t rubrum atcc 28189 strain  (ATCC)


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    Structured Review

    ATCC t rubrum atcc 28189 strain
    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .
    T Rubrum Atcc 28189 Strain, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/t rubrum atcc 28189 strain/product/ATCC
    Average 93 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    t rubrum atcc 28189 strain - by Bioz Stars, 2024-02
    93/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms"

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on mature biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured by the XTT reduction assay. Only 2-chalcone showed action against mature biofilms from a concentration of 31.2 mg/L. On the contrary, biofilms formed by all tested strains were resistant to the drugs terbinafine and fluconazole even at the highest concentrations (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.001). Tr- T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on mature biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured by the XTT reduction assay. Only 2-chalcone showed action against mature biofilms from a concentration of 31.2 mg/L. On the contrary, biofilms formed by all tested strains were resistant to the drugs terbinafine and fluconazole even at the highest concentrations (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.001). Tr- T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on planktonic cells of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine were more potent against planktonic cells than fluconazole. The compounds 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole inhibited the cellular metabolic activity in the planktonic form at the concentration used for biofilm formation (10 6 cells/mL) of all strains tested, from the concentration of 15.6, 0.06, and 512 mg/L respectively. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on planktonic cells of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine were more potent against planktonic cells than fluconazole. The compounds 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole inhibited the cellular metabolic activity in the planktonic form at the concentration used for biofilm formation (10 6 cells/mL) of all strains tested, from the concentration of 15.6, 0.06, and 512 mg/L respectively. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone-mediated PDT using LED irradiation at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 in planktonic cells (10 6 cell/mL) (A) , early-stage (B) , and mature biofilms (C) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, measured by the XTT reduction assay. Potentiation of 2-chalcone was shown when it was mediated PDT resulting in the inhibition of planktonic forms and biofilms (early-stage and mature) from 2, 4, and 7.8 mg/L. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone-mediated PDT using LED irradiation at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 in planktonic cells (10 6 cell/mL) (A) , early-stage (B) , and mature biofilms (C) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, measured by the XTT reduction assay. Potentiation of 2-chalcone was shown when it was mediated PDT resulting in the inhibition of planktonic forms and biofilms (early-stage and mature) from 2, 4, and 7.8 mg/L. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001).

    Techniques Used: Irradiation, Inhibition

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of early stage (A) and mature biofilms (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 untreated (a, c, e) and treated with 2-chalcone in the dark (b, d, f). The images of untreated biofilms show a robust biofilm, formed with the entanglement of integral hyphae and covered with a polymeric extracellular matrix (red arrows). Biofilms treated in the early-stage with 2-chalcone present a low density showing the action of 2-chalcone in inhibiting their maturation. In mature biofilms, as in the early-stage biofilms, 2-chalcone promoted total hyphal collapse (blue arrows).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of early stage (A) and mature biofilms (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 untreated (a, c, e) and treated with 2-chalcone in the dark (b, d, f). The images of untreated biofilms show a robust biofilm, formed with the entanglement of integral hyphae and covered with a polymeric extracellular matrix (red arrows). Biofilms treated in the early-stage with 2-chalcone present a low density showing the action of 2-chalcone in inhibiting their maturation. In mature biofilms, as in the early-stage biofilms, 2-chalcone promoted total hyphal collapse (blue arrows).

    Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy

    Scanning electron microscopy images of mature T. rubrum ATCC 28189 biofilms treated with 2-chalcone combined with blue LED at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 (C, D) and irradiated only at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 without the photosensitizer (A, B) . The blue arrows indicate empty spaces within the biofilm showing that the biofilm had become less dense. The red arrows show collapsed hyphae.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy images of mature T. rubrum ATCC 28189 biofilms treated with 2-chalcone combined with blue LED at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 (C, D) and irradiated only at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 without the photosensitizer (A, B) . The blue arrows indicate empty spaces within the biofilm showing that the biofilm had become less dense. The red arrows show collapsed hyphae.

    Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy, Irradiation

    Values of IC 50 and selectivity index (SI) in HaCat cell monolayers treated with 2-chalcone in the dark and with photosensitization.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Values of IC 50 and selectivity index (SI) in HaCat cell monolayers treated with 2-chalcone in the dark and with photosensitization.

    Techniques Used:

    The amount of extracted ergosterol (A) and confocal laser scanning microscopy images (CLSM) (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 treated with 2-chalcone, fluconazole, and amphotericin B. The ergosterol quantification graph shows that treatments with 2-chalcone in the dark and 2-chalcone-mediated PDT reduced the amount of sterols extracted, suggesting that this molecule may have an action on ergosterol or its synthesis chain. Amphotericin B and fluconazole also reduced the amount of steroids extracted, proving their direct action and on the synthesis chain, respectively. In CLSM images, the cell wall is stained with calcofluor white. Cells treated with 2-chalcone showed changes in the cell wall with compromised structure. However, cells treated with fluconazole showed cell wall integrity. **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The amount of extracted ergosterol (A) and confocal laser scanning microscopy images (CLSM) (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 treated with 2-chalcone, fluconazole, and amphotericin B. The ergosterol quantification graph shows that treatments with 2-chalcone in the dark and 2-chalcone-mediated PDT reduced the amount of sterols extracted, suggesting that this molecule may have an action on ergosterol or its synthesis chain. Amphotericin B and fluconazole also reduced the amount of steroids extracted, proving their direct action and on the synthesis chain, respectively. In CLSM images, the cell wall is stained with calcofluor white. Cells treated with 2-chalcone showed changes in the cell wall with compromised structure. However, cells treated with fluconazole showed cell wall integrity. **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining

    Measurement of ROS production after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and mediated PDT (2-chalcone + LED). The compounds amphotericin B, hydrogen peroxide, and 2-chalcone in the dark induced ROS formation when compared to the control without treatment in the dark. Treatment with 2-chalcone-mediated PDT did not induce ROS formation when compared to the control + LED. ***p <0.001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Measurement of ROS production after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and mediated PDT (2-chalcone + LED). The compounds amphotericin B, hydrogen peroxide, and 2-chalcone in the dark induced ROS formation when compared to the control without treatment in the dark. Treatment with 2-chalcone-mediated PDT did not induce ROS formation when compared to the control + LED. ***p <0.001.

    Techniques Used:

    Mechanism of death due to apoptosis (A) and necrosis (B) induced after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and with 2-chalcone mediated PDT (2-chalcone +LED), compared with the untreated control. Further, 2-chalcone in the dark and amphotericin B induced cell death by both apoptosis and necrosis, whereas 2-chalcone +LED only induced death by necrosis. *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Mechanism of death due to apoptosis (A) and necrosis (B) induced after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and with 2-chalcone mediated PDT (2-chalcone +LED), compared with the untreated control. Further, 2-chalcone in the dark and amphotericin B induced cell death by both apoptosis and necrosis, whereas 2-chalcone +LED only induced death by necrosis. *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001.

    Techniques Used:

    t rubrum atcc 28189 strain  (ATCC)


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    Structured Review

    ATCC t rubrum atcc 28189 strain
    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .
    T Rubrum Atcc 28189 Strain, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/t rubrum atcc 28189 strain/product/ATCC
    Average 93 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    t rubrum atcc 28189 strain - by Bioz Stars, 2024-02
    93/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms"

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on mature biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured by the XTT reduction assay. Only 2-chalcone showed action against mature biofilms from a concentration of 31.2 mg/L. On the contrary, biofilms formed by all tested strains were resistant to the drugs terbinafine and fluconazole even at the highest concentrations (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.001). Tr- T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on mature biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured by the XTT reduction assay. Only 2-chalcone showed action against mature biofilms from a concentration of 31.2 mg/L. On the contrary, biofilms formed by all tested strains were resistant to the drugs terbinafine and fluconazole even at the highest concentrations (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.001). Tr- T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on planktonic cells of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine were more potent against planktonic cells than fluconazole. The compounds 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole inhibited the cellular metabolic activity in the planktonic form at the concentration used for biofilm formation (10 6 cells/mL) of all strains tested, from the concentration of 15.6, 0.06, and 512 mg/L respectively. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on planktonic cells of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine were more potent against planktonic cells than fluconazole. The compounds 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole inhibited the cellular metabolic activity in the planktonic form at the concentration used for biofilm formation (10 6 cells/mL) of all strains tested, from the concentration of 15.6, 0.06, and 512 mg/L respectively. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone-mediated PDT using LED irradiation at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 in planktonic cells (10 6 cell/mL) (A) , early-stage (B) , and mature biofilms (C) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, measured by the XTT reduction assay. Potentiation of 2-chalcone was shown when it was mediated PDT resulting in the inhibition of planktonic forms and biofilms (early-stage and mature) from 2, 4, and 7.8 mg/L. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone-mediated PDT using LED irradiation at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 in planktonic cells (10 6 cell/mL) (A) , early-stage (B) , and mature biofilms (C) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, measured by the XTT reduction assay. Potentiation of 2-chalcone was shown when it was mediated PDT resulting in the inhibition of planktonic forms and biofilms (early-stage and mature) from 2, 4, and 7.8 mg/L. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001).

    Techniques Used: Irradiation, Inhibition

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of early stage (A) and mature biofilms (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 untreated (a, c, e) and treated with 2-chalcone in the dark (b, d, f). The images of untreated biofilms show a robust biofilm, formed with the entanglement of integral hyphae and covered with a polymeric extracellular matrix (red arrows). Biofilms treated in the early-stage with 2-chalcone present a low density showing the action of 2-chalcone in inhibiting their maturation. In mature biofilms, as in the early-stage biofilms, 2-chalcone promoted total hyphal collapse (blue arrows).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of early stage (A) and mature biofilms (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 untreated (a, c, e) and treated with 2-chalcone in the dark (b, d, f). The images of untreated biofilms show a robust biofilm, formed with the entanglement of integral hyphae and covered with a polymeric extracellular matrix (red arrows). Biofilms treated in the early-stage with 2-chalcone present a low density showing the action of 2-chalcone in inhibiting their maturation. In mature biofilms, as in the early-stage biofilms, 2-chalcone promoted total hyphal collapse (blue arrows).

    Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy

    Scanning electron microscopy images of mature T. rubrum ATCC 28189 biofilms treated with 2-chalcone combined with blue LED at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 (C, D) and irradiated only at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 without the photosensitizer (A, B) . The blue arrows indicate empty spaces within the biofilm showing that the biofilm had become less dense. The red arrows show collapsed hyphae.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy images of mature T. rubrum ATCC 28189 biofilms treated with 2-chalcone combined with blue LED at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 (C, D) and irradiated only at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 without the photosensitizer (A, B) . The blue arrows indicate empty spaces within the biofilm showing that the biofilm had become less dense. The red arrows show collapsed hyphae.

    Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy, Irradiation

    Values of IC 50 and selectivity index (SI) in HaCat cell monolayers treated with 2-chalcone in the dark and with photosensitization.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Values of IC 50 and selectivity index (SI) in HaCat cell monolayers treated with 2-chalcone in the dark and with photosensitization.

    Techniques Used:

    The amount of extracted ergosterol (A) and confocal laser scanning microscopy images (CLSM) (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 treated with 2-chalcone, fluconazole, and amphotericin B. The ergosterol quantification graph shows that treatments with 2-chalcone in the dark and 2-chalcone-mediated PDT reduced the amount of sterols extracted, suggesting that this molecule may have an action on ergosterol or its synthesis chain. Amphotericin B and fluconazole also reduced the amount of steroids extracted, proving their direct action and on the synthesis chain, respectively. In CLSM images, the cell wall is stained with calcofluor white. Cells treated with 2-chalcone showed changes in the cell wall with compromised structure. However, cells treated with fluconazole showed cell wall integrity. **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The amount of extracted ergosterol (A) and confocal laser scanning microscopy images (CLSM) (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 treated with 2-chalcone, fluconazole, and amphotericin B. The ergosterol quantification graph shows that treatments with 2-chalcone in the dark and 2-chalcone-mediated PDT reduced the amount of sterols extracted, suggesting that this molecule may have an action on ergosterol or its synthesis chain. Amphotericin B and fluconazole also reduced the amount of steroids extracted, proving their direct action and on the synthesis chain, respectively. In CLSM images, the cell wall is stained with calcofluor white. Cells treated with 2-chalcone showed changes in the cell wall with compromised structure. However, cells treated with fluconazole showed cell wall integrity. **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining

    Measurement of ROS production after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and mediated PDT (2-chalcone + LED). The compounds amphotericin B, hydrogen peroxide, and 2-chalcone in the dark induced ROS formation when compared to the control without treatment in the dark. Treatment with 2-chalcone-mediated PDT did not induce ROS formation when compared to the control + LED. ***p <0.001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Measurement of ROS production after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and mediated PDT (2-chalcone + LED). The compounds amphotericin B, hydrogen peroxide, and 2-chalcone in the dark induced ROS formation when compared to the control without treatment in the dark. Treatment with 2-chalcone-mediated PDT did not induce ROS formation when compared to the control + LED. ***p <0.001.

    Techniques Used:

    Mechanism of death due to apoptosis (A) and necrosis (B) induced after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and with 2-chalcone mediated PDT (2-chalcone +LED), compared with the untreated control. Further, 2-chalcone in the dark and amphotericin B induced cell death by both apoptosis and necrosis, whereas 2-chalcone +LED only induced death by necrosis. *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Mechanism of death due to apoptosis (A) and necrosis (B) induced after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and with 2-chalcone mediated PDT (2-chalcone +LED), compared with the untreated control. Further, 2-chalcone in the dark and amphotericin B induced cell death by both apoptosis and necrosis, whereas 2-chalcone +LED only induced death by necrosis. *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001.

    Techniques Used:

    strains t rubrum atcc 28189  (ATCC)


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    Structured Review

    ATCC strains t rubrum atcc 28189
    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .
    Strains T Rubrum Atcc 28189, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/strains t rubrum atcc 28189/product/ATCC
    Average 93 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    strains t rubrum atcc 28189 - by Bioz Stars, 2024-02
    93/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms"

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on mature biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured by the XTT reduction assay. Only 2-chalcone showed action against mature biofilms from a concentration of 31.2 mg/L. On the contrary, biofilms formed by all tested strains were resistant to the drugs terbinafine and fluconazole even at the highest concentrations (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.001). Tr- T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on mature biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured by the XTT reduction assay. Only 2-chalcone showed action against mature biofilms from a concentration of 31.2 mg/L. On the contrary, biofilms formed by all tested strains were resistant to the drugs terbinafine and fluconazole even at the highest concentrations (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.001). Tr- T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on planktonic cells of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine were more potent against planktonic cells than fluconazole. The compounds 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole inhibited the cellular metabolic activity in the planktonic form at the concentration used for biofilm formation (10 6 cells/mL) of all strains tested, from the concentration of 15.6, 0.06, and 512 mg/L respectively. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on planktonic cells of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine were more potent against planktonic cells than fluconazole. The compounds 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole inhibited the cellular metabolic activity in the planktonic form at the concentration used for biofilm formation (10 6 cells/mL) of all strains tested, from the concentration of 15.6, 0.06, and 512 mg/L respectively. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone-mediated PDT using LED irradiation at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 in planktonic cells (10 6 cell/mL) (A) , early-stage (B) , and mature biofilms (C) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, measured by the XTT reduction assay. Potentiation of 2-chalcone was shown when it was mediated PDT resulting in the inhibition of planktonic forms and biofilms (early-stage and mature) from 2, 4, and 7.8 mg/L. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone-mediated PDT using LED irradiation at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 in planktonic cells (10 6 cell/mL) (A) , early-stage (B) , and mature biofilms (C) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, measured by the XTT reduction assay. Potentiation of 2-chalcone was shown when it was mediated PDT resulting in the inhibition of planktonic forms and biofilms (early-stage and mature) from 2, 4, and 7.8 mg/L. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001).

    Techniques Used: Irradiation, Inhibition

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of early stage (A) and mature biofilms (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 untreated (a, c, e) and treated with 2-chalcone in the dark (b, d, f). The images of untreated biofilms show a robust biofilm, formed with the entanglement of integral hyphae and covered with a polymeric extracellular matrix (red arrows). Biofilms treated in the early-stage with 2-chalcone present a low density showing the action of 2-chalcone in inhibiting their maturation. In mature biofilms, as in the early-stage biofilms, 2-chalcone promoted total hyphal collapse (blue arrows).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of early stage (A) and mature biofilms (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 untreated (a, c, e) and treated with 2-chalcone in the dark (b, d, f). The images of untreated biofilms show a robust biofilm, formed with the entanglement of integral hyphae and covered with a polymeric extracellular matrix (red arrows). Biofilms treated in the early-stage with 2-chalcone present a low density showing the action of 2-chalcone in inhibiting their maturation. In mature biofilms, as in the early-stage biofilms, 2-chalcone promoted total hyphal collapse (blue arrows).

    Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy

    Scanning electron microscopy images of mature T. rubrum ATCC 28189 biofilms treated with 2-chalcone combined with blue LED at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 (C, D) and irradiated only at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 without the photosensitizer (A, B) . The blue arrows indicate empty spaces within the biofilm showing that the biofilm had become less dense. The red arrows show collapsed hyphae.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy images of mature T. rubrum ATCC 28189 biofilms treated with 2-chalcone combined with blue LED at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 (C, D) and irradiated only at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 without the photosensitizer (A, B) . The blue arrows indicate empty spaces within the biofilm showing that the biofilm had become less dense. The red arrows show collapsed hyphae.

    Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy, Irradiation

    Values of IC 50 and selectivity index (SI) in HaCat cell monolayers treated with 2-chalcone in the dark and with photosensitization.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Values of IC 50 and selectivity index (SI) in HaCat cell monolayers treated with 2-chalcone in the dark and with photosensitization.

    Techniques Used:

    The amount of extracted ergosterol (A) and confocal laser scanning microscopy images (CLSM) (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 treated with 2-chalcone, fluconazole, and amphotericin B. The ergosterol quantification graph shows that treatments with 2-chalcone in the dark and 2-chalcone-mediated PDT reduced the amount of sterols extracted, suggesting that this molecule may have an action on ergosterol or its synthesis chain. Amphotericin B and fluconazole also reduced the amount of steroids extracted, proving their direct action and on the synthesis chain, respectively. In CLSM images, the cell wall is stained with calcofluor white. Cells treated with 2-chalcone showed changes in the cell wall with compromised structure. However, cells treated with fluconazole showed cell wall integrity. **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The amount of extracted ergosterol (A) and confocal laser scanning microscopy images (CLSM) (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 treated with 2-chalcone, fluconazole, and amphotericin B. The ergosterol quantification graph shows that treatments with 2-chalcone in the dark and 2-chalcone-mediated PDT reduced the amount of sterols extracted, suggesting that this molecule may have an action on ergosterol or its synthesis chain. Amphotericin B and fluconazole also reduced the amount of steroids extracted, proving their direct action and on the synthesis chain, respectively. In CLSM images, the cell wall is stained with calcofluor white. Cells treated with 2-chalcone showed changes in the cell wall with compromised structure. However, cells treated with fluconazole showed cell wall integrity. **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining

    Measurement of ROS production after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and mediated PDT (2-chalcone + LED). The compounds amphotericin B, hydrogen peroxide, and 2-chalcone in the dark induced ROS formation when compared to the control without treatment in the dark. Treatment with 2-chalcone-mediated PDT did not induce ROS formation when compared to the control + LED. ***p <0.001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Measurement of ROS production after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and mediated PDT (2-chalcone + LED). The compounds amphotericin B, hydrogen peroxide, and 2-chalcone in the dark induced ROS formation when compared to the control without treatment in the dark. Treatment with 2-chalcone-mediated PDT did not induce ROS formation when compared to the control + LED. ***p <0.001.

    Techniques Used:

    Mechanism of death due to apoptosis (A) and necrosis (B) induced after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and with 2-chalcone mediated PDT (2-chalcone +LED), compared with the untreated control. Further, 2-chalcone in the dark and amphotericin B induced cell death by both apoptosis and necrosis, whereas 2-chalcone +LED only induced death by necrosis. *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Mechanism of death due to apoptosis (A) and necrosis (B) induced after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and with 2-chalcone mediated PDT (2-chalcone +LED), compared with the untreated control. Further, 2-chalcone in the dark and amphotericin B induced cell death by both apoptosis and necrosis, whereas 2-chalcone +LED only induced death by necrosis. *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001.

    Techniques Used:

    strain t rubrum atcc 28189  (ATCC)


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    ATCC strain t rubrum atcc 28189
    Antifungal activity (expressed in mg/L) of 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole against dermatophyte species.
    Strain T Rubrum Atcc 28189, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    1) Product Images from "2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms"

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Antifungal activity (expressed in mg/L) of 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole against dermatophyte species.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antifungal activity (expressed in mg/L) of 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole against dermatophyte species.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on mature biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured by the XTT reduction assay. Only 2-chalcone showed action against mature biofilms from a concentration of 31.2 mg/L. On the contrary, biofilms formed by all tested strains were resistant to the drugs terbinafine and fluconazole even at the highest concentrations (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.001). Tr- T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on mature biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured by the XTT reduction assay. Only 2-chalcone showed action against mature biofilms from a concentration of 31.2 mg/L. On the contrary, biofilms formed by all tested strains were resistant to the drugs terbinafine and fluconazole even at the highest concentrations (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.001). Tr- T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on planktonic cells of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine were more potent against planktonic cells than fluconazole. The compounds 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole inhibited the cellular metabolic activity in the planktonic form at the concentration used for biofilm formation (10 6 cells/mL) of all strains tested, from the concentration of 15.6, 0.06, and 512 mg/L respectively. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on planktonic cells of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine were more potent against planktonic cells than fluconazole. The compounds 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole inhibited the cellular metabolic activity in the planktonic form at the concentration used for biofilm formation (10 6 cells/mL) of all strains tested, from the concentration of 15.6, 0.06, and 512 mg/L respectively. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone-mediated PDT using LED irradiation at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 in planktonic cells (10 6 cell/mL) (A) , early-stage (B) , and mature biofilms (C) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, measured by the XTT reduction assay. Potentiation of 2-chalcone was shown when it was mediated PDT resulting in the inhibition of planktonic forms and biofilms (early-stage and mature) from 2, 4, and 7.8 mg/L. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone-mediated PDT using LED irradiation at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 in planktonic cells (10 6 cell/mL) (A) , early-stage (B) , and mature biofilms (C) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, measured by the XTT reduction assay. Potentiation of 2-chalcone was shown when it was mediated PDT resulting in the inhibition of planktonic forms and biofilms (early-stage and mature) from 2, 4, and 7.8 mg/L. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001).

    Techniques Used: Irradiation, Inhibition

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of early stage (A) and mature biofilms (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 untreated (a, c, e) and treated with 2-chalcone in the dark (b, d, f). The images of untreated biofilms show a robust biofilm, formed with the entanglement of integral hyphae and covered with a polymeric extracellular matrix (red arrows). Biofilms treated in the early-stage with 2-chalcone present a low density showing the action of 2-chalcone in inhibiting their maturation. In mature biofilms, as in the early-stage biofilms, 2-chalcone promoted total hyphal collapse (blue arrows).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of early stage (A) and mature biofilms (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 untreated (a, c, e) and treated with 2-chalcone in the dark (b, d, f). The images of untreated biofilms show a robust biofilm, formed with the entanglement of integral hyphae and covered with a polymeric extracellular matrix (red arrows). Biofilms treated in the early-stage with 2-chalcone present a low density showing the action of 2-chalcone in inhibiting their maturation. In mature biofilms, as in the early-stage biofilms, 2-chalcone promoted total hyphal collapse (blue arrows).

    Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy

    Scanning electron microscopy images of mature T. rubrum ATCC 28189 biofilms treated with 2-chalcone combined with blue LED at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 (C, D) and irradiated only at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 without the photosensitizer (A, B) . The blue arrows indicate empty spaces within the biofilm showing that the biofilm had become less dense. The red arrows show collapsed hyphae.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy images of mature T. rubrum ATCC 28189 biofilms treated with 2-chalcone combined with blue LED at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 (C, D) and irradiated only at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 without the photosensitizer (A, B) . The blue arrows indicate empty spaces within the biofilm showing that the biofilm had become less dense. The red arrows show collapsed hyphae.

    Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy, Irradiation

    Values of IC 50 and selectivity index (SI) in HaCat cell monolayers treated with 2-chalcone in the dark and with photosensitization.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Values of IC 50 and selectivity index (SI) in HaCat cell monolayers treated with 2-chalcone in the dark and with photosensitization.

    Techniques Used:

    The amount of extracted ergosterol (A) and confocal laser scanning microscopy images (CLSM) (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 treated with 2-chalcone, fluconazole, and amphotericin B. The ergosterol quantification graph shows that treatments with 2-chalcone in the dark and 2-chalcone-mediated PDT reduced the amount of sterols extracted, suggesting that this molecule may have an action on ergosterol or its synthesis chain. Amphotericin B and fluconazole also reduced the amount of steroids extracted, proving their direct action and on the synthesis chain, respectively. In CLSM images, the cell wall is stained with calcofluor white. Cells treated with 2-chalcone showed changes in the cell wall with compromised structure. However, cells treated with fluconazole showed cell wall integrity. **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The amount of extracted ergosterol (A) and confocal laser scanning microscopy images (CLSM) (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 treated with 2-chalcone, fluconazole, and amphotericin B. The ergosterol quantification graph shows that treatments with 2-chalcone in the dark and 2-chalcone-mediated PDT reduced the amount of sterols extracted, suggesting that this molecule may have an action on ergosterol or its synthesis chain. Amphotericin B and fluconazole also reduced the amount of steroids extracted, proving their direct action and on the synthesis chain, respectively. In CLSM images, the cell wall is stained with calcofluor white. Cells treated with 2-chalcone showed changes in the cell wall with compromised structure. However, cells treated with fluconazole showed cell wall integrity. **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining

    Measurement of ROS production after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and mediated PDT (2-chalcone + LED). The compounds amphotericin B, hydrogen peroxide, and 2-chalcone in the dark induced ROS formation when compared to the control without treatment in the dark. Treatment with 2-chalcone-mediated PDT did not induce ROS formation when compared to the control + LED. ***p <0.001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Measurement of ROS production after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and mediated PDT (2-chalcone + LED). The compounds amphotericin B, hydrogen peroxide, and 2-chalcone in the dark induced ROS formation when compared to the control without treatment in the dark. Treatment with 2-chalcone-mediated PDT did not induce ROS formation when compared to the control + LED. ***p <0.001.

    Techniques Used:

    Mechanism of death due to apoptosis (A) and necrosis (B) induced after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and with 2-chalcone mediated PDT (2-chalcone +LED), compared with the untreated control. Further, 2-chalcone in the dark and amphotericin B induced cell death by both apoptosis and necrosis, whereas 2-chalcone +LED only induced death by necrosis. *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Mechanism of death due to apoptosis (A) and necrosis (B) induced after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and with 2-chalcone mediated PDT (2-chalcone +LED), compared with the untreated control. Further, 2-chalcone in the dark and amphotericin B induced cell death by both apoptosis and necrosis, whereas 2-chalcone +LED only induced death by necrosis. *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001.

    Techniques Used:

    t rubrum strain atcc 28189  (ATCC)


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    ATCC t rubrum strain atcc 28189
    Electromicrographs of Trichophyton rubrum <t>ATCC</t> <t>28189</t> mature biofilms untreated (A–C) and treated with nonyl incorporated into the lipid nanosystem at a dose of 500 mg/L (D–F) . The incorporated nonyl caused an extravasation of cytoplasmic content resulting in collapse of the walls of the hyphae.
    T Rubrum Strain Atcc 28189, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    1) Product Images from "Incorporation of Nonyl 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoate Into Nanostructured Lipid Systems: Effective Alternative for Maintaining Anti-Dermatophytic and Antibiofilm Activities and Reducing Toxicity at High Concentrations"

    Article Title: Incorporation of Nonyl 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoate Into Nanostructured Lipid Systems: Effective Alternative for Maintaining Anti-Dermatophytic and Antibiofilm Activities and Reducing Toxicity at High Concentrations

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.01154

    Electromicrographs of Trichophyton rubrum ATCC 28189 mature biofilms untreated (A–C) and treated with nonyl incorporated into the lipid nanosystem at a dose of 500 mg/L (D–F) . The incorporated nonyl caused an extravasation of cytoplasmic content resulting in collapse of the walls of the hyphae.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Electromicrographs of Trichophyton rubrum ATCC 28189 mature biofilms untreated (A–C) and treated with nonyl incorporated into the lipid nanosystem at a dose of 500 mg/L (D–F) . The incorporated nonyl caused an extravasation of cytoplasmic content resulting in collapse of the walls of the hyphae.

    Techniques Used:

    Values of colony-forming units per mL (CFU/mL) recovered from mature biofilms formed by the strains of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and Trichophyton mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 treated with nonyl incorporated into the nanostructured lipid system (NLS). The treatment significantly reduced the colony-forming units when compared to the control without treatment (*** p < 0.0001).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Values of colony-forming units per mL (CFU/mL) recovered from mature biofilms formed by the strains of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and Trichophyton mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 treated with nonyl incorporated into the nanostructured lipid system (NLS). The treatment significantly reduced the colony-forming units when compared to the control without treatment (*** p < 0.0001).

    Techniques Used:

    reference strains t rubrum atcc 28189  (ATCC)


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    ATCC reference strains t rubrum atcc 28189
    Reference Strains T Rubrum Atcc 28189, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    strain t rubrum atcc 28189  (ATCC)


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    ATCC strain t rubrum atcc 28189
    Strain T Rubrum Atcc 28189, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    reference strains t rubrum atcc 28189  (ATCC)


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    ATCC reference strains t rubrum atcc 28189
    Reference Strains T Rubrum Atcc 28189, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC t rubrum atcc 28189 strain
    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .
    T Rubrum Atcc 28189 Strain, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC strains t rubrum atcc 28189
    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .
    Strains T Rubrum Atcc 28189, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    ATCC strain t rubrum atcc 28189
    Antifungal activity (expressed in mg/L) of 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole against dermatophyte species.
    Strain T Rubrum Atcc 28189, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/strain t rubrum atcc 28189/product/ATCC
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    ATCC t rubrum strain atcc 28189
    Electromicrographs of Trichophyton rubrum <t>ATCC</t> <t>28189</t> mature biofilms untreated (A–C) and treated with nonyl incorporated into the lipid nanosystem at a dose of 500 mg/L (D–F) . The incorporated nonyl caused an extravasation of cytoplasmic content resulting in collapse of the walls of the hyphae.
    T Rubrum Strain Atcc 28189, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC reference strains t rubrum atcc 28189
    Electromicrographs of Trichophyton rubrum <t>ATCC</t> <t>28189</t> mature biofilms untreated (A–C) and treated with nonyl incorporated into the lipid nanosystem at a dose of 500 mg/L (D–F) . The incorporated nonyl caused an extravasation of cytoplasmic content resulting in collapse of the walls of the hyphae.
    Reference Strains T Rubrum Atcc 28189, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/reference strains t rubrum atcc 28189/product/ATCC
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    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    reference strains t rubrum atcc 28189 - by Bioz Stars, 2024-02
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    Image Search Results


    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .

    Article Snippet: In contrast, most FLZ-treated cells remained alive because the T. rubrum ATCC 28189 strain was resistant to FLZ as shown in the susceptibility assay.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on mature biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured by the XTT reduction assay. Only 2-chalcone showed action against mature biofilms from a concentration of 31.2 mg/L. On the contrary, biofilms formed by all tested strains were resistant to the drugs terbinafine and fluconazole even at the highest concentrations (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.001). Tr- T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on mature biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured by the XTT reduction assay. Only 2-chalcone showed action against mature biofilms from a concentration of 31.2 mg/L. On the contrary, biofilms formed by all tested strains were resistant to the drugs terbinafine and fluconazole even at the highest concentrations (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.001). Tr- T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Article Snippet: In contrast, most FLZ-treated cells remained alive because the T. rubrum ATCC 28189 strain was resistant to FLZ as shown in the susceptibility assay.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on planktonic cells of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine were more potent against planktonic cells than fluconazole. The compounds 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole inhibited the cellular metabolic activity in the planktonic form at the concentration used for biofilm formation (10 6 cells/mL) of all strains tested, from the concentration of 15.6, 0.06, and 512 mg/L respectively. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on planktonic cells of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine were more potent against planktonic cells than fluconazole. The compounds 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole inhibited the cellular metabolic activity in the planktonic form at the concentration used for biofilm formation (10 6 cells/mL) of all strains tested, from the concentration of 15.6, 0.06, and 512 mg/L respectively. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Article Snippet: In contrast, most FLZ-treated cells remained alive because the T. rubrum ATCC 28189 strain was resistant to FLZ as shown in the susceptibility assay.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone-mediated PDT using LED irradiation at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 in planktonic cells (10 6 cell/mL) (A) , early-stage (B) , and mature biofilms (C) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, measured by the XTT reduction assay. Potentiation of 2-chalcone was shown when it was mediated PDT resulting in the inhibition of planktonic forms and biofilms (early-stage and mature) from 2, 4, and 7.8 mg/L. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001).

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone-mediated PDT using LED irradiation at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 in planktonic cells (10 6 cell/mL) (A) , early-stage (B) , and mature biofilms (C) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, measured by the XTT reduction assay. Potentiation of 2-chalcone was shown when it was mediated PDT resulting in the inhibition of planktonic forms and biofilms (early-stage and mature) from 2, 4, and 7.8 mg/L. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001).

    Article Snippet: In contrast, most FLZ-treated cells remained alive because the T. rubrum ATCC 28189 strain was resistant to FLZ as shown in the susceptibility assay.

    Techniques: Irradiation, Inhibition

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of early stage (A) and mature biofilms (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 untreated (a, c, e) and treated with 2-chalcone in the dark (b, d, f). The images of untreated biofilms show a robust biofilm, formed with the entanglement of integral hyphae and covered with a polymeric extracellular matrix (red arrows). Biofilms treated in the early-stage with 2-chalcone present a low density showing the action of 2-chalcone in inhibiting their maturation. In mature biofilms, as in the early-stage biofilms, 2-chalcone promoted total hyphal collapse (blue arrows).

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of early stage (A) and mature biofilms (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 untreated (a, c, e) and treated with 2-chalcone in the dark (b, d, f). The images of untreated biofilms show a robust biofilm, formed with the entanglement of integral hyphae and covered with a polymeric extracellular matrix (red arrows). Biofilms treated in the early-stage with 2-chalcone present a low density showing the action of 2-chalcone in inhibiting their maturation. In mature biofilms, as in the early-stage biofilms, 2-chalcone promoted total hyphal collapse (blue arrows).

    Article Snippet: In contrast, most FLZ-treated cells remained alive because the T. rubrum ATCC 28189 strain was resistant to FLZ as shown in the susceptibility assay.

    Techniques: Electron Microscopy

    Scanning electron microscopy images of mature T. rubrum ATCC 28189 biofilms treated with 2-chalcone combined with blue LED at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 (C, D) and irradiated only at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 without the photosensitizer (A, B) . The blue arrows indicate empty spaces within the biofilm showing that the biofilm had become less dense. The red arrows show collapsed hyphae.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy images of mature T. rubrum ATCC 28189 biofilms treated with 2-chalcone combined with blue LED at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 (C, D) and irradiated only at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 without the photosensitizer (A, B) . The blue arrows indicate empty spaces within the biofilm showing that the biofilm had become less dense. The red arrows show collapsed hyphae.

    Article Snippet: In contrast, most FLZ-treated cells remained alive because the T. rubrum ATCC 28189 strain was resistant to FLZ as shown in the susceptibility assay.

    Techniques: Electron Microscopy, Irradiation

    Values of IC 50 and selectivity index (SI) in HaCat cell monolayers treated with 2-chalcone in the dark and with photosensitization.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Values of IC 50 and selectivity index (SI) in HaCat cell monolayers treated with 2-chalcone in the dark and with photosensitization.

    Article Snippet: In contrast, most FLZ-treated cells remained alive because the T. rubrum ATCC 28189 strain was resistant to FLZ as shown in the susceptibility assay.

    Techniques:

    The amount of extracted ergosterol (A) and confocal laser scanning microscopy images (CLSM) (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 treated with 2-chalcone, fluconazole, and amphotericin B. The ergosterol quantification graph shows that treatments with 2-chalcone in the dark and 2-chalcone-mediated PDT reduced the amount of sterols extracted, suggesting that this molecule may have an action on ergosterol or its synthesis chain. Amphotericin B and fluconazole also reduced the amount of steroids extracted, proving their direct action and on the synthesis chain, respectively. In CLSM images, the cell wall is stained with calcofluor white. Cells treated with 2-chalcone showed changes in the cell wall with compromised structure. However, cells treated with fluconazole showed cell wall integrity. **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The amount of extracted ergosterol (A) and confocal laser scanning microscopy images (CLSM) (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 treated with 2-chalcone, fluconazole, and amphotericin B. The ergosterol quantification graph shows that treatments with 2-chalcone in the dark and 2-chalcone-mediated PDT reduced the amount of sterols extracted, suggesting that this molecule may have an action on ergosterol or its synthesis chain. Amphotericin B and fluconazole also reduced the amount of steroids extracted, proving their direct action and on the synthesis chain, respectively. In CLSM images, the cell wall is stained with calcofluor white. Cells treated with 2-chalcone showed changes in the cell wall with compromised structure. However, cells treated with fluconazole showed cell wall integrity. **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.

    Article Snippet: In contrast, most FLZ-treated cells remained alive because the T. rubrum ATCC 28189 strain was resistant to FLZ as shown in the susceptibility assay.

    Techniques: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining

    Measurement of ROS production after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and mediated PDT (2-chalcone + LED). The compounds amphotericin B, hydrogen peroxide, and 2-chalcone in the dark induced ROS formation when compared to the control without treatment in the dark. Treatment with 2-chalcone-mediated PDT did not induce ROS formation when compared to the control + LED. ***p <0.001.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Measurement of ROS production after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and mediated PDT (2-chalcone + LED). The compounds amphotericin B, hydrogen peroxide, and 2-chalcone in the dark induced ROS formation when compared to the control without treatment in the dark. Treatment with 2-chalcone-mediated PDT did not induce ROS formation when compared to the control + LED. ***p <0.001.

    Article Snippet: In contrast, most FLZ-treated cells remained alive because the T. rubrum ATCC 28189 strain was resistant to FLZ as shown in the susceptibility assay.

    Techniques:

    Mechanism of death due to apoptosis (A) and necrosis (B) induced after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and with 2-chalcone mediated PDT (2-chalcone +LED), compared with the untreated control. Further, 2-chalcone in the dark and amphotericin B induced cell death by both apoptosis and necrosis, whereas 2-chalcone +LED only induced death by necrosis. *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mechanism of death due to apoptosis (A) and necrosis (B) induced after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and with 2-chalcone mediated PDT (2-chalcone +LED), compared with the untreated control. Further, 2-chalcone in the dark and amphotericin B induced cell death by both apoptosis and necrosis, whereas 2-chalcone +LED only induced death by necrosis. *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001.

    Article Snippet: In contrast, most FLZ-treated cells remained alive because the T. rubrum ATCC 28189 strain was resistant to FLZ as shown in the susceptibility assay.

    Techniques:

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .

    Article Snippet: The photodynamic therapy assay was applied using 2-chalcone as a photosensitizer against planktonic cells (10 6 cells/mL) and against early-stage and mature biofilms of the strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on mature biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured by the XTT reduction assay. Only 2-chalcone showed action against mature biofilms from a concentration of 31.2 mg/L. On the contrary, biofilms formed by all tested strains were resistant to the drugs terbinafine and fluconazole even at the highest concentrations (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.001). Tr- T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on mature biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured by the XTT reduction assay. Only 2-chalcone showed action against mature biofilms from a concentration of 31.2 mg/L. On the contrary, biofilms formed by all tested strains were resistant to the drugs terbinafine and fluconazole even at the highest concentrations (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.001). Tr- T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Article Snippet: The photodynamic therapy assay was applied using 2-chalcone as a photosensitizer against planktonic cells (10 6 cells/mL) and against early-stage and mature biofilms of the strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on planktonic cells of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine were more potent against planktonic cells than fluconazole. The compounds 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole inhibited the cellular metabolic activity in the planktonic form at the concentration used for biofilm formation (10 6 cells/mL) of all strains tested, from the concentration of 15.6, 0.06, and 512 mg/L respectively. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on planktonic cells of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine were more potent against planktonic cells than fluconazole. The compounds 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole inhibited the cellular metabolic activity in the planktonic form at the concentration used for biofilm formation (10 6 cells/mL) of all strains tested, from the concentration of 15.6, 0.06, and 512 mg/L respectively. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Article Snippet: The photodynamic therapy assay was applied using 2-chalcone as a photosensitizer against planktonic cells (10 6 cells/mL) and against early-stage and mature biofilms of the strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone-mediated PDT using LED irradiation at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 in planktonic cells (10 6 cell/mL) (A) , early-stage (B) , and mature biofilms (C) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, measured by the XTT reduction assay. Potentiation of 2-chalcone was shown when it was mediated PDT resulting in the inhibition of planktonic forms and biofilms (early-stage and mature) from 2, 4, and 7.8 mg/L. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001).

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone-mediated PDT using LED irradiation at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 in planktonic cells (10 6 cell/mL) (A) , early-stage (B) , and mature biofilms (C) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, measured by the XTT reduction assay. Potentiation of 2-chalcone was shown when it was mediated PDT resulting in the inhibition of planktonic forms and biofilms (early-stage and mature) from 2, 4, and 7.8 mg/L. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001).

    Article Snippet: The photodynamic therapy assay was applied using 2-chalcone as a photosensitizer against planktonic cells (10 6 cells/mL) and against early-stage and mature biofilms of the strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438.

    Techniques: Irradiation, Inhibition

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of early stage (A) and mature biofilms (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 untreated (a, c, e) and treated with 2-chalcone in the dark (b, d, f). The images of untreated biofilms show a robust biofilm, formed with the entanglement of integral hyphae and covered with a polymeric extracellular matrix (red arrows). Biofilms treated in the early-stage with 2-chalcone present a low density showing the action of 2-chalcone in inhibiting their maturation. In mature biofilms, as in the early-stage biofilms, 2-chalcone promoted total hyphal collapse (blue arrows).

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of early stage (A) and mature biofilms (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 untreated (a, c, e) and treated with 2-chalcone in the dark (b, d, f). The images of untreated biofilms show a robust biofilm, formed with the entanglement of integral hyphae and covered with a polymeric extracellular matrix (red arrows). Biofilms treated in the early-stage with 2-chalcone present a low density showing the action of 2-chalcone in inhibiting their maturation. In mature biofilms, as in the early-stage biofilms, 2-chalcone promoted total hyphal collapse (blue arrows).

    Article Snippet: The photodynamic therapy assay was applied using 2-chalcone as a photosensitizer against planktonic cells (10 6 cells/mL) and against early-stage and mature biofilms of the strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438.

    Techniques: Electron Microscopy

    Scanning electron microscopy images of mature T. rubrum ATCC 28189 biofilms treated with 2-chalcone combined with blue LED at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 (C, D) and irradiated only at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 without the photosensitizer (A, B) . The blue arrows indicate empty spaces within the biofilm showing that the biofilm had become less dense. The red arrows show collapsed hyphae.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy images of mature T. rubrum ATCC 28189 biofilms treated with 2-chalcone combined with blue LED at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 (C, D) and irradiated only at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 without the photosensitizer (A, B) . The blue arrows indicate empty spaces within the biofilm showing that the biofilm had become less dense. The red arrows show collapsed hyphae.

    Article Snippet: The photodynamic therapy assay was applied using 2-chalcone as a photosensitizer against planktonic cells (10 6 cells/mL) and against early-stage and mature biofilms of the strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438.

    Techniques: Electron Microscopy, Irradiation

    Values of IC 50 and selectivity index (SI) in HaCat cell monolayers treated with 2-chalcone in the dark and with photosensitization.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Values of IC 50 and selectivity index (SI) in HaCat cell monolayers treated with 2-chalcone in the dark and with photosensitization.

    Article Snippet: The photodynamic therapy assay was applied using 2-chalcone as a photosensitizer against planktonic cells (10 6 cells/mL) and against early-stage and mature biofilms of the strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438.

    Techniques:

    The amount of extracted ergosterol (A) and confocal laser scanning microscopy images (CLSM) (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 treated with 2-chalcone, fluconazole, and amphotericin B. The ergosterol quantification graph shows that treatments with 2-chalcone in the dark and 2-chalcone-mediated PDT reduced the amount of sterols extracted, suggesting that this molecule may have an action on ergosterol or its synthesis chain. Amphotericin B and fluconazole also reduced the amount of steroids extracted, proving their direct action and on the synthesis chain, respectively. In CLSM images, the cell wall is stained with calcofluor white. Cells treated with 2-chalcone showed changes in the cell wall with compromised structure. However, cells treated with fluconazole showed cell wall integrity. **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The amount of extracted ergosterol (A) and confocal laser scanning microscopy images (CLSM) (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 treated with 2-chalcone, fluconazole, and amphotericin B. The ergosterol quantification graph shows that treatments with 2-chalcone in the dark and 2-chalcone-mediated PDT reduced the amount of sterols extracted, suggesting that this molecule may have an action on ergosterol or its synthesis chain. Amphotericin B and fluconazole also reduced the amount of steroids extracted, proving their direct action and on the synthesis chain, respectively. In CLSM images, the cell wall is stained with calcofluor white. Cells treated with 2-chalcone showed changes in the cell wall with compromised structure. However, cells treated with fluconazole showed cell wall integrity. **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.

    Article Snippet: The photodynamic therapy assay was applied using 2-chalcone as a photosensitizer against planktonic cells (10 6 cells/mL) and against early-stage and mature biofilms of the strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438.

    Techniques: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining

    Measurement of ROS production after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and mediated PDT (2-chalcone + LED). The compounds amphotericin B, hydrogen peroxide, and 2-chalcone in the dark induced ROS formation when compared to the control without treatment in the dark. Treatment with 2-chalcone-mediated PDT did not induce ROS formation when compared to the control + LED. ***p <0.001.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Measurement of ROS production after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and mediated PDT (2-chalcone + LED). The compounds amphotericin B, hydrogen peroxide, and 2-chalcone in the dark induced ROS formation when compared to the control without treatment in the dark. Treatment with 2-chalcone-mediated PDT did not induce ROS formation when compared to the control + LED. ***p <0.001.

    Article Snippet: The photodynamic therapy assay was applied using 2-chalcone as a photosensitizer against planktonic cells (10 6 cells/mL) and against early-stage and mature biofilms of the strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438.

    Techniques:

    Mechanism of death due to apoptosis (A) and necrosis (B) induced after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and with 2-chalcone mediated PDT (2-chalcone +LED), compared with the untreated control. Further, 2-chalcone in the dark and amphotericin B induced cell death by both apoptosis and necrosis, whereas 2-chalcone +LED only induced death by necrosis. *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mechanism of death due to apoptosis (A) and necrosis (B) induced after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and with 2-chalcone mediated PDT (2-chalcone +LED), compared with the untreated control. Further, 2-chalcone in the dark and amphotericin B induced cell death by both apoptosis and necrosis, whereas 2-chalcone +LED only induced death by necrosis. *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001.

    Article Snippet: The photodynamic therapy assay was applied using 2-chalcone as a photosensitizer against planktonic cells (10 6 cells/mL) and against early-stage and mature biofilms of the strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438.

    Techniques:

    Antifungal activity (expressed in mg/L) of 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole against dermatophyte species.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Antifungal activity (expressed in mg/L) of 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole against dermatophyte species.

    Article Snippet: The strain T. rubrum ATCC 28189 demonstrated resistance to FLZ even in the planktonic form as described previously ( ).

    Techniques: Activity Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on early-stage biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine inhibited the metabolic activity of early-stage biofilms from the concentrations of 15.6 and 32 mg/L in all strains tested. Biofilms formed by both the T. rubrum strains conferred resistance to fluconazole at all concentrations tested. Biofilms of the T. mentagrophytes strain were inhibited from the concentration of 64 mg/L (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum ; Tm, T. mentagrophytes .

    Article Snippet: The strain T. rubrum ATCC 28189 demonstrated resistance to FLZ even in the planktonic form as described previously ( ).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on mature biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured by the XTT reduction assay. Only 2-chalcone showed action against mature biofilms from a concentration of 31.2 mg/L. On the contrary, biofilms formed by all tested strains were resistant to the drugs terbinafine and fluconazole even at the highest concentrations (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.001). Tr- T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on mature biofilms of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured by the XTT reduction assay. Only 2-chalcone showed action against mature biofilms from a concentration of 31.2 mg/L. On the contrary, biofilms formed by all tested strains were resistant to the drugs terbinafine and fluconazole even at the highest concentrations (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.001). Tr- T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Article Snippet: The strain T. rubrum ATCC 28189 demonstrated resistance to FLZ even in the planktonic form as described previously ( ).

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on planktonic cells of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine were more potent against planktonic cells than fluconazole. The compounds 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole inhibited the cellular metabolic activity in the planktonic form at the concentration used for biofilm formation (10 6 cells/mL) of all strains tested, from the concentration of 15.6, 0.06, and 512 mg/L respectively. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone (A) , terbinafine (B) , and fluconazole (C) on planktonic cells of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 measured using the XTT reduction assay. The compounds 2-chalcone and terbinafine were more potent against planktonic cells than fluconazole. The compounds 2-chalcone, terbinafine, and fluconazole inhibited the cellular metabolic activity in the planktonic form at the concentration used for biofilm formation (10 6 cells/mL) of all strains tested, from the concentration of 15.6, 0.06, and 512 mg/L respectively. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001). Tr, T. rubrum , Tm- T. mentagrophytes .

    Article Snippet: The strain T. rubrum ATCC 28189 demonstrated resistance to FLZ even in the planktonic form as described previously ( ).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay

    Effect of 2-chalcone-mediated PDT using LED irradiation at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 in planktonic cells (10 6 cell/mL) (A) , early-stage (B) , and mature biofilms (C) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, measured by the XTT reduction assay. Potentiation of 2-chalcone was shown when it was mediated PDT resulting in the inhibition of planktonic forms and biofilms (early-stage and mature) from 2, 4, and 7.8 mg/L. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001).

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of 2-chalcone-mediated PDT using LED irradiation at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 in planktonic cells (10 6 cell/mL) (A) , early-stage (B) , and mature biofilms (C) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, measured by the XTT reduction assay. Potentiation of 2-chalcone was shown when it was mediated PDT resulting in the inhibition of planktonic forms and biofilms (early-stage and mature) from 2, 4, and 7.8 mg/L. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001).

    Article Snippet: The strain T. rubrum ATCC 28189 demonstrated resistance to FLZ even in the planktonic form as described previously ( ).

    Techniques: Irradiation, Inhibition

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of early stage (A) and mature biofilms (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 untreated (a, c, e) and treated with 2-chalcone in the dark (b, d, f). The images of untreated biofilms show a robust biofilm, formed with the entanglement of integral hyphae and covered with a polymeric extracellular matrix (red arrows). Biofilms treated in the early-stage with 2-chalcone present a low density showing the action of 2-chalcone in inhibiting their maturation. In mature biofilms, as in the early-stage biofilms, 2-chalcone promoted total hyphal collapse (blue arrows).

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of early stage (A) and mature biofilms (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189, T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438, and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 untreated (a, c, e) and treated with 2-chalcone in the dark (b, d, f). The images of untreated biofilms show a robust biofilm, formed with the entanglement of integral hyphae and covered with a polymeric extracellular matrix (red arrows). Biofilms treated in the early-stage with 2-chalcone present a low density showing the action of 2-chalcone in inhibiting their maturation. In mature biofilms, as in the early-stage biofilms, 2-chalcone promoted total hyphal collapse (blue arrows).

    Article Snippet: The strain T. rubrum ATCC 28189 demonstrated resistance to FLZ even in the planktonic form as described previously ( ).

    Techniques: Electron Microscopy

    Scanning electron microscopy images of mature T. rubrum ATCC 28189 biofilms treated with 2-chalcone combined with blue LED at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 (C, D) and irradiated only at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 without the photosensitizer (A, B) . The blue arrows indicate empty spaces within the biofilm showing that the biofilm had become less dense. The red arrows show collapsed hyphae.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy images of mature T. rubrum ATCC 28189 biofilms treated with 2-chalcone combined with blue LED at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 (C, D) and irradiated only at a dose of 150 J/cm 2 without the photosensitizer (A, B) . The blue arrows indicate empty spaces within the biofilm showing that the biofilm had become less dense. The red arrows show collapsed hyphae.

    Article Snippet: The strain T. rubrum ATCC 28189 demonstrated resistance to FLZ even in the planktonic form as described previously ( ).

    Techniques: Electron Microscopy, Irradiation

    Values of IC 50 and selectivity index (SI) in HaCat cell monolayers treated with 2-chalcone in the dark and with photosensitization.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Values of IC 50 and selectivity index (SI) in HaCat cell monolayers treated with 2-chalcone in the dark and with photosensitization.

    Article Snippet: The strain T. rubrum ATCC 28189 demonstrated resistance to FLZ even in the planktonic form as described previously ( ).

    Techniques:

    The amount of extracted ergosterol (A) and confocal laser scanning microscopy images (CLSM) (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 treated with 2-chalcone, fluconazole, and amphotericin B. The ergosterol quantification graph shows that treatments with 2-chalcone in the dark and 2-chalcone-mediated PDT reduced the amount of sterols extracted, suggesting that this molecule may have an action on ergosterol or its synthesis chain. Amphotericin B and fluconazole also reduced the amount of steroids extracted, proving their direct action and on the synthesis chain, respectively. In CLSM images, the cell wall is stained with calcofluor white. Cells treated with 2-chalcone showed changes in the cell wall with compromised structure. However, cells treated with fluconazole showed cell wall integrity. **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The amount of extracted ergosterol (A) and confocal laser scanning microscopy images (CLSM) (B) of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 treated with 2-chalcone, fluconazole, and amphotericin B. The ergosterol quantification graph shows that treatments with 2-chalcone in the dark and 2-chalcone-mediated PDT reduced the amount of sterols extracted, suggesting that this molecule may have an action on ergosterol or its synthesis chain. Amphotericin B and fluconazole also reduced the amount of steroids extracted, proving their direct action and on the synthesis chain, respectively. In CLSM images, the cell wall is stained with calcofluor white. Cells treated with 2-chalcone showed changes in the cell wall with compromised structure. However, cells treated with fluconazole showed cell wall integrity. **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.

    Article Snippet: The strain T. rubrum ATCC 28189 demonstrated resistance to FLZ even in the planktonic form as described previously ( ).

    Techniques: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining

    Measurement of ROS production after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and mediated PDT (2-chalcone + LED). The compounds amphotericin B, hydrogen peroxide, and 2-chalcone in the dark induced ROS formation when compared to the control without treatment in the dark. Treatment with 2-chalcone-mediated PDT did not induce ROS formation when compared to the control + LED. ***p <0.001.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Measurement of ROS production after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and mediated PDT (2-chalcone + LED). The compounds amphotericin B, hydrogen peroxide, and 2-chalcone in the dark induced ROS formation when compared to the control without treatment in the dark. Treatment with 2-chalcone-mediated PDT did not induce ROS formation when compared to the control + LED. ***p <0.001.

    Article Snippet: The strain T. rubrum ATCC 28189 demonstrated resistance to FLZ even in the planktonic form as described previously ( ).

    Techniques:

    Mechanism of death due to apoptosis (A) and necrosis (B) induced after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and with 2-chalcone mediated PDT (2-chalcone +LED), compared with the untreated control. Further, 2-chalcone in the dark and amphotericin B induced cell death by both apoptosis and necrosis, whereas 2-chalcone +LED only induced death by necrosis. *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: 2-Hydroxychalcone as a Potent Compound and Photosensitizer Against Dermatophyte Biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.679470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mechanism of death due to apoptosis (A) and necrosis (B) induced after treatment of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 with 2-chalcone in the dark and with 2-chalcone mediated PDT (2-chalcone +LED), compared with the untreated control. Further, 2-chalcone in the dark and amphotericin B induced cell death by both apoptosis and necrosis, whereas 2-chalcone +LED only induced death by necrosis. *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001.

    Article Snippet: The strain T. rubrum ATCC 28189 demonstrated resistance to FLZ even in the planktonic form as described previously ( ).

    Techniques:

    Electromicrographs of Trichophyton rubrum ATCC 28189 mature biofilms untreated (A–C) and treated with nonyl incorporated into the lipid nanosystem at a dose of 500 mg/L (D–F) . The incorporated nonyl caused an extravasation of cytoplasmic content resulting in collapse of the walls of the hyphae.

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Incorporation of Nonyl 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoate Into Nanostructured Lipid Systems: Effective Alternative for Maintaining Anti-Dermatophytic and Antibiofilm Activities and Reducing Toxicity at High Concentrations

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.01154

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Electromicrographs of Trichophyton rubrum ATCC 28189 mature biofilms untreated (A–C) and treated with nonyl incorporated into the lipid nanosystem at a dose of 500 mg/L (D–F) . The incorporated nonyl caused an extravasation of cytoplasmic content resulting in collapse of the walls of the hyphae.

    Article Snippet: The mature biofilms of the T. rubrum strain ATCC 28189 were formed according to item 2.8, but in 24-well plates.

    Techniques:

    Values of colony-forming units per mL (CFU/mL) recovered from mature biofilms formed by the strains of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and Trichophyton mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 treated with nonyl incorporated into the nanostructured lipid system (NLS). The treatment significantly reduced the colony-forming units when compared to the control without treatment (*** p < 0.0001).

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Incorporation of Nonyl 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoate Into Nanostructured Lipid Systems: Effective Alternative for Maintaining Anti-Dermatophytic and Antibiofilm Activities and Reducing Toxicity at High Concentrations

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.01154

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Values of colony-forming units per mL (CFU/mL) recovered from mature biofilms formed by the strains of T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and Trichophyton mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 treated with nonyl incorporated into the nanostructured lipid system (NLS). The treatment significantly reduced the colony-forming units when compared to the control without treatment (*** p < 0.0001).

    Article Snippet: The mature biofilms of the T. rubrum strain ATCC 28189 were formed according to item 2.8, but in 24-well plates.

    Techniques: