sodium deoxycholate  (Thermo Fisher)


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    Name:
    Sodium Deoxycholate Detergent
    Description:
    Thermo Scientific Sodium Deoxycholate is an ionic detergent that is especially useful for disrupting and dissociating protein interactions Features of Sodium Deoxycholate • Popular anionic bile acid detergent for many laboratory uses • Effective in disrupting and dissociating many types of protein interaction • Can be removed from solution by dialysis • Useful for elution or regeneration of certain kinds of affinity columns • High purity compound with low UV absorptivity Properties of Sodium Deoxycholate • Alternative Names Sodium deoxycholic acid deoxycholate sodium salt • Chemical Name 3 12 α Dihydroxy 5β cholan 24 oic acid monosodium salt • Molecular Weight 414 6g • Detergent Class Ionic anionic • Aggregation Number 5 average • Micelle Molecular Weight 2000g average • Critical Micelle Concentration CMC 2 to 6 mM 0 083 to 0 249 w v • Cloud Point Unknown • Dialyzable Yes Specifications for Sodium Deoxycholate Part No 89904 89905 • Formula C24H39O4Na • Molecular Weight 414 6g • Purity by HPLC 98 • Absorbance 1 Detergent Solution 340nm 0 02 280nm 0 04 260nm 0 06 • pH 1 Solution 5 to 9 • Solubility in water at 20°C 5 Sodium deoxycholate deoxycholic acid is a water soluble bile acid ionic detergent commonly used in protein methods It is most frequently used as a component of cell lysis buffers e g RIPA buffer but also has been used for liposome preparation isolation of membrane proteins and lipids preventing non specific binding in affinity chromatography and a cell culture media supplement The effectiveness of a detergent in any application depend upon the detergent s concentration Too much or too little detergent can often have a deleterious effect It is recommended that you examine a variety of detergent concentrations in your application At concentrations above 2 mM cholate will form micelles having MW 2000 The small micelle size allows easy removal by dialysis or gel filtration when needed Note removal of a detergent from a protein solution may result in protein precipitation and or aggregation Sodium deoxycholate is the detergent recommended for stripping endotoxin Lipopolysaccharide or LPS from immobilized Polymyxin B columns This is the recommended product for use with the Thermo Scientific Detoxi Gel Endotoxin Removing Gel Related Products Surfact Amps Detergent Sampler
    Catalog Number:
    89904
    Price:
    None
    Category:
    Lab Reagents and Chemicals
    Applications:
    Cell Lysis & Fractionation|Detergents for Protein Solubilization|Protein Biology|Protein Purification & Isolation
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    Structured Review

    Thermo Fisher sodium deoxycholate
    Thermo Scientific Sodium Deoxycholate is an ionic detergent that is especially useful for disrupting and dissociating protein interactions Features of Sodium Deoxycholate • Popular anionic bile acid detergent for many laboratory uses • Effective in disrupting and dissociating many types of protein interaction • Can be removed from solution by dialysis • Useful for elution or regeneration of certain kinds of affinity columns • High purity compound with low UV absorptivity Properties of Sodium Deoxycholate • Alternative Names Sodium deoxycholic acid deoxycholate sodium salt • Chemical Name 3 12 α Dihydroxy 5β cholan 24 oic acid monosodium salt • Molecular Weight 414 6g • Detergent Class Ionic anionic • Aggregation Number 5 average • Micelle Molecular Weight 2000g average • Critical Micelle Concentration CMC 2 to 6 mM 0 083 to 0 249 w v • Cloud Point Unknown • Dialyzable Yes Specifications for Sodium Deoxycholate Part No 89904 89905 • Formula C24H39O4Na • Molecular Weight 414 6g • Purity by HPLC 98 • Absorbance 1 Detergent Solution 340nm 0 02 280nm 0 04 260nm 0 06 • pH 1 Solution 5 to 9 • Solubility in water at 20°C 5 Sodium deoxycholate deoxycholic acid is a water soluble bile acid ionic detergent commonly used in protein methods It is most frequently used as a component of cell lysis buffers e g RIPA buffer but also has been used for liposome preparation isolation of membrane proteins and lipids preventing non specific binding in affinity chromatography and a cell culture media supplement The effectiveness of a detergent in any application depend upon the detergent s concentration Too much or too little detergent can often have a deleterious effect It is recommended that you examine a variety of detergent concentrations in your application At concentrations above 2 mM cholate will form micelles having MW 2000 The small micelle size allows easy removal by dialysis or gel filtration when needed Note removal of a detergent from a protein solution may result in protein precipitation and or aggregation Sodium deoxycholate is the detergent recommended for stripping endotoxin Lipopolysaccharide or LPS from immobilized Polymyxin B columns This is the recommended product for use with the Thermo Scientific Detoxi Gel Endotoxin Removing Gel Related Products Surfact Amps Detergent Sampler
    https://www.bioz.com/result/sodium deoxycholate/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    sodium deoxycholate - by Bioz Stars, 2021-03
    86/100 stars

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    Related Articles

    Centrifugation:

    Article Title: p190RhoGAP is the convergence point of adhesion signals from ?5?1 integrin and syndecan-4
    Article Snippet: For membrane fractionation by sonication, cells were scraped in Dulbecco's PBS containing calcium and magnesium (BioWhittaker) and lysed by three 5-s 20% pulses using a sonicator (Vibra-Cell; Sonics & Materials, Inc.). .. Nuclear debris was then removed with a 7 min, 1,000 g centrifugation step, and membrane-bound material was harvested at 22,000 g for a further 7 min. Harsh detergent lysates for immunoprecipitation were prepared in 50 mM Tris-Cl, pH 7.5, 150 mM NaCl, 1% (vol/vol) TrX, 0.5% (wt/vol) sodium deoxycholate, 0.1% (wt/vol) sodium dodecyl sulfate, 10 mM MgCl2 , and 5 mM EGTA, and clarified at 4,000 g before preclearing for 30 min with protein G–Sepharose (Invitrogen). p190-A was then affinity purified for 2 h using 1 μg of monoclonal antibody and protein G–Sepharose. .. For immunoprecipitation from the fractionated membrane pellet, the pellet was resuspended in the harsh detergent buffer by three 5-s 20% somincator pulses.

    Immunoprecipitation:

    Article Title: p190RhoGAP is the convergence point of adhesion signals from ?5?1 integrin and syndecan-4
    Article Snippet: For membrane fractionation by sonication, cells were scraped in Dulbecco's PBS containing calcium and magnesium (BioWhittaker) and lysed by three 5-s 20% pulses using a sonicator (Vibra-Cell; Sonics & Materials, Inc.). .. Nuclear debris was then removed with a 7 min, 1,000 g centrifugation step, and membrane-bound material was harvested at 22,000 g for a further 7 min. Harsh detergent lysates for immunoprecipitation were prepared in 50 mM Tris-Cl, pH 7.5, 150 mM NaCl, 1% (vol/vol) TrX, 0.5% (wt/vol) sodium deoxycholate, 0.1% (wt/vol) sodium dodecyl sulfate, 10 mM MgCl2 , and 5 mM EGTA, and clarified at 4,000 g before preclearing for 30 min with protein G–Sepharose (Invitrogen). p190-A was then affinity purified for 2 h using 1 μg of monoclonal antibody and protein G–Sepharose. .. For immunoprecipitation from the fractionated membrane pellet, the pellet was resuspended in the harsh detergent buffer by three 5-s 20% somincator pulses.

    Affinity Purification:

    Article Title: p190RhoGAP is the convergence point of adhesion signals from ?5?1 integrin and syndecan-4
    Article Snippet: For membrane fractionation by sonication, cells were scraped in Dulbecco's PBS containing calcium and magnesium (BioWhittaker) and lysed by three 5-s 20% pulses using a sonicator (Vibra-Cell; Sonics & Materials, Inc.). .. Nuclear debris was then removed with a 7 min, 1,000 g centrifugation step, and membrane-bound material was harvested at 22,000 g for a further 7 min. Harsh detergent lysates for immunoprecipitation were prepared in 50 mM Tris-Cl, pH 7.5, 150 mM NaCl, 1% (vol/vol) TrX, 0.5% (wt/vol) sodium deoxycholate, 0.1% (wt/vol) sodium dodecyl sulfate, 10 mM MgCl2 , and 5 mM EGTA, and clarified at 4,000 g before preclearing for 30 min with protein G–Sepharose (Invitrogen). p190-A was then affinity purified for 2 h using 1 μg of monoclonal antibody and protein G–Sepharose. .. For immunoprecipitation from the fractionated membrane pellet, the pellet was resuspended in the harsh detergent buffer by three 5-s 20% somincator pulses.

    Incubation:

    Article Title: Modulation of Haemophilus influenzae interaction with hydrophobic molecules by the VacJ/MlaA lipoprotein impacts strongly on its interplay with the airways
    Article Snippet: .. Then, 100 µl of normalized suspensions were transferred to individual wells in 96-well microtiter plates (Sarstedt), to be incubated with 100 µl sodium deoxycholate (Alfa-Aesar) for 20 min at RT in static conditions. ..

    other:

    Article Title: A Novel Oral Preparation of Hydroxysafflor Yellow A Base on a Chitosan Complex: A Strategy to Enhance the Oral Bioavailability
    Article Snippet: Sodium deoxycholate was obtained from Acros Organics (New Jersey, USA).

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    Thermo Fisher sodium deoxycholate
    a) In vivo release of 4HPR from CR PLGA millicylinders vs . that from water soluble matrix PVA/sucrose implants with and without solubilizers. The PLGA implants contained 20% 4HPR + 15% MgCO 3 + 1% PVP + 20% NaDC or CaDC, while the PVA/sucrose implants contained either 20% 4HPR or additional solubilizer and crystallization inhibitor (20% NaDC + 1% PVP). b) Implant images prior to harvesting from rat SC tissue on day 28 (yellow represents 4HPR). C) In vivo release of sodium and calcium <t>deoxycholate</t> (DC − ) from PLGA millicylinders. ( mean ± SE, n = 3).
    Sodium Deoxycholate, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 99 stars, based on 1 article reviews
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    99
    Thermo Fisher amphotericin b sodium deoxycholate
    effect of PK11195 on intracellular Leishmania amazonensis parasites in infected macrophages. (A) Percentage of infected macrophage. Infected macrophage were treated with varying concentrations of PK11195 for 48 h in order to calculate intracellular parasites IC50/48 h. All experiments were performed in quintuplicate and independently repeated twice. (B) Intracellular parasite viability at the early stages of infection. Macrophages were infected for 6 h and then treated with PK11195 for 24 h or 48 h.(C) Intracellular parasite viability at the later stages of infection. Macrophages were infected for 96 h and then treated with PK11195 for 24 h, 48 h, or 72 h. At each treatment time point, the effect of PK11195 treatment was compared with the effect of <t>amphotericin</t> B sodium <t>deoxycholate</t> treatment. (D) Reversibility of the effect of treatment with PK11195 on the viability of intracellular Leishmania parasites. Macrophages were infected for 6 h and treated with 75 μM PK11195. After 6, 12, 24, or 48 h of exposure, macrophages were washed and incubated in PK11195-free complete medium for an additional 48 h, and then the reversibility of the effect of treatment was assessed by counting the number of viable parasites. Lines represent the median and floating bars quartiles (25% and 75%) for independent experiments performed three times in at least in triplicate (Kruskal-Wallis test, Dunn's multiple comparison test, *p
    Amphotericin B Sodium Deoxycholate, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Thermo Fisher campylobacter blood free selective agar
    Numbers and sequence types (STs) of isolates of <t>Campylobacter</t> jejuni from surface water samples compared with numbers of human cases of ST-45 (line) for 2004 and 2005, by 4-week interval. Only the 4 most prevalent human types also identified in water samples are distinguished (ST-257, ST-45, ST-21, and ST-48). The “Other human” category includes all other C. jejuni sequence types found both in human cases in the study and in water samples. The “Other” category includes other C. jejuni sequence types found in water samples but not in human case-patients in the study.
    Campylobacter Blood Free Selective Agar, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
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    Image Search Results


    a) In vivo release of 4HPR from CR PLGA millicylinders vs . that from water soluble matrix PVA/sucrose implants with and without solubilizers. The PLGA implants contained 20% 4HPR + 15% MgCO 3 + 1% PVP + 20% NaDC or CaDC, while the PVA/sucrose implants contained either 20% 4HPR or additional solubilizer and crystallization inhibitor (20% NaDC + 1% PVP). b) Implant images prior to harvesting from rat SC tissue on day 28 (yellow represents 4HPR). C) In vivo release of sodium and calcium deoxycholate (DC − ) from PLGA millicylinders. ( mean ± SE, n = 3).

    Journal: International journal of pharmaceutics

    Article Title: In vivo controlled release of fenretinide from long-acting release depots for chemoprevention of oral squamous cell carcinoma recurrence

    doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2017.11.037

    Figure Lengend Snippet: a) In vivo release of 4HPR from CR PLGA millicylinders vs . that from water soluble matrix PVA/sucrose implants with and without solubilizers. The PLGA implants contained 20% 4HPR + 15% MgCO 3 + 1% PVP + 20% NaDC or CaDC, while the PVA/sucrose implants contained either 20% 4HPR or additional solubilizer and crystallization inhibitor (20% NaDC + 1% PVP). b) Implant images prior to harvesting from rat SC tissue on day 28 (yellow represents 4HPR). C) In vivo release of sodium and calcium deoxycholate (DC − ) from PLGA millicylinders. ( mean ± SE, n = 3).

    Article Snippet: Excipients used were sodium deoxycholate, (NaDC, 99% pure, Acros), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP K30, 40 kDa, BASF), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K4M (HPMC K4M, Dow Chemical, Midland, MI), and β-CD (Sigma-Aldrich).

    Techniques: In Vivo, Crystallization Assay

    Transmission electron microscopy images of ( A ) deoxycholic acid-modified chitosan nanoparticles and triamcinolone acetonide acetate/deoxycholic acid-modified chitosan nanoparticles with different triamcinolone acetonide acetate-loading capacities, ie, ( B ) 12%, ( C ) 29%, and ( D ) 82%.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Downregulation of VEGF mRNA expression by triamcinolone acetonide acetate-loaded chitosan derivative nanoparticles in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S29690

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Transmission electron microscopy images of ( A ) deoxycholic acid-modified chitosan nanoparticles and triamcinolone acetonide acetate/deoxycholic acid-modified chitosan nanoparticles with different triamcinolone acetonide acetate-loading capacities, ie, ( B ) 12%, ( C ) 29%, and ( D ) 82%.

    Article Snippet: Deoxycholic acid was obtained from Acros Organics Corp (Antwerp, Belgium).

    Techniques: Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy, Modification

    Structural characterization of DA-Chit. ( A ) Fourier transform infrared spectrum and ( B ) 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum. Abbreviation: DA-Chit, deoxycholic acid-modified chitosan.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Downregulation of VEGF mRNA expression by triamcinolone acetonide acetate-loaded chitosan derivative nanoparticles in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S29690

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Structural characterization of DA-Chit. ( A ) Fourier transform infrared spectrum and ( B ) 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum. Abbreviation: DA-Chit, deoxycholic acid-modified chitosan.

    Article Snippet: Deoxycholic acid was obtained from Acros Organics Corp (Antwerp, Belgium).

    Techniques: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Modification

    Cellular uptake efficiency in response to FITC/DA-Chit nanoparticles by flow cytometry analysis. ( A ) hRPE cells incubated with FITC/DA-Chit nanoparticles for 24 hours at concentrations of ( a ) 0.3 mg/mL, ( b ) 0.5 mg/mL, and ( c ) 1.0 mg/mL. ( B ) hRPE cells incubated with FITC/DA-Chit nanoparticles at 1.0 mg/mL for ( a ) 3 hours, ( b ) 6 hours, and ( c ) 12 hours. ( C ) Proportions of hRPE cells taking up FITC/DA-Chit versus nanoparticle concentrations. ( D ) Proportions of hRPE cells taking up FITC/DA-Chit nanoparticles versus incubation time. Abbreviations: hRPE, human retinal pigment epithelial; FITC/DA-Chit, fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled deoxycholic acid-modified chitosan; SSC, side scatter.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Downregulation of VEGF mRNA expression by triamcinolone acetonide acetate-loaded chitosan derivative nanoparticles in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S29690

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Cellular uptake efficiency in response to FITC/DA-Chit nanoparticles by flow cytometry analysis. ( A ) hRPE cells incubated with FITC/DA-Chit nanoparticles for 24 hours at concentrations of ( a ) 0.3 mg/mL, ( b ) 0.5 mg/mL, and ( c ) 1.0 mg/mL. ( B ) hRPE cells incubated with FITC/DA-Chit nanoparticles at 1.0 mg/mL for ( a ) 3 hours, ( b ) 6 hours, and ( c ) 12 hours. ( C ) Proportions of hRPE cells taking up FITC/DA-Chit versus nanoparticle concentrations. ( D ) Proportions of hRPE cells taking up FITC/DA-Chit nanoparticles versus incubation time. Abbreviations: hRPE, human retinal pigment epithelial; FITC/DA-Chit, fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled deoxycholic acid-modified chitosan; SSC, side scatter.

    Article Snippet: Deoxycholic acid was obtained from Acros Organics Corp (Antwerp, Belgium).

    Techniques: Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Incubation, Labeling, Modification

    Typical fluorescence images of ( I ) hRPE cells incubated with FITC/DA-Chit nanoparticles for 24 hours at concentrations of ( A ) 0.3 mg/mL, ( B ) 0.5 mg/mL, and ( C ) 1.0 mg/mL; ( II ) hRPE cells incubated with FITC/DA-Chit nanoparticles at 1.0 mg/mL for ( A ) 3 hours, ( B ) 6 hours, and ( C ) 24 hours. ( III ) hRPE cells further incubated for different times following removal of FITC/DA-Chit nanoparticles from the culture medium, ie, ( A ) one day, ( B ) 3 days, and ( C ) 5 days, after incubation with 1.0 mg/mL of FITC/DA-Chit nanoparticles for 24 hours (scale bar 50 μm, 1 fluorescence field images, 2 bright field images). Abbreviations: hRPE, human retinal pigment epithelial; FITC/DA-Chit, fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled deoxycholic acid-modified chitosan.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Downregulation of VEGF mRNA expression by triamcinolone acetonide acetate-loaded chitosan derivative nanoparticles in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S29690

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Typical fluorescence images of ( I ) hRPE cells incubated with FITC/DA-Chit nanoparticles for 24 hours at concentrations of ( A ) 0.3 mg/mL, ( B ) 0.5 mg/mL, and ( C ) 1.0 mg/mL; ( II ) hRPE cells incubated with FITC/DA-Chit nanoparticles at 1.0 mg/mL for ( A ) 3 hours, ( B ) 6 hours, and ( C ) 24 hours. ( III ) hRPE cells further incubated for different times following removal of FITC/DA-Chit nanoparticles from the culture medium, ie, ( A ) one day, ( B ) 3 days, and ( C ) 5 days, after incubation with 1.0 mg/mL of FITC/DA-Chit nanoparticles for 24 hours (scale bar 50 μm, 1 fluorescence field images, 2 bright field images). Abbreviations: hRPE, human retinal pigment epithelial; FITC/DA-Chit, fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled deoxycholic acid-modified chitosan.

    Article Snippet: Deoxycholic acid was obtained from Acros Organics Corp (Antwerp, Belgium).

    Techniques: Fluorescence, Incubation, Labeling, Modification

    Water solubility of TAA and zeta potential of TAA/DA-Chit nanoparticles at various TAA-loading capacities (n = 3, mean ± standard deviation). Abbreviations: TAA, triamcinolone acetonide acetate; DA-Chit, deoxycholic acid-modified chitosan.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Downregulation of VEGF mRNA expression by triamcinolone acetonide acetate-loaded chitosan derivative nanoparticles in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S29690

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Water solubility of TAA and zeta potential of TAA/DA-Chit nanoparticles at various TAA-loading capacities (n = 3, mean ± standard deviation). Abbreviations: TAA, triamcinolone acetonide acetate; DA-Chit, deoxycholic acid-modified chitosan.

    Article Snippet: Deoxycholic acid was obtained from Acros Organics Corp (Antwerp, Belgium).

    Techniques: Solubility, Standard Deviation, Modification

    effect of PK11195 on intracellular Leishmania amazonensis parasites in infected macrophages. (A) Percentage of infected macrophage. Infected macrophage were treated with varying concentrations of PK11195 for 48 h in order to calculate intracellular parasites IC50/48 h. All experiments were performed in quintuplicate and independently repeated twice. (B) Intracellular parasite viability at the early stages of infection. Macrophages were infected for 6 h and then treated with PK11195 for 24 h or 48 h.(C) Intracellular parasite viability at the later stages of infection. Macrophages were infected for 96 h and then treated with PK11195 for 24 h, 48 h, or 72 h. At each treatment time point, the effect of PK11195 treatment was compared with the effect of amphotericin B sodium deoxycholate treatment. (D) Reversibility of the effect of treatment with PK11195 on the viability of intracellular Leishmania parasites. Macrophages were infected for 6 h and treated with 75 μM PK11195. After 6, 12, 24, or 48 h of exposure, macrophages were washed and incubated in PK11195-free complete medium for an additional 48 h, and then the reversibility of the effect of treatment was assessed by counting the number of viable parasites. Lines represent the median and floating bars quartiles (25% and 75%) for independent experiments performed three times in at least in triplicate (Kruskal-Wallis test, Dunn's multiple comparison test, *p

    Journal: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

    Article Title: In vitro evaluation of the anti-leishmanial activity and toxicity of PK11195

    doi: 10.1590/0074-02760170345

    Figure Lengend Snippet: effect of PK11195 on intracellular Leishmania amazonensis parasites in infected macrophages. (A) Percentage of infected macrophage. Infected macrophage were treated with varying concentrations of PK11195 for 48 h in order to calculate intracellular parasites IC50/48 h. All experiments were performed in quintuplicate and independently repeated twice. (B) Intracellular parasite viability at the early stages of infection. Macrophages were infected for 6 h and then treated with PK11195 for 24 h or 48 h.(C) Intracellular parasite viability at the later stages of infection. Macrophages were infected for 96 h and then treated with PK11195 for 24 h, 48 h, or 72 h. At each treatment time point, the effect of PK11195 treatment was compared with the effect of amphotericin B sodium deoxycholate treatment. (D) Reversibility of the effect of treatment with PK11195 on the viability of intracellular Leishmania parasites. Macrophages were infected for 6 h and treated with 75 μM PK11195. After 6, 12, 24, or 48 h of exposure, macrophages were washed and incubated in PK11195-free complete medium for an additional 48 h, and then the reversibility of the effect of treatment was assessed by counting the number of viable parasites. Lines represent the median and floating bars quartiles (25% and 75%) for independent experiments performed three times in at least in triplicate (Kruskal-Wallis test, Dunn's multiple comparison test, *p

    Article Snippet: Amphotericin B sodium deoxycholate (Fungizone, Gibco) was purchased from Life Technologies (Carlsbad, CA, USA) as a ready-to-use solution (271 µM).

    Techniques: Infection, Incubation

    Numbers and sequence types (STs) of isolates of Campylobacter jejuni from surface water samples compared with numbers of human cases of ST-45 (line) for 2004 and 2005, by 4-week interval. Only the 4 most prevalent human types also identified in water samples are distinguished (ST-257, ST-45, ST-21, and ST-48). The “Other human” category includes all other C. jejuni sequence types found both in human cases in the study and in water samples. The “Other” category includes other C. jejuni sequence types found in water samples but not in human case-patients in the study.

    Journal: Emerging Infectious Diseases

    Article Title: Identification of Potential Environmentally Adapted Campylobacter jejuni Strain, United Kingdom

    doi: 10.3201/eid1411.071678

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Numbers and sequence types (STs) of isolates of Campylobacter jejuni from surface water samples compared with numbers of human cases of ST-45 (line) for 2004 and 2005, by 4-week interval. Only the 4 most prevalent human types also identified in water samples are distinguished (ST-257, ST-45, ST-21, and ST-48). The “Other human” category includes all other C. jejuni sequence types found both in human cases in the study and in water samples. The “Other” category includes other C. jejuni sequence types found in water samples but not in human case-patients in the study.

    Article Snippet: The enrichment broths were subcultured onto Campylobacter blood-free selective agar (charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar product CM0739, Oxoid Ltd) at 37°C for 48 hours microaerobically, by using a microaerobic gas generating kit (product CN0025, Oxoid, Ltd).

    Techniques: Sequencing