reference strain t rubrum atcc  (ATCC)


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    ATCC reference strain t rubrum atcc
    Reference Strain T Rubrum Atcc, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    t rubrum atcc strain  (ATCC)


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    ATCC t rubrum atcc strain
    Oligonucleotide primers were used to evaluate the relative gene expression of <t> T. rubrum ATCC </t> 28189, treated with nonyl protocatechuate, and compared to the untreated fungus.
    T Rubrum Atcc Strain, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    1) Product Images from "Membranolytic Activity Profile of Nonyl 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoate: A New Anti-Biofilm Compound for the Treatment of Dermatophytosis"

    Article Title: Membranolytic Activity Profile of Nonyl 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoate: A New Anti-Biofilm Compound for the Treatment of Dermatophytosis

    Journal: Pharmaceutics

    doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics15051402

    Oligonucleotide primers were used to evaluate the relative gene expression of  T. rubrum ATCC  28189, treated with nonyl protocatechuate, and compared to the untreated fungus.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Oligonucleotide primers were used to evaluate the relative gene expression of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, treated with nonyl protocatechuate, and compared to the untreated fungus.

    Techniques Used: Expressing

    Scanning electron microscopy of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes mature biofilms, untreated ( A , F , K , P ) and treated with fluconazole ( B , G , L , Q ); griseofulvin ( C , H , M , R ); terbinafine ( D , I , N , S ) and nonyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate ( E , J , O , T ). White arrows denote small structures, similar to atrophied microconidia or extracellular vesicles ( E , J ).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes mature biofilms, untreated ( A , F , K , P ) and treated with fluconazole ( B , G , L , Q ); griseofulvin ( C , H , M , R ); terbinafine ( D , I , N , S ) and nonyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate ( E , J , O , T ). White arrows denote small structures, similar to atrophied microconidia or extracellular vesicles ( E , J ).

    Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy

    Orthogonal sections obtained by confocal laser scanning microscopy of mature T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes biofilms, untreated ( A , D , G , J ); treated with terbinafine 32 mg/L ( B , E , H , K ) and treated with nonyl 3, 4-dihydroxybenzoate 250 mg/L ( C , F , I , L ), showed that both treatments reduced the thickness and/or mass of biofilms. Pictures were taken at 63× magnification, 20 µm bars. Metabolically active cells are stained red (FUN 1), while cells surrounded by polysaccharide material are stained green (ConA). The image has been adjusted for brightness.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Orthogonal sections obtained by confocal laser scanning microscopy of mature T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes biofilms, untreated ( A , D , G , J ); treated with terbinafine 32 mg/L ( B , E , H , K ) and treated with nonyl 3, 4-dihydroxybenzoate 250 mg/L ( C , F , I , L ), showed that both treatments reduced the thickness and/or mass of biofilms. Pictures were taken at 63× magnification, 20 µm bars. Metabolically active cells are stained red (FUN 1), while cells surrounded by polysaccharide material are stained green (ConA). The image has been adjusted for brightness.

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Metabolic Labelling, Staining

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy images of untreated T. rubrum ATCC 28189 ( A ), treated with 7.8 mg/L nonyl ( B ), 128 mg/L fluconazole ( C ), and 1 mg/L amphotericin B ( D ) at a magnification of 100×; bars, 10 µm. The panels show cell walls stained with calcofluor white, even in those in which more extensive damage and inhibition of hyphal development occurred. Lower panels represent enlargements of the areas demarcated by rectangles for better visualization of the damage caused by the treatments to the fungi cell walls at the magnification of 255×; bars, 5 µm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Confocal laser scanning microscopy images of untreated T. rubrum ATCC 28189 ( A ), treated with 7.8 mg/L nonyl ( B ), 128 mg/L fluconazole ( C ), and 1 mg/L amphotericin B ( D ) at a magnification of 100×; bars, 10 µm. The panels show cell walls stained with calcofluor white, even in those in which more extensive damage and inhibition of hyphal development occurred. Lower panels represent enlargements of the areas demarcated by rectangles for better visualization of the damage caused by the treatments to the fungi cell walls at the magnification of 255×; bars, 5 µm.

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining, Inhibition

    Mechanism of cell death by necrosis ( A ) and apoptosis ( B ) induced after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with nonyl, fluconazole, and amphotericin B. Both significantly induced necrotic death ( p < 0.05). * p < 0.05; ** p <0.01; *** p <0.001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Mechanism of cell death by necrosis ( A ) and apoptosis ( B ) induced after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with nonyl, fluconazole, and amphotericin B. Both significantly induced necrotic death ( p < 0.05). * p < 0.05; ** p <0.01; *** p <0.001.

    Techniques Used:

    Relative expression levels of Erg 1 and Erg 11 genes represented in Log2Fold change in T. rubrum ATCC 28189 strain treated with nonyl protocatechuate, compared to the untreated control. Results from three independent experiments are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation. Statistical significance was determined by the Student’s t -test and indicated by asterisks: ** p < 0.01.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Relative expression levels of Erg 1 and Erg 11 genes represented in Log2Fold change in T. rubrum ATCC 28189 strain treated with nonyl protocatechuate, compared to the untreated control. Results from three independent experiments are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation. Statistical significance was determined by the Student’s t -test and indicated by asterisks: ** p < 0.01.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Standard Deviation

    reference strain t rubrum atcc  (ATCC)


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    ATCC reference strain t rubrum atcc
    Reference Strain T Rubrum Atcc, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    reference t rubrum atcc 40051 strain  (ATCC)


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    ATCC reference t rubrum atcc 40051 strain
    Illustration of the invasiveness of Trichophyton rubrum on a healthy human nail in ten days. CMRP2912: isolated from patient 1; CMRP2918: isolated from patient 2. T. rubrum ATCC 40051. Topline: macroscopic aspects of fungal growth in nail fragments. Bottom line: features of fungal invasion as seen under a light microscope. Histological sections of nails stained by GMS, at 400 ×.
    Reference T Rubrum Atcc 40051 Strain, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    1) Product Images from "The Success of Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis Seems to Be Influenced by Fungal Features"

    Article Title: The Success of Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis Seems to Be Influenced by Fungal Features

    Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM

    doi: 10.1155/2021/5553634

    Illustration of the invasiveness of Trichophyton rubrum on a healthy human nail in ten days. CMRP2912: isolated from patient 1; CMRP2918: isolated from patient 2. T. rubrum ATCC 40051. Topline: macroscopic aspects of fungal growth in nail fragments. Bottom line: features of fungal invasion as seen under a light microscope. Histological sections of nails stained by GMS, at 400 ×.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Illustration of the invasiveness of Trichophyton rubrum on a healthy human nail in ten days. CMRP2912: isolated from patient 1; CMRP2918: isolated from patient 2. T. rubrum ATCC 40051. Topline: macroscopic aspects of fungal growth in nail fragments. Bottom line: features of fungal invasion as seen under a light microscope. Histological sections of nails stained by GMS, at 400 ×.

    Techniques Used: Isolation, Light Microscopy, Staining

    t rubrum strain atcc  (ATCC)


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    ATCC t rubrum strain atcc
    T Rubrum Strain Atcc, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    reference strains t rubrum atcc  (ATCC)


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    ATCC reference strains t rubrum atcc
    Reference Strains T Rubrum Atcc, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    t rubrum strains atcc  (ATCC)


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    ATCC t rubrum strains atcc
    T. <t>rubrum</t> ATCC MYA-4438 strain forms stronger biofilms than the clinical isolate BR1A strain. <t>(A)</t> <t>Kinetics</t> of T. rubrum biofilm formation in 96-well plates determined by XTT reduction assay. (B) Quantification of the biomass of mature T. rubrum biofilms after 72 h incubation was performed using crystal violet staining. For panels a and b, each time point denotes the average of 3 independent wells. Error bars indicate standard deviations. p values (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001) were calculated by student ’ s t test analysis.
    T Rubrum Strains Atcc, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    1) Product Images from "Nitric Oxide-Releasing Nanoparticles Are Similar to Efinaconazole in Their Capacity to Eradicate Trichophyton rubrum Biofilms"

    Article Title: Nitric Oxide-Releasing Nanoparticles Are Similar to Efinaconazole in Their Capacity to Eradicate Trichophyton rubrum Biofilms

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.684150

    T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438 strain forms stronger biofilms than the clinical isolate BR1A strain. (A) Kinetics of T. rubrum biofilm formation in 96-well plates determined by XTT reduction assay. (B) Quantification of the biomass of mature T. rubrum biofilms after 72 h incubation was performed using crystal violet staining. For panels a and b, each time point denotes the average of 3 independent wells. Error bars indicate standard deviations. p values (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001) were calculated by student ’ s t test analysis.
    Figure Legend Snippet: T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438 strain forms stronger biofilms than the clinical isolate BR1A strain. (A) Kinetics of T. rubrum biofilm formation in 96-well plates determined by XTT reduction assay. (B) Quantification of the biomass of mature T. rubrum biofilms after 72 h incubation was performed using crystal violet staining. For panels a and b, each time point denotes the average of 3 independent wells. Error bars indicate standard deviations. p values (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001) were calculated by student ’ s t test analysis.

    Techniques Used: Incubation, Staining

    Susceptibility of  T. rubrum ATCC  MYA 4438 or BR1A planktonic cells or biofilms to nitric oxide nanoparticles (NO-np), control nanoparticles (np), fluconazole (FCZ), terbinafine (TRB), or efinaconazole (EFCZ).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Susceptibility of T. rubrum ATCC MYA 4438 or BR1A planktonic cells or biofilms to nitric oxide nanoparticles (NO-np), control nanoparticles (np), fluconazole (FCZ), terbinafine (TRB), or efinaconazole (EFCZ).

    Techniques Used:

    Scanning electron microscopy showing the architecture of biofilms for (A) T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438 and (B) BR1A strains. Different magnifications (upper panel; 1000 and lower panel; 3000X) are shown for untreated biofilms and those treated with NO-np 40 mg/mL, fluconazole (FCZ) 0.512 mg/mL, terbinafine (TRB) 0.032 mg/mL, or efinaconazole (EFCZ) 0.320 mg/mL. Red arrows denote collapse of the hyphal walls, while white arrows denote reduced hyphal density.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy showing the architecture of biofilms for (A) T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438 and (B) BR1A strains. Different magnifications (upper panel; 1000 and lower panel; 3000X) are shown for untreated biofilms and those treated with NO-np 40 mg/mL, fluconazole (FCZ) 0.512 mg/mL, terbinafine (TRB) 0.032 mg/mL, or efinaconazole (EFCZ) 0.320 mg/mL. Red arrows denote collapse of the hyphal walls, while white arrows denote reduced hyphal density.

    Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy

    Confocal microscopy images of mature T. rubrum biofilms formed on glass-bottom plates for 72 h at 37°C (A, D) and treated with NO-np (B, E) or EFCZ (C, F) . Orthogonal images of mature T. rubrum biofilms showed metabolically active (red, FUN-1-stained) cells embedded in the polysaccharide extracellular material (green, ConA), while the yellow-brownish areas represent metabolically inactive or nonviable cells. Images were obtained after 72 h of exposure of the fungal cells to 40 mg/mL of NO-np or 0.32 mg/mL of EFCZ, and the images were compared with those of biofilms incubated in presence of RPMI. The pictures were taken at a magnification of ×63. Bars, 50 μm. The thickness of the fungal biofilms grown under these conditions was measured by z -stack reconstruction. The results are representative of those of two experiments.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Confocal microscopy images of mature T. rubrum biofilms formed on glass-bottom plates for 72 h at 37°C (A, D) and treated with NO-np (B, E) or EFCZ (C, F) . Orthogonal images of mature T. rubrum biofilms showed metabolically active (red, FUN-1-stained) cells embedded in the polysaccharide extracellular material (green, ConA), while the yellow-brownish areas represent metabolically inactive or nonviable cells. Images were obtained after 72 h of exposure of the fungal cells to 40 mg/mL of NO-np or 0.32 mg/mL of EFCZ, and the images were compared with those of biofilms incubated in presence of RPMI. The pictures were taken at a magnification of ×63. Bars, 50 μm. The thickness of the fungal biofilms grown under these conditions was measured by z -stack reconstruction. The results are representative of those of two experiments.

    Techniques Used: Confocal Microscopy, Metabolic Labelling, Staining, Incubation

    t rubrum atcc 28189 strain  (ATCC)


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    ATCC t rubrum atcc 28189 strain
    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .
    T Rubrum Atcc 28189 Strain, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    1) Product Images from "2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms"

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on mature biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured by the XTT reduction assay. Only 2-chalcone showed action against mature biofilms from a concentration of 31.2 mg/L. On the contrary, biofilms formed by all tested strains were resistant to the drugs terbinafine and fluconazole even at the highest concentrations (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.001). Tr- T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on mature biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured by the XTT reduction assay. Only 2-chalcone showed action against mature biofilms from a concentration of 31.2 mg/L. On the contrary, biofilms formed by all tested strains were resistant to the drugs terbinafine and fluconazole even at the highest concentrations (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.001). Tr- T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on planktonic cells of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine were more potent against planktonic cells than fluconazole. The compounds 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole inhibited the cellular metabolic activity in the planktonic form at the concentration used for biofilm formation (10 6 cells/mL) of all strains tested, from the concentration of 15.6, 0.06, and 512 mg/L respectively. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on planktonic cells of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine were more potent against planktonic cells than fluconazole. The compounds 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole inhibited the cellular metabolic activity in the planktonic form at the concentration used for biofilm formation (10 6 cells/mL) of all strains tested, from the concentration of 15.6, 0.06, and 512 mg/L respectively. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone-mediated PDT using LED irradiation at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 in planktonic cells (10 6 cell/mL) (A) , early-stage (B) , and mature biofilms (C) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, measured by the XTT reduction assay. Potentiation of 2-chalcone was shown when it was mediated PDT resulting in the inhibition of planktonic forms and biofilms (early-stage and mature) from 2, 4, and 7.8 mg/L. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone-mediated PDT using LED irradiation at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 in planktonic cells (10 6 cell/mL) (A) , early-stage (B) , and mature biofilms (C) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, measured by the XTT reduction assay. Potentiation of 2-chalcone was shown when it was mediated PDT resulting in the inhibition of planktonic forms and biofilms (early-stage and mature) from 2, 4, and 7.8 mg/L. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001).

    Techniques Used: Irradiation, Inhibition

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of early stage (A) and mature biofilms (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 untreated (a, c, e) and treated with 2-chalcone in the dark (b, d, f). The images of untreated biofilms show a robust biofilm, formed with the entanglement of integral hyphae and covered with a polymeric extracellular matrix (red arrows). Biofilms treated in the early-stage with 2-chalcone present a low density showing the action of 2-chalcone in inhibiting their maturation. In mature biofilms, as in the early-stage biofilms, 2-chalcone promoted total hyphal collapse (blue arrows).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of early stage (A) and mature biofilms (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 untreated (a, c, e) and treated with 2-chalcone in the dark (b, d, f). The images of untreated biofilms show a robust biofilm, formed with the entanglement of integral hyphae and covered with a polymeric extracellular matrix (red arrows). Biofilms treated in the early-stage with 2-chalcone present a low density showing the action of 2-chalcone in inhibiting their maturation. In mature biofilms, as in the early-stage biofilms, 2-chalcone promoted total hyphal collapse (blue arrows).

    Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy

    Scanning electron microscopy images of mature T. rubrum ATCC 28189 biofilms treated with 2-chalcone combined with blue LED at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 (C, D) and irradiated only at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 without the photosensitizer (A, B) . The blue arrows indicate empty spaces within the biofilm showing that the biofilm had become less dense. The red arrows show collapsed hyphae.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy images of mature T. rubrum ATCC 28189 biofilms treated with 2-chalcone combined with blue LED at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 (C, D) and irradiated only at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 without the photosensitizer (A, B) . The blue arrows indicate empty spaces within the biofilm showing that the biofilm had become less dense. The red arrows show collapsed hyphae.

    Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy, Irradiation

    Values of IC 50 and selectivity index (SI) in HaCat cell monolayers treated with 2-chalcone in the dark and with photosensitization.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Values of IC 50 and selectivity index (SI) in HaCat cell monolayers treated with 2-chalcone in the dark and with photosensitization.

    Techniques Used:

    The amount of extracted ergosterol (A) and confocal laser scanning microscopy images (CLSM) (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 treated with 2-chalcone, fluconazole, and amphotericin B. The ergosterol quantification graph shows that treatments with 2-chalcone in the dark and 2-chalcone-mediated PDT reduced the amount of sterols extracted, suggesting that this molecule may have an action on ergosterol or its synthesis chain. Amphotericin B and fluconazole also reduced the amount of steroids extracted, proving their direct action and on the synthesis chain, respectively. In CLSM images, the cell wall is stained with calcofluor white. Cells treated with 2-chalcone showed changes in the cell wall with compromised structure. However, cells treated with fluconazole showed cell wall integrity. **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The amount of extracted ergosterol (A) and confocal laser scanning microscopy images (CLSM) (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 treated with 2-chalcone, fluconazole, and amphotericin B. The ergosterol quantification graph shows that treatments with 2-chalcone in the dark and 2-chalcone-mediated PDT reduced the amount of sterols extracted, suggesting that this molecule may have an action on ergosterol or its synthesis chain. Amphotericin B and fluconazole also reduced the amount of steroids extracted, proving their direct action and on the synthesis chain, respectively. In CLSM images, the cell wall is stained with calcofluor white. Cells treated with 2-chalcone showed changes in the cell wall with compromised structure. However, cells treated with fluconazole showed cell wall integrity. **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining

    Measurement of ROS production after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and mediated PDT (2-chalcone + LED). The compounds amphotericin B, hydrogen peroxide, and 2-chalcone in the dark induced ROS formation when compared to the control without treatment in the dark. Treatment with 2-chalcone-mediated PDT did not induce ROS formation when compared to the control + LED. ***p <0.001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Measurement of ROS production after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and mediated PDT (2-chalcone + LED). The compounds amphotericin B, hydrogen peroxide, and 2-chalcone in the dark induced ROS formation when compared to the control without treatment in the dark. Treatment with 2-chalcone-mediated PDT did not induce ROS formation when compared to the control + LED. ***p <0.001.

    Techniques Used:

    Mechanism of death due to apoptosis (A) and necrosis (B) induced after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and with 2-chalcone mediated PDT (2-chalcone +LED), compared with the untreated control. Further, 2-chalcone in the dark and amphotericin B induced cell death by both apoptosis and necrosis, whereas 2-chalcone +LED only induced death by necrosis. *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Mechanism of death due to apoptosis (A) and necrosis (B) induced after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and with 2-chalcone mediated PDT (2-chalcone +LED), compared with the untreated control. Further, 2-chalcone in the dark and amphotericin B induced cell death by both apoptosis and necrosis, whereas 2-chalcone +LED only induced death by necrosis. *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001.

    Techniques Used:

    strains t rubrum atcc 28189  (ATCC)


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    ATCC strains t rubrum atcc 28189
    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .
    Strains T Rubrum Atcc 28189, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Images

    1) Product Images from "2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms"

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on mature biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured by the XTT reduction assay. Only 2-chalcone showed action against mature biofilms from a concentration of 31.2 mg/L. On the contrary, biofilms formed by all tested strains were resistant to the drugs terbinafine and fluconazole even at the highest concentrations (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.001). Tr- T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on mature biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured by the XTT reduction assay. Only 2-chalcone showed action against mature biofilms from a concentration of 31.2 mg/L. On the contrary, biofilms formed by all tested strains were resistant to the drugs terbinafine and fluconazole even at the highest concentrations (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.001). Tr- T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on planktonic cells of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine were more potent against planktonic cells than fluconazole. The compounds 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole inhibited the cellular metabolic activity in the planktonic form at the concentration used for biofilm formation (10 6 cells/mL) of all strains tested, from the concentration of 15.6, 0.06, and 512 mg/L respectively. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on planktonic cells of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine were more potent against planktonic cells than fluconazole. The compounds 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole inhibited the cellular metabolic activity in the planktonic form at the concentration used for biofilm formation (10 6 cells/mL) of all strains tested, from the concentration of 15.6, 0.06, and 512 mg/L respectively. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone-mediated PDT using LED irradiation at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 in planktonic cells (10 6 cell/mL) (A) , early-stage (B) , and mature biofilms (C) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, measured by the XTT reduction assay. Potentiation of 2-chalcone was shown when it was mediated PDT resulting in the inhibition of planktonic forms and biofilms (early-stage and mature) from 2, 4, and 7.8 mg/L. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone-mediated PDT using LED irradiation at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 in planktonic cells (10 6 cell/mL) (A) , early-stage (B) , and mature biofilms (C) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, measured by the XTT reduction assay. Potentiation of 2-chalcone was shown when it was mediated PDT resulting in the inhibition of planktonic forms and biofilms (early-stage and mature) from 2, 4, and 7.8 mg/L. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001).

    Techniques Used: Irradiation, Inhibition

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of early stage (A) and mature biofilms (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 untreated (a, c, e) and treated with 2-chalcone in the dark (b, d, f). The images of untreated biofilms show a robust biofilm, formed with the entanglement of integral hyphae and covered with a polymeric extracellular matrix (red arrows). Biofilms treated in the early-stage with 2-chalcone present a low density showing the action of 2-chalcone in inhibiting their maturation. In mature biofilms, as in the early-stage biofilms, 2-chalcone promoted total hyphal collapse (blue arrows).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of early stage (A) and mature biofilms (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 untreated (a, c, e) and treated with 2-chalcone in the dark (b, d, f). The images of untreated biofilms show a robust biofilm, formed with the entanglement of integral hyphae and covered with a polymeric extracellular matrix (red arrows). Biofilms treated in the early-stage with 2-chalcone present a low density showing the action of 2-chalcone in inhibiting their maturation. In mature biofilms, as in the early-stage biofilms, 2-chalcone promoted total hyphal collapse (blue arrows).

    Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy

    Scanning electron microscopy images of mature T. rubrum ATCC 28189 biofilms treated with 2-chalcone combined with blue LED at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 (C, D) and irradiated only at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 without the photosensitizer (A, B) . The blue arrows indicate empty spaces within the biofilm showing that the biofilm had become less dense. The red arrows show collapsed hyphae.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy images of mature T. rubrum ATCC 28189 biofilms treated with 2-chalcone combined with blue LED at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 (C, D) and irradiated only at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 without the photosensitizer (A, B) . The blue arrows indicate empty spaces within the biofilm showing that the biofilm had become less dense. The red arrows show collapsed hyphae.

    Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy, Irradiation

    Values of IC 50 and selectivity index (SI) in HaCat cell monolayers treated with 2-chalcone in the dark and with photosensitization.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Values of IC 50 and selectivity index (SI) in HaCat cell monolayers treated with 2-chalcone in the dark and with photosensitization.

    Techniques Used:

    The amount of extracted ergosterol (A) and confocal laser scanning microscopy images (CLSM) (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 treated with 2-chalcone, fluconazole, and amphotericin B. The ergosterol quantification graph shows that treatments with 2-chalcone in the dark and 2-chalcone-mediated PDT reduced the amount of sterols extracted, suggesting that this molecule may have an action on ergosterol or its synthesis chain. Amphotericin B and fluconazole also reduced the amount of steroids extracted, proving their direct action and on the synthesis chain, respectively. In CLSM images, the cell wall is stained with calcofluor white. Cells treated with 2-chalcone showed changes in the cell wall with compromised structure. However, cells treated with fluconazole showed cell wall integrity. **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The amount of extracted ergosterol (A) and confocal laser scanning microscopy images (CLSM) (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 treated with 2-chalcone, fluconazole, and amphotericin B. The ergosterol quantification graph shows that treatments with 2-chalcone in the dark and 2-chalcone-mediated PDT reduced the amount of sterols extracted, suggesting that this molecule may have an action on ergosterol or its synthesis chain. Amphotericin B and fluconazole also reduced the amount of steroids extracted, proving their direct action and on the synthesis chain, respectively. In CLSM images, the cell wall is stained with calcofluor white. Cells treated with 2-chalcone showed changes in the cell wall with compromised structure. However, cells treated with fluconazole showed cell wall integrity. **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining

    Measurement of ROS production after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and mediated PDT (2-chalcone + LED). The compounds amphotericin B, hydrogen peroxide, and 2-chalcone in the dark induced ROS formation when compared to the control without treatment in the dark. Treatment with 2-chalcone-mediated PDT did not induce ROS formation when compared to the control + LED. ***p <0.001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Measurement of ROS production after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and mediated PDT (2-chalcone + LED). The compounds amphotericin B, hydrogen peroxide, and 2-chalcone in the dark induced ROS formation when compared to the control without treatment in the dark. Treatment with 2-chalcone-mediated PDT did not induce ROS formation when compared to the control + LED. ***p <0.001.

    Techniques Used:

    Mechanism of death due to apoptosis (A) and necrosis (B) induced after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and with 2-chalcone mediated PDT (2-chalcone +LED), compared with the untreated control. Further, 2-chalcone in the dark and amphotericin B induced cell death by both apoptosis and necrosis, whereas 2-chalcone +LED only induced death by necrosis. *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Mechanism of death due to apoptosis (A) and necrosis (B) induced after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and with 2-chalcone mediated PDT (2-chalcone +LED), compared with the untreated control. Further, 2-chalcone in the dark and amphotericin B induced cell death by both apoptosis and necrosis, whereas 2-chalcone +LED only induced death by necrosis. *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001.

    Techniques Used:

    strain t rubrum atcc 28189  (ATCC)


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    Structured Review

    ATCC strain t rubrum atcc 28189
    Antifungal activity (expressed in mg/L) of 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole against dermatophyte species.
    Strain T Rubrum Atcc 28189, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/strain t rubrum atcc 28189/product/ATCC
    Average 93 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    strain t rubrum atcc 28189 - by Bioz Stars, 2024-02
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    Images

    1) Product Images from "2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms"

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Antifungal activity (expressed in mg/L) of 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole against dermatophyte species.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antifungal activity (expressed in mg/L) of 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole against dermatophyte species.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on mature biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured by the XTT reduction assay. Only 2-chalcone showed action against mature biofilms from a concentration of 31.2 mg/L. On the contrary, biofilms formed by all tested strains were resistant to the drugs terbinafine and fluconazole even at the highest concentrations (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.001). Tr- T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on mature biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured by the XTT reduction assay. Only 2-chalcone showed action against mature biofilms from a concentration of 31.2 mg/L. On the contrary, biofilms formed by all tested strains were resistant to the drugs terbinafine and fluconazole even at the highest concentrations (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.001). Tr- T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on planktonic cells of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine were more potent against planktonic cells than fluconazole. The compounds 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole inhibited the cellular metabolic activity in the planktonic form at the concentration used for biofilm formation (10 6 cells/mL) of all strains tested, from the concentration of 15.6, 0.06, and 512 mg/L respectively. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on planktonic cells of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine were more potent against planktonic cells than fluconazole. The compounds 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole inhibited the cellular metabolic activity in the planktonic form at the concentration used for biofilm formation (10 6 cells/mL) of all strains tested, from the concentration of 15.6, 0.06, and 512 mg/L respectively. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone-mediated PDT using LED irradiation at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 in planktonic cells (10 6 cell/mL) (A) , early-stage (B) , and mature biofilms (C) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, measured by the XTT reduction assay. Potentiation of 2-chalcone was shown when it was mediated PDT resulting in the inhibition of planktonic forms and biofilms (early-stage and mature) from 2, 4, and 7.8 mg/L. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone-mediated PDT using LED irradiation at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 in planktonic cells (10 6 cell/mL) (A) , early-stage (B) , and mature biofilms (C) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, measured by the XTT reduction assay. Potentiation of 2-chalcone was shown when it was mediated PDT resulting in the inhibition of planktonic forms and biofilms (early-stage and mature) from 2, 4, and 7.8 mg/L. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001).

    Techniques Used: Irradiation, Inhibition

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of early stage (A) and mature biofilms (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 untreated (a, c, e) and treated with 2-chalcone in the dark (b, d, f). The images of untreated biofilms show a robust biofilm, formed with the entanglement of integral hyphae and covered with a polymeric extracellular matrix (red arrows). Biofilms treated in the early-stage with 2-chalcone present a low density showing the action of 2-chalcone in inhibiting their maturation. In mature biofilms, as in the early-stage biofilms, 2-chalcone promoted total hyphal collapse (blue arrows).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of early stage (A) and mature biofilms (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 untreated (a, c, e) and treated with 2-chalcone in the dark (b, d, f). The images of untreated biofilms show a robust biofilm, formed with the entanglement of integral hyphae and covered with a polymeric extracellular matrix (red arrows). Biofilms treated in the early-stage with 2-chalcone present a low density showing the action of 2-chalcone in inhibiting their maturation. In mature biofilms, as in the early-stage biofilms, 2-chalcone promoted total hyphal collapse (blue arrows).

    Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy

    Scanning electron microscopy images of mature T. rubrum ATCC 28189 biofilms treated with 2-chalcone combined with blue LED at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 (C, D) and irradiated only at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 without the photosensitizer (A, B) . The blue arrows indicate empty spaces within the biofilm showing that the biofilm had become less dense. The red arrows show collapsed hyphae.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy images of mature T. rubrum ATCC 28189 biofilms treated with 2-chalcone combined with blue LED at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 (C, D) and irradiated only at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 without the photosensitizer (A, B) . The blue arrows indicate empty spaces within the biofilm showing that the biofilm had become less dense. The red arrows show collapsed hyphae.

    Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy, Irradiation

    Values of IC 50 and selectivity index (SI) in HaCat cell monolayers treated with 2-chalcone in the dark and with photosensitization.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Values of IC 50 and selectivity index (SI) in HaCat cell monolayers treated with 2-chalcone in the dark and with photosensitization.

    Techniques Used:

    The amount of extracted ergosterol (A) and confocal laser scanning microscopy images (CLSM) (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 treated with 2-chalcone, fluconazole, and amphotericin B. The ergosterol quantification graph shows that treatments with 2-chalcone in the dark and 2-chalcone-mediated PDT reduced the amount of sterols extracted, suggesting that this molecule may have an action on ergosterol or its synthesis chain. Amphotericin B and fluconazole also reduced the amount of steroids extracted, proving their direct action and on the synthesis chain, respectively. In CLSM images, the cell wall is stained with calcofluor white. Cells treated with 2-chalcone showed changes in the cell wall with compromised structure. However, cells treated with fluconazole showed cell wall integrity. **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The amount of extracted ergosterol (A) and confocal laser scanning microscopy images (CLSM) (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 treated with 2-chalcone, fluconazole, and amphotericin B. The ergosterol quantification graph shows that treatments with 2-chalcone in the dark and 2-chalcone-mediated PDT reduced the amount of sterols extracted, suggesting that this molecule may have an action on ergosterol or its synthesis chain. Amphotericin B and fluconazole also reduced the amount of steroids extracted, proving their direct action and on the synthesis chain, respectively. In CLSM images, the cell wall is stained with calcofluor white. Cells treated with 2-chalcone showed changes in the cell wall with compromised structure. However, cells treated with fluconazole showed cell wall integrity. **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining

    Measurement of ROS production after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and mediated PDT (2-chalcone + LED). The compounds amphotericin B, hydrogen peroxide, and 2-chalcone in the dark induced ROS formation when compared to the control without treatment in the dark. Treatment with 2-chalcone-mediated PDT did not induce ROS formation when compared to the control + LED. ***p <0.001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Measurement of ROS production after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and mediated PDT (2-chalcone + LED). The compounds amphotericin B, hydrogen peroxide, and 2-chalcone in the dark induced ROS formation when compared to the control without treatment in the dark. Treatment with 2-chalcone-mediated PDT did not induce ROS formation when compared to the control + LED. ***p <0.001.

    Techniques Used:

    Mechanism of death due to apoptosis (A) and necrosis (B) induced after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and with 2-chalcone mediated PDT (2-chalcone +LED), compared with the untreated control. Further, 2-chalcone in the dark and amphotericin B induced cell death by both apoptosis and necrosis, whereas 2-chalcone +LED only induced death by necrosis. *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Mechanism of death due to apoptosis (A) and necrosis (B) induced after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and with 2-chalcone mediated PDT (2-chalcone +LED), compared with the untreated control. Further, 2-chalcone in the dark and amphotericin B induced cell death by both apoptosis and necrosis, whereas 2-chalcone +LED only induced death by necrosis. *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001.

    Techniques Used:

    reference strain t rubrum atcc 40051  (ATCC)


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    ATCC reference strain t rubrum atcc 40051
    Reference Strain T Rubrum Atcc 40051, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC reference strain t rubrum atcc
    Reference Strain T Rubrum Atcc, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Oligonucleotide primers were used to evaluate the relative gene expression of <t> T. rubrum ATCC </t> 28189, treated with nonyl protocatechuate, and compared to the untreated fungus.
    T Rubrum Atcc Strain, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC reference t rubrum atcc 40051 strain
    Illustration of the invasiveness of Trichophyton rubrum on a healthy human nail in ten days. CMRP2912: isolated from patient 1; CMRP2918: isolated from patient 2. T. rubrum ATCC 40051. Topline: macroscopic aspects of fungal growth in nail fragments. Bottom line: features of fungal invasion as seen under a light microscope. Histological sections of nails stained by GMS, at 400 ×.
    Reference T Rubrum Atcc 40051 Strain, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC t rubrum strain atcc
    Illustration of the invasiveness of Trichophyton rubrum on a healthy human nail in ten days. CMRP2912: isolated from patient 1; CMRP2918: isolated from patient 2. T. rubrum ATCC 40051. Topline: macroscopic aspects of fungal growth in nail fragments. Bottom line: features of fungal invasion as seen under a light microscope. Histological sections of nails stained by GMS, at 400 ×.
    T Rubrum Strain Atcc, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC reference strains t rubrum atcc
    Illustration of the invasiveness of Trichophyton rubrum on a healthy human nail in ten days. CMRP2912: isolated from patient 1; CMRP2918: isolated from patient 2. T. rubrum ATCC 40051. Topline: macroscopic aspects of fungal growth in nail fragments. Bottom line: features of fungal invasion as seen under a light microscope. Histological sections of nails stained by GMS, at 400 ×.
    Reference Strains T Rubrum Atcc, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC t rubrum strains atcc
    T. <t>rubrum</t> ATCC MYA-4438 strain forms stronger biofilms than the clinical isolate BR1A strain. <t>(A)</t> <t>Kinetics</t> of T. rubrum biofilm formation in 96-well plates determined by XTT reduction assay. (B) Quantification of the biomass of mature T. rubrum biofilms after 72 h incubation was performed using crystal violet staining. For panels a and b, each time point denotes the average of 3 independent wells. Error bars indicate standard deviations. p values (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001) were calculated by student ’ s t test analysis.
    T Rubrum Strains Atcc, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC t rubrum atcc 28189 strain
    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .
    T Rubrum Atcc 28189 Strain, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC strains t rubrum atcc 28189
    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .
    Strains T Rubrum Atcc 28189, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC strain t rubrum atcc 28189
    Antifungal activity (expressed in mg/L) of 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole against dermatophyte species.
    Strain T Rubrum Atcc 28189, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC reference strain t rubrum atcc 40051
    Antifungal activity (expressed in mg/L) of 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole against dermatophyte species.
    Reference Strain T Rubrum Atcc 40051, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Oligonucleotide primers were used to evaluate the relative gene expression of  T. rubrum ATCC  28189, treated with nonyl protocatechuate, and compared to the untreated fungus.

    Journal: Pharmaceutics

    Article Title: Membranolytic Activity Profile of Nonyl 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoate: A New Anti-Biofilm Compound for the Treatment of Dermatophytosis

    doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics15051402

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Oligonucleotide primers were used to evaluate the relative gene expression of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, treated with nonyl protocatechuate, and compared to the untreated fungus.

    Article Snippet: For the T. rubrum ATCC strain, treatment with terbinafine or nonyl significantly reduced the thickness of the biofilms on average to 33.23 µm ( B) and 39.28 µm ( C), respectively.

    Techniques: Expressing

    Scanning electron microscopy of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes mature biofilms, untreated ( A , F , K , P ) and treated with fluconazole ( B , G , L , Q ); griseofulvin ( C , H , M , R ); terbinafine ( D , I , N , S ) and nonyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate ( E , J , O , T ). White arrows denote small structures, similar to atrophied microconidia or extracellular vesicles ( E , J ).

    Journal: Pharmaceutics

    Article Title: Membranolytic Activity Profile of Nonyl 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoate: A New Anti-Biofilm Compound for the Treatment of Dermatophytosis

    doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics15051402

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes mature biofilms, untreated ( A , F , K , P ) and treated with fluconazole ( B , G , L , Q ); griseofulvin ( C , H , M , R ); terbinafine ( D , I , N , S ) and nonyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate ( E , J , O , T ). White arrows denote small structures, similar to atrophied microconidia or extracellular vesicles ( E , J ).

    Article Snippet: For the T. rubrum ATCC strain, treatment with terbinafine or nonyl significantly reduced the thickness of the biofilms on average to 33.23 µm ( B) and 39.28 µm ( C), respectively.

    Techniques: Electron Microscopy

    Orthogonal sections obtained by confocal laser scanning microscopy of mature T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes biofilms, untreated ( A , D , G , J ); treated with terbinafine 32 mg/L ( B , E , H , K ) and treated with nonyl 3, 4-dihydroxybenzoate 250 mg/L ( C , F , I , L ), showed that both treatments reduced the thickness and/or mass of biofilms. Pictures were taken at 63× magnification, 20 µm bars. Metabolically active cells are stained red (FUN 1), while cells surrounded by polysaccharide material are stained green (ConA). The image has been adjusted for brightness.

    Journal: Pharmaceutics

    Article Title: Membranolytic Activity Profile of Nonyl 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoate: A New Anti-Biofilm Compound for the Treatment of Dermatophytosis

    doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics15051402

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Orthogonal sections obtained by confocal laser scanning microscopy of mature T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes biofilms, untreated ( A , D , G , J ); treated with terbinafine 32 mg/L ( B , E , H , K ) and treated with nonyl 3, 4-dihydroxybenzoate 250 mg/L ( C , F , I , L ), showed that both treatments reduced the thickness and/or mass of biofilms. Pictures were taken at 63× magnification, 20 µm bars. Metabolically active cells are stained red (FUN 1), while cells surrounded by polysaccharide material are stained green (ConA). The image has been adjusted for brightness.

    Article Snippet: For the T. rubrum ATCC strain, treatment with terbinafine or nonyl significantly reduced the thickness of the biofilms on average to 33.23 µm ( B) and 39.28 µm ( C), respectively.

    Techniques: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Metabolic Labelling, Staining

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy images of untreated T. rubrum ATCC 28189 ( A ), treated with 7.8 mg/L nonyl ( B ), 128 mg/L fluconazole ( C ), and 1 mg/L amphotericin B ( D ) at a magnification of 100×; bars, 10 µm. The panels show cell walls stained with calcofluor white, even in those in which more extensive damage and inhibition of hyphal development occurred. Lower panels represent enlargements of the areas demarcated by rectangles for better visualization of the damage caused by the treatments to the fungi cell walls at the magnification of 255×; bars, 5 µm.

    Journal: Pharmaceutics

    Article Title: Membranolytic Activity Profile of Nonyl 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoate: A New Anti-Biofilm Compound for the Treatment of Dermatophytosis

    doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics15051402

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Confocal laser scanning microscopy images of untreated T. rubrum ATCC 28189 ( A ), treated with 7.8 mg/L nonyl ( B ), 128 mg/L fluconazole ( C ), and 1 mg/L amphotericin B ( D ) at a magnification of 100×; bars, 10 µm. The panels show cell walls stained with calcofluor white, even in those in which more extensive damage and inhibition of hyphal development occurred. Lower panels represent enlargements of the areas demarcated by rectangles for better visualization of the damage caused by the treatments to the fungi cell walls at the magnification of 255×; bars, 5 µm.

    Article Snippet: For the T. rubrum ATCC strain, treatment with terbinafine or nonyl significantly reduced the thickness of the biofilms on average to 33.23 µm ( B) and 39.28 µm ( C), respectively.

    Techniques: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining, Inhibition

    Mechanism of cell death by necrosis ( A ) and apoptosis ( B ) induced after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with nonyl, fluconazole, and amphotericin B. Both significantly induced necrotic death ( p < 0.05). * p < 0.05; ** p <0.01; *** p <0.001.

    Journal: Pharmaceutics

    Article Title: Membranolytic Activity Profile of Nonyl 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoate: A New Anti-Biofilm Compound for the Treatment of Dermatophytosis

    doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics15051402

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mechanism of cell death by necrosis ( A ) and apoptosis ( B ) induced after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with nonyl, fluconazole, and amphotericin B. Both significantly induced necrotic death ( p < 0.05). * p < 0.05; ** p <0.01; *** p <0.001.

    Article Snippet: For the T. rubrum ATCC strain, treatment with terbinafine or nonyl significantly reduced the thickness of the biofilms on average to 33.23 µm ( B) and 39.28 µm ( C), respectively.

    Techniques:

    Relative expression levels of Erg 1 and Erg 11 genes represented in Log2Fold change in T. rubrum ATCC 28189 strain treated with nonyl protocatechuate, compared to the untreated control. Results from three independent experiments are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation. Statistical significance was determined by the Student’s t -test and indicated by asterisks: ** p < 0.01.

    Journal: Pharmaceutics

    Article Title: Membranolytic Activity Profile of Nonyl 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoate: A New Anti-Biofilm Compound for the Treatment of Dermatophytosis

    doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics15051402

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Relative expression levels of Erg 1 and Erg 11 genes represented in Log2Fold change in T. rubrum ATCC 28189 strain treated with nonyl protocatechuate, compared to the untreated control. Results from three independent experiments are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation. Statistical significance was determined by the Student’s t -test and indicated by asterisks: ** p < 0.01.

    Article Snippet: For the T. rubrum ATCC strain, treatment with terbinafine or nonyl significantly reduced the thickness of the biofilms on average to 33.23 µm ( B) and 39.28 µm ( C), respectively.

    Techniques: Expressing, Standard Deviation

    Illustration of the invasiveness of Trichophyton rubrum on a healthy human nail in ten days. CMRP2912: isolated from patient 1; CMRP2918: isolated from patient 2. T. rubrum ATCC 40051. Topline: macroscopic aspects of fungal growth in nail fragments. Bottom line: features of fungal invasion as seen under a light microscope. Histological sections of nails stained by GMS, at 400 ×.

    Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM

    Article Title: The Success of Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis Seems to Be Influenced by Fungal Features

    doi: 10.1155/2021/5553634

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Illustration of the invasiveness of Trichophyton rubrum on a healthy human nail in ten days. CMRP2912: isolated from patient 1; CMRP2918: isolated from patient 2. T. rubrum ATCC 40051. Topline: macroscopic aspects of fungal growth in nail fragments. Bottom line: features of fungal invasion as seen under a light microscope. Histological sections of nails stained by GMS, at 400 ×.

    Article Snippet: Some laboratory tests were performed on the clinical isolates obtained from the two patients, T. rubrum CMRP2912 and T. rubrum CMRP2918, using the reference T. rubrum ATCC 40051 strain.

    Techniques: Isolation, Light Microscopy, Staining

    T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438 strain forms stronger biofilms than the clinical isolate BR1A strain. (A) Kinetics of T. rubrum biofilm formation in 96-well plates determined by XTT reduction assay. (B) Quantification of the biomass of mature T. rubrum biofilms after 72 h incubation was performed using crystal violet staining. For panels a and b, each time point denotes the average of 3 independent wells. Error bars indicate standard deviations. p values (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001) were calculated by student ’ s t test analysis.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: Nitric Oxide-Releasing Nanoparticles Are Similar to Efinaconazole in Their Capacity to Eradicate Trichophyton rubrum Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.684150

    Figure Lengend Snippet: T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438 strain forms stronger biofilms than the clinical isolate BR1A strain. (A) Kinetics of T. rubrum biofilm formation in 96-well plates determined by XTT reduction assay. (B) Quantification of the biomass of mature T. rubrum biofilms after 72 h incubation was performed using crystal violet staining. For panels a and b, each time point denotes the average of 3 independent wells. Error bars indicate standard deviations. p values (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001) were calculated by student ’ s t test analysis.

    Article Snippet: The kinetics of biofilm formation by the T. rubrum strains ATCC MYA 4438 and BR1A was quantified by the XTT reduction assay ( ).

    Techniques: Incubation, Staining

    Susceptibility of  T. rubrum ATCC  MYA 4438 or BR1A planktonic cells or biofilms to nitric oxide nanoparticles (NO-np), control nanoparticles (np), fluconazole (FCZ), terbinafine (TRB), or efinaconazole (EFCZ).

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: Nitric Oxide-Releasing Nanoparticles Are Similar to Efinaconazole in Their Capacity to Eradicate Trichophyton rubrum Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.684150

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Susceptibility of T. rubrum ATCC MYA 4438 or BR1A planktonic cells or biofilms to nitric oxide nanoparticles (NO-np), control nanoparticles (np), fluconazole (FCZ), terbinafine (TRB), or efinaconazole (EFCZ).

    Article Snippet: The kinetics of biofilm formation by the T. rubrum strains ATCC MYA 4438 and BR1A was quantified by the XTT reduction assay ( ).

    Techniques:

    Scanning electron microscopy showing the architecture of biofilms for (A) T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438 and (B) BR1A strains. Different magnifications (upper panel; 1000 and lower panel; 3000X) are shown for untreated biofilms and those treated with NO-np 40 mg/mL, fluconazole (FCZ) 0.512 mg/mL, terbinafine (TRB) 0.032 mg/mL, or efinaconazole (EFCZ) 0.320 mg/mL. Red arrows denote collapse of the hyphal walls, while white arrows denote reduced hyphal density.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: Nitric Oxide-Releasing Nanoparticles Are Similar to Efinaconazole in Their Capacity to Eradicate Trichophyton rubrum Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.684150

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy showing the architecture of biofilms for (A) T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438 and (B) BR1A strains. Different magnifications (upper panel; 1000 and lower panel; 3000X) are shown for untreated biofilms and those treated with NO-np 40 mg/mL, fluconazole (FCZ) 0.512 mg/mL, terbinafine (TRB) 0.032 mg/mL, or efinaconazole (EFCZ) 0.320 mg/mL. Red arrows denote collapse of the hyphal walls, while white arrows denote reduced hyphal density.

    Article Snippet: The kinetics of biofilm formation by the T. rubrum strains ATCC MYA 4438 and BR1A was quantified by the XTT reduction assay ( ).

    Techniques: Electron Microscopy

    Confocal microscopy images of mature T. rubrum biofilms formed on glass-bottom plates for 72 h at 37°C (A, D) and treated with NO-np (B, E) or EFCZ (C, F) . Orthogonal images of mature T. rubrum biofilms showed metabolically active (red, FUN-1-stained) cells embedded in the polysaccharide extracellular material (green, ConA), while the yellow-brownish areas represent metabolically inactive or nonviable cells. Images were obtained after 72 h of exposure of the fungal cells to 40 mg/mL of NO-np or 0.32 mg/mL of EFCZ, and the images were compared with those of biofilms incubated in presence of RPMI. The pictures were taken at a magnification of ×63. Bars, 50 μm. The thickness of the fungal biofilms grown under these conditions was measured by z -stack reconstruction. The results are representative of those of two experiments.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: Nitric Oxide-Releasing Nanoparticles Are Similar to Efinaconazole in Their Capacity to Eradicate Trichophyton rubrum Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.684150

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Confocal microscopy images of mature T. rubrum biofilms formed on glass-bottom plates for 72 h at 37°C (A, D) and treated with NO-np (B, E) or EFCZ (C, F) . Orthogonal images of mature T. rubrum biofilms showed metabolically active (red, FUN-1-stained) cells embedded in the polysaccharide extracellular material (green, ConA), while the yellow-brownish areas represent metabolically inactive or nonviable cells. Images were obtained after 72 h of exposure of the fungal cells to 40 mg/mL of NO-np or 0.32 mg/mL of EFCZ, and the images were compared with those of biofilms incubated in presence of RPMI. The pictures were taken at a magnification of ×63. Bars, 50 μm. The thickness of the fungal biofilms grown under these conditions was measured by z -stack reconstruction. The results are representative of those of two experiments.

    Article Snippet: The kinetics of biofilm formation by the T. rubrum strains ATCC MYA 4438 and BR1A was quantified by the XTT reduction assay ( ).

    Techniques: Confocal Microscopy, Metabolic Labelling, Staining, Incubation

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .

    Article Snippet: In contrast, most FLZ-treated cells remained alive because the T. rubrum ATCC 28189 strain was resistant to FLZ as shown in the susceptibility assay.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on mature biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured by the XTT reduction assay. Only 2-chalcone showed action against mature biofilms from a concentration of 31.2 mg/L. On the contrary, biofilms formed by all tested strains were resistant to the drugs terbinafine and fluconazole even at the highest concentrations (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.001). Tr- T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on mature biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured by the XTT reduction assay. Only 2-chalcone showed action against mature biofilms from a concentration of 31.2 mg/L. On the contrary, biofilms formed by all tested strains were resistant to the drugs terbinafine and fluconazole even at the highest concentrations (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.001). Tr- T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Article Snippet: In contrast, most FLZ-treated cells remained alive because the T. rubrum ATCC 28189 strain was resistant to FLZ as shown in the susceptibility assay.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on planktonic cells of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine were more potent against planktonic cells than fluconazole. The compounds 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole inhibited the cellular metabolic activity in the planktonic form at the concentration used for biofilm formation (10 6 cells/mL) of all strains tested, from the concentration of 15.6, 0.06, and 512 mg/L respectively. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on planktonic cells of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine were more potent against planktonic cells than fluconazole. The compounds 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole inhibited the cellular metabolic activity in the planktonic form at the concentration used for biofilm formation (10 6 cells/mL) of all strains tested, from the concentration of 15.6, 0.06, and 512 mg/L respectively. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Article Snippet: In contrast, most FLZ-treated cells remained alive because the T. rubrum ATCC 28189 strain was resistant to FLZ as shown in the susceptibility assay.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone-mediated PDT using LED irradiation at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 in planktonic cells (10 6 cell/mL) (A) , early-stage (B) , and mature biofilms (C) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, measured by the XTT reduction assay. Potentiation of 2-chalcone was shown when it was mediated PDT resulting in the inhibition of planktonic forms and biofilms (early-stage and mature) from 2, 4, and 7.8 mg/L. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001).

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone-mediated PDT using LED irradiation at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 in planktonic cells (10 6 cell/mL) (A) , early-stage (B) , and mature biofilms (C) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, measured by the XTT reduction assay. Potentiation of 2-chalcone was shown when it was mediated PDT resulting in the inhibition of planktonic forms and biofilms (early-stage and mature) from 2, 4, and 7.8 mg/L. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001).

    Article Snippet: In contrast, most FLZ-treated cells remained alive because the T. rubrum ATCC 28189 strain was resistant to FLZ as shown in the susceptibility assay.

    Techniques: Irradiation, Inhibition

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of early stage (A) and mature biofilms (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 untreated (a, c, e) and treated with 2-chalcone in the dark (b, d, f). The images of untreated biofilms show a robust biofilm, formed with the entanglement of integral hyphae and covered with a polymeric extracellular matrix (red arrows). Biofilms treated in the early-stage with 2-chalcone present a low density showing the action of 2-chalcone in inhibiting their maturation. In mature biofilms, as in the early-stage biofilms, 2-chalcone promoted total hyphal collapse (blue arrows).

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of early stage (A) and mature biofilms (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 untreated (a, c, e) and treated with 2-chalcone in the dark (b, d, f). The images of untreated biofilms show a robust biofilm, formed with the entanglement of integral hyphae and covered with a polymeric extracellular matrix (red arrows). Biofilms treated in the early-stage with 2-chalcone present a low density showing the action of 2-chalcone in inhibiting their maturation. In mature biofilms, as in the early-stage biofilms, 2-chalcone promoted total hyphal collapse (blue arrows).

    Article Snippet: In contrast, most FLZ-treated cells remained alive because the T. rubrum ATCC 28189 strain was resistant to FLZ as shown in the susceptibility assay.

    Techniques: Electron Microscopy

    Scanning electron microscopy images of mature T. rubrum ATCC 28189 biofilms treated with 2-chalcone combined with blue LED at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 (C, D) and irradiated only at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 without the photosensitizer (A, B) . The blue arrows indicate empty spaces within the biofilm showing that the biofilm had become less dense. The red arrows show collapsed hyphae.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy images of mature T. rubrum ATCC 28189 biofilms treated with 2-chalcone combined with blue LED at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 (C, D) and irradiated only at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 without the photosensitizer (A, B) . The blue arrows indicate empty spaces within the biofilm showing that the biofilm had become less dense. The red arrows show collapsed hyphae.

    Article Snippet: In contrast, most FLZ-treated cells remained alive because the T. rubrum ATCC 28189 strain was resistant to FLZ as shown in the susceptibility assay.

    Techniques: Electron Microscopy, Irradiation

    Values of IC 50 and selectivity index (SI) in HaCat cell monolayers treated with 2-chalcone in the dark and with photosensitization.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Values of IC 50 and selectivity index (SI) in HaCat cell monolayers treated with 2-chalcone in the dark and with photosensitization.

    Article Snippet: In contrast, most FLZ-treated cells remained alive because the T. rubrum ATCC 28189 strain was resistant to FLZ as shown in the susceptibility assay.

    Techniques:

    The amount of extracted ergosterol (A) and confocal laser scanning microscopy images (CLSM) (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 treated with 2-chalcone, fluconazole, and amphotericin B. The ergosterol quantification graph shows that treatments with 2-chalcone in the dark and 2-chalcone-mediated PDT reduced the amount of sterols extracted, suggesting that this molecule may have an action on ergosterol or its synthesis chain. Amphotericin B and fluconazole also reduced the amount of steroids extracted, proving their direct action and on the synthesis chain, respectively. In CLSM images, the cell wall is stained with calcofluor white. Cells treated with 2-chalcone showed changes in the cell wall with compromised structure. However, cells treated with fluconazole showed cell wall integrity. **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The amount of extracted ergosterol (A) and confocal laser scanning microscopy images (CLSM) (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 treated with 2-chalcone, fluconazole, and amphotericin B. The ergosterol quantification graph shows that treatments with 2-chalcone in the dark and 2-chalcone-mediated PDT reduced the amount of sterols extracted, suggesting that this molecule may have an action on ergosterol or its synthesis chain. Amphotericin B and fluconazole also reduced the amount of steroids extracted, proving their direct action and on the synthesis chain, respectively. In CLSM images, the cell wall is stained with calcofluor white. Cells treated with 2-chalcone showed changes in the cell wall with compromised structure. However, cells treated with fluconazole showed cell wall integrity. **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.

    Article Snippet: In contrast, most FLZ-treated cells remained alive because the T. rubrum ATCC 28189 strain was resistant to FLZ as shown in the susceptibility assay.

    Techniques: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining

    Measurement of ROS production after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and mediated PDT (2-chalcone + LED). The compounds amphotericin B, hydrogen peroxide, and 2-chalcone in the dark induced ROS formation when compared to the control without treatment in the dark. Treatment with 2-chalcone-mediated PDT did not induce ROS formation when compared to the control + LED. ***p <0.001.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Measurement of ROS production after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and mediated PDT (2-chalcone + LED). The compounds amphotericin B, hydrogen peroxide, and 2-chalcone in the dark induced ROS formation when compared to the control without treatment in the dark. Treatment with 2-chalcone-mediated PDT did not induce ROS formation when compared to the control + LED. ***p <0.001.

    Article Snippet: In contrast, most FLZ-treated cells remained alive because the T. rubrum ATCC 28189 strain was resistant to FLZ as shown in the susceptibility assay.

    Techniques:

    Mechanism of death due to apoptosis (A) and necrosis (B) induced after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and with 2-chalcone mediated PDT (2-chalcone +LED), compared with the untreated control. Further, 2-chalcone in the dark and amphotericin B induced cell death by both apoptosis and necrosis, whereas 2-chalcone +LED only induced death by necrosis. *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mechanism of death due to apoptosis (A) and necrosis (B) induced after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and with 2-chalcone mediated PDT (2-chalcone +LED), compared with the untreated control. Further, 2-chalcone in the dark and amphotericin B induced cell death by both apoptosis and necrosis, whereas 2-chalcone +LED only induced death by necrosis. *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001.

    Article Snippet: In contrast, most FLZ-treated cells remained alive because the T. rubrum ATCC 28189 strain was resistant to FLZ as shown in the susceptibility assay.

    Techniques:

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .

    Article Snippet: The photodynamic therapy assay was applied using 2-chalcone as a photosensitizer against planktonic cells (10 6 cells/mL) and against early-stage and mature biofilms of the strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on mature biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured by the XTT reduction assay. Only 2-chalcone showed action against mature biofilms from a concentration of 31.2 mg/L. On the contrary, biofilms formed by all tested strains were resistant to the drugs terbinafine and fluconazole even at the highest concentrations (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.001). Tr- T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on mature biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured by the XTT reduction assay. Only 2-chalcone showed action against mature biofilms from a concentration of 31.2 mg/L. On the contrary, biofilms formed by all tested strains were resistant to the drugs terbinafine and fluconazole even at the highest concentrations (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.001). Tr- T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Article Snippet: The photodynamic therapy assay was applied using 2-chalcone as a photosensitizer against planktonic cells (10 6 cells/mL) and against early-stage and mature biofilms of the strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on planktonic cells of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine were more potent against planktonic cells than fluconazole. The compounds 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole inhibited the cellular metabolic activity in the planktonic form at the concentration used for biofilm formation (10 6 cells/mL) of all strains tested, from the concentration of 15.6, 0.06, and 512 mg/L respectively. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on planktonic cells of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine were more potent against planktonic cells than fluconazole. The compounds 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole inhibited the cellular metabolic activity in the planktonic form at the concentration used for biofilm formation (10 6 cells/mL) of all strains tested, from the concentration of 15.6, 0.06, and 512 mg/L respectively. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Article Snippet: The photodynamic therapy assay was applied using 2-chalcone as a photosensitizer against planktonic cells (10 6 cells/mL) and against early-stage and mature biofilms of the strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone-mediated PDT using LED irradiation at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 in planktonic cells (10 6 cell/mL) (A) , early-stage (B) , and mature biofilms (C) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, measured by the XTT reduction assay. Potentiation of 2-chalcone was shown when it was mediated PDT resulting in the inhibition of planktonic forms and biofilms (early-stage and mature) from 2, 4, and 7.8 mg/L. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001).

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone-mediated PDT using LED irradiation at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 in planktonic cells (10 6 cell/mL) (A) , early-stage (B) , and mature biofilms (C) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, measured by the XTT reduction assay. Potentiation of 2-chalcone was shown when it was mediated PDT resulting in the inhibition of planktonic forms and biofilms (early-stage and mature) from 2, 4, and 7.8 mg/L. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001).

    Article Snippet: The photodynamic therapy assay was applied using 2-chalcone as a photosensitizer against planktonic cells (10 6 cells/mL) and against early-stage and mature biofilms of the strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438.

    Techniques: Irradiation, Inhibition

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of early stage (A) and mature biofilms (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 untreated (a, c, e) and treated with 2-chalcone in the dark (b, d, f). The images of untreated biofilms show a robust biofilm, formed with the entanglement of integral hyphae and covered with a polymeric extracellular matrix (red arrows). Biofilms treated in the early-stage with 2-chalcone present a low density showing the action of 2-chalcone in inhibiting their maturation. In mature biofilms, as in the early-stage biofilms, 2-chalcone promoted total hyphal collapse (blue arrows).

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of early stage (A) and mature biofilms (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 untreated (a, c, e) and treated with 2-chalcone in the dark (b, d, f). The images of untreated biofilms show a robust biofilm, formed with the entanglement of integral hyphae and covered with a polymeric extracellular matrix (red arrows). Biofilms treated in the early-stage with 2-chalcone present a low density showing the action of 2-chalcone in inhibiting their maturation. In mature biofilms, as in the early-stage biofilms, 2-chalcone promoted total hyphal collapse (blue arrows).

    Article Snippet: The photodynamic therapy assay was applied using 2-chalcone as a photosensitizer against planktonic cells (10 6 cells/mL) and against early-stage and mature biofilms of the strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438.

    Techniques: Electron Microscopy

    Scanning electron microscopy images of mature T. rubrum ATCC 28189 biofilms treated with 2-chalcone combined with blue LED at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 (C, D) and irradiated only at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 without the photosensitizer (A, B) . The blue arrows indicate empty spaces within the biofilm showing that the biofilm had become less dense. The red arrows show collapsed hyphae.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy images of mature T. rubrum ATCC 28189 biofilms treated with 2-chalcone combined with blue LED at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 (C, D) and irradiated only at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 without the photosensitizer (A, B) . The blue arrows indicate empty spaces within the biofilm showing that the biofilm had become less dense. The red arrows show collapsed hyphae.

    Article Snippet: The photodynamic therapy assay was applied using 2-chalcone as a photosensitizer against planktonic cells (10 6 cells/mL) and against early-stage and mature biofilms of the strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438.

    Techniques: Electron Microscopy, Irradiation

    Values of IC 50 and selectivity index (SI) in HaCat cell monolayers treated with 2-chalcone in the dark and with photosensitization.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Values of IC 50 and selectivity index (SI) in HaCat cell monolayers treated with 2-chalcone in the dark and with photosensitization.

    Article Snippet: The photodynamic therapy assay was applied using 2-chalcone as a photosensitizer against planktonic cells (10 6 cells/mL) and against early-stage and mature biofilms of the strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438.

    Techniques:

    The amount of extracted ergosterol (A) and confocal laser scanning microscopy images (CLSM) (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 treated with 2-chalcone, fluconazole, and amphotericin B. The ergosterol quantification graph shows that treatments with 2-chalcone in the dark and 2-chalcone-mediated PDT reduced the amount of sterols extracted, suggesting that this molecule may have an action on ergosterol or its synthesis chain. Amphotericin B and fluconazole also reduced the amount of steroids extracted, proving their direct action and on the synthesis chain, respectively. In CLSM images, the cell wall is stained with calcofluor white. Cells treated with 2-chalcone showed changes in the cell wall with compromised structure. However, cells treated with fluconazole showed cell wall integrity. **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The amount of extracted ergosterol (A) and confocal laser scanning microscopy images (CLSM) (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 treated with 2-chalcone, fluconazole, and amphotericin B. The ergosterol quantification graph shows that treatments with 2-chalcone in the dark and 2-chalcone-mediated PDT reduced the amount of sterols extracted, suggesting that this molecule may have an action on ergosterol or its synthesis chain. Amphotericin B and fluconazole also reduced the amount of steroids extracted, proving their direct action and on the synthesis chain, respectively. In CLSM images, the cell wall is stained with calcofluor white. Cells treated with 2-chalcone showed changes in the cell wall with compromised structure. However, cells treated with fluconazole showed cell wall integrity. **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.

    Article Snippet: The photodynamic therapy assay was applied using 2-chalcone as a photosensitizer against planktonic cells (10 6 cells/mL) and against early-stage and mature biofilms of the strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438.

    Techniques: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining

    Measurement of ROS production after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and mediated PDT (2-chalcone + LED). The compounds amphotericin B, hydrogen peroxide, and 2-chalcone in the dark induced ROS formation when compared to the control without treatment in the dark. Treatment with 2-chalcone-mediated PDT did not induce ROS formation when compared to the control + LED. ***p <0.001.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Measurement of ROS production after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and mediated PDT (2-chalcone + LED). The compounds amphotericin B, hydrogen peroxide, and 2-chalcone in the dark induced ROS formation when compared to the control without treatment in the dark. Treatment with 2-chalcone-mediated PDT did not induce ROS formation when compared to the control + LED. ***p <0.001.

    Article Snippet: The photodynamic therapy assay was applied using 2-chalcone as a photosensitizer against planktonic cells (10 6 cells/mL) and against early-stage and mature biofilms of the strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438.

    Techniques:

    Mechanism of death due to apoptosis (A) and necrosis (B) induced after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and with 2-chalcone mediated PDT (2-chalcone +LED), compared with the untreated control. Further, 2-chalcone in the dark and amphotericin B induced cell death by both apoptosis and necrosis, whereas 2-chalcone +LED only induced death by necrosis. *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mechanism of death due to apoptosis (A) and necrosis (B) induced after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and with 2-chalcone mediated PDT (2-chalcone +LED), compared with the untreated control. Further, 2-chalcone in the dark and amphotericin B induced cell death by both apoptosis and necrosis, whereas 2-chalcone +LED only induced death by necrosis. *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001.

    Article Snippet: The photodynamic therapy assay was applied using 2-chalcone as a photosensitizer against planktonic cells (10 6 cells/mL) and against early-stage and mature biofilms of the strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438.

    Techniques:

    Antifungal activity (expressed in mg/L) of 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole against dermatophyte species.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Antifungal activity (expressed in mg/L) of 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole against dermatophyte species.

    Article Snippet: The strain T. rubrum ATCC 28189 demonstrated resistance to FLZ even in the planktonic form as described previously ( ).

    Techniques: Activity Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .

    Article Snippet: The strain T. rubrum ATCC 28189 demonstrated resistance to FLZ even in the planktonic form as described previously ( ).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on mature biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured by the XTT reduction assay. Only 2-chalcone showed action against mature biofilms from a concentration of 31.2 mg/L. On the contrary, biofilms formed by all tested strains were resistant to the drugs terbinafine and fluconazole even at the highest concentrations (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.001). Tr- T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on mature biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured by the XTT reduction assay. Only 2-chalcone showed action against mature biofilms from a concentration of 31.2 mg/L. On the contrary, biofilms formed by all tested strains were resistant to the drugs terbinafine and fluconazole even at the highest concentrations (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.001). Tr- T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Article Snippet: The strain T. rubrum ATCC 28189 demonstrated resistance to FLZ even in the planktonic form as described previously ( ).

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on planktonic cells of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine were more potent against planktonic cells than fluconazole. The compounds 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole inhibited the cellular metabolic activity in the planktonic form at the concentration used for biofilm formation (10 6 cells/mL) of all strains tested, from the concentration of 15.6, 0.06, and 512 mg/L respectively. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on planktonic cells of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine were more potent against planktonic cells than fluconazole. The compounds 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole inhibited the cellular metabolic activity in the planktonic form at the concentration used for biofilm formation (10 6 cells/mL) of all strains tested, from the concentration of 15.6, 0.06, and 512 mg/L respectively. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Article Snippet: The strain T. rubrum ATCC 28189 demonstrated resistance to FLZ even in the planktonic form as described previously ( ).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone-mediated PDT using LED irradiation at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 in planktonic cells (10 6 cell/mL) (A) , early-stage (B) , and mature biofilms (C) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, measured by the XTT reduction assay. Potentiation of 2-chalcone was shown when it was mediated PDT resulting in the inhibition of planktonic forms and biofilms (early-stage and mature) from 2, 4, and 7.8 mg/L. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001).

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone-mediated PDT using LED irradiation at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 in planktonic cells (10 6 cell/mL) (A) , early-stage (B) , and mature biofilms (C) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, measured by the XTT reduction assay. Potentiation of 2-chalcone was shown when it was mediated PDT resulting in the inhibition of planktonic forms and biofilms (early-stage and mature) from 2, 4, and 7.8 mg/L. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001).

    Article Snippet: The strain T. rubrum ATCC 28189 demonstrated resistance to FLZ even in the planktonic form as described previously ( ).

    Techniques: Irradiation, Inhibition

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of early stage (A) and mature biofilms (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 untreated (a, c, e) and treated with 2-chalcone in the dark (b, d, f). The images of untreated biofilms show a robust biofilm, formed with the entanglement of integral hyphae and covered with a polymeric extracellular matrix (red arrows). Biofilms treated in the early-stage with 2-chalcone present a low density showing the action of 2-chalcone in inhibiting their maturation. In mature biofilms, as in the early-stage biofilms, 2-chalcone promoted total hyphal collapse (blue arrows).

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of early stage (A) and mature biofilms (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 untreated (a, c, e) and treated with 2-chalcone in the dark (b, d, f). The images of untreated biofilms show a robust biofilm, formed with the entanglement of integral hyphae and covered with a polymeric extracellular matrix (red arrows). Biofilms treated in the early-stage with 2-chalcone present a low density showing the action of 2-chalcone in inhibiting their maturation. In mature biofilms, as in the early-stage biofilms, 2-chalcone promoted total hyphal collapse (blue arrows).

    Article Snippet: The strain T. rubrum ATCC 28189 demonstrated resistance to FLZ even in the planktonic form as described previously ( ).

    Techniques: Electron Microscopy

    Scanning electron microscopy images of mature T. rubrum ATCC 28189 biofilms treated with 2-chalcone combined with blue LED at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 (C, D) and irradiated only at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 without the photosensitizer (A, B) . The blue arrows indicate empty spaces within the biofilm showing that the biofilm had become less dense. The red arrows show collapsed hyphae.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy images of mature T. rubrum ATCC 28189 biofilms treated with 2-chalcone combined with blue LED at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 (C, D) and irradiated only at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 without the photosensitizer (A, B) . The blue arrows indicate empty spaces within the biofilm showing that the biofilm had become less dense. The red arrows show collapsed hyphae.

    Article Snippet: The strain T. rubrum ATCC 28189 demonstrated resistance to FLZ even in the planktonic form as described previously ( ).

    Techniques: Electron Microscopy, Irradiation

    Values of IC 50 and selectivity index (SI) in HaCat cell monolayers treated with 2-chalcone in the dark and with photosensitization.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Values of IC 50 and selectivity index (SI) in HaCat cell monolayers treated with 2-chalcone in the dark and with photosensitization.

    Article Snippet: The strain T. rubrum ATCC 28189 demonstrated resistance to FLZ even in the planktonic form as described previously ( ).

    Techniques:

    The amount of extracted ergosterol (A) and confocal laser scanning microscopy images (CLSM) (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 treated with 2-chalcone, fluconazole, and amphotericin B. The ergosterol quantification graph shows that treatments with 2-chalcone in the dark and 2-chalcone-mediated PDT reduced the amount of sterols extracted, suggesting that this molecule may have an action on ergosterol or its synthesis chain. Amphotericin B and fluconazole also reduced the amount of steroids extracted, proving their direct action and on the synthesis chain, respectively. In CLSM images, the cell wall is stained with calcofluor white. Cells treated with 2-chalcone showed changes in the cell wall with compromised structure. However, cells treated with fluconazole showed cell wall integrity. **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The amount of extracted ergosterol (A) and confocal laser scanning microscopy images (CLSM) (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 treated with 2-chalcone, fluconazole, and amphotericin B. The ergosterol quantification graph shows that treatments with 2-chalcone in the dark and 2-chalcone-mediated PDT reduced the amount of sterols extracted, suggesting that this molecule may have an action on ergosterol or its synthesis chain. Amphotericin B and fluconazole also reduced the amount of steroids extracted, proving their direct action and on the synthesis chain, respectively. In CLSM images, the cell wall is stained with calcofluor white. Cells treated with 2-chalcone showed changes in the cell wall with compromised structure. However, cells treated with fluconazole showed cell wall integrity. **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.

    Article Snippet: The strain T. rubrum ATCC 28189 demonstrated resistance to FLZ even in the planktonic form as described previously ( ).

    Techniques: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining

    Measurement of ROS production after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and mediated PDT (2-chalcone + LED). The compounds amphotericin B, hydrogen peroxide, and 2-chalcone in the dark induced ROS formation when compared to the control without treatment in the dark. Treatment with 2-chalcone-mediated PDT did not induce ROS formation when compared to the control + LED. ***p <0.001.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Measurement of ROS production after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and mediated PDT (2-chalcone + LED). The compounds amphotericin B, hydrogen peroxide, and 2-chalcone in the dark induced ROS formation when compared to the control without treatment in the dark. Treatment with 2-chalcone-mediated PDT did not induce ROS formation when compared to the control + LED. ***p <0.001.

    Article Snippet: The strain T. rubrum ATCC 28189 demonstrated resistance to FLZ even in the planktonic form as described previously ( ).

    Techniques:

    Mechanism of death due to apoptosis (A) and necrosis (B) induced after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and with 2-chalcone mediated PDT (2-chalcone +LED), compared with the untreated control. Further, 2-chalcone in the dark and amphotericin B induced cell death by both apoptosis and necrosis, whereas 2-chalcone +LED only induced death by necrosis. *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mechanism of death due to apoptosis (A) and necrosis (B) induced after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and with 2-chalcone mediated PDT (2-chalcone +LED), compared with the untreated control. Further, 2-chalcone in the dark and amphotericin B induced cell death by both apoptosis and necrosis, whereas 2-chalcone +LED only induced death by necrosis. *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001.

    Article Snippet: The strain T. rubrum ATCC 28189 demonstrated resistance to FLZ even in the planktonic form as described previously ( ).

    Techniques: