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Difco sodium deoxycholic acid
Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium <t>deoxycholic</t> acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.
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1) Product Images from "Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists"

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

(a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

Techniques Used: Injection

Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

Techniques Used: Permeability, Mouse Assay, Injection

Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.
Figure Legend Snippet: Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

2) Product Images from "Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists"

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

(a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

Techniques Used: Injection

Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

Techniques Used: Permeability, Mouse Assay, Injection

Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.
Figure Legend Snippet: Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

3) Product Images from "Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists"

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

(a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

Techniques Used: Injection

Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

Techniques Used: Permeability, Mouse Assay, Injection

Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.
Figure Legend Snippet: Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

4) Product Images from "Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists"

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

(a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

Techniques Used: Injection

Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

Techniques Used: Permeability, Mouse Assay, Injection

Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.
Figure Legend Snippet: Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

5) Product Images from "Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists"

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

(a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

Techniques Used: Injection

Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

Techniques Used: Permeability, Mouse Assay, Injection

Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.
Figure Legend Snippet: Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

6) Product Images from "Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists"

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

(a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

Techniques Used: Injection

Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

Techniques Used: Permeability, Mouse Assay, Injection

Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.
Figure Legend Snippet: Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

7) Product Images from "Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists"

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

(a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

Techniques Used: Injection

Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

Techniques Used: Permeability, Mouse Assay, Injection

Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.
Figure Legend Snippet: Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

8) Product Images from "Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists"

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

(a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

Techniques Used: Injection

Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

Techniques Used: Permeability, Mouse Assay, Injection

Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.
Figure Legend Snippet: Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

9) Product Images from "Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists"

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

(a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

Techniques Used: Injection

Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

Techniques Used: Permeability, Mouse Assay, Injection

Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.
Figure Legend Snippet: Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

10) Product Images from "Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists"

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

(a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

Techniques Used: Injection

Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

Techniques Used: Permeability, Mouse Assay, Injection

Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.
Figure Legend Snippet: Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

11) Product Images from "Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists"

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

(a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

Techniques Used: Injection

Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

Techniques Used: Permeability, Mouse Assay, Injection

Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.
Figure Legend Snippet: Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

12) Product Images from "Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists"

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

(a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

Techniques Used: Injection

Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

Techniques Used: Permeability, Mouse Assay, Injection

Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.
Figure Legend Snippet: Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

13) Product Images from "Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists"

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

(a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

Techniques Used: Injection

Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

Techniques Used: Permeability, Mouse Assay, Injection

Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.
Figure Legend Snippet: Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

14) Product Images from "Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists"

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

(a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

Techniques Used: Injection

Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

Techniques Used: Permeability, Mouse Assay, Injection

Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.
Figure Legend Snippet: Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

15) Product Images from "Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists"

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

(a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

Techniques Used: Injection

Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

Techniques Used: Permeability, Mouse Assay, Injection

Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.
Figure Legend Snippet: Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

16) Product Images from "Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists"

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

(a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

Techniques Used: Injection

Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

Techniques Used: Permeability, Mouse Assay, Injection

Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.
Figure Legend Snippet: Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

17) Product Images from "Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists"

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

(a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

Techniques Used: Injection

Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

Techniques Used: Permeability, Mouse Assay, Injection

Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.
Figure Legend Snippet: Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

18) Product Images from "Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists"

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

(a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

Techniques Used: Injection

Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

Techniques Used: Permeability, Mouse Assay, Injection

Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.
Figure Legend Snippet: Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

19) Product Images from "Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists"

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

(a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

Techniques Used: Injection

Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

Techniques Used: Permeability, Mouse Assay, Injection

Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.
Figure Legend Snippet: Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

20) Product Images from "Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists"

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

(a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

Techniques Used: Injection

Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

Techniques Used: Permeability, Mouse Assay, Injection

Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.
Figure Legend Snippet: Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

21) Product Images from "Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists"

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

(a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

Techniques Used: Injection

Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

Techniques Used: Permeability, Mouse Assay, Injection

Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.
Figure Legend Snippet: Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

22) Product Images from "Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists"

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

(a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

Techniques Used: Injection

Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

Techniques Used: Permeability, Mouse Assay, Injection

Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.
Figure Legend Snippet: Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

23) Product Images from "Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists"

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

(a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

Techniques Used: Injection

Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

Techniques Used: Permeability, Mouse Assay, Injection

Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.
Figure Legend Snippet: Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

24) Product Images from "Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists"

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

(a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

Techniques Used: Injection

Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

Techniques Used: Permeability, Mouse Assay, Injection

Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.
Figure Legend Snippet: Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

25) Product Images from "Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists"

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

(a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

Techniques Used: Injection

Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

Techniques Used: Permeability, Mouse Assay, Injection

Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.
Figure Legend Snippet: Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

26) Product Images from "Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists"

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

(a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

Techniques Used: Injection

Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

Techniques Used: Permeability, Mouse Assay, Injection

Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.
Figure Legend Snippet: Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

27) Product Images from "Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists"

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

(a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

Techniques Used: Injection

Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

Techniques Used: Permeability, Mouse Assay, Injection

Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.
Figure Legend Snippet: Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

28) Product Images from "Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists"

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

(a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

Techniques Used: Injection

Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

Techniques Used: Permeability, Mouse Assay, Injection

Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.
Figure Legend Snippet: Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

29) Product Images from "Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists"

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

(a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

Techniques Used: Injection

Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

Techniques Used: Permeability, Mouse Assay, Injection

Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.
Figure Legend Snippet: Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

30) Product Images from "Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists"

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

(a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

Techniques Used: Injection

Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

Techniques Used: Permeability, Mouse Assay, Injection

Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.
Figure Legend Snippet: Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

Related Articles

Injection:

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists
Article Snippet: Whereas the amounts of kinin released from the higher molecular weight fractions in the skin injected with sodium deoxycholic acid were almost the same as those in the skin injected with saline, the amount of kinin release from lower molecular weight fractions was markedly less for the skin injected with sodium deoxycholic acid than for that injected with saline. .. Subcutaneous injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid into the anterior of the back of Brown Norway Kitasato rats also resulted in scratching behaviour similar to that in mice ( ). ..

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists
Article Snippet: The concentrations of sodium deoxycholic acid which induced scratching corre-spond well with the concentrations at which purified bile salts were effective in producing pruritus in humans ( ). .. In the present model, s.c. injection of up to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid did not cause a significant increase in vascular permeability though 300 μg and greater did. .. Up to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid had almost no effect on plasma extravasation, suggesting that the contribution of plasma proteins to the scratching behaviour is very small.

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists
Article Snippet: .. Firstly, as mentioned above, up to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid did not induce a significant increase in vascular permeability when subcutaneously injected. .. Because of less plasma leakage into the injected site, activation of the plasma kallikrein-kinin system at the site is unlikely.

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists
Article Snippet: Much more kinin was released from the lower molecular weight fractions than from the higher molecular weight fractions. .. Also, in a chromatogram of the extract of the skin injection with sodium deoxycholic acid, kinin release was again detected in two categories, fractions with higher, and those with lower molecular weights ( ). .. Whereas the amounts of kinin released from the higher molecular weight fractions in the skin injected with sodium deoxycholic acid were almost the same as those in the skin injected with saline, the amount of kinin release from lower molecular weight fractions was markedly less for the skin injected with sodium deoxycholic acid than for that injected with saline.

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists
Article Snippet: .. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site−1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site−1 ) was dissolved in a solution of sodium deoxycholic acid (0.3 mg ml−1 ), and 100 μ1 of the mixture was injected locally. .. The doses of both kininase inhibitors were enough to potentiate an effect of BK, since a vascular permeability increased by s.c. injection of BK (0.1 nmol site−1 ) into mice was significantly enhanced by co-injections of those kininase inhibitors locally.

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists
Article Snippet: Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using a BK enzyme immunoassay kit, Markit-M Bradykinin (Dainippon Pharmaceutical Corp., Osaka, Japan) ( ). .. Mice were injected subcutaneously with 100 μl of sodium deoxycholic acid (1 mg ml−1 ) or 100 μl of saline as vehicle control in the dorsal skin. .. At 60 min after the injection, the mice were sacrificed and ten pieces of skin, each 5 mm in diameter, were excised from the injection sites.

Mouse Assay:

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists
Article Snippet: Whereas the amounts of kinin released from the higher molecular weight fractions in the skin injected with sodium deoxycholic acid were almost the same as those in the skin injected with saline, the amount of kinin release from lower molecular weight fractions was markedly less for the skin injected with sodium deoxycholic acid than for that injected with saline. .. Subcutaneous injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid into the anterior of the back of Brown Norway Kitasato rats also resulted in scratching behaviour similar to that in mice ( ). ..

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists
Article Snippet: Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using a BK enzyme immunoassay kit, Markit-M Bradykinin (Dainippon Pharmaceutical Corp., Osaka, Japan) ( ). .. Mice were injected subcutaneously with 100 μl of sodium deoxycholic acid (1 mg ml−1 ) or 100 μl of saline as vehicle control in the dorsal skin. .. At 60 min after the injection, the mice were sacrificed and ten pieces of skin, each 5 mm in diameter, were excised from the injection sites.

Permeability:

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists
Article Snippet: The concentrations of sodium deoxycholic acid which induced scratching corre-spond well with the concentrations at which purified bile salts were effective in producing pruritus in humans ( ). .. In the present model, s.c. injection of up to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid did not cause a significant increase in vascular permeability though 300 μg and greater did. .. Up to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid had almost no effect on plasma extravasation, suggesting that the contribution of plasma proteins to the scratching behaviour is very small.

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists
Article Snippet: .. Firstly, as mentioned above, up to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid did not induce a significant increase in vascular permeability when subcutaneously injected. .. Because of less plasma leakage into the injected site, activation of the plasma kallikrein-kinin system at the site is unlikely.

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists
Article Snippet: These effects of sodium deoxycholic acid on the scratching were significant ( P < 0.05 for 30 μg, P < 0.01 for 100 μg) when compared with saline alone. .. Doses between 10 and 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid did not induce a significant increase in vascular permeability , but 300 μg or more of it did increase vascular permeability ( P < 0.01). ..

other:

Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists
Article Snippet: These effects of sodium deoxycholic acid on the scratching were significant ( P < 0.05 for 30 μg, P < 0.01 for 100 μg) when compared with saline alone.

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    Difco sodium deoxycholic acid
    Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium <t>deoxycholic</t> acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.
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    Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

    Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

    Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

    doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

    Article Snippet: Following a subcutaneous injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid into the anterior part of the backs of ddY mice, scratching behaviour was first observed within a few minutes after the injection ( ).

    Techniques: Injection, Mouse Assay

    (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

    Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

    Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

    doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

    Article Snippet: Following a subcutaneous injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid into the anterior part of the backs of ddY mice, scratching behaviour was first observed within a few minutes after the injection ( ).

    Techniques: Injection, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

    Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

    Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

    doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

    Article Snippet: Following a subcutaneous injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid into the anterior part of the backs of ddY mice, scratching behaviour was first observed within a few minutes after the injection ( ).

    Techniques: Injection, Mouse Assay

    Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

    Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

    Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

    doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

    Article Snippet: Following a subcutaneous injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid into the anterior part of the backs of ddY mice, scratching behaviour was first observed within a few minutes after the injection ( ).

    Techniques: Injection

    Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

    Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

    Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

    doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

    Article Snippet: Following a subcutaneous injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid into the anterior part of the backs of ddY mice, scratching behaviour was first observed within a few minutes after the injection ( ).

    Techniques: Permeability, Mouse Assay, Injection

    Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

    Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

    Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

    doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

    Article Snippet: Following a subcutaneous injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid into the anterior part of the backs of ddY mice, scratching behaviour was first observed within a few minutes after the injection ( ).

    Techniques: Injection, Mouse Assay

    Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

    Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

    Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

    doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

    Article Snippet: Following a subcutaneous injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid into the anterior part of the backs of ddY mice, scratching behaviour was first observed within a few minutes after the injection ( ).

    Techniques: Injection, Mouse Assay