tetrodotoxin  (Alomone Labs)


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    Structured Review

    Alomone Labs tetrodotoxin
    Tetrodotoxin, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
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    tetrodotoxin - by Bioz Stars, 2022-01
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    Alomone Labs ttx tetrodotoxin
    Activity dependence of AMPAR redistribution dynamics. A ) Distribution of range over mean values for SEpH:GluA2 puncta in the presence of <t>CNQX</t> (10 µM), AP-5 (50 µM) and <t>TTX</t> (1 µM) (Nlgn-1 KO: 10 neurons, 481 synapses; WT: 10 neurons, 514 synapses). B ) SI decay rates in the presence of the aforementioned pharmacological agents.
    Ttx Tetrodotoxin, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 96 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
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    86
    Alomone Labs voltage gated na channel blocker tetrodotoxin ttx
    Membrane current traces that illustrate the <t>OFQ/N-induced</t> outward currents recorded in identified POMC neurones from OVX rats either 30 hr after the initial vehicle or EB priming and four hr after the second vehicle or progesterone (P4) treatment (A-C), or 48 hr after a high dose of EB (50 μg) that elicits sexual receptivity much like that seen in EB-primed, P4-treated animals (D). These recordings were performed in the presence of 1 μM <t>TTX</t> to ensure a direct postsynaptic effect. For each example, OFQ/N application commenced as signified by the left-hand side of the OFQ/N application timeline box located above each set of traces. I/V relationships were routinely generated prior to, and in the presence of, OFQ/N. This necessitated switching between gap-free and episodic protocols, which precluded the acquisition of a single trace showing both the outward current and its wash-out. The time necessary to conduct the second I/V and then switch back to the gap-free recording of washout took, at most, 90 sec. The two panels, both of equal dimensions, were aligned along their respective X-axes. The time required for complete OFQ/N washout was variable, and in some instances, it took as long as 20 min to be achieved. This is why the time scales for the two halves of the recording are different.
    Voltage Gated Na Channel Blocker Tetrodotoxin Ttx, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    voltage gated na channel blocker tetrodotoxin ttx - by Bioz Stars, 2022-01
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    Activity dependence of AMPAR redistribution dynamics. A ) Distribution of range over mean values for SEpH:GluA2 puncta in the presence of CNQX (10 µM), AP-5 (50 µM) and TTX (1 µM) (Nlgn-1 KO: 10 neurons, 481 synapses; WT: 10 neurons, 514 synapses). B ) SI decay rates in the presence of the aforementioned pharmacological agents.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Neuroligin-1 Loss Is Associated with Reduced Tenacity of Excitatory Synapses

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042314

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Activity dependence of AMPAR redistribution dynamics. A ) Distribution of range over mean values for SEpH:GluA2 puncta in the presence of CNQX (10 µM), AP-5 (50 µM) and TTX (1 µM) (Nlgn-1 KO: 10 neurons, 481 synapses; WT: 10 neurons, 514 synapses). B ) SI decay rates in the presence of the aforementioned pharmacological agents.

    Article Snippet: Pharmacological manipulations Reagents were procured from the following sources: CNQX (6-cyano-7 nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione) from Tocris Bioscience; AP-5 (2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid) from Sigma-Aldrich; TTX (tetrodotoxin) from Alomone Labs.

    Techniques: Activity Assay

    Effects of veratridine on human sperm motility in the presence of tetrodotoxin, A-803467 or ab-66743. The effects of veratridine (10 μM) after different incubation times were analyzed in the presence of (A) the VGSC inhibitor tetrodotoxin (TTX) (10 nM) (B) TTX (10 μM), (C) the selective Na v 1.8 antagonist A-803467 (10 μM), (D) the Na v 1.8 antibody ab-66743 (dilution 1:50) or the corresponding solvent. Bars are means with SEM of 6-8 different experiments and represent percentage changes in progressive motility (grade A+B sperm) relative to the value observed at the same time in the respective solvent-treated paired controls. * P

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: The Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Nav1.8 Is Expressed in Human Sperm

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076084

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of veratridine on human sperm motility in the presence of tetrodotoxin, A-803467 or ab-66743. The effects of veratridine (10 μM) after different incubation times were analyzed in the presence of (A) the VGSC inhibitor tetrodotoxin (TTX) (10 nM) (B) TTX (10 μM), (C) the selective Na v 1.8 antagonist A-803467 (10 μM), (D) the Na v 1.8 antibody ab-66743 (dilution 1:50) or the corresponding solvent. Bars are means with SEM of 6-8 different experiments and represent percentage changes in progressive motility (grade A+B sperm) relative to the value observed at the same time in the respective solvent-treated paired controls. * P

    Article Snippet: In parallel experiments, the effect of veratridine or its solvent was investigated in aliquots pretreated during the last 15 min of capacitation with the specific Na v 1.8 antagonist A-803467 (Sigma) (1 μM) [ ] or during capacitation (2 h) with TTX (Alomone Labs, Jerusalem, Israel)) (0.01 or 10 μM), the Na v 1.8 antibody ab-66743 (dilution 1:50) or the corresponding solvent.

    Techniques: Incubation

    CRF elicits voltage changes in PN. A : the average of 4 responses of PN to local application of CRF (8 μM, red bar) at four different holding potentials in the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX). Note the reversal of the response between −40 mV and −50 mV. B : ZD-7288 blocks the TTX-insensitive depolarizing response. The integral of the depolarizing response measured from CRF onset over a duration of 5.5 s under control conditions ( n = 21), in the presence of TTX ( n = 13) and TTX + ZD-7288 ( n = 15) is shown. C , first trace: whole cell recording of the average response to CRF application in the presence of TTX. Second trace: 8 pulses of −40 pA for 0.5 s, delivered at 1 Hz during CRF response. The third trace is the subtraction of the first trace from the second trace. Red bar denote the CRF application. Note the reduction in the response to current injections during CRF application. Fourth trace is the current injection protocol. D : the average reduction in input resistance during CRF application in 5 PN. E : a representative example of seven superimposed traces of the hyperpolarizing response of PN to CRF applications obtained from different holding potentials (−75 to −35 mV) and aligned by the membrane voltage before the application. F : the result shown in E plotted as a function of the membrane potential (red curve) and similar curves measured from another 5 cells (black curves). 2 μM CRF was used in C – F .

    Journal: Journal of Neurophysiology

    Article Title: Corticotropin-releasing factor increases Purkinje neuron excitability by modulating sodium, potassium, and Ih currents

    doi: 10.1152/jn.00745.2015

    Figure Lengend Snippet: CRF elicits voltage changes in PN. A : the average of 4 responses of PN to local application of CRF (8 μM, red bar) at four different holding potentials in the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX). Note the reversal of the response between −40 mV and −50 mV. B : ZD-7288 blocks the TTX-insensitive depolarizing response. The integral of the depolarizing response measured from CRF onset over a duration of 5.5 s under control conditions ( n = 21), in the presence of TTX ( n = 13) and TTX + ZD-7288 ( n = 15) is shown. C , first trace: whole cell recording of the average response to CRF application in the presence of TTX. Second trace: 8 pulses of −40 pA for 0.5 s, delivered at 1 Hz during CRF response. The third trace is the subtraction of the first trace from the second trace. Red bar denote the CRF application. Note the reduction in the response to current injections during CRF application. Fourth trace is the current injection protocol. D : the average reduction in input resistance during CRF application in 5 PN. E : a representative example of seven superimposed traces of the hyperpolarizing response of PN to CRF applications obtained from different holding potentials (−75 to −35 mV) and aligned by the membrane voltage before the application. F : the result shown in E plotted as a function of the membrane potential (red curve) and similar curves measured from another 5 cells (black curves). 2 μM CRF was used in C – F .

    Article Snippet: ZD-7288 (10–15 μM) (Sigma) and 400 nM to 1 μM TTX (Alomone Labs) were used to block I h and transient sodium current, respectively.

    Techniques: Injection

    Membrane current traces that illustrate the OFQ/N-induced outward currents recorded in identified POMC neurones from OVX rats either 30 hr after the initial vehicle or EB priming and four hr after the second vehicle or progesterone (P4) treatment (A-C), or 48 hr after a high dose of EB (50 μg) that elicits sexual receptivity much like that seen in EB-primed, P4-treated animals (D). These recordings were performed in the presence of 1 μM TTX to ensure a direct postsynaptic effect. For each example, OFQ/N application commenced as signified by the left-hand side of the OFQ/N application timeline box located above each set of traces. I/V relationships were routinely generated prior to, and in the presence of, OFQ/N. This necessitated switching between gap-free and episodic protocols, which precluded the acquisition of a single trace showing both the outward current and its wash-out. The time necessary to conduct the second I/V and then switch back to the gap-free recording of washout took, at most, 90 sec. The two panels, both of equal dimensions, were aligned along their respective X-axes. The time required for complete OFQ/N washout was variable, and in some instances, it took as long as 20 min to be achieved. This is why the time scales for the two halves of the recording are different.

    Journal: Journal of neuroendocrinology

    Article Title: Gonadal steroids differentially modulate the actions of orphanin FQ/nociceptin at a physiologically relevant circuit controlling female sexual receptivity

    doi: 10.1111/jne.12148

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Membrane current traces that illustrate the OFQ/N-induced outward currents recorded in identified POMC neurones from OVX rats either 30 hr after the initial vehicle or EB priming and four hr after the second vehicle or progesterone (P4) treatment (A-C), or 48 hr after a high dose of EB (50 μg) that elicits sexual receptivity much like that seen in EB-primed, P4-treated animals (D). These recordings were performed in the presence of 1 μM TTX to ensure a direct postsynaptic effect. For each example, OFQ/N application commenced as signified by the left-hand side of the OFQ/N application timeline box located above each set of traces. I/V relationships were routinely generated prior to, and in the presence of, OFQ/N. This necessitated switching between gap-free and episodic protocols, which precluded the acquisition of a single trace showing both the outward current and its wash-out. The time necessary to conduct the second I/V and then switch back to the gap-free recording of washout took, at most, 90 sec. The two panels, both of equal dimensions, were aligned along their respective X-axes. The time required for complete OFQ/N washout was variable, and in some instances, it took as long as 20 min to be achieved. This is why the time scales for the two halves of the recording are different.

    Article Snippet: OFQ/N, the voltage-gated Na+ channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) with citrate (Alomone Labs, Jerusalem, Israel), the GABAA receptor antagonist 6-imino-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1(6H)- pyridazinebutanoic acid hydrobromide (SR 95531) and the α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole- propionate (AMPA) receptor antagonist 2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[f]quinoxaline-7- sulfonamide (NBQX) were dissolved in UltraPure H2 0 to stock concentrations of 1 mM, 1 mM, 10 mM and 10 mM, respectively.

    Techniques: Generated, Size-exclusion Chromatography