Structured Review

Genentech tpa
Effects of <t>tPA</t> plus <t>minocycline</t> treatments on plasma MMP levels, all collected during the acute phase at 1 hour after tPA administration. a, Representative zymogram comparing tPA alone vs tPA plus minocycline treatment groups. tPA alone at 6 hours amplified plasma MMP-9 levels. Combination therapy with tPA plus minocycline prevented this tPA-associated amplification of MMP-9. b, Quantified densitometry of the zymogram data for MMP-9 responses. c, Quantified densitometry of the zymogram data for MMP-2 responses. * P
Tpa, supplied by Genentech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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1) Product Images from "Extension of the Thrombolytic Time Window With Minocycline in Experimental Stroke"

Article Title: Extension of the Thrombolytic Time Window With Minocycline in Experimental Stroke

Journal: Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation

doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.514026

Effects of tPA plus minocycline treatments on plasma MMP levels, all collected during the acute phase at 1 hour after tPA administration. a, Representative zymogram comparing tPA alone vs tPA plus minocycline treatment groups. tPA alone at 6 hours amplified plasma MMP-9 levels. Combination therapy with tPA plus minocycline prevented this tPA-associated amplification of MMP-9. b, Quantified densitometry of the zymogram data for MMP-9 responses. c, Quantified densitometry of the zymogram data for MMP-2 responses. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of tPA plus minocycline treatments on plasma MMP levels, all collected during the acute phase at 1 hour after tPA administration. a, Representative zymogram comparing tPA alone vs tPA plus minocycline treatment groups. tPA alone at 6 hours amplified plasma MMP-9 levels. Combination therapy with tPA plus minocycline prevented this tPA-associated amplification of MMP-9. b, Quantified densitometry of the zymogram data for MMP-9 responses. c, Quantified densitometry of the zymogram data for MMP-2 responses. * P

Techniques Used: Amplification

Cerebral perfusion during embolic focal ischemia and reperfusion after tPA thrombolysis, as measured with laser Doppler flowmetry (mean+SEM). Cerebral perfusion dropped rapidly below 20% after clot injection. Early tPA therapy at 1 hour almost fully restored perfusion. Delayed tPA therapy at 6 hours did not fully achieve reperfusion. No effects of minocycline on perfusion were detected.
Figure Legend Snippet: Cerebral perfusion during embolic focal ischemia and reperfusion after tPA thrombolysis, as measured with laser Doppler flowmetry (mean+SEM). Cerebral perfusion dropped rapidly below 20% after clot injection. Early tPA therapy at 1 hour almost fully restored perfusion. Delayed tPA therapy at 6 hours did not fully achieve reperfusion. No effects of minocycline on perfusion were detected.

Techniques Used: Injection

2) Product Images from "Lack of durable protection against cotton smoke-induced acute lung injury in sheep by nebulized single chain urokinase plasminogen activator or tissue plasminogen activator"

Article Title: Lack of durable protection against cotton smoke-induced acute lung injury in sheep by nebulized single chain urokinase plasminogen activator or tissue plasminogen activator

Journal: Clinical and Translational Medicine

doi: 10.1186/s40169-018-0196-3

Effect of nebulized scuPA and tPA treatments on detection of the plasminogen activators, αM/uPA complexes and d -dimers in plasma. The data shown were obtained from all animals in Group 2 and illustrated in a box plots (showing median with interquartile range). Temporal changes in the levels of uPA antigen ( a , b ) and “molecular cage” type αM/uPA complexes ( d , e ) in plasma of animals treated with 4 and 8 mg scuPA are illustrated, respectively. Levels of uPA antigen ( a , b ) in plasma of animals treated with 4 and 8 mg scuPA increase significantly over time (p
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of nebulized scuPA and tPA treatments on detection of the plasminogen activators, αM/uPA complexes and d -dimers in plasma. The data shown were obtained from all animals in Group 2 and illustrated in a box plots (showing median with interquartile range). Temporal changes in the levels of uPA antigen ( a , b ) and “molecular cage” type αM/uPA complexes ( d , e ) in plasma of animals treated with 4 and 8 mg scuPA are illustrated, respectively. Levels of uPA antigen ( a , b ) in plasma of animals treated with 4 and 8 mg scuPA increase significantly over time (p

Techniques Used:

SCMV ventilation with limited suctioning and increased in a dose of plasminogen activator improved BAL PA delivery. a , b Changes in the ventilation strategy Group 2 (Gr2) vs Group 1 (Gr1) and an increase in the dose of the tPA (triangles) or scuPA (squares) from 4 to 8 mg resulted in an increase in BAL plasminogen activator (PA); human uPA or tPA activity ( a ) and antigen ( b ) after 48 h of treatment. Data are presented as box plots (showing interquartile ranges). Total antigen increases significantly (p
Figure Legend Snippet: SCMV ventilation with limited suctioning and increased in a dose of plasminogen activator improved BAL PA delivery. a , b Changes in the ventilation strategy Group 2 (Gr2) vs Group 1 (Gr1) and an increase in the dose of the tPA (triangles) or scuPA (squares) from 4 to 8 mg resulted in an increase in BAL plasminogen activator (PA); human uPA or tPA activity ( a ) and antigen ( b ) after 48 h of treatment. Data are presented as box plots (showing interquartile ranges). Total antigen increases significantly (p

Techniques Used: Activity Assay

The effect of fibrinolytic therapy on concentrations of d -dimers in BAL of Groups 1 and 2. The concentration of d -dimer in BAL of ISIALI sheep after fibrinolytic therapy was measured using a sheep d -dimer (D2D) ELISA Kit (MyBioSource, CA) as described in “ Methods ”. Sheep with induced smoke ALI was treated with nebulized scuPA (4 mg) or tPA (4 mg) (Gr1, TRX) and scuPA (4 mg or 8 mg) or tPA (4 mg) (GR2 TRX) or vehicle control (Gr1, NSS and Gr2, NSS). BAL (Gr1: 5 saline-controls, GR1 TRX: 11 scuPA and tPA treated animals; Gr2: 6 saline controls, 5 and 7 animals treated with 4 and 8 mg of nebulized scuPA respectively, and 5 animals treated with 4 mg nebulized tPA) was collected at 48 h after the initiation of ISIALI as described in Fig. 1 and then analyzed [ 23 ]. Data are presented as box plots (showing interquartile ranges). No statistical significant difference was observed in the median values of d -dimer between treatment groups
Figure Legend Snippet: The effect of fibrinolytic therapy on concentrations of d -dimers in BAL of Groups 1 and 2. The concentration of d -dimer in BAL of ISIALI sheep after fibrinolytic therapy was measured using a sheep d -dimer (D2D) ELISA Kit (MyBioSource, CA) as described in “ Methods ”. Sheep with induced smoke ALI was treated with nebulized scuPA (4 mg) or tPA (4 mg) (Gr1, TRX) and scuPA (4 mg or 8 mg) or tPA (4 mg) (GR2 TRX) or vehicle control (Gr1, NSS and Gr2, NSS). BAL (Gr1: 5 saline-controls, GR1 TRX: 11 scuPA and tPA treated animals; Gr2: 6 saline controls, 5 and 7 animals treated with 4 and 8 mg of nebulized scuPA respectively, and 5 animals treated with 4 mg nebulized tPA) was collected at 48 h after the initiation of ISIALI as described in Fig. 1 and then analyzed [ 23 ]. Data are presented as box plots (showing interquartile ranges). No statistical significant difference was observed in the median values of d -dimer between treatment groups

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Assessments of fibrinolytic activity in BAL samples. Generation of fibrinolytic activity by BAL fluids in the presence of human plasminogen. Box plots: relative fibrinolytic activity (FA), produced by BAL fluids (Gr1: 5 saline-controls, GR1 TRX: 11 scuPA and tPA treated animals; Gr2: 6 saline controls, 5 and 7 animals treated with 4 and 8 mg of nebulized scuPA respectively, and 5 animals treated with 4 mg nebulized tPA) in the presence of 100 nM human Glu-plasminogen. Data are presented as box plots (showing interquartile ranges). No statistically significant differences were noted in the median value of FA between the groups. Inset: enzymographic analyses of BAL fluids from animals with ISIALI. BALs were collected at 48 h after initiation of the treatment at the time of euthanasia. Arrows to the right of the panels indicate positions of: tPA/PAI-1 inhibitory complexes (110 kDa) (I), uPA/PAI-1 inhibitory complexes (100 kDa) (II), tPA (63 kDa) (III), uPA (50 kDa) (IV). To illustrate the range of activity in the treatment groups, samples the range of ones with low levels of PA and relatively higher PA levels from sheep included in Group 2. Lanes: recombinant human uPA (0.5 ng) and tPA (0.1 ng) standards are shown in lanes 1 and 2, respectively. 3: saline treated animal, 4 and 5—8 mg scuPA-treated animals, 6 and 7—4 mg tPA-treated animals. The data are representative of the findings in all similarly treated Group 2 animals
Figure Legend Snippet: Assessments of fibrinolytic activity in BAL samples. Generation of fibrinolytic activity by BAL fluids in the presence of human plasminogen. Box plots: relative fibrinolytic activity (FA), produced by BAL fluids (Gr1: 5 saline-controls, GR1 TRX: 11 scuPA and tPA treated animals; Gr2: 6 saline controls, 5 and 7 animals treated with 4 and 8 mg of nebulized scuPA respectively, and 5 animals treated with 4 mg nebulized tPA) in the presence of 100 nM human Glu-plasminogen. Data are presented as box plots (showing interquartile ranges). No statistically significant differences were noted in the median value of FA between the groups. Inset: enzymographic analyses of BAL fluids from animals with ISIALI. BALs were collected at 48 h after initiation of the treatment at the time of euthanasia. Arrows to the right of the panels indicate positions of: tPA/PAI-1 inhibitory complexes (110 kDa) (I), uPA/PAI-1 inhibitory complexes (100 kDa) (II), tPA (63 kDa) (III), uPA (50 kDa) (IV). To illustrate the range of activity in the treatment groups, samples the range of ones with low levels of PA and relatively higher PA levels from sheep included in Group 2. Lanes: recombinant human uPA (0.5 ng) and tPA (0.1 ng) standards are shown in lanes 1 and 2, respectively. 3: saline treated animal, 4 and 5—8 mg scuPA-treated animals, 6 and 7—4 mg tPA-treated animals. The data are representative of the findings in all similarly treated Group 2 animals

Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Produced, Recombinant

Group 1 pathophysiologic changes during the progression of ISIALI. Data from saline vehicle nebulized controls (n = 5, including one animal that died prematurely; before 48 h in the control vehicle group) or animals nebulized with tPA (n = 4) or scuPA (n = 3) in Group I at the 4 mg/unit dose are illustrated in a – f and plotted as line graphs with means and standard errors of the means. Nebulized plasminogen activators at the indicated doses were delivered according to the schedule illustrated in Fig. 1 . a PaO 2 : arterial oxygen tension (mmHg): no significant difference between treatment groups over time. b PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratios: statistically significant increase of scuPA (p = 0.02) and tPA (p
Figure Legend Snippet: Group 1 pathophysiologic changes during the progression of ISIALI. Data from saline vehicle nebulized controls (n = 5, including one animal that died prematurely; before 48 h in the control vehicle group) or animals nebulized with tPA (n = 4) or scuPA (n = 3) in Group I at the 4 mg/unit dose are illustrated in a – f and plotted as line graphs with means and standard errors of the means. Nebulized plasminogen activators at the indicated doses were delivered according to the schedule illustrated in Fig. 1 . a PaO 2 : arterial oxygen tension (mmHg): no significant difference between treatment groups over time. b PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratios: statistically significant increase of scuPA (p = 0.02) and tPA (p

Techniques Used:

3) Product Images from "12/15-LOX inhibition or knockout reduces warfarin-associated hemorrhagic transformation following experimental stroke"

Article Title: 12/15-LOX inhibition or knockout reduces warfarin-associated hemorrhagic transformation following experimental stroke

Journal: Stroke

doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.116.014790

A , Following warfarin pretreatment, then 2h of MCAO and tPA infusion 1h later, i.p. ML351 delivered concomitantly reduced hemoglobin levels in the ipsilateral side of the brain at 24h (*p
Figure Legend Snippet: A , Following warfarin pretreatment, then 2h of MCAO and tPA infusion 1h later, i.p. ML351 delivered concomitantly reduced hemoglobin levels in the ipsilateral side of the brain at 24h (*p

Techniques Used:

4) Product Images from "Human neural stem cells improve early stage stroke outcome in delayed tissue plasminogen activator-treated aged stroke brains"

Article Title: Human neural stem cells improve early stage stroke outcome in delayed tissue plasminogen activator-treated aged stroke brains

Journal: Experimental neurology

doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2020.113275

Human NSCs reduce expression of MMP-9 and proinflammatory genes. ( A ) Diminished expression of inflammatory markers within the ipsilesional hemisphere of transplanted MCAO/R+tPA+Tx brains. RT-PCR was utilized to evaluate inflammatory gene expression, then normalized to that of GAPDH. Transcript levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) are upregulated in MCAO/R and MCAO/R+tPA brains; in transplanted MCAO/R+tPA+Tx brains, however, these levels are downregulated in comparison to the MCAO/R+tPA group. *** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Human NSCs reduce expression of MMP-9 and proinflammatory genes. ( A ) Diminished expression of inflammatory markers within the ipsilesional hemisphere of transplanted MCAO/R+tPA+Tx brains. RT-PCR was utilized to evaluate inflammatory gene expression, then normalized to that of GAPDH. Transcript levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) are upregulated in MCAO/R and MCAO/R+tPA brains; in transplanted MCAO/R+tPA+Tx brains, however, these levels are downregulated in comparison to the MCAO/R+tPA group. *** P

Techniques Used: Expressing, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

hNSC transplantation increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor level. ( A ) BDNF levels are shown via western blotting in the ipsilesional hemisphere of sham, MCAO/R, MCAO/R+tPA, and MCAO/R+tPA+Tx mice. ( B ) Quantification of A (n = 4, **** P
Figure Legend Snippet: hNSC transplantation increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor level. ( A ) BDNF levels are shown via western blotting in the ipsilesional hemisphere of sham, MCAO/R, MCAO/R+tPA, and MCAO/R+tPA+Tx mice. ( B ) Quantification of A (n = 4, **** P

Techniques Used: Transplantation Assay, Derivative Assay, Western Blot, Mouse Assay

BBB leakage is reduced by hNSC transplantation. ( A ) IgG levels are displayed via western blotting in the ipsilesional hemispheres of sham, MCAO/R, MCAO/R+tPA, and MCAO/R+tPA+Tx brains. ( B ) Quantification of A (n = 4, ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: BBB leakage is reduced by hNSC transplantation. ( A ) IgG levels are displayed via western blotting in the ipsilesional hemispheres of sham, MCAO/R, MCAO/R+tPA, and MCAO/R+tPA+Tx brains. ( B ) Quantification of A (n = 4, ** P

Techniques Used: Transplantation Assay, Western Blot

5) Product Images from "Subacute Intranasal Administration of Tissue Plasminogen Activator Promotes Neuroplasticity and Improves Functional Recovery following Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats"

Article Title: Subacute Intranasal Administration of Tissue Plasminogen Activator Promotes Neuroplasticity and Improves Functional Recovery following Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats

Journal: PLoS ONE

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0106238

Cortical lesion volume after TBI and tPA treatment. The bar graph shows no significance (NS) in the cortical lesion volume between the TBI+Saline and TBI+tPA groups examined at 35 days post injury ( p > 0.05). Scale bar = 2 mm. Data represent mean ± SD. n = 8 (rats/group).
Figure Legend Snippet: Cortical lesion volume after TBI and tPA treatment. The bar graph shows no significance (NS) in the cortical lesion volume between the TBI+Saline and TBI+tPA groups examined at 35 days post injury ( p > 0.05). Scale bar = 2 mm. Data represent mean ± SD. n = 8 (rats/group).

Techniques Used:

Correlation of the total length of axons crossing the midline at the cervical spinal cord with the right forelimb foot fault (A) and the mNSS score (B). The line graph shows that the total length of axonal crossing at the midline of the cervical level of the spinal cord is significantly reversely correlated with the incidence of forelimb footfault (A) and mNSS score (B) in rats examined at 35 days after TBI and tPA treatment ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: Correlation of the total length of axons crossing the midline at the cervical spinal cord with the right forelimb foot fault (A) and the mNSS score (B). The line graph shows that the total length of axonal crossing at the midline of the cervical level of the spinal cord is significantly reversely correlated with the incidence of forelimb footfault (A) and mNSS score (B) in rats examined at 35 days after TBI and tPA treatment ( p

Techniques Used:

Western blot analysis of ProBDNF and mature BDNF protein levels in the brain and spinal cord. Left panel (ipsilateral brain cortex): Sham+tPA (1, 2), TBI+Saline (3, 4); 3: TBI+tPA (5, 6); Right panel (denervated cervical spinal cord): Sham+tPA (1, 2), TBI+Saline (3, 4), TBI+tPA (5, 6). * p
Figure Legend Snippet: Western blot analysis of ProBDNF and mature BDNF protein levels in the brain and spinal cord. Left panel (ipsilateral brain cortex): Sham+tPA (1, 2), TBI+Saline (3, 4); 3: TBI+tPA (5, 6); Right panel (denervated cervical spinal cord): Sham+tPA (1, 2), TBI+Saline (3, 4), TBI+tPA (5, 6). * p

Techniques Used: Western Blot

tPA effect on functional outcome. tPA significantly lowered the mNSS scores (A) and reduced frequency of foot faults (B) from Day 14 to 35 after TBI compared to the saline group. tPA treatment significantly improved spatial learning performance from Day 33 to 35 after TBI compared with the saline group (C). * p
Figure Legend Snippet: tPA effect on functional outcome. tPA significantly lowered the mNSS scores (A) and reduced frequency of foot faults (B) from Day 14 to 35 after TBI compared to the saline group. tPA treatment significantly improved spatial learning performance from Day 33 to 35 after TBI compared with the saline group (C). * p

Techniques Used: Functional Assay

tPA effect on immature neurons after TBI. DCX staining (A–C). tPA significantly increased immature neurons identified with DCX-positive staining in the DG in rats examined 35 days after injury compared with the saline-treated group. The bar graph shows the number of DCX-positive cells. Scale bar = 25 µm. * p
Figure Legend Snippet: tPA effect on immature neurons after TBI. DCX staining (A–C). tPA significantly increased immature neurons identified with DCX-positive staining in the DG in rats examined 35 days after injury compared with the saline-treated group. The bar graph shows the number of DCX-positive cells. Scale bar = 25 µm. * p

Techniques Used: Staining

tPA protein level and activity as well as plasmin activity in rat brain. Western blot analysis of tPA protein levels in the rat brain 24 hr after intranasal administration of tPA (A). Bar graph (B) shows the tPA protein level. Of note, Sham+tPA rats received the same amount of intranasal tPA administration as TBI+tPA rats did. Representative zymographic assay (C) shows an increase in tPA activity in the Sham+tPA rats and TBI+tPA rats compared to TBI+Saline rats. h-r-tPA: human recombinant tPA (15 ng, Genentech). Bar graph (D) shows the tPA activity. Bar graph (E) shows amidolytic activity of plasmin assayed with D-Val-Leu-Lys-p-Nitroanilide Dihydrochloride (S-2251) as its specific substrate. Bar graph (F) shows tPA amidolytic activity with S-2251 as the substrate in the presence of added plasminogen compared to Sham. * p
Figure Legend Snippet: tPA protein level and activity as well as plasmin activity in rat brain. Western blot analysis of tPA protein levels in the rat brain 24 hr after intranasal administration of tPA (A). Bar graph (B) shows the tPA protein level. Of note, Sham+tPA rats received the same amount of intranasal tPA administration as TBI+tPA rats did. Representative zymographic assay (C) shows an increase in tPA activity in the Sham+tPA rats and TBI+tPA rats compared to TBI+Saline rats. h-r-tPA: human recombinant tPA (15 ng, Genentech). Bar graph (D) shows the tPA activity. Bar graph (E) shows amidolytic activity of plasmin assayed with D-Val-Leu-Lys-p-Nitroanilide Dihydrochloride (S-2251) as its specific substrate. Bar graph (F) shows tPA amidolytic activity with S-2251 as the substrate in the presence of added plasminogen compared to Sham. * p

Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Western Blot, Recombinant

BDA-labeling of CST originating from the contralesional intact hemisphere. Representative images from the cervical spinal cord show BDA-labeled CST axons crossing the midline (arrows in B) and sprouting into the denervated side of the ventral gray matter in a rat after TBI. tPA treatment significantly increased the axon midline crossing (arrows in C). There were no obvious BDA-labeled axons observed in the opposite side of the cervical spinal cord in sham rats (A). Quantitative data (D) show that the number of contralesional CST in the denervated cervical gray matter was increased significantly by traumatic injury ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: BDA-labeling of CST originating from the contralesional intact hemisphere. Representative images from the cervical spinal cord show BDA-labeled CST axons crossing the midline (arrows in B) and sprouting into the denervated side of the ventral gray matter in a rat after TBI. tPA treatment significantly increased the axon midline crossing (arrows in C). There were no obvious BDA-labeled axons observed in the opposite side of the cervical spinal cord in sham rats (A). Quantitative data (D) show that the number of contralesional CST in the denervated cervical gray matter was increased significantly by traumatic injury ( p

Techniques Used: Labeling

tPA effect on neurogenesis after TBI. Compared to the TBI+Saline group (B), tPA treatment (C) significantly increased newborn mature neurons identified with BrdU/NeuN double immunofluorescent staining in the DG 35 days post injury. The bar graph (D) shows the number of DCX-positive cells. Scale bar = 25 µm. * p
Figure Legend Snippet: tPA effect on neurogenesis after TBI. Compared to the TBI+Saline group (B), tPA treatment (C) significantly increased newborn mature neurons identified with BrdU/NeuN double immunofluorescent staining in the DG 35 days post injury. The bar graph (D) shows the number of DCX-positive cells. Scale bar = 25 µm. * p

Techniques Used: Staining

Correlation of the number of neuroblasts (A), and newborn neurons (B) with spatial learning. The line graph shows that spatial learning is significantly correlated with the number of DCX-positive cells (A) and to the number of newborn mature neurons (B) in the DG of the ipsilateral hippocampus in rats examined at 35 days after TBI and tPA treatment ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: Correlation of the number of neuroblasts (A), and newborn neurons (B) with spatial learning. The line graph shows that spatial learning is significantly correlated with the number of DCX-positive cells (A) and to the number of newborn mature neurons (B) in the DG of the ipsilateral hippocampus in rats examined at 35 days after TBI and tPA treatment ( p

Techniques Used:

6) Product Images from "tPA-Mediated Generation of Plasmin Is Catalyzed by the Proteoglycan NG2"

Article Title: tPA-Mediated Generation of Plasmin Is Catalyzed by the Proteoglycan NG2

Journal:

doi: 10.1002/glia.20603

In vitro and ex vivo degradation of NG2 by plasmin. ( A ) Plasmin [generated by tPA’s (20 ng) action on plg (400 ng)] was incubated with recombinant NG2, as indicated. Degradation products were visualized by silver staining. NG2 runs at molecular
Figure Legend Snippet: In vitro and ex vivo degradation of NG2 by plasmin. ( A ) Plasmin [generated by tPA’s (20 ng) action on plg (400 ng)] was incubated with recombinant NG2, as indicated. Degradation products were visualized by silver staining. NG2 runs at molecular

Techniques Used: In Vitro, Ex Vivo, Generated, Incubation, Recombinant, Silver Staining

NG2 binds to tPA and plasminogen through their kringle domains. Binding of full-length NG2 to immobilized tPA ( A ) or plg ( C ) was measured at different concentrations (5–30 nM) in the presence or absence of pretreatment with chondroitinase (Chon).
Figure Legend Snippet: NG2 binds to tPA and plasminogen through their kringle domains. Binding of full-length NG2 to immobilized tPA ( A ) or plg ( C ) was measured at different concentrations (5–30 nM) in the presence or absence of pretreatment with chondroitinase (Chon).

Techniques Used: Binding Assay

Degradation of the NG2 core protein results in loss of plasmin generation. PK was incubated with NG2 for different amounts of time. ( A ) A tPA-catalyzed plasmin generation assay was subsequently used to measure plasmin activity. The control reactions [tPA/plg
Figure Legend Snippet: Degradation of the NG2 core protein results in loss of plasmin generation. PK was incubated with NG2 for different amounts of time. ( A ) A tPA-catalyzed plasmin generation assay was subsequently used to measure plasmin activity. The control reactions [tPA/plg

Techniques Used: Incubation, Activity Assay

7) Product Images from "Tissue Plasminogen Activator Prevents Mortality from Sulfur Mustard Analog-Induced Airway Obstruction"

Article Title: Tissue Plasminogen Activator Prevents Mortality from Sulfur Mustard Analog-Induced Airway Obstruction

Journal: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology

doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2012-0177OC

Effect of tPA on tissue acidosis marker of arterial blood lactate at 12 hours after CEES inhalation. Data for lactate were compared in rats given tPA versus NT, as well as naive rats. An inverse dose relationship between blood lactate and tPA dose was
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of tPA on tissue acidosis marker of arterial blood lactate at 12 hours after CEES inhalation. Data for lactate were compared in rats given tPA versus NT, as well as naive rats. An inverse dose relationship between blood lactate and tPA dose was

Techniques Used: Marker

Effect of tPA on tissue oxygenation in unanesthetized rats for 12 hours after CEES inhalation. Noninvasively acquired oxygen saturations measured by pulse oximetry (Sp O 2 ) over 12 hours in rats exposed to CEES and given: ( 1 ) NT ( n = 16); ( 2 ) Iso (10);
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of tPA on tissue oxygenation in unanesthetized rats for 12 hours after CEES inhalation. Noninvasively acquired oxygen saturations measured by pulse oximetry (Sp O 2 ) over 12 hours in rats exposed to CEES and given: ( 1 ) NT ( n = 16); ( 2 ) Iso (10);

Techniques Used:

Effect of tPA on respiratory distress for 12 hours after CEES inhalation. Respiratory clinical distress was scored on the basis of quality of respirations (0–3), stridor (0–3), and physical activity (0–3), with highest numbers
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of tPA on respiratory distress for 12 hours after CEES inhalation. Respiratory clinical distress was scored on the basis of quality of respirations (0–3), stridor (0–3), and physical activity (0–3), with highest numbers

Techniques Used: Activity Assay

Effect of tPA on airway obstruction by fibrin-containing casts at 12 hours after CEES inhalation. Casts were revealed by airway microdissection of ( A ) main bronchi and ( B ) first dependent bronchi (gravity dependent) of all lobes. Airway obstruction in
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of tPA on airway obstruction by fibrin-containing casts at 12 hours after CEES inhalation. Casts were revealed by airway microdissection of ( A ) main bronchi and ( B ) first dependent bronchi (gravity dependent) of all lobes. Airway obstruction in

Techniques Used: Laser Capture Microdissection

Effect of tPA on pulmonary gas exchange via arterial blood gas (ABG) measurements in rats 12 hours after CEES inhalation. Data for ( A ) arterial pH, ( B ) arterial carbon dioxide pressure (Pa CO 2 ), ( C ) bicarbonate (HCO 3 − ), and ( D ) arterial oxygen
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of tPA on pulmonary gas exchange via arterial blood gas (ABG) measurements in rats 12 hours after CEES inhalation. Data for ( A ) arterial pH, ( B ) arterial carbon dioxide pressure (Pa CO 2 ), ( C ) bicarbonate (HCO 3 − ), and ( D ) arterial oxygen

Techniques Used:

Related Articles

Injection:

Article Title: Extension of the Thrombolytic Time Window With Minocycline in Experimental Stroke
Article Snippet: Exclusion takes place before assignment into the various treatment groups: saline injected at 1 hour after ischemia (n=9); tPA injected at 1 hour after ischemia (n=9); tPA at 6 hours after ischemia (n=9); minocycline injected at 4 hours plus tPA at 6 hours after ischemia (n=11); and minocycline alone at 4 hours after ischemia (n=7). .. Minocycline (Sigma) was injected intravenously at 3 mg/kg over 5 minutes. tPA (Genentech) was administered intravenously at 10 mg/kg with a 10% bolus and 90% continuous infusion over 30 minutes. ..

Article Title: Ethanol-withdrawal seizures are controlled by tissue plasminogen activator via modulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors
Article Snippet: .. After 5.5 h of EW, one of the groups of tPA-/- mice received i.c.v. injection of tPA (Genentech, 0.1 μg in 1 μl), whereas the other (control) group was given the same volume of vehicle. .. Animals that had been injected with vehicle at the earlier time point were given tPA 7.5 h after EW and vice versa.

Mouse Assay:

Article Title: Ethanol-withdrawal seizures are controlled by tissue plasminogen activator via modulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors
Article Snippet: .. After 5.5 h of EW, one of the groups of tPA-/- mice received i.c.v. injection of tPA (Genentech, 0.1 μg in 1 μl), whereas the other (control) group was given the same volume of vehicle. .. Animals that had been injected with vehicle at the earlier time point were given tPA 7.5 h after EW and vice versa.

other:

Article Title: tPA for Acute Ischemic Stroke and Its Controversies: A Review
Article Snippet: According to Ms Lenzer, this upgrade occurred because the distributor of tPA—a pharmaceutical firm known as Genentech—contributed $11 million to the AHA, thereby corrupting guideline writers.

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    A, Effects of <t>VELCADE</t> and <t>tPA</t> treatment on brain eNOS activity assayed 24 hours after MCA occlusion (n=3/group). B, Effect of VELCADE treatment on infarct volume in eNOS knockout and wild-type mice assessed 7 days after MCA occlusion (n=6/group). EBA
    Tpa, supplied by Genentech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Genentech recombinant single chain tpa sctpa
    MSCs formed with S195A tcuPA and mAbs protect rPAI-1/Vn from inactivation by MA-33B8 and spontaneous active to latent transition. Dependences of k obs for RCL insertion for NBD P9 PAI-1 (○), NBD P9 PAI-1/Vn (●) and MSCs with MA-56A7C10 (△), MA-44E4 (□), and S195A tcuPA (▽) on [MA-33B8]. NBD P9 PAI-1, its complex with Vn (10 nM), and MSCs formed in presence of 20 nM of S195A tcuPA or a mAb (MA-56A7C10 or MA-44E4) were incubated with MA-33B8 (50–400 nN) in 96-well flat bottom plates from Costar (Corning Inc) and an increase in NBD fluorescence with time was registered using a fluorescence spectrophotometer SynergyTM HT Hybrid Reader. The k obs ). Inset: Stabilization of rPAI-1/Vn (lane A) in MSCs with S195A tcuPA (lane B), MA-56A7C10 (lane C), and MA-42A2F6 (lane D) after incubation at 37°C for 168 h (one week). Active PAI-1 was quenched by <t>sctPA</t> and reaction mixtures were analyzed as described under Experimental Procedures. Positions of mAb (1), <t>PAI-1/tPA</t> SIC (2), Vn (3), tPA (4), S195A tcuPA (5), latent (6) and cleaved PAI-1 (7) are indicated to the right of the gel.
    Recombinant Single Chain Tpa Sctpa, supplied by Genentech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    A, Effects of VELCADE and tPA treatment on brain eNOS activity assayed 24 hours after MCA occlusion (n=3/group). B, Effect of VELCADE treatment on infarct volume in eNOS knockout and wild-type mice assessed 7 days after MCA occlusion (n=6/group). EBA

    Journal: Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation

    Article Title: Combination Treatment With VELCADE and Low-Dose Tissue Plasminogen Activator Provides Potent Neuroprotection in Aged Rats After Embolic Focal Ischemia

    doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.577288

    Figure Lengend Snippet: A, Effects of VELCADE and tPA treatment on brain eNOS activity assayed 24 hours after MCA occlusion (n=3/group). B, Effect of VELCADE treatment on infarct volume in eNOS knockout and wild-type mice assessed 7 days after MCA occlusion (n=6/group). EBA

    Article Snippet: Ischemic rats were randomly divided into the following groups: (1) VELCADE (Millennium Pharmaceuticals) alone (n=14); (2) tPA (generously provided by Genentech) alone (n=14); (3) combination of VELCADE with tPA (n=17); or (4) saline (n=18).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Knock-Out, Mouse Assay

    A, The effects of VELCADE alone and in combination with tPA on infarct volume assessed 7 days after stroke onset. B, The mNSS measured at 1 and 7 days after stroke onset.

    Journal: Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation

    Article Title: Combination Treatment With VELCADE and Low-Dose Tissue Plasminogen Activator Provides Potent Neuroprotection in Aged Rats After Embolic Focal Ischemia

    doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.577288

    Figure Lengend Snippet: A, The effects of VELCADE alone and in combination with tPA on infarct volume assessed 7 days after stroke onset. B, The mNSS measured at 1 and 7 days after stroke onset.

    Article Snippet: Ischemic rats were randomly divided into the following groups: (1) VELCADE (Millennium Pharmaceuticals) alone (n=14); (2) tPA (generously provided by Genentech) alone (n=14); (3) combination of VELCADE with tPA (n=17); or (4) saline (n=18).

    Techniques:

    VELCADE abolishes tPA-induced BBB disruption. A–B, Double immunostaining of fibrinogen/fibrin (green) and EBA (red) in representative rats treated with tPA (A) and a combination of VELCADE and tPA (B). C–F, Double immunostaining of MMP-9

    Journal: Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation

    Article Title: Combination Treatment With VELCADE and Low-Dose Tissue Plasminogen Activator Provides Potent Neuroprotection in Aged Rats After Embolic Focal Ischemia

    doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.577288

    Figure Lengend Snippet: VELCADE abolishes tPA-induced BBB disruption. A–B, Double immunostaining of fibrinogen/fibrin (green) and EBA (red) in representative rats treated with tPA (A) and a combination of VELCADE and tPA (B). C–F, Double immunostaining of MMP-9

    Article Snippet: Ischemic rats were randomly divided into the following groups: (1) VELCADE (Millennium Pharmaceuticals) alone (n=14); (2) tPA (generously provided by Genentech) alone (n=14); (3) combination of VELCADE with tPA (n=17); or (4) saline (n=18).

    Techniques: Double Immunostaining

    Effect of tPA on tissue acidosis marker of arterial blood lactate at 12 hours after CEES inhalation. Data for lactate were compared in rats given tPA versus NT, as well as naive rats. An inverse dose relationship between blood lactate and tPA dose was

    Journal: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology

    Article Title: Tissue Plasminogen Activator Prevents Mortality from Sulfur Mustard Analog-Induced Airway Obstruction

    doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2012-0177OC

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of tPA on tissue acidosis marker of arterial blood lactate at 12 hours after CEES inhalation. Data for lactate were compared in rats given tPA versus NT, as well as naive rats. An inverse dose relationship between blood lactate and tPA dose was

    Article Snippet: CEES was obtained from TCI America (Portland, OR). tPA was purchased from Genentech (Roche, San Francisco, CA).

    Techniques: Marker

    Effect of tPA on tissue oxygenation in unanesthetized rats for 12 hours after CEES inhalation. Noninvasively acquired oxygen saturations measured by pulse oximetry (Sp O 2 ) over 12 hours in rats exposed to CEES and given: ( 1 ) NT ( n = 16); ( 2 ) Iso (10);

    Journal: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology

    Article Title: Tissue Plasminogen Activator Prevents Mortality from Sulfur Mustard Analog-Induced Airway Obstruction

    doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2012-0177OC

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of tPA on tissue oxygenation in unanesthetized rats for 12 hours after CEES inhalation. Noninvasively acquired oxygen saturations measured by pulse oximetry (Sp O 2 ) over 12 hours in rats exposed to CEES and given: ( 1 ) NT ( n = 16); ( 2 ) Iso (10);

    Article Snippet: CEES was obtained from TCI America (Portland, OR). tPA was purchased from Genentech (Roche, San Francisco, CA).

    Techniques:

    Effect of tPA on respiratory distress for 12 hours after CEES inhalation. Respiratory clinical distress was scored on the basis of quality of respirations (0–3), stridor (0–3), and physical activity (0–3), with highest numbers

    Journal: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology

    Article Title: Tissue Plasminogen Activator Prevents Mortality from Sulfur Mustard Analog-Induced Airway Obstruction

    doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2012-0177OC

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of tPA on respiratory distress for 12 hours after CEES inhalation. Respiratory clinical distress was scored on the basis of quality of respirations (0–3), stridor (0–3), and physical activity (0–3), with highest numbers

    Article Snippet: CEES was obtained from TCI America (Portland, OR). tPA was purchased from Genentech (Roche, San Francisco, CA).

    Techniques: Activity Assay

    Effect of tPA on airway obstruction by fibrin-containing casts at 12 hours after CEES inhalation. Casts were revealed by airway microdissection of ( A ) main bronchi and ( B ) first dependent bronchi (gravity dependent) of all lobes. Airway obstruction in

    Journal: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology

    Article Title: Tissue Plasminogen Activator Prevents Mortality from Sulfur Mustard Analog-Induced Airway Obstruction

    doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2012-0177OC

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of tPA on airway obstruction by fibrin-containing casts at 12 hours after CEES inhalation. Casts were revealed by airway microdissection of ( A ) main bronchi and ( B ) first dependent bronchi (gravity dependent) of all lobes. Airway obstruction in

    Article Snippet: CEES was obtained from TCI America (Portland, OR). tPA was purchased from Genentech (Roche, San Francisco, CA).

    Techniques: Laser Capture Microdissection

    Effect of tPA on pulmonary gas exchange via arterial blood gas (ABG) measurements in rats 12 hours after CEES inhalation. Data for ( A ) arterial pH, ( B ) arterial carbon dioxide pressure (Pa CO 2 ), ( C ) bicarbonate (HCO 3 − ), and ( D ) arterial oxygen

    Journal: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology

    Article Title: Tissue Plasminogen Activator Prevents Mortality from Sulfur Mustard Analog-Induced Airway Obstruction

    doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2012-0177OC

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of tPA on pulmonary gas exchange via arterial blood gas (ABG) measurements in rats 12 hours after CEES inhalation. Data for ( A ) arterial pH, ( B ) arterial carbon dioxide pressure (Pa CO 2 ), ( C ) bicarbonate (HCO 3 − ), and ( D ) arterial oxygen

    Article Snippet: CEES was obtained from TCI America (Portland, OR). tPA was purchased from Genentech (Roche, San Francisco, CA).

    Techniques:

    In vitro and ex vivo degradation of NG2 by plasmin. ( A ) Plasmin [generated by tPA’s (20 ng) action on plg (400 ng)] was incubated with recombinant NG2, as indicated. Degradation products were visualized by silver staining. NG2 runs at molecular

    Journal:

    Article Title: tPA-Mediated Generation of Plasmin Is Catalyzed by the Proteoglycan NG2

    doi: 10.1002/glia.20603

    Figure Lengend Snippet: In vitro and ex vivo degradation of NG2 by plasmin. ( A ) Plasmin [generated by tPA’s (20 ng) action on plg (400 ng)] was incubated with recombinant NG2, as indicated. Degradation products were visualized by silver staining. NG2 runs at molecular

    Article Snippet: In brief, ELISA plates (Nalge Nunc International) were coated overnight at 4°C with 4 μg/ ml of BSA, tPA (Genentech), plg, or plg kringle domain mutants (American Diagnostica) in 50 mM sodium carbonate pH 9.6.

    Techniques: In Vitro, Ex Vivo, Generated, Incubation, Recombinant, Silver Staining

    NG2 binds to tPA and plasminogen through their kringle domains. Binding of full-length NG2 to immobilized tPA ( A ) or plg ( C ) was measured at different concentrations (5–30 nM) in the presence or absence of pretreatment with chondroitinase (Chon).

    Journal:

    Article Title: tPA-Mediated Generation of Plasmin Is Catalyzed by the Proteoglycan NG2

    doi: 10.1002/glia.20603

    Figure Lengend Snippet: NG2 binds to tPA and plasminogen through their kringle domains. Binding of full-length NG2 to immobilized tPA ( A ) or plg ( C ) was measured at different concentrations (5–30 nM) in the presence or absence of pretreatment with chondroitinase (Chon).

    Article Snippet: In brief, ELISA plates (Nalge Nunc International) were coated overnight at 4°C with 4 μg/ ml of BSA, tPA (Genentech), plg, or plg kringle domain mutants (American Diagnostica) in 50 mM sodium carbonate pH 9.6.

    Techniques: Binding Assay

    Degradation of the NG2 core protein results in loss of plasmin generation. PK was incubated with NG2 for different amounts of time. ( A ) A tPA-catalyzed plasmin generation assay was subsequently used to measure plasmin activity. The control reactions [tPA/plg

    Journal:

    Article Title: tPA-Mediated Generation of Plasmin Is Catalyzed by the Proteoglycan NG2

    doi: 10.1002/glia.20603

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Degradation of the NG2 core protein results in loss of plasmin generation. PK was incubated with NG2 for different amounts of time. ( A ) A tPA-catalyzed plasmin generation assay was subsequently used to measure plasmin activity. The control reactions [tPA/plg

    Article Snippet: In brief, ELISA plates (Nalge Nunc International) were coated overnight at 4°C with 4 μg/ ml of BSA, tPA (Genentech), plg, or plg kringle domain mutants (American Diagnostica) in 50 mM sodium carbonate pH 9.6.

    Techniques: Incubation, Activity Assay

    MSCs formed with S195A tcuPA and mAbs protect rPAI-1/Vn from inactivation by MA-33B8 and spontaneous active to latent transition. Dependences of k obs for RCL insertion for NBD P9 PAI-1 (○), NBD P9 PAI-1/Vn (●) and MSCs with MA-56A7C10 (△), MA-44E4 (□), and S195A tcuPA (▽) on [MA-33B8]. NBD P9 PAI-1, its complex with Vn (10 nM), and MSCs formed in presence of 20 nM of S195A tcuPA or a mAb (MA-56A7C10 or MA-44E4) were incubated with MA-33B8 (50–400 nN) in 96-well flat bottom plates from Costar (Corning Inc) and an increase in NBD fluorescence with time was registered using a fluorescence spectrophotometer SynergyTM HT Hybrid Reader. The k obs ). Inset: Stabilization of rPAI-1/Vn (lane A) in MSCs with S195A tcuPA (lane B), MA-56A7C10 (lane C), and MA-42A2F6 (lane D) after incubation at 37°C for 168 h (one week). Active PAI-1 was quenched by sctPA and reaction mixtures were analyzed as described under Experimental Procedures. Positions of mAb (1), PAI-1/tPA SIC (2), Vn (3), tPA (4), S195A tcuPA (5), latent (6) and cleaved PAI-1 (7) are indicated to the right of the gel.

    Journal: Biochemistry

    Article Title: Remarkable Stabilization of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 in a "Molecular Sandwich" Complex

    doi: 10.1021/bi400470s

    Figure Lengend Snippet: MSCs formed with S195A tcuPA and mAbs protect rPAI-1/Vn from inactivation by MA-33B8 and spontaneous active to latent transition. Dependences of k obs for RCL insertion for NBD P9 PAI-1 (○), NBD P9 PAI-1/Vn (●) and MSCs with MA-56A7C10 (△), MA-44E4 (□), and S195A tcuPA (▽) on [MA-33B8]. NBD P9 PAI-1, its complex with Vn (10 nM), and MSCs formed in presence of 20 nM of S195A tcuPA or a mAb (MA-56A7C10 or MA-44E4) were incubated with MA-33B8 (50–400 nN) in 96-well flat bottom plates from Costar (Corning Inc) and an increase in NBD fluorescence with time was registered using a fluorescence spectrophotometer SynergyTM HT Hybrid Reader. The k obs ). Inset: Stabilization of rPAI-1/Vn (lane A) in MSCs with S195A tcuPA (lane B), MA-56A7C10 (lane C), and MA-42A2F6 (lane D) after incubation at 37°C for 168 h (one week). Active PAI-1 was quenched by sctPA and reaction mixtures were analyzed as described under Experimental Procedures. Positions of mAb (1), PAI-1/tPA SIC (2), Vn (3), tPA (4), S195A tcuPA (5), latent (6) and cleaved PAI-1 (7) are indicated to the right of the gel.

    Article Snippet: Urokinase activity standard (100,000 IU/mg) was from American Diagnostica (Stanford, CT); recombinant tcuPA was a gift from Abbott Laboratories (Chicago, IL); recombinant single chain tPA (sctPA) (Activase) was from Genentech (San Francisco, CA).

    Techniques: Incubation, Fluorescence, Spectrophotometry

    Tremendous stabilization of active PAI-1 in MSC under physiological conditions ( A ) SDS PAGE analysis of products of the reaction between sctPA and rPAI-1, Q123K PAI-1, and Gl-PAI-1 and their complexes with Vn, S195A tcuPA, and both ligands (the table at the top of the gels.) incubated for 0, 1, 15, 90 (stained with SYRRO Ruby) and 720 h (PAI-1 antigen was visualized with Western blot analysis) at 37°C. Positions of PAI-1/tPA SIC (1), Vn (2), tPA (3), S195A tcuPA (4), latent and cleaved rPAI-1 (5 and 6, respectively), co-migrating S195A tcuPA and latent Gl-PAI-1 (7), cleaved Gl-PAI-1 (8), are indicated to the left (rPAI-1 and Q123K PAI-1) and to the right (Gl-PAI-1) of the gels. ( B ) Active PAI-1 concentration in the reaction mixtures, shown in the Western blot ( A ). After incubation with both Vn and S195A tcuPA for 1 month (720h) at 37°C rPAI-1 (filled bars) and Gl-PAI-1 (gray bars), but not Q123K PAI-1 (empty bars) inhibit the activation of Plg by uPA.

    Journal: Biochemistry

    Article Title: Remarkable Stabilization of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 in a "Molecular Sandwich" Complex

    doi: 10.1021/bi400470s

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Tremendous stabilization of active PAI-1 in MSC under physiological conditions ( A ) SDS PAGE analysis of products of the reaction between sctPA and rPAI-1, Q123K PAI-1, and Gl-PAI-1 and their complexes with Vn, S195A tcuPA, and both ligands (the table at the top of the gels.) incubated for 0, 1, 15, 90 (stained with SYRRO Ruby) and 720 h (PAI-1 antigen was visualized with Western blot analysis) at 37°C. Positions of PAI-1/tPA SIC (1), Vn (2), tPA (3), S195A tcuPA (4), latent and cleaved rPAI-1 (5 and 6, respectively), co-migrating S195A tcuPA and latent Gl-PAI-1 (7), cleaved Gl-PAI-1 (8), are indicated to the left (rPAI-1 and Q123K PAI-1) and to the right (Gl-PAI-1) of the gels. ( B ) Active PAI-1 concentration in the reaction mixtures, shown in the Western blot ( A ). After incubation with both Vn and S195A tcuPA for 1 month (720h) at 37°C rPAI-1 (filled bars) and Gl-PAI-1 (gray bars), but not Q123K PAI-1 (empty bars) inhibit the activation of Plg by uPA.

    Article Snippet: Urokinase activity standard (100,000 IU/mg) was from American Diagnostica (Stanford, CT); recombinant tcuPA was a gift from Abbott Laboratories (Chicago, IL); recombinant single chain tPA (sctPA) (Activase) was from Genentech (San Francisco, CA).

    Techniques: SDS Page, Incubation, Staining, Western Blot, Concentration Assay, Activation Assay