tween 80  (Millipore)


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  • 99
    Name:
    TWEEN 80
    Description:

    Catalog Number:
    p1754
    Price:
    None
    Applications:
    TWEEN(R) 80 has been used in drug vehicle solution for specific injections in mice and rats. It has been used for the determination of esterase activity in bacterial cells.
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    Structured Review

    Millipore tween 80
    TWEEN 80

    https://www.bioz.com/result/tween 80/product/Millipore
    Average 99 stars, based on 35 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    tween 80 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    99/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Biofilms of Mycobacterium abscessus Complex Can Be Sensitized to Antibiotics by Disaggregation and Oxygenation"

    Article Title: Biofilms of Mycobacterium abscessus Complex Can Be Sensitized to Antibiotics by Disaggregation and Oxygenation

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.01212-19

    The growth of MABSC is influenced by disaggregation. The images show the effect of Tween 80, which breaks up MABSC isolates from liquid cultures. Bacterial aggregation at four different Tween 80 concentrations is shown. Samples were stained with Syto 9, and the images were obtained using a 63× (numerical aperture [NA], 1.4) Zeiss objective on a Zeiss 880 CLSM. Bars, 20 μm at a magnification of ×630. Isolates I to III were isolated from three CF patients +10, +3, and +5 years after collection of the first sample positive for M. abscessus .
    Figure Legend Snippet: The growth of MABSC is influenced by disaggregation. The images show the effect of Tween 80, which breaks up MABSC isolates from liquid cultures. Bacterial aggregation at four different Tween 80 concentrations is shown. Samples were stained with Syto 9, and the images were obtained using a 63× (numerical aperture [NA], 1.4) Zeiss objective on a Zeiss 880 CLSM. Bars, 20 μm at a magnification of ×630. Isolates I to III were isolated from three CF patients +10, +3, and +5 years after collection of the first sample positive for M. abscessus .

    Techniques Used: Staining, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Isolation

    The size of MABSC aggregates from liquid cultures decreases as the concentration of Tween 80 increases. The fractions of large ( > 10 μm 3 ; white) versus small (1 to 10 μm 3 ; black) aggregates of the MABSC ATCC 19977 smooth reference strain are shown.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The size of MABSC aggregates from liquid cultures decreases as the concentration of Tween 80 increases. The fractions of large ( > 10 μm 3 ; white) versus small (1 to 10 μm 3 ; black) aggregates of the MABSC ATCC 19977 smooth reference strain are shown.

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    The oxygen consumption of MABSC is influenced by the degree of bacterial aggregation. The graphs show the microrespirometry of O 2 in aerobic cultures with smooth and rough CF MABSC isolates and the ATCC 19977 strain during different stages of bacterial disaggregation, as determined by the Tween 80 concentrations: 0% (black), 1.25% (red), 2.5% (green), 5% (blue). Isolates I to III were isolated from three CF patients +10, +3, and +5 years after the first sample was positive for MABSC. (A to G) The oxygen consumption with 5% Tween 80 was significantly higher than the O 2 consumption with 0% Tween 80 for all isolates ( P
    Figure Legend Snippet: The oxygen consumption of MABSC is influenced by the degree of bacterial aggregation. The graphs show the microrespirometry of O 2 in aerobic cultures with smooth and rough CF MABSC isolates and the ATCC 19977 strain during different stages of bacterial disaggregation, as determined by the Tween 80 concentrations: 0% (black), 1.25% (red), 2.5% (green), 5% (blue). Isolates I to III were isolated from three CF patients +10, +3, and +5 years after the first sample was positive for MABSC. (A to G) The oxygen consumption with 5% Tween 80 was significantly higher than the O 2 consumption with 0% Tween 80 for all isolates ( P

    Techniques Used: Isolation

    Disaggregation with Tween 80 sensitizes MABSC to antimycobacterial drugs. The effect of 5% Tween 80 on MABSC isolates ( n = 31) was tested by disk diffusion susceptibility testing using amikacin, azithromycin, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, imipenem, kanamycin, linezolid, moxifloxacin, rifampin, tigecycline, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Aggregated MABSC isolates were grown and incubated in MH and plated by normal plate spreading on blood agar plates. Disaggregated MABSC isolates were suspended in MH plus 5% Tween 80, incubated for 2 to 5 days, and subsequently added onto blood agar plates and uniformly distributed by gently tipping the plates. Excess liquid was discharged. All isolates that were completely resistant regardless of Tween 80 are represented by the flat red line on the x axis. Statistical significance was determined using a paired t test ( P ≤ 0.05). NS, not significant.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Disaggregation with Tween 80 sensitizes MABSC to antimycobacterial drugs. The effect of 5% Tween 80 on MABSC isolates ( n = 31) was tested by disk diffusion susceptibility testing using amikacin, azithromycin, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, imipenem, kanamycin, linezolid, moxifloxacin, rifampin, tigecycline, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Aggregated MABSC isolates were grown and incubated in MH and plated by normal plate spreading on blood agar plates. Disaggregated MABSC isolates were suspended in MH plus 5% Tween 80, incubated for 2 to 5 days, and subsequently added onto blood agar plates and uniformly distributed by gently tipping the plates. Excess liquid was discharged. All isolates that were completely resistant regardless of Tween 80 are represented by the flat red line on the x axis. Statistical significance was determined using a paired t test ( P ≤ 0.05). NS, not significant.

    Techniques Used: Diffusion-based Assay, Incubation

    Multidrug resistance to antimycobacterial drugs in MABSC is lowered by disaggregation of the isolates with Tween 80. MABSC isolates ( n  = 31) were tested by disk diffusion susceptibility testing, using (per disk) 30 μg amikacin, 15 μg azithromycin, 30 μg cefoxitin, 5 μg ciprofloxacin, 15 μg clarithromycin, 10 μg imipenem, 30 μg kanamycin, 10/30 μg linezolid, 5 μg moxifloxacin, 5 μg rifampin, 15 μg tigecycline, and 1.25 μg/23.75 μg sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Isolates with zone diameters of 0 mm were considered resistant. Aggregated MABSC isolates were grown and incubated in MH and plated by normal plate spreading on blood agar plates. Disaggregated MABSC isolates were suspended in MH plus 5% Tween 80, incubated for 2 to 5 days, and subsequently added onto blood agar plates and uniformly distributed by gently tipping the plates. Excess liquid was discharged. Statistical significance was determined using a paired  t  test ( P  ≤ 0.05).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Multidrug resistance to antimycobacterial drugs in MABSC is lowered by disaggregation of the isolates with Tween 80. MABSC isolates ( n  = 31) were tested by disk diffusion susceptibility testing, using (per disk) 30 μg amikacin, 15 μg azithromycin, 30 μg cefoxitin, 5 μg ciprofloxacin, 15 μg clarithromycin, 10 μg imipenem, 30 μg kanamycin, 10/30 μg linezolid, 5 μg moxifloxacin, 5 μg rifampin, 15 μg tigecycline, and 1.25 μg/23.75 μg sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Isolates with zone diameters of 0 mm were considered resistant. Aggregated MABSC isolates were grown and incubated in MH and plated by normal plate spreading on blood agar plates. Disaggregated MABSC isolates were suspended in MH plus 5% Tween 80, incubated for 2 to 5 days, and subsequently added onto blood agar plates and uniformly distributed by gently tipping the plates. Excess liquid was discharged. Statistical significance was determined using a paired t test ( P  ≤ 0.05).

    Techniques Used: Diffusion-based Assay, Incubation

    2) Product Images from "Modeling the Effect of Composition on Formation of Aerosolized Nanoemulsion System Encapsulating Docetaxel and Curcumin Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design"

    Article Title: Modeling the Effect of Composition on Formation of Aerosolized Nanoemulsion System Encapsulating Docetaxel and Curcumin Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    doi: 10.3390/ijms21124357

    Graphical plots of ( a ) DTX-loaded nanoemulsion and ( b ) CCM-loaded nanoemulsion compositions toward particle size. The models show the interaction between independent variables including A: PKOE and Safflower seed oil mixture (1:1;  w / w ), B: lecithin, C: surfactant mixture of Tween 85 and Span 85 (9:1;  w / w ), and D: glycerol, while water was kept constant.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Graphical plots of ( a ) DTX-loaded nanoemulsion and ( b ) CCM-loaded nanoemulsion compositions toward particle size. The models show the interaction between independent variables including A: PKOE and Safflower seed oil mixture (1:1; w / w ), B: lecithin, C: surfactant mixture of Tween 85 and Span 85 (9:1; w / w ), and D: glycerol, while water was kept constant.

    Techniques Used:

    Graphical plots of ( a ) DTX-loaded nanoemulsion and ( b ) CCM-loaded nanoemulsion compositions toward VMD. The models show the interaction between independent variables including A: PKOE and Safflower seed oil mixture (1:1;  w / w ), B: lecithin, C: surfactant mixture of Tween 85 and Span 85 (9:1;  w / w ), and D: glycerol, while water was kept constant.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Graphical plots of ( a ) DTX-loaded nanoemulsion and ( b ) CCM-loaded nanoemulsion compositions toward VMD. The models show the interaction between independent variables including A: PKOE and Safflower seed oil mixture (1:1; w / w ), B: lecithin, C: surfactant mixture of Tween 85 and Span 85 (9:1; w / w ), and D: glycerol, while water was kept constant.

    Techniques Used:

    3) Product Images from "Dynamic Surface Tension of Surfactants in the Presence of High Salt Concentrations"

    Article Title: Dynamic Surface Tension of Surfactants in the Presence of High Salt Concentrations

    Journal: Langmuir

    doi: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c01211

    Characteristic time (determined from the DST data of Figure 10 ) as a function of Tween 80 concentration.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Characteristic time (determined from the DST data of Figure 10 ) as a function of Tween 80 concentration.

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    Equilibrium Surface tension (γ eq ) as a function of Tween 80 concentration for different salt concentrations. CMC ∼ 1.5 × 10 –5 molar and the Γ ∼ 8.5 × 10 –7 mol m –2 .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Equilibrium Surface tension (γ eq ) as a function of Tween 80 concentration for different salt concentrations. CMC ∼ 1.5 × 10 –5 molar and the Γ ∼ 8.5 × 10 –7 mol m –2 .

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    Surface tension as a function of time for (a) binary (Tween 80 + water) and (b) ternary solutions (Tween 80 + NaCl (5.5 m)+ water) measured using the pendant drop method.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Surface tension as a function of time for (a) binary (Tween 80 + water) and (b) ternary solutions (Tween 80 + NaCl (5.5 m)+ water) measured using the pendant drop method.

    Techniques Used:

    Viscosity (η) as a function of shear rate for binary and ternary surfactant solutions. Filled symbols correspond to binary aqueous solutions, and open symbols correspond to ternary solution with 5.5 m NaCl. (Black squares: water; red circles: 0.9 mM CTAB; and blue triangles: Tween 80).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Viscosity (η) as a function of shear rate for binary and ternary surfactant solutions. Filled symbols correspond to binary aqueous solutions, and open symbols correspond to ternary solution with 5.5 m NaCl. (Black squares: water; red circles: 0.9 mM CTAB; and blue triangles: Tween 80).

    Techniques Used:

    4) Product Images from "Brain targeting stealth lipomers of combined antiepileptic-anti-inflammatory drugs as alternative therapy for conventional anti-Parkinson’s"

    Article Title: Brain targeting stealth lipomers of combined antiepileptic-anti-inflammatory drugs as alternative therapy for conventional anti-Parkinson’s

    Journal: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal : SPJ

    doi: 10.1016/j.jsps.2019.11.004

    Cytotoxicity of selected lipomers at increasing Tween®80 concentrations examined on (a) human brain cells and (b) blood brain barrier cells.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytotoxicity of selected lipomers at increasing Tween®80 concentrations examined on (a) human brain cells and (b) blood brain barrier cells.

    Techniques Used:

    5) Product Images from "Antimicrobial Electrospun Polycaprolactone-Based Wound Dressings: An In Vitro Study About the Importance of the Direct Contact to Elicit Bactericidal Activity"

    Article Title: Antimicrobial Electrospun Polycaprolactone-Based Wound Dressings: An In Vitro Study About the Importance of the Direct Contact to Elicit Bactericidal Activity

    Journal: Advances in Wound Care

    doi: 10.1089/wound.2018.0893

    Drug release kinetics obtained by flushing through a fixed bed composed of the electrospun mats of PBS (with Tween 80, 2% w/v) at 37°C with a flow rate of 1 mL/min (data shown correspond with mean and standard deviation of three independent experiments for each material). PBS, phosphate-buffered saline. Color images are available online.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Drug release kinetics obtained by flushing through a fixed bed composed of the electrospun mats of PBS (with Tween 80, 2% w/v) at 37°C with a flow rate of 1 mL/min (data shown correspond with mean and standard deviation of three independent experiments for each material). PBS, phosphate-buffered saline. Color images are available online.

    Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry, Standard Deviation

    6) Product Images from "Study of Metabolic Adaptation of Red Yeasts to Waste Animal Fat Substrate"

    Article Title: Study of Metabolic Adaptation of Red Yeasts to Waste Animal Fat Substrate

    Journal: Microorganisms

    doi: 10.3390/microorganisms7110578

    Growth curves of yeast strains cultivated in different media for 96 h. Biomass production in g/L was measured in the following media: ( a ) Medium with glucose; ( b ) medium with glycerol; ( c ) medium with crude animal fat; ( d ) medium with emulsified fat by Tween 80; ( e ) medium with enzymatically hydrolyzed fat; and ( f ) medium with animal fat and the addition of lipase. Abbreviations: CCY (Culture Collection of Yeasts), RG ( Rhodotorula glutinis  CCY 20-2-26), CM ( Cystofilobasidium macerans  CCY 10-1-2), RM ( Rhodotorula mucilaginosa  CCY 19-4-6), and SP ( Sporobolomyces pararoseus  CCY 19-9-6).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Growth curves of yeast strains cultivated in different media for 96 h. Biomass production in g/L was measured in the following media: ( a ) Medium with glucose; ( b ) medium with glycerol; ( c ) medium with crude animal fat; ( d ) medium with emulsified fat by Tween 80; ( e ) medium with enzymatically hydrolyzed fat; and ( f ) medium with animal fat and the addition of lipase. Abbreviations: CCY (Culture Collection of Yeasts), RG ( Rhodotorula glutinis CCY 20-2-26), CM ( Cystofilobasidium macerans CCY 10-1-2), RM ( Rhodotorula mucilaginosa CCY 19-4-6), and SP ( Sporobolomyces pararoseus CCY 19-9-6).

    Techniques Used:

    Changes of pH of individual media during yeast cultivation. Changes of pH were recorded in following media: ( a ) Medium with glucose; ( b ) Medium with glycerol; ( c ) Medium with crude animal fat; ( d ) Medium with emulsified fat by Tween 80; ( e ) Medium with enzymatically hydrolyzed fat; ( f ) Medium with animal fat an addition of lipase. Abbreviations: RG ( Rhodotorula glutinis  CCY 20-2-26), CM ( Cystofilobasidium macerans  CCY 10-1-2), RM ( Rhodotorula mucilaginosa  CCY 19-4-6) and SP ( Sporobolomyces pararoseus  CCY 19-9-6).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Changes of pH of individual media during yeast cultivation. Changes of pH were recorded in following media: ( a ) Medium with glucose; ( b ) Medium with glycerol; ( c ) Medium with crude animal fat; ( d ) Medium with emulsified fat by Tween 80; ( e ) Medium with enzymatically hydrolyzed fat; ( f ) Medium with animal fat an addition of lipase. Abbreviations: RG ( Rhodotorula glutinis CCY 20-2-26), CM ( Cystofilobasidium macerans CCY 10-1-2), RM ( Rhodotorula mucilaginosa CCY 19-4-6) and SP ( Sporobolomyces pararoseus CCY 19-9-6).

    Techniques Used:

    7) Product Images from "A statistical approach to improve compound screening in cell culture media. A statistical approach to improve compound screening in cell culture media"

    Article Title: A statistical approach to improve compound screening in cell culture media. A statistical approach to improve compound screening in cell culture media

    Journal: Engineering in Life Sciences

    doi: 10.1002/elsc.201800168

    (A–B) Model validation. (A) Unsupplemented (Negative control) and supplemented CHO‐S cell line in FreeStyleCHO medium with the optimal levels of r‐transferrin, r‐insulin and tween 80. (B) Non‐supplemented and supplemented CHO‐S cells expressing transtuzumab in FreeStyleCHO medium with the optimal levels of r‐transferrin, r‐insulin and tween 80. Cell density and viability were determined daily. Mean values ± standard deviation of triplicate experiments are represented
    Figure Legend Snippet: (A–B) Model validation. (A) Unsupplemented (Negative control) and supplemented CHO‐S cell line in FreeStyleCHO medium with the optimal levels of r‐transferrin, r‐insulin and tween 80. (B) Non‐supplemented and supplemented CHO‐S cells expressing transtuzumab in FreeStyleCHO medium with the optimal levels of r‐transferrin, r‐insulin and tween 80. Cell density and viability were determined daily. Mean values ± standard deviation of triplicate experiments are represented

    Techniques Used: Negative Control, Expressing, Standard Deviation

    (A) Main effects plot of the PBD only considering main effects of non‐animal derived supplements on CHO‐S cells in FreeStyleCHO medium, where: A, selenium (mg/L); B, r‐transferrin (mg/L); C, r‐albumin (mg/L); D, r‐insulin (mg/L); E, (+)‐α‐Tocopherol acetate ( X ); F, fatty acids ( X ); G, Tween 80 ( X ); H, synthetic cholesterol ( X ). Dark grey bars represent significant factors ( p ‐value
    Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Main effects plot of the PBD only considering main effects of non‐animal derived supplements on CHO‐S cells in FreeStyleCHO medium, where: A, selenium (mg/L); B, r‐transferrin (mg/L); C, r‐albumin (mg/L); D, r‐insulin (mg/L); E, (+)‐α‐Tocopherol acetate ( X ); F, fatty acids ( X ); G, Tween 80 ( X ); H, synthetic cholesterol ( X ). Dark grey bars represent significant factors ( p ‐value

    Techniques Used: Derivative Assay

    Response surface graphs based on Box‐Behnken experimental results (A–I). Maximum viable cell concentration in cell culture as a function of the concentrations of (A–C) r‐transferrin versus tween 80; (D–F) tween 80 versus r‐insulin; and (G–I) r‐transferrin versus r‐insulin. The graphs were constructed depicting two variables at a time while keeping the third one at a fixed level
    Figure Legend Snippet: Response surface graphs based on Box‐Behnken experimental results (A–I). Maximum viable cell concentration in cell culture as a function of the concentrations of (A–C) r‐transferrin versus tween 80; (D–F) tween 80 versus r‐insulin; and (G–I) r‐transferrin versus r‐insulin. The graphs were constructed depicting two variables at a time while keeping the third one at a fixed level

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Cell Culture, Construct

    8) Product Images from "Altered Surface Hydrophilicity on Copolymer Scaffolds Stimulate the Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells"

    Article Title: Altered Surface Hydrophilicity on Copolymer Scaffolds Stimulate the Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Journal: Polymers

    doi: 10.3390/polym12071453

    The spreading of Ponceau S Red solution on the films (the right) and the penetration of Ponceau S red solution into different scaffolds (the left).The dye solution could not totally spread on the films of the DXO and CL groups, but it could quickly diffuse on the films that contained Tween 80. Meanwhile, DXO showed a better spreading than CL.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The spreading of Ponceau S Red solution on the films (the right) and the penetration of Ponceau S red solution into different scaffolds (the left).The dye solution could not totally spread on the films of the DXO and CL groups, but it could quickly diffuse on the films that contained Tween 80. Meanwhile, DXO showed a better spreading than CL.

    Techniques Used:

    SEM results after 3 h and 3 days. Results from 3 h showed the better spreading of hMSCs on control groups compared with the Tween 80-added groups. Three days’ results showed that most cells could spread and grow from the control groups and the 3% and 10% Tween 80-added groups. Fewer cells could be observed in the 20% Tween 80-added groups.
    Figure Legend Snippet: SEM results after 3 h and 3 days. Results from 3 h showed the better spreading of hMSCs on control groups compared with the Tween 80-added groups. Three days’ results showed that most cells could spread and grow from the control groups and the 3% and 10% Tween 80-added groups. Fewer cells could be observed in the 20% Tween 80-added groups.

    Techniques Used:

    3%, 10% or 20% Tween 80 decreased the contact angle of poly(LLA- co -CL) and poly(LLA- co -DXO), implying that all of the three ratios of Tween 80 could improve the hydrophilicity of the copolymers (n = 5).
    Figure Legend Snippet: 3%, 10% or 20% Tween 80 decreased the contact angle of poly(LLA- co -CL) and poly(LLA- co -DXO), implying that all of the three ratios of Tween 80 could improve the hydrophilicity of the copolymers (n = 5).

    Techniques Used:

    9) Product Images from "Delving into the Causes and Effects of Entomopathogenic Endophytic Metarhizium brunneum Foliar Application-Related Mortality in Spodoptera littoralis Larvae"

    Article Title: Delving into the Causes and Effects of Entomopathogenic Endophytic Metarhizium brunneum Foliar Application-Related Mortality in Spodoptera littoralis Larvae

    Journal: Insects

    doi: 10.3390/insects11070429

    Design of the in-planta experiment. ( A ) Non-damaged plant; ( B ) damaged plant. (1) One leaf was brushed with the fungal suspension (treated) or sterile water with 0.1% Tween 80 (control). (2) The leaf was covered with a transparent plastic bag for 48 h. (3) Four L 2 Spodoptera littoralis larvae were clipped on a non-treated leaf at 48 h and left to feed on the leaf for 48 h. (4) Damage was artificially caused by tearing a non-treated leaf at 48 h after fungal inoculation.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Design of the in-planta experiment. ( A ) Non-damaged plant; ( B ) damaged plant. (1) One leaf was brushed with the fungal suspension (treated) or sterile water with 0.1% Tween 80 (control). (2) The leaf was covered with a transparent plastic bag for 48 h. (3) Four L 2 Spodoptera littoralis larvae were clipped on a non-treated leaf at 48 h and left to feed on the leaf for 48 h. (4) Damage was artificially caused by tearing a non-treated leaf at 48 h after fungal inoculation.

    Techniques Used:

    10) Product Images from "Discovery and Characterization of a New Cold-Active Protease From an Extremophilic Bacterium via Comparative Genome Analysis and in vitro Expression"

    Article Title: Discovery and Characterization of a New Cold-Active Protease From an Extremophilic Bacterium via Comparative Genome Analysis and in vitro Expression

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.00881

    Effect of inhibitors, detergents and surfactants on P94-6PB protease activity. Relative activity measured via the azocasein assay after pre-incubation (30 min) with inhibitors (β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME), Dithiothreitol (DTT), Urea, Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) at 2 and 5 mM concentration)  (A)  and detergents and surfactants (Tween 20, Tween 80, sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and Triton X-100, at 1.0 and 5.0% v/v concentration)  (B) .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of inhibitors, detergents and surfactants on P94-6PB protease activity. Relative activity measured via the azocasein assay after pre-incubation (30 min) with inhibitors (β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME), Dithiothreitol (DTT), Urea, Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) at 2 and 5 mM concentration) (A) and detergents and surfactants (Tween 20, Tween 80, sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and Triton X-100, at 1.0 and 5.0% v/v concentration) (B) .

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Azocasein Assay, Incubation, Concentration Assay

    11) Product Images from "Antioxidant and hepatoprotective potentials of active fractions of Lannea barteri Oliv. (Anarcadiaceae) in rats"

    Article Title: Antioxidant and hepatoprotective potentials of active fractions of Lannea barteri Oliv. (Anarcadiaceae) in rats

    Journal: Heliyon

    doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04099

    Histopathology of liver of rats treated with EFLB, MFLB, silymarin and controls (7% Tween 80, naive and CCl 4 ). Normal hepatic histo-architecture with normal hepatic lobules consisting of normal hepatocytes which are arranged in interconnecting cords, radiating towards the periphery of the lobules where it meets with the components of the portal triads (hepatic artery, central vein (V), portal triad (P), hepatic cord (arrow) (1 and 2); central vein (V) degenerate and necrotic hepatocytes (arrow) portal triad (P) (3); central vein (V) degenerate and necrotic hepatocytes (black arrow), portal triad (P) (4); central vein (V), degenerate and necrotic hepatocytes (black arrow), portal triad (P), inflammatory cellular aggregates (white arrow) (5); central vein (V), degenerate and necrotic hepatocytes involving the 3 zones in the hepatic lobule (black arrow), components of the portal triad [hepatic artery – HA, bile duct - BD] (6); Central vein (V), degenerate and necrotic hepatocytes (black arrow) portal triad (P) (7); Central vein (V), degenerate and necrotic hepatocytes (black arrow), portal triad (P) (8). EF – ethyl acetate fraction of  Lannea barteri , MF – methanol fraction of  Lannea barteri , H and E x160. H - hematoxylin, E- Eosin.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histopathology of liver of rats treated with EFLB, MFLB, silymarin and controls (7% Tween 80, naive and CCl 4 ). Normal hepatic histo-architecture with normal hepatic lobules consisting of normal hepatocytes which are arranged in interconnecting cords, radiating towards the periphery of the lobules where it meets with the components of the portal triads (hepatic artery, central vein (V), portal triad (P), hepatic cord (arrow) (1 and 2); central vein (V) degenerate and necrotic hepatocytes (arrow) portal triad (P) (3); central vein (V) degenerate and necrotic hepatocytes (black arrow), portal triad (P) (4); central vein (V), degenerate and necrotic hepatocytes (black arrow), portal triad (P), inflammatory cellular aggregates (white arrow) (5); central vein (V), degenerate and necrotic hepatocytes involving the 3 zones in the hepatic lobule (black arrow), components of the portal triad [hepatic artery – HA, bile duct - BD] (6); Central vein (V), degenerate and necrotic hepatocytes (black arrow) portal triad (P) (7); Central vein (V), degenerate and necrotic hepatocytes (black arrow), portal triad (P) (8). EF – ethyl acetate fraction of Lannea barteri , MF – methanol fraction of Lannea barteri , H and E x160. H - hematoxylin, E- Eosin.

    Techniques Used: Histopathology

    12) Product Images from "Attenuation of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia by Optimized Tadalafil Loaded Pumpkin Seed Oil-Based Self Nanoemulsion: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation"

    Article Title: Attenuation of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia by Optimized Tadalafil Loaded Pumpkin Seed Oil-Based Self Nanoemulsion: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation

    Journal: Pharmaceutics

    doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics11120640

    Triangular dimensional contour plots for the effect of TDL-PSO SNEDDS components (pumpkin seed oil, surfactant (Tween 80), and co-surfactant (PEG 200)) on globule size ( A ) and zeta potential ( B ). TDL-PSO SNEDDS, tadalafil-pumpkin seed oil-self nano-emulsified drug delivery system.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Triangular dimensional contour plots for the effect of TDL-PSO SNEDDS components (pumpkin seed oil, surfactant (Tween 80), and co-surfactant (PEG 200)) on globule size ( A ) and zeta potential ( B ). TDL-PSO SNEDDS, tadalafil-pumpkin seed oil-self nano-emulsified drug delivery system.

    Techniques Used:

    13) Product Images from "Innate Immune Response against Staphylococcus aureus Preincubated with Subinhibitory Concentration of trans-Anethole"

    Article Title: Innate Immune Response against Staphylococcus aureus Preincubated with Subinhibitory Concentration of trans-Anethole

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    doi: 10.3390/ijms21114178

    Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images at 5.00 kx of S. aureus Newman strain isolated from different modifications of the Mueller-Hinton agar: non-supplemented (control medium A ); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 (medium B ); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 and trans -anethole at subinhibitory concentration—MIC 50 (medium C ).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images at 5.00 kx of S. aureus Newman strain isolated from different modifications of the Mueller-Hinton agar: non-supplemented (control medium A ); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 (medium B ); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 and trans -anethole at subinhibitory concentration—MIC 50 (medium C ).

    Techniques Used: Microscopy, Isolation, Concentration Assay

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis of S. aureus Newman strain isolated from different modifications of the Mueller-Hinton agar: non-supplemented (control medium A); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 (medium B); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 and trans -anethole at subinhibitory concentration—MIC 50 (medium C).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis of S. aureus Newman strain isolated from different modifications of the Mueller-Hinton agar: non-supplemented (control medium A); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 (medium B); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 and trans -anethole at subinhibitory concentration—MIC 50 (medium C).

    Techniques Used: Spectroscopy, Isolation, Concentration Assay

    Killing activity assessment of S. aureus Newman cells. A—Mueller-Hinton agar non-supplemented (MHA, control), B—MHA supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80, and C—MHA supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 and trans -anethole at subinhibitory concentration (MIC 50 ). The number above each plot represents the volunteer number. The values in the table represent the killing index. Photographic evidence of intracellular killed and living bacteria is presented in the pictures above the graphs (magnification: 400x).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Killing activity assessment of S. aureus Newman cells. A—Mueller-Hinton agar non-supplemented (MHA, control), B—MHA supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80, and C—MHA supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 and trans -anethole at subinhibitory concentration (MIC 50 ). The number above each plot represents the volunteer number. The values in the table represent the killing index. Photographic evidence of intracellular killed and living bacteria is presented in the pictures above the graphs (magnification: 400x).

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay

    Measurements of IL-8 concentration in whole human blood non-infected (N) and infected with S. aureus Newman strain isolated from different modifications of the Mueller-Hinton agar: non-supplemented (control—medium A); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 (medium B); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 and trans -anethole at subinhibitory concentration—MIC 50 (medium C). Data are shown as the mean ± SD. ** p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Measurements of IL-8 concentration in whole human blood non-infected (N) and infected with S. aureus Newman strain isolated from different modifications of the Mueller-Hinton agar: non-supplemented (control—medium A); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 (medium B); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 and trans -anethole at subinhibitory concentration—MIC 50 (medium C). Data are shown as the mean ± SD. ** p

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Infection, Isolation

    Phagocytosis assay validity of S. aureus Newman cells. A—Mueller-Hinton agar non-supplemented (MHA, control), B—MHA supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80, and C—MHA supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 and trans -anethole at subinhibitory concentration (MIC 50 ). The number above each plot represents the volunteer number. The values in the table represent the percentages of the phagocytic cells. Photographic evidence is presented in the pictures above the graphs (magnification: 400x). Data are shown as the mean ± SD. *** p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Phagocytosis assay validity of S. aureus Newman cells. A—Mueller-Hinton agar non-supplemented (MHA, control), B—MHA supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80, and C—MHA supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 and trans -anethole at subinhibitory concentration (MIC 50 ). The number above each plot represents the volunteer number. The values in the table represent the percentages of the phagocytic cells. Photographic evidence is presented in the pictures above the graphs (magnification: 400x). Data are shown as the mean ± SD. *** p

    Techniques Used: Phagocytosis Assay, Concentration Assay

    Percentages of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT)-positive cells. A—Mueller-Hinton agar non-supplemented (MHA, control), B—MHA supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80, and C—MHA supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 and trans -anethole at subinhibitory concentration (MIC 50 ). Photographic evidence is presented in the pictures above the graph (magnification: 400x). Data are shown as the mean ± SD. ** p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Percentages of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT)-positive cells. A—Mueller-Hinton agar non-supplemented (MHA, control), B—MHA supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80, and C—MHA supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 and trans -anethole at subinhibitory concentration (MIC 50 ). Photographic evidence is presented in the pictures above the graph (magnification: 400x). Data are shown as the mean ± SD. ** p

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    Average bacterial cell diameter of S. aureus Newman strain isolated from different modifications of the Mueller-Hinton agar: non-supplemented (control medium A); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 (medium B); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 and trans -anethole at subinhibitory concentration—MIC 50 (medium C). *** p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Average bacterial cell diameter of S. aureus Newman strain isolated from different modifications of the Mueller-Hinton agar: non-supplemented (control medium A); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 (medium B); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 and trans -anethole at subinhibitory concentration—MIC 50 (medium C). *** p

    Techniques Used: Isolation, Concentration Assay

    Staphyloxanthin level measurements produced by S. aureus Newman strain isolated from different modifications of the Mueller-Hinton agar: non-supplemented (control medium A); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 (medium B); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 and trans -anethole at subinhibitory concentration—MIC 50 (medium C). Data are shown as the mean ± SD. ** p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Staphyloxanthin level measurements produced by S. aureus Newman strain isolated from different modifications of the Mueller-Hinton agar: non-supplemented (control medium A); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 (medium B); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 and trans -anethole at subinhibitory concentration—MIC 50 (medium C). Data are shown as the mean ± SD. ** p

    Techniques Used: Produced, Isolation, Concentration Assay

    14) Product Images from "Biofilms of Mycobacterium abscessus Complex Can Be Sensitized to Antibiotics by Disaggregation and Oxygenation"

    Article Title: Biofilms of Mycobacterium abscessus Complex Can Be Sensitized to Antibiotics by Disaggregation and Oxygenation

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.01212-19

    The growth of MABSC is influenced by disaggregation. The images show the effect of Tween 80, which breaks up MABSC isolates from liquid cultures. Bacterial aggregation at four different Tween 80 concentrations is shown. Samples were stained with Syto 9, and the images were obtained using a 63× (numerical aperture [NA], 1.4) Zeiss objective on a Zeiss 880 CLSM. Bars, 20 μm at a magnification of ×630. Isolates I to III were isolated from three CF patients +10, +3, and +5 years after collection of the first sample positive for M. abscessus .
    Figure Legend Snippet: The growth of MABSC is influenced by disaggregation. The images show the effect of Tween 80, which breaks up MABSC isolates from liquid cultures. Bacterial aggregation at four different Tween 80 concentrations is shown. Samples were stained with Syto 9, and the images were obtained using a 63× (numerical aperture [NA], 1.4) Zeiss objective on a Zeiss 880 CLSM. Bars, 20 μm at a magnification of ×630. Isolates I to III were isolated from three CF patients +10, +3, and +5 years after collection of the first sample positive for M. abscessus .

    Techniques Used: Staining, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Isolation

    The size of MABSC aggregates from liquid cultures decreases as the concentration of Tween 80 increases. The fractions of large ( > 10 μm 3 ; white) versus small (1 to 10 μm 3 ; black) aggregates of the MABSC ATCC 19977 smooth reference strain are shown.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The size of MABSC aggregates from liquid cultures decreases as the concentration of Tween 80 increases. The fractions of large ( > 10 μm 3 ; white) versus small (1 to 10 μm 3 ; black) aggregates of the MABSC ATCC 19977 smooth reference strain are shown.

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    The oxygen consumption of MABSC is influenced by the degree of bacterial aggregation. The graphs show the microrespirometry of O 2 in aerobic cultures with smooth and rough CF MABSC isolates and the ATCC 19977 strain during different stages of bacterial disaggregation, as determined by the Tween 80 concentrations: 0% (black), 1.25% (red), 2.5% (green), 5% (blue). Isolates I to III were isolated from three CF patients +10, +3, and +5 years after the first sample was positive for MABSC. (A to G) The oxygen consumption with 5% Tween 80 was significantly higher than the O 2 consumption with 0% Tween 80 for all isolates ( P
    Figure Legend Snippet: The oxygen consumption of MABSC is influenced by the degree of bacterial aggregation. The graphs show the microrespirometry of O 2 in aerobic cultures with smooth and rough CF MABSC isolates and the ATCC 19977 strain during different stages of bacterial disaggregation, as determined by the Tween 80 concentrations: 0% (black), 1.25% (red), 2.5% (green), 5% (blue). Isolates I to III were isolated from three CF patients +10, +3, and +5 years after the first sample was positive for MABSC. (A to G) The oxygen consumption with 5% Tween 80 was significantly higher than the O 2 consumption with 0% Tween 80 for all isolates ( P

    Techniques Used: Isolation

    Disaggregation with Tween 80 sensitizes MABSC to antimycobacterial drugs. The effect of 5% Tween 80 on MABSC isolates ( n = 31) was tested by disk diffusion susceptibility testing using amikacin, azithromycin, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, imipenem, kanamycin, linezolid, moxifloxacin, rifampin, tigecycline, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Aggregated MABSC isolates were grown and incubated in MH and plated by normal plate spreading on blood agar plates. Disaggregated MABSC isolates were suspended in MH plus 5% Tween 80, incubated for 2 to 5 days, and subsequently added onto blood agar plates and uniformly distributed by gently tipping the plates. Excess liquid was discharged. All isolates that were completely resistant regardless of Tween 80 are represented by the flat red line on the x axis. Statistical significance was determined using a paired t test ( P ≤ 0.05). NS, not significant.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Disaggregation with Tween 80 sensitizes MABSC to antimycobacterial drugs. The effect of 5% Tween 80 on MABSC isolates ( n = 31) was tested by disk diffusion susceptibility testing using amikacin, azithromycin, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, imipenem, kanamycin, linezolid, moxifloxacin, rifampin, tigecycline, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Aggregated MABSC isolates were grown and incubated in MH and plated by normal plate spreading on blood agar plates. Disaggregated MABSC isolates were suspended in MH plus 5% Tween 80, incubated for 2 to 5 days, and subsequently added onto blood agar plates and uniformly distributed by gently tipping the plates. Excess liquid was discharged. All isolates that were completely resistant regardless of Tween 80 are represented by the flat red line on the x axis. Statistical significance was determined using a paired t test ( P ≤ 0.05). NS, not significant.

    Techniques Used: Diffusion-based Assay, Incubation

    Multidrug resistance to antimycobacterial drugs in MABSC is lowered by disaggregation of the isolates with Tween 80. MABSC isolates ( n  = 31) were tested by disk diffusion susceptibility testing, using (per disk) 30 μg amikacin, 15 μg azithromycin, 30 μg cefoxitin, 5 μg ciprofloxacin, 15 μg clarithromycin, 10 μg imipenem, 30 μg kanamycin, 10/30 μg linezolid, 5 μg moxifloxacin, 5 μg rifampin, 15 μg tigecycline, and 1.25 μg/23.75 μg sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Isolates with zone diameters of 0 mm were considered resistant. Aggregated MABSC isolates were grown and incubated in MH and plated by normal plate spreading on blood agar plates. Disaggregated MABSC isolates were suspended in MH plus 5% Tween 80, incubated for 2 to 5 days, and subsequently added onto blood agar plates and uniformly distributed by gently tipping the plates. Excess liquid was discharged. Statistical significance was determined using a paired  t  test ( P  ≤ 0.05).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Multidrug resistance to antimycobacterial drugs in MABSC is lowered by disaggregation of the isolates with Tween 80. MABSC isolates ( n  = 31) were tested by disk diffusion susceptibility testing, using (per disk) 30 μg amikacin, 15 μg azithromycin, 30 μg cefoxitin, 5 μg ciprofloxacin, 15 μg clarithromycin, 10 μg imipenem, 30 μg kanamycin, 10/30 μg linezolid, 5 μg moxifloxacin, 5 μg rifampin, 15 μg tigecycline, and 1.25 μg/23.75 μg sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Isolates with zone diameters of 0 mm were considered resistant. Aggregated MABSC isolates were grown and incubated in MH and plated by normal plate spreading on blood agar plates. Disaggregated MABSC isolates were suspended in MH plus 5% Tween 80, incubated for 2 to 5 days, and subsequently added onto blood agar plates and uniformly distributed by gently tipping the plates. Excess liquid was discharged. Statistical significance was determined using a paired t test ( P  ≤ 0.05).

    Techniques Used: Diffusion-based Assay, Incubation

    15) Product Images from "Potent in vivo lung cancer Wnt signaling inhibition via cyclodextrin-LGK974 inclusion complexes"

    Article Title: Potent in vivo lung cancer Wnt signaling inhibition via cyclodextrin-LGK974 inclusion complexes

    Journal: Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society

    doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2018.09.025

    Isothermal Titration Calorimetry experiments for (a) βSBECD (concentration: 60.0 mM) and (b) HPβCD (concentration: 60.0 mM) in LGK974 (concentration: 3.0 mM) (square) and nonlinear fitting by Wiseman Isotherm (line). (c) Thermodynamic parameters of CD-LGK974 interactions determined by isothermal titration calorimetry experiments (average stoichiometry N of the complex in solution, enthalpy ΔH°, entropy TΔS°, equilibrium constant K eq ). (d) Free LGK974, LGK974 suspension in CMC/Tween 80 and CD:LGK974 solubility in PBS.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Isothermal Titration Calorimetry experiments for (a) βSBECD (concentration: 60.0 mM) and (b) HPβCD (concentration: 60.0 mM) in LGK974 (concentration: 3.0 mM) (square) and nonlinear fitting by Wiseman Isotherm (line). (c) Thermodynamic parameters of CD-LGK974 interactions determined by isothermal titration calorimetry experiments (average stoichiometry N of the complex in solution, enthalpy ΔH°, entropy TΔS°, equilibrium constant K eq ). (d) Free LGK974, LGK974 suspension in CMC/Tween 80 and CD:LGK974 solubility in PBS.

    Techniques Used: Isothermal Titration Calorimetry, Concentration Assay, Solubility

    16) Product Images from "Protein expression in the obligate hydrocarbon‐degrading psychrophile Oleispira antarctica RB‐8 during alkane degradation and cold tolerance"

    Article Title: Protein expression in the obligate hydrocarbon‐degrading psychrophile Oleispira antarctica RB‐8 during alkane degradation and cold tolerance

    Journal: Environmental Microbiology

    doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.14956

    A. Principle component analysis of replicate Oleispira antarctica RB‐8 proteomes during growth on tetradecane ( n ‐C 14 ) and the non‐hydrocarbon control Tween 80 (Tween) at 4°C and 16°C based on normalized spectral counts for proteins. B. Violin plots of normalized LC–MS/MS spectral counts showing the distribution of detected proteins in O . antarctica RB‐8 during growth on different substrates; n ‐C 14 versus Tween (left; n ‐C14:Tween); and different temperature; 4°C versus 16°C (right; 4°C: 16°C). C and D. Volcano plots of normalized LC–MS/MS spectral counts comparing O . antarctica RB‐8 protein abundance during growth on different substrates; n ‐C 14 versus Tween (left; n‐ C 14 : Tween) and different temperatures; 4°C versus 16°C (right; 4°C:16°C). Larger data points (light and dark grey) represent differentially expressed proteins with P‐ values below 0.05.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A. Principle component analysis of replicate Oleispira antarctica RB‐8 proteomes during growth on tetradecane ( n ‐C 14 ) and the non‐hydrocarbon control Tween 80 (Tween) at 4°C and 16°C based on normalized spectral counts for proteins. B. Violin plots of normalized LC–MS/MS spectral counts showing the distribution of detected proteins in O . antarctica RB‐8 during growth on different substrates; n ‐C 14 versus Tween (left; n ‐C14:Tween); and different temperature; 4°C versus 16°C (right; 4°C: 16°C). C and D. Volcano plots of normalized LC–MS/MS spectral counts comparing O . antarctica RB‐8 protein abundance during growth on different substrates; n ‐C 14 versus Tween (left; n‐ C 14 : Tween) and different temperatures; 4°C versus 16°C (right; 4°C:16°C). Larger data points (light and dark grey) represent differentially expressed proteins with P‐ values below 0.05.

    Techniques Used: Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectroscopy

    A. Normalized spectral counts (means ± SE;  n  = 3) of differentially expressed alkane degradation proteins during growth on the  n ‐alkane tetradecane ( n ‐C 14 ; light grey and dark grey), the non‐hydrocarbon control (Tween 80; white and black) at 4° and 16°C in  Oleispira antarctica  RB‐8. B. The monooxygenase (AlkB; C34350/C34450) introduces oxygen into the  n ‐alkane converting it into a primary alcohol. This alcohol is further oxidized to an aldehyde and then a fatty acid by the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; C00500/C34360) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH; C00520/C11600) respectively. The fatty acid desaturase (FAD; C34830) incorporates double bonds into the hydrocarbon chain of the saturated fatty acid to yield unsaturated fatty acids. The fatty acid‐CoA ligase (FA‐CoAL; C09310) catalyses the conversion of unsaturated or saturated fatty acids to their active form acyl‐CoAs for degradation via β‐oxidation.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A. Normalized spectral counts (means ± SE; n = 3) of differentially expressed alkane degradation proteins during growth on the n ‐alkane tetradecane ( n ‐C 14 ; light grey and dark grey), the non‐hydrocarbon control (Tween 80; white and black) at 4° and 16°C in Oleispira antarctica RB‐8. B. The monooxygenase (AlkB; C34350/C34450) introduces oxygen into the n ‐alkane converting it into a primary alcohol. This alcohol is further oxidized to an aldehyde and then a fatty acid by the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; C00500/C34360) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH; C00520/C11600) respectively. The fatty acid desaturase (FAD; C34830) incorporates double bonds into the hydrocarbon chain of the saturated fatty acid to yield unsaturated fatty acids. The fatty acid‐CoA ligase (FA‐CoAL; C09310) catalyses the conversion of unsaturated or saturated fatty acids to their active form acyl‐CoAs for degradation via β‐oxidation.

    Techniques Used:

    17) Product Images from "A Novel Gel-Forming Solution Based on PEG-DSPE/Solutol HS 15 Mixed Micelles and Gellan Gum for Ophthalmic Delivery of Curcumin"

    Article Title: A Novel Gel-Forming Solution Based on PEG-DSPE/Solutol HS 15 Mixed Micelles and Gellan Gum for Ophthalmic Delivery of Curcumin

    Journal: Molecules

    doi: 10.3390/molecules25010081

    Profiles of the cumulative percentage release of Cur from the propylene glycol solution (■), Cur-MMs (●), and Cur-MM-ISG (▲) at predetermined periods in PBS containing 5% Tween 80.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Profiles of the cumulative percentage release of Cur from the propylene glycol solution (■), Cur-MMs (●), and Cur-MM-ISG (▲) at predetermined periods in PBS containing 5% Tween 80.

    Techniques Used:

    18) Product Images from "DMTS is an effective treatment in both an inhalation and injection model for cyanide poisoning using unanesthetized mice"

    Article Title: DMTS is an effective treatment in both an inhalation and injection model for cyanide poisoning using unanesthetized mice

    Journal: Clinical toxicology (Philadelphia, Pa.)

    doi: 10.1080/15563650.2017.1376749

    Dose–response curves of subcutaneous KCN in the presence of vehicle control (25% Span80, 75% Tween 80) or DMTS at 50 mg/kg (0.398 mmol/kg), 100 mg/kg (0.795 mmol/kg), 200 mg/kg (1.590 mmol/kg), and 300 mg/kg (2.39 mmol/kg) ( n  = 30–36 male
    Figure Legend Snippet: Dose–response curves of subcutaneous KCN in the presence of vehicle control (25% Span80, 75% Tween 80) or DMTS at 50 mg/kg (0.398 mmol/kg), 100 mg/kg (0.795 mmol/kg), 200 mg/kg (1.590 mmol/kg), and 300 mg/kg (2.39 mmol/kg) ( n = 30–36 male

    Techniques Used:

    19) Product Images from "Preparation of high drug-loading celastrol nanosuspensions and their anti-breast cancer activities in vitro and in vivo"

    Article Title: Preparation of high drug-loading celastrol nanosuspensions and their anti-breast cancer activities in vitro and in vivo

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-65773-9

    Preparation and characterization of CSL-NSps ( a) The photograph and particle size distribution of CSL-NSps. ( b) TEM photograph of CSL-NSps. (c) XRD pattern of the CSL, P-188, CSL-NSps, and the physical mixture of CSL and P-188. ( d) In vitro drug release profiles of CSL-NSps and free CSL in PBS solution (pH 7.4) containing 0.5% Tween 80 at 37 °C (mean ± SD, n = 3).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Preparation and characterization of CSL-NSps ( a) The photograph and particle size distribution of CSL-NSps. ( b) TEM photograph of CSL-NSps. (c) XRD pattern of the CSL, P-188, CSL-NSps, and the physical mixture of CSL and P-188. ( d) In vitro drug release profiles of CSL-NSps and free CSL in PBS solution (pH 7.4) containing 0.5% Tween 80 at 37 °C (mean ± SD, n = 3).

    Techniques Used: Transmission Electron Microscopy, In Vitro

    20) Product Images from "Delving into the Causes and Effects of Entomopathogenic Endophytic Metarhizium brunneum Foliar Application-Related Mortality in Spodoptera littoralis Larvae"

    Article Title: Delving into the Causes and Effects of Entomopathogenic Endophytic Metarhizium brunneum Foliar Application-Related Mortality in Spodoptera littoralis Larvae

    Journal: Insects

    doi: 10.3390/insects11070429

    Design of the in-planta experiment. ( A ) Non-damaged plant; ( B ) damaged plant. (1) One leaf was brushed with the fungal suspension (treated) or sterile water with 0.1% Tween 80 (control). (2) The leaf was covered with a transparent plastic bag for 48 h. (3) Four L 2 Spodoptera littoralis larvae were clipped on a non-treated leaf at 48 h and left to feed on the leaf for 48 h. (4) Damage was artificially caused by tearing a non-treated leaf at 48 h after fungal inoculation.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Design of the in-planta experiment. ( A ) Non-damaged plant; ( B ) damaged plant. (1) One leaf was brushed with the fungal suspension (treated) or sterile water with 0.1% Tween 80 (control). (2) The leaf was covered with a transparent plastic bag for 48 h. (3) Four L 2 Spodoptera littoralis larvae were clipped on a non-treated leaf at 48 h and left to feed on the leaf for 48 h. (4) Damage was artificially caused by tearing a non-treated leaf at 48 h after fungal inoculation.

    Techniques Used:

    21) Product Images from "A statistical approach to improve compound screening in cell culture media. A statistical approach to improve compound screening in cell culture media"

    Article Title: A statistical approach to improve compound screening in cell culture media. A statistical approach to improve compound screening in cell culture media

    Journal: Engineering in Life Sciences

    doi: 10.1002/elsc.201800168

    (A–B) Model validation. (A) Unsupplemented (Negative control) and supplemented CHO‐S cell line in FreeStyleCHO medium with the optimal levels of r‐transferrin, r‐insulin and tween 80. (B) Non‐supplemented and supplemented CHO‐S cells expressing transtuzumab in FreeStyleCHO medium with the optimal levels of r‐transferrin, r‐insulin and tween 80. Cell density and viability were determined daily. Mean values ± standard deviation of triplicate experiments are represented
    Figure Legend Snippet: (A–B) Model validation. (A) Unsupplemented (Negative control) and supplemented CHO‐S cell line in FreeStyleCHO medium with the optimal levels of r‐transferrin, r‐insulin and tween 80. (B) Non‐supplemented and supplemented CHO‐S cells expressing transtuzumab in FreeStyleCHO medium with the optimal levels of r‐transferrin, r‐insulin and tween 80. Cell density and viability were determined daily. Mean values ± standard deviation of triplicate experiments are represented

    Techniques Used: Negative Control, Expressing, Standard Deviation

    (A) Main effects plot of the PBD only considering main effects of non‐animal derived supplements on CHO‐S cells in FreeStyleCHO medium, where: A, selenium (mg/L); B, r‐transferrin (mg/L); C, r‐albumin (mg/L); D, r‐insulin (mg/L); E, (+)‐α‐Tocopherol acetate ( X ); F, fatty acids ( X ); G, Tween 80 ( X ); H, synthetic cholesterol ( X ). Dark grey bars represent significant factors ( p ‐value
    Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Main effects plot of the PBD only considering main effects of non‐animal derived supplements on CHO‐S cells in FreeStyleCHO medium, where: A, selenium (mg/L); B, r‐transferrin (mg/L); C, r‐albumin (mg/L); D, r‐insulin (mg/L); E, (+)‐α‐Tocopherol acetate ( X ); F, fatty acids ( X ); G, Tween 80 ( X ); H, synthetic cholesterol ( X ). Dark grey bars represent significant factors ( p ‐value

    Techniques Used: Derivative Assay

    Response surface graphs based on Box‐Behnken experimental results (A–I). Maximum viable cell concentration in cell culture as a function of the concentrations of (A–C) r‐transferrin versus tween 80; (D–F) tween 80 versus r‐insulin; and (G–I) r‐transferrin versus r‐insulin. The graphs were constructed depicting two variables at a time while keeping the third one at a fixed level
    Figure Legend Snippet: Response surface graphs based on Box‐Behnken experimental results (A–I). Maximum viable cell concentration in cell culture as a function of the concentrations of (A–C) r‐transferrin versus tween 80; (D–F) tween 80 versus r‐insulin; and (G–I) r‐transferrin versus r‐insulin. The graphs were constructed depicting two variables at a time while keeping the third one at a fixed level

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Cell Culture, Construct

    22) Product Images from "Altered Surface Hydrophilicity on Copolymer Scaffolds Stimulate the Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells"

    Article Title: Altered Surface Hydrophilicity on Copolymer Scaffolds Stimulate the Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Journal: Polymers

    doi: 10.3390/polym12071453

    The spreading of Ponceau S Red solution on the films (the right) and the penetration of Ponceau S red solution into different scaffolds (the left).The dye solution could not totally spread on the films of the DXO and CL groups, but it could quickly diffuse on the films that contained Tween 80. Meanwhile, DXO showed a better spreading than CL.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The spreading of Ponceau S Red solution on the films (the right) and the penetration of Ponceau S red solution into different scaffolds (the left).The dye solution could not totally spread on the films of the DXO and CL groups, but it could quickly diffuse on the films that contained Tween 80. Meanwhile, DXO showed a better spreading than CL.

    Techniques Used:

    SEM results after 3 h and 3 days. Results from 3 h showed the better spreading of hMSCs on control groups compared with the Tween 80-added groups. Three days’ results showed that most cells could spread and grow from the control groups and the 3% and 10% Tween 80-added groups. Fewer cells could be observed in the 20% Tween 80-added groups.
    Figure Legend Snippet: SEM results after 3 h and 3 days. Results from 3 h showed the better spreading of hMSCs on control groups compared with the Tween 80-added groups. Three days’ results showed that most cells could spread and grow from the control groups and the 3% and 10% Tween 80-added groups. Fewer cells could be observed in the 20% Tween 80-added groups.

    Techniques Used:

    3%, 10% or 20% Tween 80 decreased the contact angle of poly(LLA- co -CL) and poly(LLA- co -DXO), implying that all of the three ratios of Tween 80 could improve the hydrophilicity of the copolymers (n = 5).
    Figure Legend Snippet: 3%, 10% or 20% Tween 80 decreased the contact angle of poly(LLA- co -CL) and poly(LLA- co -DXO), implying that all of the three ratios of Tween 80 could improve the hydrophilicity of the copolymers (n = 5).

    Techniques Used:

    23) Product Images from "Innate Immune Response against Staphylococcus aureus Preincubated with Subinhibitory Concentration of trans-Anethole"

    Article Title: Innate Immune Response against Staphylococcus aureus Preincubated with Subinhibitory Concentration of trans-Anethole

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    doi: 10.3390/ijms21114178

    Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images at 5.00 kx of S. aureus Newman strain isolated from different modifications of the Mueller-Hinton agar: non-supplemented (control medium A ); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 (medium B ); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 and trans -anethole at subinhibitory concentration—MIC 50 (medium C ).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images at 5.00 kx of S. aureus Newman strain isolated from different modifications of the Mueller-Hinton agar: non-supplemented (control medium A ); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 (medium B ); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 and trans -anethole at subinhibitory concentration—MIC 50 (medium C ).

    Techniques Used: Microscopy, Isolation, Concentration Assay

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis of S. aureus Newman strain isolated from different modifications of the Mueller-Hinton agar: non-supplemented (control medium A); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 (medium B); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 and trans -anethole at subinhibitory concentration—MIC 50 (medium C).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis of S. aureus Newman strain isolated from different modifications of the Mueller-Hinton agar: non-supplemented (control medium A); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 (medium B); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 and trans -anethole at subinhibitory concentration—MIC 50 (medium C).

    Techniques Used: Spectroscopy, Isolation, Concentration Assay

    Killing activity assessment of S. aureus Newman cells. A—Mueller-Hinton agar non-supplemented (MHA, control), B—MHA supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80, and C—MHA supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 and trans -anethole at subinhibitory concentration (MIC 50 ). The number above each plot represents the volunteer number. The values in the table represent the killing index. Photographic evidence of intracellular killed and living bacteria is presented in the pictures above the graphs (magnification: 400x).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Killing activity assessment of S. aureus Newman cells. A—Mueller-Hinton agar non-supplemented (MHA, control), B—MHA supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80, and C—MHA supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 and trans -anethole at subinhibitory concentration (MIC 50 ). The number above each plot represents the volunteer number. The values in the table represent the killing index. Photographic evidence of intracellular killed and living bacteria is presented in the pictures above the graphs (magnification: 400x).

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay

    Measurements of IL-8 concentration in whole human blood non-infected (N) and infected with S. aureus Newman strain isolated from different modifications of the Mueller-Hinton agar: non-supplemented (control—medium A); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 (medium B); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 and trans -anethole at subinhibitory concentration—MIC 50 (medium C). Data are shown as the mean ± SD. ** p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Measurements of IL-8 concentration in whole human blood non-infected (N) and infected with S. aureus Newman strain isolated from different modifications of the Mueller-Hinton agar: non-supplemented (control—medium A); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 (medium B); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 and trans -anethole at subinhibitory concentration—MIC 50 (medium C). Data are shown as the mean ± SD. ** p

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Infection, Isolation

    Phagocytosis assay validity of S. aureus Newman cells. A—Mueller-Hinton agar non-supplemented (MHA, control), B—MHA supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80, and C—MHA supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 and trans -anethole at subinhibitory concentration (MIC 50 ). The number above each plot represents the volunteer number. The values in the table represent the percentages of the phagocytic cells. Photographic evidence is presented in the pictures above the graphs (magnification: 400x). Data are shown as the mean ± SD. *** p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Phagocytosis assay validity of S. aureus Newman cells. A—Mueller-Hinton agar non-supplemented (MHA, control), B—MHA supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80, and C—MHA supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 and trans -anethole at subinhibitory concentration (MIC 50 ). The number above each plot represents the volunteer number. The values in the table represent the percentages of the phagocytic cells. Photographic evidence is presented in the pictures above the graphs (magnification: 400x). Data are shown as the mean ± SD. *** p

    Techniques Used: Phagocytosis Assay, Concentration Assay

    Percentages of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT)-positive cells. A—Mueller-Hinton agar non-supplemented (MHA, control), B—MHA supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80, and C—MHA supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 and trans -anethole at subinhibitory concentration (MIC 50 ). Photographic evidence is presented in the pictures above the graph (magnification: 400x). Data are shown as the mean ± SD. ** p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Percentages of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT)-positive cells. A—Mueller-Hinton agar non-supplemented (MHA, control), B—MHA supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80, and C—MHA supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 and trans -anethole at subinhibitory concentration (MIC 50 ). Photographic evidence is presented in the pictures above the graph (magnification: 400x). Data are shown as the mean ± SD. ** p

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    Average bacterial cell diameter of S. aureus Newman strain isolated from different modifications of the Mueller-Hinton agar: non-supplemented (control medium A); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 (medium B); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 and trans -anethole at subinhibitory concentration—MIC 50 (medium C). *** p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Average bacterial cell diameter of S. aureus Newman strain isolated from different modifications of the Mueller-Hinton agar: non-supplemented (control medium A); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 (medium B); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 and trans -anethole at subinhibitory concentration—MIC 50 (medium C). *** p

    Techniques Used: Isolation, Concentration Assay

    Staphyloxanthin level measurements produced by S. aureus Newman strain isolated from different modifications of the Mueller-Hinton agar: non-supplemented (control medium A); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 (medium B); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 and trans -anethole at subinhibitory concentration—MIC 50 (medium C). Data are shown as the mean ± SD. ** p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Staphyloxanthin level measurements produced by S. aureus Newman strain isolated from different modifications of the Mueller-Hinton agar: non-supplemented (control medium A); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 (medium B); supplemented with 1% ( v/v ) Tween 80 and trans -anethole at subinhibitory concentration—MIC 50 (medium C). Data are shown as the mean ± SD. ** p

    Techniques Used: Produced, Isolation, Concentration Assay

    24) Product Images from "Altered Surface Hydrophilicity on Copolymer Scaffolds Stimulate the Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells"

    Article Title: Altered Surface Hydrophilicity on Copolymer Scaffolds Stimulate the Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Journal: Polymers

    doi: 10.3390/polym12071453

    The spreading of Ponceau S Red solution on the films (the right) and the penetration of Ponceau S red solution into different scaffolds (the left).The dye solution could not totally spread on the films of the DXO and CL groups, but it could quickly diffuse on the films that contained Tween 80. Meanwhile, DXO showed a better spreading than CL.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The spreading of Ponceau S Red solution on the films (the right) and the penetration of Ponceau S red solution into different scaffolds (the left).The dye solution could not totally spread on the films of the DXO and CL groups, but it could quickly diffuse on the films that contained Tween 80. Meanwhile, DXO showed a better spreading than CL.

    Techniques Used:

    SEM results after 3 h and 3 days. Results from 3 h showed the better spreading of hMSCs on control groups compared with the Tween 80-added groups. Three days’ results showed that most cells could spread and grow from the control groups and the 3% and 10% Tween 80-added groups. Fewer cells could be observed in the 20% Tween 80-added groups.
    Figure Legend Snippet: SEM results after 3 h and 3 days. Results from 3 h showed the better spreading of hMSCs on control groups compared with the Tween 80-added groups. Three days’ results showed that most cells could spread and grow from the control groups and the 3% and 10% Tween 80-added groups. Fewer cells could be observed in the 20% Tween 80-added groups.

    Techniques Used:

    3%, 10% or 20% Tween 80 decreased the contact angle of poly(LLA- co -CL) and poly(LLA- co -DXO), implying that all of the three ratios of Tween 80 could improve the hydrophilicity of the copolymers (n = 5).
    Figure Legend Snippet: 3%, 10% or 20% Tween 80 decreased the contact angle of poly(LLA- co -CL) and poly(LLA- co -DXO), implying that all of the three ratios of Tween 80 could improve the hydrophilicity of the copolymers (n = 5).

    Techniques Used:

    25) Product Images from "Preparation and Optimization of In Situ Gel Loaded with Rosuvastatin-Ellagic Acid Nanotransfersomes to Enhance the Anti-Proliferative Activity"

    Article Title: Preparation and Optimization of In Situ Gel Loaded with Rosuvastatin-Ellagic Acid Nanotransfersomes to Enhance the Anti-Proliferative Activity

    Journal: Pharmaceutics

    doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics12030263

    Main effect diagram, contour, and 3-D response surface plots representing the effect of the studied variables on particle size (Y1). ( A ). Main effect diagram of Egg Lecithin (%) on particle size; ( B ). Main effect diagram of Tween 80 (%) on particle size; ( C ). Main effect diagram of TPGS (%) on particle size; ( D ). Contour Plot showing the effect of Egg lecithin and Tween 80 on Particle size; ( E ). 3-D Surface plot representing the effects of the egg lecithin (%) and tween 80 (%) on particle size.)
    Figure Legend Snippet: Main effect diagram, contour, and 3-D response surface plots representing the effect of the studied variables on particle size (Y1). ( A ). Main effect diagram of Egg Lecithin (%) on particle size; ( B ). Main effect diagram of Tween 80 (%) on particle size; ( C ). Main effect diagram of TPGS (%) on particle size; ( D ). Contour Plot showing the effect of Egg lecithin and Tween 80 on Particle size; ( E ). 3-D Surface plot representing the effects of the egg lecithin (%) and tween 80 (%) on particle size.)

    Techniques Used:

    Main effect diagram, contour, and 3-D response surface plots representing the effect of studied variables on the EE (Y2). ( A ). Main effect diagram of Egg Lecithin (%) on EE%; ( B ). Main effect diagram of Tween 80 (%) on EE%; ( C ). Main effect diagram of TPGS (%) on EE%; ( D ). Contour Plot showing the effect of Egg lecithin and TPGS on EE; ( E ). 3-D Surface plot representing the effects of the egg lecithin (%) and TPGS (%) on EE.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Main effect diagram, contour, and 3-D response surface plots representing the effect of studied variables on the EE (Y2). ( A ). Main effect diagram of Egg Lecithin (%) on EE%; ( B ). Main effect diagram of Tween 80 (%) on EE%; ( C ). Main effect diagram of TPGS (%) on EE%; ( D ). Contour Plot showing the effect of Egg lecithin and TPGS on EE; ( E ). 3-D Surface plot representing the effects of the egg lecithin (%) and TPGS (%) on EE.

    Techniques Used:

    Main effect diagram, contour, and 3-D response surface plots representing the effect of studied variables on the stability index (Y3). ( A ). Main effect diagram of Egg Lecithin (%) on stability index; ( B ). Main effect diagram of Tween 80 (%) on stability index; ( C ). Main effect diagram of TPGS (%) on stability index; ( D ). Contour Plot showing the effect of Egg lecithin and TPGS on stability index; ( E ). 3-D Surface plot representing the effects of the egg lecithin (%) and TPGS (%) on stability index.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Main effect diagram, contour, and 3-D response surface plots representing the effect of studied variables on the stability index (Y3). ( A ). Main effect diagram of Egg Lecithin (%) on stability index; ( B ). Main effect diagram of Tween 80 (%) on stability index; ( C ). Main effect diagram of TPGS (%) on stability index; ( D ). Contour Plot showing the effect of Egg lecithin and TPGS on stability index; ( E ). 3-D Surface plot representing the effects of the egg lecithin (%) and TPGS (%) on stability index.

    Techniques Used:

    26) Product Images from "Applying nanotechnology to increase the rumen protection of amino acids in dairy cows"

    Article Title: Applying nanotechnology to increase the rumen protection of amino acids in dairy cows

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-63793-z

    TEM photographs of both arachidic acid ( A ) and stearic acid (S) SLN with Tween 60. Ti – NP after synthesis, T0 – NP after contact with the rumen inoculum, Tf – NP after a 24 h incubation with the rumen inoculum, and SN - supernatant.
    Figure Legend Snippet: TEM photographs of both arachidic acid ( A ) and stearic acid (S) SLN with Tween 60. Ti – NP after synthesis, T0 – NP after contact with the rumen inoculum, Tf – NP after a 24 h incubation with the rumen inoculum, and SN - supernatant.

    Techniques Used: Transmission Electron Microscopy, Incubation

    Diameter of SLN composed of stearic ( A ) and arachidic ( B ) acids with Tween 60 and zeta potential values for the same SLN (C and D, respectively) during the rumen stability assay. Results are shown for blanks and supernatants that contain bacteria (T0 and Tf) and deposits that contain NP (Ti, T0 and Tf), n = 6. *Statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) from the blanks.  # NP were statistically significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) from Ti NP.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Diameter of SLN composed of stearic ( A ) and arachidic ( B ) acids with Tween 60 and zeta potential values for the same SLN (C and D, respectively) during the rumen stability assay. Results are shown for blanks and supernatants that contain bacteria (T0 and Tf) and deposits that contain NP (Ti, T0 and Tf), n = 6. *Statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) from the blanks. # NP were statistically significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) from Ti NP.

    Techniques Used: Stability Assay

    Diameters of SLN composed of arachidic acid ( A ) with Tween 80, NLC ( B ) and MLN ( C ) composed of arachidic acid measured during the rumen stability assay. Results are shown for blanks and supernatants that contain bacteria (T0 and Tf) and deposits that contain NP (Ti, T0 and Tf), n=6. *Statistically significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) from the blanks.  # NP were statistically significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) from Ti NP.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Diameters of SLN composed of arachidic acid ( A ) with Tween 80, NLC ( B ) and MLN ( C ) composed of arachidic acid measured during the rumen stability assay. Results are shown for blanks and supernatants that contain bacteria (T0 and Tf) and deposits that contain NP (Ti, T0 and Tf), n=6. *Statistically significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) from the blanks. # NP were statistically significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) from Ti NP.

    Techniques Used: Stability Assay

    27) Product Images from "Photophysical and Optical Properties of Semiconducting Polymer Nanoparticles Prepared from Hyaluronic Acid and Polysorbate 80"

    Article Title: Photophysical and Optical Properties of Semiconducting Polymer Nanoparticles Prepared from Hyaluronic Acid and Polysorbate 80

    Journal: ACS Omega

    doi: 10.1021/acsomega.9b03402

    (a) UV–vis absorption spectra of DPP-based polymers in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution before and after nanoprecipitation with HA and Tween 80 and (b) variable temperature UV–vis (VT–UV–vis) spectra of the conjugated polymers in chlorobenzene. Spectra are obtained by slowly cooling solutions from their maximum temperature in a controlled manner.
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) UV–vis absorption spectra of DPP-based polymers in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution before and after nanoprecipitation with HA and Tween 80 and (b) variable temperature UV–vis (VT–UV–vis) spectra of the conjugated polymers in chlorobenzene. Spectra are obtained by slowly cooling solutions from their maximum temperature in a controlled manner.

    Techniques Used:

    (a) Normalized decay traces from fs-TA measurements of (a) P(DPP-T) (left), P(DPP-2T) (middle), and P(DPP-3T) (right) in THF solution (select traced from the UV, VIS, and NIR windows are shown); (b) NP(DPP-T) (left), NP(DPP-2T) (middle), and NP(DPP-3T) (right) prepared from Tween 80 (select traced from the UV, VIS, and NIR windows are shown); and (c) normalized decay traces showing ground-state recovery of the polymers in THF solution and of the nanoparticles prepared from TWEEN and HA. All measurements made with a 795 nm excitation.
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Normalized decay traces from fs-TA measurements of (a) P(DPP-T) (left), P(DPP-2T) (middle), and P(DPP-3T) (right) in THF solution (select traced from the UV, VIS, and NIR windows are shown); (b) NP(DPP-T) (left), NP(DPP-2T) (middle), and NP(DPP-3T) (right) prepared from Tween 80 (select traced from the UV, VIS, and NIR windows are shown); and (c) normalized decay traces showing ground-state recovery of the polymers in THF solution and of the nanoparticles prepared from TWEEN and HA. All measurements made with a 795 nm excitation.

    Techniques Used:

    Formation of DPP-based conjugated polymer nanoparticles (SPNs) with HA or polysorbate 80 (Tween 80) through nanoprecipitation.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Formation of DPP-based conjugated polymer nanoparticles (SPNs) with HA or polysorbate 80 (Tween 80) through nanoprecipitation.

    Techniques Used:

    (a) Structures of the investigated semiconducting polymers P(DPP-T) , P(DPP-2T) , and P(DPP-3T) ; size distributions of SPN samples prepared from (b) HA and (c) Tween-80 as measured by DLS. SANS data of SPNs in D 2 O prepared from (d) HA and (e) Tween-80. Solid lines represent fits. Dashed lines show Q -dependence of the sample scattering. I ( Q ) scattering curves were vertically offset using scaling factors for clarity of presentation.
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Structures of the investigated semiconducting polymers P(DPP-T) , P(DPP-2T) , and P(DPP-3T) ; size distributions of SPN samples prepared from (b) HA and (c) Tween-80 as measured by DLS. SANS data of SPNs in D 2 O prepared from (d) HA and (e) Tween-80. Solid lines represent fits. Dashed lines show Q -dependence of the sample scattering. I ( Q ) scattering curves were vertically offset using scaling factors for clarity of presentation.

    Techniques Used:

    28) Product Images from "Protein expression in the obligate hydrocarbon‐degrading psychrophile Oleispira antarctica RB‐8 during alkane degradation and cold tolerance"

    Article Title: Protein expression in the obligate hydrocarbon‐degrading psychrophile Oleispira antarctica RB‐8 during alkane degradation and cold tolerance

    Journal: Environmental Microbiology

    doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.14956

    A. Principle component analysis of replicate Oleispira antarctica RB‐8 proteomes during growth on tetradecane ( n ‐C 14 ) and the non‐hydrocarbon control Tween 80 (Tween) at 4°C and 16°C based on normalized spectral counts for proteins. B. Violin plots of normalized LC–MS/MS spectral counts showing the distribution of detected proteins in O . antarctica RB‐8 during growth on different substrates; n ‐C 14 versus Tween (left; n ‐C14:Tween); and different temperature; 4°C versus 16°C (right; 4°C: 16°C). C and D. Volcano plots of normalized LC–MS/MS spectral counts comparing O . antarctica RB‐8 protein abundance during growth on different substrates; n ‐C 14 versus Tween (left; n‐ C 14 : Tween) and different temperatures; 4°C versus 16°C (right; 4°C:16°C). Larger data points (light and dark grey) represent differentially expressed proteins with P‐ values below 0.05.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A. Principle component analysis of replicate Oleispira antarctica RB‐8 proteomes during growth on tetradecane ( n ‐C 14 ) and the non‐hydrocarbon control Tween 80 (Tween) at 4°C and 16°C based on normalized spectral counts for proteins. B. Violin plots of normalized LC–MS/MS spectral counts showing the distribution of detected proteins in O . antarctica RB‐8 during growth on different substrates; n ‐C 14 versus Tween (left; n ‐C14:Tween); and different temperature; 4°C versus 16°C (right; 4°C: 16°C). C and D. Volcano plots of normalized LC–MS/MS spectral counts comparing O . antarctica RB‐8 protein abundance during growth on different substrates; n ‐C 14 versus Tween (left; n‐ C 14 : Tween) and different temperatures; 4°C versus 16°C (right; 4°C:16°C). Larger data points (light and dark grey) represent differentially expressed proteins with P‐ values below 0.05.

    Techniques Used: Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectroscopy

    A. Normalized spectral counts (means ± SE;  n  = 3) of differentially expressed alkane degradation proteins during growth on the  n ‐alkane tetradecane ( n ‐C 14 ; light grey and dark grey), the non‐hydrocarbon control (Tween 80; white and black) at 4° and 16°C in  Oleispira antarctica  RB‐8. B. The monooxygenase (AlkB; C34350/C34450) introduces oxygen into the  n ‐alkane converting it into a primary alcohol. This alcohol is further oxidized to an aldehyde and then a fatty acid by the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; C00500/C34360) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH; C00520/C11600) respectively. The fatty acid desaturase (FAD; C34830) incorporates double bonds into the hydrocarbon chain of the saturated fatty acid to yield unsaturated fatty acids. The fatty acid‐CoA ligase (FA‐CoAL; C09310) catalyses the conversion of unsaturated or saturated fatty acids to their active form acyl‐CoAs for degradation via β‐oxidation.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A. Normalized spectral counts (means ± SE; n = 3) of differentially expressed alkane degradation proteins during growth on the n ‐alkane tetradecane ( n ‐C 14 ; light grey and dark grey), the non‐hydrocarbon control (Tween 80; white and black) at 4° and 16°C in Oleispira antarctica RB‐8. B. The monooxygenase (AlkB; C34350/C34450) introduces oxygen into the n ‐alkane converting it into a primary alcohol. This alcohol is further oxidized to an aldehyde and then a fatty acid by the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; C00500/C34360) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH; C00520/C11600) respectively. The fatty acid desaturase (FAD; C34830) incorporates double bonds into the hydrocarbon chain of the saturated fatty acid to yield unsaturated fatty acids. The fatty acid‐CoA ligase (FA‐CoAL; C09310) catalyses the conversion of unsaturated or saturated fatty acids to their active form acyl‐CoAs for degradation via β‐oxidation.

    Techniques Used:

    29) Product Images from "Potent in vivo lung cancer Wnt signaling inhibition via cyclodextrin-LGK974 inclusion complexes"

    Article Title: Potent in vivo lung cancer Wnt signaling inhibition via cyclodextrin-LGK974 inclusion complexes

    Journal: Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society

    doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2018.09.025

    Isothermal Titration Calorimetry experiments for (a) βSBECD (concentration: 60.0 mM) and (b) HPβCD (concentration: 60.0 mM) in LGK974 (concentration: 3.0 mM) (square) and nonlinear fitting by Wiseman Isotherm (line). (c) Thermodynamic parameters of CD-LGK974 interactions determined by isothermal titration calorimetry experiments (average stoichiometry N of the complex in solution, enthalpy ΔH°, entropy TΔS°, equilibrium constant K eq ). (d) Free LGK974, LGK974 suspension in CMC/Tween 80 and CD:LGK974 solubility in PBS.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Isothermal Titration Calorimetry experiments for (a) βSBECD (concentration: 60.0 mM) and (b) HPβCD (concentration: 60.0 mM) in LGK974 (concentration: 3.0 mM) (square) and nonlinear fitting by Wiseman Isotherm (line). (c) Thermodynamic parameters of CD-LGK974 interactions determined by isothermal titration calorimetry experiments (average stoichiometry N of the complex in solution, enthalpy ΔH°, entropy TΔS°, equilibrium constant K eq ). (d) Free LGK974, LGK974 suspension in CMC/Tween 80 and CD:LGK974 solubility in PBS.

    Techniques Used: Isothermal Titration Calorimetry, Concentration Assay, Solubility

    30) Product Images from "Long Noncoding RNA LINC01116 Contributes to Gefitinib Resistance in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer through Regulating IFI44"

    Article Title: Long Noncoding RNA LINC01116 Contributes to Gefitinib Resistance in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer through Regulating IFI44

    Journal: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids

    doi: 10.1016/j.omtn.2019.10.039

    Downregulation of LINC01116 Reduces the In Vivo Sensitivity of PC9/R Cells to Gefitinib and the Expression of LINC01116 in LA Tissues Was Negatively Correlated with IFI44 Mice were treated with gefitinib (10.0 mg/kg) or with 1% Tween 80. (A) Representative features of tumors 18 days after inoculation using PC9/R/sh-LINC01116 or PC9/R/Empty vector cells treated with 1% Tween 80 or gefitinib. (B and C) Tumor volume and weight at day 18 after the inoculation. (D) Quantitative real-time PCR detection of relative LINC01116 expression in tumors developed from PC9/R/shRNA-LINC01116 or PC9/R/Empty vector cells treated with 1% Tween 80 or gefitinib. (E) Western blotting detection of IFI44 protein expression in tumors developed from PC9/R/shRNA-LINC01116 or PC9/R/Empty vector cells treated with 1% Tween 80 or gefitinib. (F) Immunostaining of IFI44 and ki-67 protein expression in tumors developed from PC9/R/shRNA-LINC01116 or PC9/R/Empty vector cells treated with 1% Tween 80 or gefitinib. Upper, H E staining. Intermediate and lower, immunostaining. Bars, 100 μm. (G) quantitative real-time PCR detection of relative LINC01116 expression in responding (n = 11) and non-responding (n = 14) LA tissues (p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Downregulation of LINC01116 Reduces the In Vivo Sensitivity of PC9/R Cells to Gefitinib and the Expression of LINC01116 in LA Tissues Was Negatively Correlated with IFI44 Mice were treated with gefitinib (10.0 mg/kg) or with 1% Tween 80. (A) Representative features of tumors 18 days after inoculation using PC9/R/sh-LINC01116 or PC9/R/Empty vector cells treated with 1% Tween 80 or gefitinib. (B and C) Tumor volume and weight at day 18 after the inoculation. (D) Quantitative real-time PCR detection of relative LINC01116 expression in tumors developed from PC9/R/shRNA-LINC01116 or PC9/R/Empty vector cells treated with 1% Tween 80 or gefitinib. (E) Western blotting detection of IFI44 protein expression in tumors developed from PC9/R/shRNA-LINC01116 or PC9/R/Empty vector cells treated with 1% Tween 80 or gefitinib. (F) Immunostaining of IFI44 and ki-67 protein expression in tumors developed from PC9/R/shRNA-LINC01116 or PC9/R/Empty vector cells treated with 1% Tween 80 or gefitinib. Upper, H E staining. Intermediate and lower, immunostaining. Bars, 100 μm. (G) quantitative real-time PCR detection of relative LINC01116 expression in responding (n = 11) and non-responding (n = 14) LA tissues (p

    Techniques Used: In Vivo, Expressing, Mouse Assay, Plasmid Preparation, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, shRNA, Western Blot, Immunostaining, Staining

    31) Product Images from "Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) essential oil-in-water emulsions: impact of emulsifier type on the antifungal activity of Candida albicans"

    Article Title: Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) essential oil-in-water emulsions: impact of emulsifier type on the antifungal activity of Candida albicans

    Journal: Food Science and Biotechnology

    doi: 10.1007/s10068-018-0499-6

    Particle size trend of emulsions storage at three temperatures (25 and 40 °C): A Tween 80 (Blue bars), B Hydroxylated soy lecithin (gray bars), and C Gum arabic (Red bars). (Color figure online)
    Figure Legend Snippet: Particle size trend of emulsions storage at three temperatures (25 and 40 °C): A Tween 80 (Blue bars), B Hydroxylated soy lecithin (gray bars), and C Gum arabic (Red bars). (Color figure online)

    Techniques Used:

    Thymol and carvacrol concentration contained in the emulsions:  A  T80 (Tween 80),  B  HSL (Hydroxylated soy lecithin), and  C  GA (Gum arabic)
    Figure Legend Snippet: Thymol and carvacrol concentration contained in the emulsions: A T80 (Tween 80), B HSL (Hydroxylated soy lecithin), and C GA (Gum arabic)

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    Antifungal activity of major monoterpenes concentration (thymol and carvacrol) against  C. albicans .  A  Tween 80,  B  Hydroxylated soy lecithin, and  C  Gum arabic. Columns having common letters are not significantly different ( p >  0.05)
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antifungal activity of major monoterpenes concentration (thymol and carvacrol) against C. albicans . A Tween 80, B Hydroxylated soy lecithin, and C Gum arabic. Columns having common letters are not significantly different ( p >  0.05)

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay

    32) Product Images from "Delving into the Causes and Effects of Entomopathogenic Endophytic Metarhizium brunneum Foliar Application-Related Mortality in Spodoptera littoralis Larvae"

    Article Title: Delving into the Causes and Effects of Entomopathogenic Endophytic Metarhizium brunneum Foliar Application-Related Mortality in Spodoptera littoralis Larvae

    Journal: Insects

    doi: 10.3390/insects11070429

    Design of the in-planta experiment. ( A ) Non-damaged plant; ( B ) damaged plant. (1) One leaf was brushed with the fungal suspension (treated) or sterile water with 0.1% Tween 80 (control). (2) The leaf was covered with a transparent plastic bag for 48 h. (3) Four L 2 Spodoptera littoralis larvae were clipped on a non-treated leaf at 48 h and left to feed on the leaf for 48 h. (4) Damage was artificially caused by tearing a non-treated leaf at 48 h after fungal inoculation.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Design of the in-planta experiment. ( A ) Non-damaged plant; ( B ) damaged plant. (1) One leaf was brushed with the fungal suspension (treated) or sterile water with 0.1% Tween 80 (control). (2) The leaf was covered with a transparent plastic bag for 48 h. (3) Four L 2 Spodoptera littoralis larvae were clipped on a non-treated leaf at 48 h and left to feed on the leaf for 48 h. (4) Damage was artificially caused by tearing a non-treated leaf at 48 h after fungal inoculation.

    Techniques Used:

    33) Product Images from "Altered Surface Hydrophilicity on Copolymer Scaffolds Stimulate the Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells"

    Article Title: Altered Surface Hydrophilicity on Copolymer Scaffolds Stimulate the Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Journal: Polymers

    doi: 10.3390/polym12071453

    The spreading of Ponceau S Red solution on the films (the right) and the penetration of Ponceau S red solution into different scaffolds (the left).The dye solution could not totally spread on the films of the DXO and CL groups, but it could quickly diffuse on the films that contained Tween 80. Meanwhile, DXO showed a better spreading than CL.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The spreading of Ponceau S Red solution on the films (the right) and the penetration of Ponceau S red solution into different scaffolds (the left).The dye solution could not totally spread on the films of the DXO and CL groups, but it could quickly diffuse on the films that contained Tween 80. Meanwhile, DXO showed a better spreading than CL.

    Techniques Used:

    SEM results after 3 h and 3 days. Results from 3 h showed the better spreading of hMSCs on control groups compared with the Tween 80-added groups. Three days’ results showed that most cells could spread and grow from the control groups and the 3% and 10% Tween 80-added groups. Fewer cells could be observed in the 20% Tween 80-added groups.
    Figure Legend Snippet: SEM results after 3 h and 3 days. Results from 3 h showed the better spreading of hMSCs on control groups compared with the Tween 80-added groups. Three days’ results showed that most cells could spread and grow from the control groups and the 3% and 10% Tween 80-added groups. Fewer cells could be observed in the 20% Tween 80-added groups.

    Techniques Used:

    3%, 10% or 20% Tween 80 decreased the contact angle of poly(LLA- co -CL) and poly(LLA- co -DXO), implying that all of the three ratios of Tween 80 could improve the hydrophilicity of the copolymers (n = 5).
    Figure Legend Snippet: 3%, 10% or 20% Tween 80 decreased the contact angle of poly(LLA- co -CL) and poly(LLA- co -DXO), implying that all of the three ratios of Tween 80 could improve the hydrophilicity of the copolymers (n = 5).

    Techniques Used:

    34) Product Images from "Antimicrobial Electrospun Polycaprolactone-Based Wound Dressings: An In Vitro Study About the Importance of the Direct Contact to Elicit Bactericidal Activity"

    Article Title: Antimicrobial Electrospun Polycaprolactone-Based Wound Dressings: An In Vitro Study About the Importance of the Direct Contact to Elicit Bactericidal Activity

    Journal: Advances in Wound Care

    doi: 10.1089/wound.2018.0893

    Drug release kinetics obtained by flushing through a fixed bed composed of the electrospun mats of PBS (with Tween 80, 2% w/v) at 37°C with a flow rate of 1 mL/min (data shown correspond with mean and standard deviation of three independent experiments for each material). PBS, phosphate-buffered saline. Color images are available online.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Drug release kinetics obtained by flushing through a fixed bed composed of the electrospun mats of PBS (with Tween 80, 2% w/v) at 37°C with a flow rate of 1 mL/min (data shown correspond with mean and standard deviation of three independent experiments for each material). PBS, phosphate-buffered saline. Color images are available online.

    Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry, Standard Deviation

    35) Product Images from "Herbicidal Activity of Flavokawains and Related trans-Chalcones against Amaranthus tricolor L. and Echinochloacrus-galli (L.) Beauv."

    Article Title: Herbicidal Activity of Flavokawains and Related trans-Chalcones against Amaranthus tricolor L. and Echinochloacrus-galli (L.) Beauv.

    Journal: ACS Omega

    doi: 10.1021/acsomega.9b03144

    Inhibitory effects of 3 flavokawains and 42 synthetic chalcones on seed germination and shoot and root growth of barnyardgrass. Aqueous solutions of Tween 80 and butachlor were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Different letters in each graph indicate significant differences ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibitory effects of 3 flavokawains and 42 synthetic chalcones on seed germination and shoot and root growth of barnyardgrass. Aqueous solutions of Tween 80 and butachlor were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Different letters in each graph indicate significant differences ( p

    Techniques Used:

    Inhibitory effects of 3 flavokawains and 18 related chalcones on seed germination (A) and shoot (B) and root (C) growth of Chinese amaranth. Aqueous solutions of Tween 80 and butachlor were used as negative and positive references, respectively. Different letters in each graph indicate significant differences ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibitory effects of 3 flavokawains and 18 related chalcones on seed germination (A) and shoot (B) and root (C) growth of Chinese amaranth. Aqueous solutions of Tween 80 and butachlor were used as negative and positive references, respectively. Different letters in each graph indicate significant differences ( p

    Techniques Used:

    Inhibitory effects of 24 synthetic chalcones on seed germination (A) and shoot (B) and root (C) growth of Chinese amaranth. Aqueous solutions of Tween 80 and butachlor were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Different letters in each graph indicate significant differences ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibitory effects of 24 synthetic chalcones on seed germination (A) and shoot (B) and root (C) growth of Chinese amaranth. Aqueous solutions of Tween 80 and butachlor were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Different letters in each graph indicate significant differences ( p

    Techniques Used:

    Inhibitory effects of chalcone 14f on seed germination, shoot, and root growths of (A) barnyardgrass and (B) Chinese amaranth. Aqueous solutions of Tween 80 were used as negative control.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibitory effects of chalcone 14f on seed germination, shoot, and root growths of (A) barnyardgrass and (B) Chinese amaranth. Aqueous solutions of Tween 80 were used as negative control.

    Techniques Used: Negative Control

    36) Product Images from "Neuroendocrine Targeting of Tissue Plasminogen Activator (t-PA)"

    Article Title: Neuroendocrine Targeting of Tissue Plasminogen Activator (t-PA)

    Journal: Journal of neurological disorders & stroke

    doi:

    Effect of pH and Ca +2  on the interaction of t-PA with CgA. Microtiter wells were coated with t-PA and incubated with  125 I-CgA in either: 10 mM HEPES, pH 7.4, 1 mM EGTA; 10 mM MES pH 6.4 containing 10 mM Ca +2 ; or 10 mM MES, pH 5.5 containing 20 mM Ca +2 . All buffers contained 100 mM NaCl and 0.1%Tween 80. Incubations were performed in the presence of buffer alone or in the presence of either 1 :M CgA, RNAse, or transferrin as indicated.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of pH and Ca +2 on the interaction of t-PA with CgA. Microtiter wells were coated with t-PA and incubated with 125 I-CgA in either: 10 mM HEPES, pH 7.4, 1 mM EGTA; 10 mM MES pH 6.4 containing 10 mM Ca +2 ; or 10 mM MES, pH 5.5 containing 20 mM Ca +2 . All buffers contained 100 mM NaCl and 0.1%Tween 80. Incubations were performed in the presence of buffer alone or in the presence of either 1 :M CgA, RNAse, or transferrin as indicated.

    Techniques Used: Incubation

    37) Product Images from "The Antibacterial Activity of Lavender Essential Oil Alone and In Combination with Octenidine Dihydrochloride against MRSA Strains"

    Article Title: The Antibacterial Activity of Lavender Essential Oil Alone and In Combination with Octenidine Dihydrochloride against MRSA Strains

    Journal: Molecules

    doi: 10.3390/molecules25010095

    FTIR spectra of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300 (MRSA) strain grown in Mueller-Hinton broth containing: no chemicals (control—medium A), Tween 80 (medium B), DMSO (medium C), Tween 80 and DMSO (medium D), lavender essential oil (LEO) at subinhibitory concentration (MIC 50 ) (medium E), octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT) at subinhibitory concentration (MIC 50 ) (medium F), LEO/OCT at subinhibitory concentrations (MICc 50 ) (medium G).
    Figure Legend Snippet: FTIR spectra of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300 (MRSA) strain grown in Mueller-Hinton broth containing: no chemicals (control—medium A), Tween 80 (medium B), DMSO (medium C), Tween 80 and DMSO (medium D), lavender essential oil (LEO) at subinhibitory concentration (MIC 50 ) (medium E), octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT) at subinhibitory concentration (MIC 50 ) (medium F), LEO/OCT at subinhibitory concentrations (MICc 50 ) (medium G).

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    Time-kill kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300 (MRSA) strain grown in Mueller-Hinton broth containing: no chemicals (control—medium A), Tween 80 (medium B), DMSO (medium C), Tween 80 and DMSO (medium D), lavender essential oil (LEO) at subinhibitory concentration (MIC 50 ) (medium E), octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT) at subinhibitory concentration (MIC 50 ) (medium F), LEO/OCT at subinhibitory concentrations (MICc 50 ) (medium G). CFU—colony forming unit.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Time-kill kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300 (MRSA) strain grown in Mueller-Hinton broth containing: no chemicals (control—medium A), Tween 80 (medium B), DMSO (medium C), Tween 80 and DMSO (medium D), lavender essential oil (LEO) at subinhibitory concentration (MIC 50 ) (medium E), octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT) at subinhibitory concentration (MIC 50 ) (medium F), LEO/OCT at subinhibitory concentrations (MICc 50 ) (medium G). CFU—colony forming unit.

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    38) Product Images from "A Novel Nanoparticle Formulation for Sustained Paclitaxel Delivery"

    Article Title: A Novel Nanoparticle Formulation for Sustained Paclitaxel Delivery

    Journal:

    doi: 10.1208/s12249-008-9063-7

    The in vitro release profiles of PTX ( closed diamonds ) or DEX ( closed squares ) from chitosan/GMO nanoparticles into a release medium containing: a PBS without surfactant and b PBS with surfactant (0.02% [ v / v ] Tween-80)
    Figure Legend Snippet: The in vitro release profiles of PTX ( closed diamonds ) or DEX ( closed squares ) from chitosan/GMO nanoparticles into a release medium containing: a PBS without surfactant and b PBS with surfactant (0.02% [ v / v ] Tween-80)

    Techniques Used: In Vitro

    39) Product Images from "Potent in vivo lung cancer Wnt signaling inhibition via cyclodextrin-LGK974 inclusion complexes"

    Article Title: Potent in vivo lung cancer Wnt signaling inhibition via cyclodextrin-LGK974 inclusion complexes

    Journal: Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society

    doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2018.09.025

    Isothermal Titration Calorimetry experiments for (a) βSBECD (concentration: 60.0 mM) and (b) HPβCD (concentration: 60.0 mM) in LGK974 (concentration: 3.0 mM) (square) and nonlinear fitting by Wiseman Isotherm (line). (c) Thermodynamic parameters of CD-LGK974 interactions determined by isothermal titration calorimetry experiments (average stoichiometry N of the complex in solution, enthalpy ΔH°, entropy TΔS°, equilibrium constant K eq ). (d) Free LGK974, LGK974 suspension in CMC/Tween 80 and CD:LGK974 solubility in PBS.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Isothermal Titration Calorimetry experiments for (a) βSBECD (concentration: 60.0 mM) and (b) HPβCD (concentration: 60.0 mM) in LGK974 (concentration: 3.0 mM) (square) and nonlinear fitting by Wiseman Isotherm (line). (c) Thermodynamic parameters of CD-LGK974 interactions determined by isothermal titration calorimetry experiments (average stoichiometry N of the complex in solution, enthalpy ΔH°, entropy TΔS°, equilibrium constant K eq ). (d) Free LGK974, LGK974 suspension in CMC/Tween 80 and CD:LGK974 solubility in PBS.

    Techniques Used: Isothermal Titration Calorimetry, Concentration Assay, Solubility

    40) Product Images from "Neuroendocrine Targeting of Tissue Plasminogen Activator (t-PA)"

    Article Title: Neuroendocrine Targeting of Tissue Plasminogen Activator (t-PA)

    Journal: Journal of neurological disorders & stroke

    doi:

    Effect of pH and Ca +2  on the interaction of t-PA with CgA. Microtiter wells were coated with t-PA and incubated with  125 I-CgA in either: 10 mM HEPES, pH 7.4, 1 mM EGTA; 10 mM MES pH 6.4 containing 10 mM Ca +2 ; or 10 mM MES, pH 5.5 containing 20 mM Ca +2 . All buffers contained 100 mM NaCl and 0.1%Tween 80. Incubations were performed in the presence of buffer alone or in the presence of either 1 :M CgA, RNAse, or transferrin as indicated.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of pH and Ca +2 on the interaction of t-PA with CgA. Microtiter wells were coated with t-PA and incubated with 125 I-CgA in either: 10 mM HEPES, pH 7.4, 1 mM EGTA; 10 mM MES pH 6.4 containing 10 mM Ca +2 ; or 10 mM MES, pH 5.5 containing 20 mM Ca +2 . All buffers contained 100 mM NaCl and 0.1%Tween 80. Incubations were performed in the presence of buffer alone or in the presence of either 1 :M CgA, RNAse, or transferrin as indicated.

    Techniques Used: Incubation

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    Article Title: Overexpression of the ? Subunit of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Promotes the Transformation of Human Ovarian Epithelial Cells and Ovarian Tumorigenesis
    Article Snippet: .. T29 β-hCG and T80 β-hCG cell lines were generated by double retrovirus infection and stable selection with puromycin (100 μg/mL, Sigma, St. Louis, MO) for 10 to 14 days. .. To confirm β-hCG overexpression and to analyze the expression of proteins regulating apoptosis and cell cycle progression, cell lysates from T29, T80, T29 β-hCG, and T80 β-hCG cell lines were prepared using radioimmunoprecipitation assay buffer (50 mmol/L Tris-HCl pH 8, 150 mmol/L NaCl, 1% NP-40, 0.5% sodium deoxycholate, and 0.1% SDS).

    other:

    Article Title: Study of Metabolic Adaptation of Red Yeasts to Waste Animal Fat Substrate
    Article Snippet: Yeast extract, peptone, yeast nitrogen base w/o, Tween 80, ammonium sulfate, magnesium sulfate (heptahydrate), glucose, glycerol, sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide, potassium dihydrogenphosphate, anthracene, the Lipase Basic Kit, and lipase from Candida rugosa (500 mg/L) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (Missouri, USA).

    Article Title: Antimicrobial Electrospun Polycaprolactone-Based Wound Dressings: An In Vitro Study About the Importance of the Direct Contact to Elicit Bactericidal Activity
    Article Snippet: PCL ( Mn = 80,000 Da), CAR (food grade, ≥98%), ( S )-(−)-limonene (food grade, ≥95%), naproxen sodium salt (98–102%), phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and Tween 80 were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (Madrid, Spain).

    Molecular Weight:

    Article Title: Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles for delivery across the blood-brain barrier
    Article Snippet: .. Materials For formulation of polymeric NPs, we used PLGA (molecular weight 45,000–75,000), copolymer ratio 50:50, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA; average molecular weight 30,000–70,000), bovine serum albumin (BSA), Coumarin 6 dye, dimethyl tartaric acid (DMT), dichloromethane (DCM), and Ps80 (Tween 80), all purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St Louis, MO, USA). .. TIMP-1 expression and characterization We expressed recombinant mouse TIMP-1 as described in our earlier study.

    Article Title: Brain targeting stealth lipomers of combined antiepileptic-anti-inflammatory drugs as alternative therapy for conventional anti-Parkinson’s
    Article Snippet: .. Dialysis tubing cellulose membrane (molecular weight cut off 12,000 g/mole), Thiobarbituric acid/Trichloroacetic acid (TBA–TCA) reagent, Chlorpromazine hydrochloride, Griess reagent, hydrogen peroxide, 5,5′-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) reagent, Bovine serum albumin (BSA), and Tween®80 were purchased from Sigma–Aldrich, Germany. ..

    Infection:

    Article Title: Overexpression of the ? Subunit of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Promotes the Transformation of Human Ovarian Epithelial Cells and Ovarian Tumorigenesis
    Article Snippet: .. T29 β-hCG and T80 β-hCG cell lines were generated by double retrovirus infection and stable selection with puromycin (100 μg/mL, Sigma, St. Louis, MO) for 10 to 14 days. .. To confirm β-hCG overexpression and to analyze the expression of proteins regulating apoptosis and cell cycle progression, cell lysates from T29, T80, T29 β-hCG, and T80 β-hCG cell lines were prepared using radioimmunoprecipitation assay buffer (50 mmol/L Tris-HCl pH 8, 150 mmol/L NaCl, 1% NP-40, 0.5% sodium deoxycholate, and 0.1% SDS).

    Selection:

    Article Title: Overexpression of the ? Subunit of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Promotes the Transformation of Human Ovarian Epithelial Cells and Ovarian Tumorigenesis
    Article Snippet: .. T29 β-hCG and T80 β-hCG cell lines were generated by double retrovirus infection and stable selection with puromycin (100 μg/mL, Sigma, St. Louis, MO) for 10 to 14 days. .. To confirm β-hCG overexpression and to analyze the expression of proteins regulating apoptosis and cell cycle progression, cell lysates from T29, T80, T29 β-hCG, and T80 β-hCG cell lines were prepared using radioimmunoprecipitation assay buffer (50 mmol/L Tris-HCl pH 8, 150 mmol/L NaCl, 1% NP-40, 0.5% sodium deoxycholate, and 0.1% SDS).

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  • 93
    Millipore goat anti sod1
    Immunohistochemistry for superoxide dismutase <t>(SOD1)</t> (a-c), manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) (d-f), catalase (CAT) (g-i) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (j-l) in the rat liver of the normal-(left column), ascorbic acid - (middle column) and Oenanthe javanica extract (OJE) - (right column) groups. Strong SOD1, SOD2, CAT, and GPx immunoreactive cells (arrows) are markedly increased in the OJE-group. Scale bar = 120 μ m.
    Goat Anti Sod1, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/goat anti sod1/product/Millipore
    Average 93 stars, based on 4 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    goat anti sod1 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    93/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    85
    Millipore anti ngfr p75 polyclonal antibody
    <t>NGFR-p75,</t> TrkA and NGF protein levels in hippocampus (HPP). Mice were treated as in Fig. 4 . NGFR-p75 (** p
    Anti Ngfr P75 Polyclonal Antibody, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/anti ngfr p75 polyclonal antibody/product/Millipore
    Average 85 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    anti ngfr p75 polyclonal antibody - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    85/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Millipore polysorbate 80 nf
    <t>Polysorbate</t> 80 content in a ) drug product and b ) placebo dark control and light-exposed samples. Polysorbate 80 was assayed using a reversed-phase HPLC method. Key: SR-MBaker drug product formulated using Super-Refined Polysorbate 80 supplied by Mallinckrodt
    Polysorbate 80 Nf, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/polysorbate 80 nf/product/Millipore
    Average 99 stars, based on 4 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    polysorbate 80 nf - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    Image Search Results


    Immunohistochemistry for superoxide dismutase (SOD1) (a-c), manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) (d-f), catalase (CAT) (g-i) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (j-l) in the rat liver of the normal-(left column), ascorbic acid - (middle column) and Oenanthe javanica extract (OJE) - (right column) groups. Strong SOD1, SOD2, CAT, and GPx immunoreactive cells (arrows) are markedly increased in the OJE-group. Scale bar = 120 μ m.

    Journal: Chinese Medical Journal

    Article Title: Effect of Oenanthe Javanica Extract on Antioxidant Enzyme in the Rat Liver

    doi: 10.4103/0366-6999.158363

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Immunohistochemistry for superoxide dismutase (SOD1) (a-c), manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) (d-f), catalase (CAT) (g-i) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (j-l) in the rat liver of the normal-(left column), ascorbic acid - (middle column) and Oenanthe javanica extract (OJE) - (right column) groups. Strong SOD1, SOD2, CAT, and GPx immunoreactive cells (arrows) are markedly increased in the OJE-group. Scale bar = 120 μ m.

    Article Snippet: To reduce background staining, the membranes were incubated with 5% nonfat dry milk in PBS containing 0.1% Tween 20 for 45 min, followed by incubation with goat anti-SOD1 (diluted 1:1000, Calbiochem, Darmstadt, Germany), goat anti-SOD2 (diluted 1:1000, Calbiochem), rabbit anti-CAT (diluted 1:1000, LabFrontier, Seoul, Korea) and sheep anti-GPx (diluted 1:1000, Chemicon International, Billerica, MA), peroxidase-conjugated donkey anti-goat IgG, goat anti-rabbit IgG or goat anti-sheep IgG (Santa Cruz, USA), and an ECL kit (Pierce Chemical, Rockford, USA).

    Techniques: Immunohistochemistry

    NGFR-p75, TrkA and NGF protein levels in hippocampus (HPP). Mice were treated as in Fig. 4 . NGFR-p75 (** p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: BMP9 Protects Septal Neurons from Axotomy-Evoked Loss of Cholinergic Phenotype

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021166

    Figure Lengend Snippet: NGFR-p75, TrkA and NGF protein levels in hippocampus (HPP). Mice were treated as in Fig. 4 . NGFR-p75 (** p

    Article Snippet: After transfer of protein to an Immoblon P membrane (Millipore), the membrane was blocked with 5% nonfat dry milk in 1× Tris-buffered saline (TBS) containing 0.1% Tween 20 for 2 h and then probed overnight with either anti-NGFR-p75 polyclonal antibody (1∶1000) (Adavanced Targeting Systems); anti-CHAT polyclonal antibody (1∶1000) (Millipore); anti-CHT polyclonal antibody (1∶1000) (Millipore); anti-TrkA polyclonal antibody (1∶1000) (Millipore) or anti-β-actin monoclonal A5441 antibody (1∶5000) (Sigma).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Polysorbate 80 content in a ) drug product and b ) placebo dark control and light-exposed samples. Polysorbate 80 was assayed using a reversed-phase HPLC method. Key: SR-MBaker drug product formulated using Super-Refined Polysorbate 80 supplied by Mallinckrodt

    Journal: AAPS PharmSciTech

    Article Title: Effect of Polysorbate 80 Quality on Photostability of a Monoclonal Antibody

    doi: 10.1208/s12249-012-9759-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Polysorbate 80 content in a ) drug product and b ) placebo dark control and light-exposed samples. Polysorbate 80 was assayed using a reversed-phase HPLC method. Key: SR-MBaker drug product formulated using Super-Refined Polysorbate 80 supplied by Mallinckrodt

    Article Snippet: Following four types of polysorbate80 were tested: (1) Polysorbate 80 Super-Refined, Mallinckrodt Baker, (2) Polysorbate 80 NF, Mallinckrodt Baker, (3) Polysorbate 80 NF, EMD Chemicals, and (4) Ultra-pure Polysorbate 80 (HX), NOF Corporation.

    Techniques: High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Representative peptide map for light-exposed ( red ) and dark control ( blue ) samples produced using NF grade polysorbate 80 from EMD chemicals aligned as mirror images of each other for easy comparison

    Journal: AAPS PharmSciTech

    Article Title: Effect of Polysorbate 80 Quality on Photostability of a Monoclonal Antibody

    doi: 10.1208/s12249-012-9759-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Representative peptide map for light-exposed ( red ) and dark control ( blue ) samples produced using NF grade polysorbate 80 from EMD chemicals aligned as mirror images of each other for easy comparison

    Article Snippet: Following four types of polysorbate80 were tested: (1) Polysorbate 80 Super-Refined, Mallinckrodt Baker, (2) Polysorbate 80 NF, Mallinckrodt Baker, (3) Polysorbate 80 NF, EMD Chemicals, and (4) Ultra-pure Polysorbate 80 (HX), NOF Corporation.

    Techniques: Produced

    Representative SEC chromatogram for light-exposed ( blue ) sample overlayed on the respective dark control ( black ). The overlay of dark control and light-exposed formulation containing polysorbate 80 from EMD chemicals is shown. The figure inset shows zoomed

    Journal: AAPS PharmSciTech

    Article Title: Effect of Polysorbate 80 Quality on Photostability of a Monoclonal Antibody

    doi: 10.1208/s12249-012-9759-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Representative SEC chromatogram for light-exposed ( blue ) sample overlayed on the respective dark control ( black ). The overlay of dark control and light-exposed formulation containing polysorbate 80 from EMD chemicals is shown. The figure inset shows zoomed

    Article Snippet: Following four types of polysorbate80 were tested: (1) Polysorbate 80 Super-Refined, Mallinckrodt Baker, (2) Polysorbate 80 NF, Mallinckrodt Baker, (3) Polysorbate 80 NF, EMD Chemicals, and (4) Ultra-pure Polysorbate 80 (HX), NOF Corporation.

    Techniques: Size-exclusion Chromatography