

    doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1400061

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Specificity, limit of detection, and speed of DOT thermocycling. ( A ) Gel electropherogram showing the differentiation of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) and vancomycin-sensitive E. faecalis (VSE) by multiplexed amplification of the 377-bp vanA amplicon directly from bacterial culture. Simultaneous thermocycling was achieved by mounting three droplets on different thermocouples on the same motor arm. Lane 1, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder; lane 2, VRE; lane 3, VSE; lane 4, NTC; lane 5, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder. ( B ) Gel electropherogram showing the limit of detection at the sub-picogram level by amplification of the 196-bp 16 S rRNA V3 amplicon from 0.7 pg of K. pneumoniae genomic DNA (equivalent to 1.4 × 10 2 genomic copies) at a speed of 48 s/cycle. Lane 1, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder; lane 2, 0.7-pg genomic DNA. ( C ) Gel electropherogram showing rapid amplification of the 16 S rRNA V3 amplicon and vanA amplicon in the presence of tissue contaminants in 30 cycles. Lane 1, vanA amplified at 40 s/cycle (20 min) from 7 × 10 5 CFU VRE inoculated to valve tissue (V3 amplified from 7 × 10 5 CFU VRE inoculated to valve tissue); lane 2, at 40 s/cycle (20 min); lane 3, at 32 s/cycle (16 min); lane 4, at 28 s/cycle (14 min); lane 5, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder (see Fig. 2D for V3 NTC results).

    Article Snippet: Vancomycin-sensitive E. faecalis (VSE, ATCC 33186) and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE, Enterococcus ATCC 700221) were propagated, according to the procedure outlined in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) product sheet, to 108 CFU/ml, pelleted by centrifugation at 6000g for 10 min, resuspended in 100 μl of molecular grade water, and heat-killed at 95°C for 15 min. Purified K. pneumoniae strain Z026 genomic DNA was purchased from ZeptoMetrix.

    Techniques: Amplification

    Photodynamic inactivation studies employing PAN-Por (+) . ( A ) Gram-positive species: methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) ATCC-2913 and the vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) ATCC-2320 strain. ( B ) Gram-negative species: E. coli BL21-(Dε3)pLysS, K. pneumoniae ATCC-2146, and A. baumannii ATCC-19606. For both panels, displayed are the material-free (cells-only) dark control set to 100% (black), as well as the dark control of PAN-Por (+) (maroon) and the illuminated PAN-Por (+) (red) studies, both as the percent survival of the material-free (cells-only) dark control. For all bacteria, the illumination conditions were as follows: 30 min, 400–700 nm, 65 ± 5 mW/cm 2 (total fluence of 118 J/cm 2 ). As the plating technique employed to determine % survival did not allow for detection of survival rates of

    Journal: Nanomaterials

    Article Title: Photosensitizer-Embedded Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibers as Antimicrobial Non-Woven Textile

    doi: 10.3390/nano6040077

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Photodynamic inactivation studies employing PAN-Por (+) . ( A ) Gram-positive species: methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) ATCC-2913 and the vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) ATCC-2320 strain. ( B ) Gram-negative species: E. coli BL21-(Dε3)pLysS, K. pneumoniae ATCC-2146, and A. baumannii ATCC-19606. For both panels, displayed are the material-free (cells-only) dark control set to 100% (black), as well as the dark control of PAN-Por (+) (maroon) and the illuminated PAN-Por (+) (red) studies, both as the percent survival of the material-free (cells-only) dark control. For all bacteria, the illumination conditions were as follows: 30 min, 400–700 nm, 65 ± 5 mW/cm 2 (total fluence of 118 J/cm 2 ). As the plating technique employed to determine % survival did not allow for detection of survival rates of

    Article Snippet: The two Gram-positive bacteria, S. aureus ATCC-2913 and the vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) strain ATCC-2320, were found to be highly susceptible to photodynamic inactivation with PAN-Por(+) : upon illumination, S. aureus was fully inactivated to the detection limit ( > 99.9999+%, 6 log units, p < 0.005; A, red), and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (ATCC-2320) was inactivated by 99.9998% (~5.9 log units, p < 0.005; A, red).

    Techniques:

    Bacterial reduction ( BR ) vs. time of the Cu plate, Al plate and Cu-dotted oxide coating tested with (a) E. coli ATCC 25922, (b) MRSA ATCC 43300 and (c) E. faecium ATCC 51299 . The oxide coatings without Cu were also included in (b) and (c).

    Journal: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials

    Article Title: Superhydrophilicity and antibacterial property of a Cu-dotted oxide coating surface

    doi: 10.1186/1476-0711-9-25

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Bacterial reduction ( BR ) vs. time of the Cu plate, Al plate and Cu-dotted oxide coating tested with (a) E. coli ATCC 25922, (b) MRSA ATCC 43300 and (c) E. faecium ATCC 51299 . The oxide coatings without Cu were also included in (b) and (c).

    Article Snippet: The bacteria tested included E. coli ATCC 25922, MRSA ATCC 43300, and E. faecium ATCC 51299 (vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus ).

    Techniques: