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Santa Cruz Biotechnology sirna duplex solution
Sirna Duplex Solution, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
https://www.bioz.com/result/sirna duplex solution/product/Santa Cruz Biotechnology
Average 96 stars, based on 1 article reviews
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sirna duplex solution - by Bioz Stars, 2024-04
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Santa Cruz Biotechnology sirna duplex solution
ADAM-33 <t>siRNA</t> <t>transfection</t> inhibits VEGF-induced cell proliferation. ASM cells were incubated with indicated doses of VEGF for 48 h (A). ASM cells were incubated at indicated times of VEGF (50 ng/ml), and then cell proliferation was determined by BrdU incorporation (B). ASM cells were transfected with negative siRNA or ADAM-33 siRNA, and then real-time PCR performed. The values are normalized relative to the GAPDH standard (C). ASM cells were transfected with negative siRNA or ADAM-33 siRNA, and then western blotting analysis for ADAM-33 was performed. β-actin was used as a loading control (D). ASM cells were transfected with negative siRNA or ADAM-33 siRNA in the presence of VEGF (50 ng/ml) for 48 or 72 h, and then cell proliferation was determined by BrdU incorporation (E). All experiments were done at least twice. Values represent the means ± SEM. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.005 vs . control; # P < 0.05 vs . control siRNA.
Sirna Duplex Solution, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
https://www.bioz.com/result/sirna duplex solution/product/Santa Cruz Biotechnology
Average 96 stars, based on 1 article reviews
Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
sirna duplex solution - by Bioz Stars, 2024-04
96/100 stars

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1) Product Images from "Upregulation of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-33 by VEGF in human airway smooth muscle cells: Implications for asthma"

Article Title: Upregulation of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-33 by VEGF in human airway smooth muscle cells: Implications for asthma

Journal: Cell Cycle

doi: 10.1080/15384101.2016.1220462

ADAM-33 siRNA transfection inhibits VEGF-induced cell proliferation. ASM cells were incubated with indicated doses of VEGF for 48 h (A). ASM cells were incubated at indicated times of VEGF (50 ng/ml), and then cell proliferation was determined by BrdU incorporation (B). ASM cells were transfected with negative siRNA or ADAM-33 siRNA, and then real-time PCR performed. The values are normalized relative to the GAPDH standard (C). ASM cells were transfected with negative siRNA or ADAM-33 siRNA, and then western blotting analysis for ADAM-33 was performed. β-actin was used as a loading control (D). ASM cells were transfected with negative siRNA or ADAM-33 siRNA in the presence of VEGF (50 ng/ml) for 48 or 72 h, and then cell proliferation was determined by BrdU incorporation (E). All experiments were done at least twice. Values represent the means ± SEM. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.005 vs . control; # P < 0.05 vs . control siRNA.
Figure Legend Snippet: ADAM-33 siRNA transfection inhibits VEGF-induced cell proliferation. ASM cells were incubated with indicated doses of VEGF for 48 h (A). ASM cells were incubated at indicated times of VEGF (50 ng/ml), and then cell proliferation was determined by BrdU incorporation (B). ASM cells were transfected with negative siRNA or ADAM-33 siRNA, and then real-time PCR performed. The values are normalized relative to the GAPDH standard (C). ASM cells were transfected with negative siRNA or ADAM-33 siRNA, and then western blotting analysis for ADAM-33 was performed. β-actin was used as a loading control (D). ASM cells were transfected with negative siRNA or ADAM-33 siRNA in the presence of VEGF (50 ng/ml) for 48 or 72 h, and then cell proliferation was determined by BrdU incorporation (E). All experiments were done at least twice. Values represent the means ± SEM. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.005 vs . control; # P < 0.05 vs . control siRNA.

Techniques Used: Transfection, Incubation, BrdU Incorporation Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Western Blot

ADAM-33 siRNA transfection inhibits cell cycle in ASM cells. ASM cells were transfected with negative siRNA or ADAM-33 siRNA in the presence of VEGF (50 ng/ml) for 48 h, and then Flow cytometric analysis for cell cycle was performed. All experiments were done at least twice. Values represent the means ± SEM.
Figure Legend Snippet: ADAM-33 siRNA transfection inhibits cell cycle in ASM cells. ASM cells were transfected with negative siRNA or ADAM-33 siRNA in the presence of VEGF (50 ng/ml) for 48 h, and then Flow cytometric analysis for cell cycle was performed. All experiments were done at least twice. Values represent the means ± SEM.

Techniques Used: Transfection


Structured Review

Santa Cruz Biotechnology sirna duplex solution
Sirna Duplex Solution, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
https://www.bioz.com/result/sirna duplex solution/product/Santa Cruz Biotechnology
Average 96 stars, based on 1 article reviews
Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
sirna duplex solution - by Bioz Stars, 2024-04
96/100 stars

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Santa Cruz Biotechnology p53 sirna duplex solution
P53 Sirna Duplex Solution, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
https://www.bioz.com/result/p53 sirna duplex solution/product/Santa Cruz Biotechnology
Average 95 stars, based on 1 article reviews
Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
p53 sirna duplex solution - by Bioz Stars, 2024-04
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Structured Review

Santa Cruz Biotechnology sirna duplex solution
Sirna Duplex Solution, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
https://www.bioz.com/result/sirna duplex solution/product/Santa Cruz Biotechnology
Average 96 stars, based on 1 article reviews
Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
sirna duplex solution - by Bioz Stars, 2024-04
96/100 stars

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Structured Review

Santa Cruz Biotechnology sirna duplex solution
Sirna Duplex Solution, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
https://www.bioz.com/result/sirna duplex solution/product/Santa Cruz Biotechnology
Average 96 stars, based on 1 article reviews
Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
sirna duplex solution - by Bioz Stars, 2024-04
96/100 stars

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Santa Cruz Biotechnology bdkrb1 sirna duplex solution
Expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and bradykinin receptor (BDKR) B1/2 mRNAs or proteins in human glioblastomas and normal brain tissues. Expression of AQP4 mRNA in human normal brains (Control, n = 37) and glioblastomas (Glioblastoma, n = 542) was mined in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database ( A ). An immunohistochemical analysis of AQP4 in human meningioma (Control) and glioblastoma (Glioblastoma) tissues was carried out ( B ). Representative images are shown. The signals were quantified and statistically analyzed ( C ). Each value represents the mean ± standard deviation (SD) for n = 3. Expression of <t>BDKRB1/2</t> mRNAs from controls ( n = 37) and glioblastomas ( n = 582) were searched using TCGA cohort ( D ). An asterisk (*) indicates that a value significantly ( p < 0.05) differed from the respective control. Scale bar, 50 μm.
Bdkrb1 Sirna Duplex Solution, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
https://www.bioz.com/result/bdkrb1 sirna duplex solution/product/Santa Cruz Biotechnology
Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
bdkrb1 sirna duplex solution - by Bioz Stars, 2024-04
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1) Product Images from "The Bradykinin-BDKRB1 Axis Regulates Aquaporin 4 Gene Expression and Consequential Migration and Invasion of Malignant Glioblastoma Cells via a Ca 2+ -MEK1-ERK1/2-NF-κB Mechanism"

Article Title: The Bradykinin-BDKRB1 Axis Regulates Aquaporin 4 Gene Expression and Consequential Migration and Invasion of Malignant Glioblastoma Cells via a Ca 2+ -MEK1-ERK1/2-NF-κB Mechanism

Journal: Cancers

doi: 10.3390/cancers12030667

Expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and bradykinin receptor (BDKR) B1/2 mRNAs or proteins in human glioblastomas and normal brain tissues. Expression of AQP4 mRNA in human normal brains (Control, n = 37) and glioblastomas (Glioblastoma, n = 542) was mined in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database ( A ). An immunohistochemical analysis of AQP4 in human meningioma (Control) and glioblastoma (Glioblastoma) tissues was carried out ( B ). Representative images are shown. The signals were quantified and statistically analyzed ( C ). Each value represents the mean ± standard deviation (SD) for n = 3. Expression of BDKRB1/2 mRNAs from controls ( n = 37) and glioblastomas ( n = 582) were searched using TCGA cohort ( D ). An asterisk (*) indicates that a value significantly ( p < 0.05) differed from the respective control. Scale bar, 50 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and bradykinin receptor (BDKR) B1/2 mRNAs or proteins in human glioblastomas and normal brain tissues. Expression of AQP4 mRNA in human normal brains (Control, n = 37) and glioblastomas (Glioblastoma, n = 542) was mined in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database ( A ). An immunohistochemical analysis of AQP4 in human meningioma (Control) and glioblastoma (Glioblastoma) tissues was carried out ( B ). Representative images are shown. The signals were quantified and statistically analyzed ( C ). Each value represents the mean ± standard deviation (SD) for n = 3. Expression of BDKRB1/2 mRNAs from controls ( n = 37) and glioblastomas ( n = 582) were searched using TCGA cohort ( D ). An asterisk (*) indicates that a value significantly ( p < 0.05) differed from the respective control. Scale bar, 50 μm.

Techniques Used: Expressing, Immunohistochemical staining, Standard Deviation

Effects of bradykinin on viability, levels, and functions of bradykinin receptor (BDKR) B1/2 in human malignant glioblastoma cells. Human U87 MG glioblastoma cells were stained with a fluorescent 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) dye and reacted with a monoclonal antibody against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a biomarker of astrocytes ( A ). Fluorescent signals were observed and analyzed using confocal microscopy. U87 MG cells were treated with 100 nM bradykinin for 6, 12, and 24 h or with 10, 50, and 100 nM bradykinin for 24 h. Cell morphologies were observed and photographed using a light microscope ( B ). Cell survival was analyzed using a trypan blue exclusion method ( C , D ). Levels of BDKRB1 and BDKRB2 were immunodetected ( E , top two panels). β-Actin was analyzed as an internal control (bottom panel). These protein bands were quantified and statistically analyzed ( F ). After exposure to bradykinin and Fluo3, dynamic changes in levels of intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) were immediately observed and recorded by confocal microscopy ( G ). Marked enhancement of fluorescent signals showed the increased intensities of intracellular Ca 2+ following bradykinin treatment ( H ). Each value represents the mean ± standard deviation (SD) for n = 9. Representative immunoblots and confocal images are shown. An asterisk (*) indicates that a value significantly ( p < 0.05) differed from the respective control. Scale bar, 20 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of bradykinin on viability, levels, and functions of bradykinin receptor (BDKR) B1/2 in human malignant glioblastoma cells. Human U87 MG glioblastoma cells were stained with a fluorescent 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) dye and reacted with a monoclonal antibody against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a biomarker of astrocytes ( A ). Fluorescent signals were observed and analyzed using confocal microscopy. U87 MG cells were treated with 100 nM bradykinin for 6, 12, and 24 h or with 10, 50, and 100 nM bradykinin for 24 h. Cell morphologies were observed and photographed using a light microscope ( B ). Cell survival was analyzed using a trypan blue exclusion method ( C , D ). Levels of BDKRB1 and BDKRB2 were immunodetected ( E , top two panels). β-Actin was analyzed as an internal control (bottom panel). These protein bands were quantified and statistically analyzed ( F ). After exposure to bradykinin and Fluo3, dynamic changes in levels of intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) were immediately observed and recorded by confocal microscopy ( G ). Marked enhancement of fluorescent signals showed the increased intensities of intracellular Ca 2+ following bradykinin treatment ( H ). Each value represents the mean ± standard deviation (SD) for n = 9. Representative immunoblots and confocal images are shown. An asterisk (*) indicates that a value significantly ( p < 0.05) differed from the respective control. Scale bar, 20 μm.

Techniques Used: Staining, Biomarker Assay, Confocal Microscopy, Light Microscopy, Standard Deviation, Western Blot

Effects of bradykinin on aquaporin-4 (AQP4) mRNA and protein expressions in human malignant glioblastoma cells. Human U87 MG glioblastoma cells were treated with 100 nM bradykinin for 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. Levels of AQP4 mRNA were analyzed using an RT-PCR ( A , top panel). Amounts of β-actin mRNA were examined as an internal control (bottom panel). These DNA bands were quantified and statistically analyzed ( B ). Expression of AQP4 mRNA was further quantified using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis ( C ). Human U87 MG cells were exposed to bradykinin for 24 h. Levels and distribution of AQP4 were immunodetected ( D , left panel). The nucleus was stained with 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) (middle panel). The merged signals are shown in the right panel ( D ) and were quantified and statistically analyzed ( E ). Expression of the bradykinin receptor (BDKR) B1 was knocked-down using RNA interference. Control cells received scrambled siRNA. Levels of BDKRB1 were immunodetected ( F , top panel). β-Actin was immunodetected as an internal control. These protein bands were quantified and statistically analyzed (bottom panel). Human U87 MG cells were pretreated with BDKRB1 siRNA and then exposed to bradykinin. Expression of AQP4 mRNA was quantified with a real-time PCR ( G ). Each value represents the mean ± standard deviation (SD), n = 9. Symbols * and # indicate that the values significantly ( p < 0.05) differed from the control and BDKRB1 siRNA-treated groups, respectively. Representative DNA agarose gels, confocal images, and immunoblots are shown. Scale bar, 5 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of bradykinin on aquaporin-4 (AQP4) mRNA and protein expressions in human malignant glioblastoma cells. Human U87 MG glioblastoma cells were treated with 100 nM bradykinin for 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. Levels of AQP4 mRNA were analyzed using an RT-PCR ( A , top panel). Amounts of β-actin mRNA were examined as an internal control (bottom panel). These DNA bands were quantified and statistically analyzed ( B ). Expression of AQP4 mRNA was further quantified using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis ( C ). Human U87 MG cells were exposed to bradykinin for 24 h. Levels and distribution of AQP4 were immunodetected ( D , left panel). The nucleus was stained with 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) (middle panel). The merged signals are shown in the right panel ( D ) and were quantified and statistically analyzed ( E ). Expression of the bradykinin receptor (BDKR) B1 was knocked-down using RNA interference. Control cells received scrambled siRNA. Levels of BDKRB1 were immunodetected ( F , top panel). β-Actin was immunodetected as an internal control. These protein bands were quantified and statistically analyzed (bottom panel). Human U87 MG cells were pretreated with BDKRB1 siRNA and then exposed to bradykinin. Expression of AQP4 mRNA was quantified with a real-time PCR ( G ). Each value represents the mean ± standard deviation (SD), n = 9. Symbols * and # indicate that the values significantly ( p < 0.05) differed from the control and BDKRB1 siRNA-treated groups, respectively. Representative DNA agarose gels, confocal images, and immunoblots are shown. Scale bar, 5 μm.

Techniques Used: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Staining, Standard Deviation, Western Blot

Effects of bradykinin on the migration and invasion of human malignant glioblastoma cells. Human U87 MG glioblastoma cells were treated with 100 nM bradykinin for 24 h. A wound-healing assay was carried out to determine migration of U87 MG cells ( A ). Cell migration was quantified by analyzing the blank area ( B ). In parallel, invasion by U87 MG cells was further analyzed using a Matrigel-based invasion assay ( C ). Invading cells were counted and statistically analyzed ( D ). Human U87 MG cells were pretreated with bradykinin receptor B1 (BDKRB1) siRNA and then exposed to bradykinin. Wound-healing ( E ) and Matrigel-invasion ( F ) assays were performed, and results were statistically analyzed. Each value represents the mean ± standard deviation (SD), n = 9. Symbols * and # indicate that the values significantly ( p < 0.05) differed from the control and BDKRB1 siRNA-treated groups, respectively. Representative morphological images are shown.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of bradykinin on the migration and invasion of human malignant glioblastoma cells. Human U87 MG glioblastoma cells were treated with 100 nM bradykinin for 24 h. A wound-healing assay was carried out to determine migration of U87 MG cells ( A ). Cell migration was quantified by analyzing the blank area ( B ). In parallel, invasion by U87 MG cells was further analyzed using a Matrigel-based invasion assay ( C ). Invading cells were counted and statistically analyzed ( D ). Human U87 MG cells were pretreated with bradykinin receptor B1 (BDKRB1) siRNA and then exposed to bradykinin. Wound-healing ( E ) and Matrigel-invasion ( F ) assays were performed, and results were statistically analyzed. Each value represents the mean ± standard deviation (SD), n = 9. Symbols * and # indicate that the values significantly ( p < 0.05) differed from the control and BDKRB1 siRNA-treated groups, respectively. Representative morphological images are shown.

Techniques Used: Migration, Wound Healing Assay, Invasion Assay, Standard Deviation


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Santa Cruz Biotechnology sirna duplex solution
Sirna Duplex Solution, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
https://www.bioz.com/result/sirna duplex solution/product/Santa Cruz Biotechnology
Average 96 stars, based on 1 article reviews
Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
sirna duplex solution - by Bioz Stars, 2024-04
96/100 stars

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Santa Cruz Biotechnology sirna duplex solution
Sirna Duplex Solution, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
https://www.bioz.com/result/sirna duplex solution/product/Santa Cruz Biotechnology
Average 88 stars, based on 1 article reviews
Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
sirna duplex solution - by Bioz Stars, 2024-04
88/100 stars

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Santa Cruz Biotechnology sirna duplex solution
Sirna Duplex Solution, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
https://www.bioz.com/result/sirna duplex solution/product/Santa Cruz Biotechnology
Average 96 stars, based on 1 article reviews
Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
sirna duplex solution - by Bioz Stars, 2024-04
96/100 stars

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    Santa Cruz Biotechnology sirna duplex solution
    Sirna Duplex Solution, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/sirna duplex solution/product/Santa Cruz Biotechnology
    Average 96 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
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    Santa Cruz Biotechnology p53 sirna duplex solution
    P53 Sirna Duplex Solution, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/p53 sirna duplex solution/product/Santa Cruz Biotechnology
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    Santa Cruz Biotechnology bdkrb1 sirna duplex solution
    Expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and bradykinin receptor (BDKR) B1/2 mRNAs or proteins in human glioblastomas and normal brain tissues. Expression of AQP4 mRNA in human normal brains (Control, n = 37) and glioblastomas (Glioblastoma, n = 542) was mined in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database ( A ). An immunohistochemical analysis of AQP4 in human meningioma (Control) and glioblastoma (Glioblastoma) tissues was carried out ( B ). Representative images are shown. The signals were quantified and statistically analyzed ( C ). Each value represents the mean ± standard deviation (SD) for n = 3. Expression of <t>BDKRB1/2</t> mRNAs from controls ( n = 37) and glioblastomas ( n = 582) were searched using TCGA cohort ( D ). An asterisk (*) indicates that a value significantly ( p < 0.05) differed from the respective control. Scale bar, 50 μm.
    Bdkrb1 Sirna Duplex Solution, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/bdkrb1 sirna duplex solution/product/Santa Cruz Biotechnology
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    bdkrb1 sirna duplex solution - by Bioz Stars, 2024-04
    86/100 stars
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    Expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and bradykinin receptor (BDKR) B1/2 mRNAs or proteins in human glioblastomas and normal brain tissues. Expression of AQP4 mRNA in human normal brains (Control, n = 37) and glioblastomas (Glioblastoma, n = 542) was mined in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database ( A ). An immunohistochemical analysis of AQP4 in human meningioma (Control) and glioblastoma (Glioblastoma) tissues was carried out ( B ). Representative images are shown. The signals were quantified and statistically analyzed ( C ). Each value represents the mean ± standard deviation (SD) for n = 3. Expression of BDKRB1/2 mRNAs from controls ( n = 37) and glioblastomas ( n = 582) were searched using TCGA cohort ( D ). An asterisk (*) indicates that a value significantly ( p < 0.05) differed from the respective control. Scale bar, 50 μm.

    Journal: Cancers

    Article Title: The Bradykinin-BDKRB1 Axis Regulates Aquaporin 4 Gene Expression and Consequential Migration and Invasion of Malignant Glioblastoma Cells via a Ca 2+ -MEK1-ERK1/2-NF-κB Mechanism

    doi: 10.3390/cancers12030667

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and bradykinin receptor (BDKR) B1/2 mRNAs or proteins in human glioblastomas and normal brain tissues. Expression of AQP4 mRNA in human normal brains (Control, n = 37) and glioblastomas (Glioblastoma, n = 542) was mined in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database ( A ). An immunohistochemical analysis of AQP4 in human meningioma (Control) and glioblastoma (Glioblastoma) tissues was carried out ( B ). Representative images are shown. The signals were quantified and statistically analyzed ( C ). Each value represents the mean ± standard deviation (SD) for n = 3. Expression of BDKRB1/2 mRNAs from controls ( n = 37) and glioblastomas ( n = 582) were searched using TCGA cohort ( D ). An asterisk (*) indicates that a value significantly ( p < 0.05) differed from the respective control. Scale bar, 50 μm.

    Article Snippet: Briefly, after culturing human glioblastoma cells in antibiotic-free DMEM at 37 °C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO 2 for 24 h, the BDKRB1 siRNA duplex solution, which was diluted in siRNA transfection medium (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), was added to U87 MG cells.

    Techniques: Expressing, Immunohistochemical staining, Standard Deviation

    Effects of bradykinin on viability, levels, and functions of bradykinin receptor (BDKR) B1/2 in human malignant glioblastoma cells. Human U87 MG glioblastoma cells were stained with a fluorescent 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) dye and reacted with a monoclonal antibody against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a biomarker of astrocytes ( A ). Fluorescent signals were observed and analyzed using confocal microscopy. U87 MG cells were treated with 100 nM bradykinin for 6, 12, and 24 h or with 10, 50, and 100 nM bradykinin for 24 h. Cell morphologies were observed and photographed using a light microscope ( B ). Cell survival was analyzed using a trypan blue exclusion method ( C , D ). Levels of BDKRB1 and BDKRB2 were immunodetected ( E , top two panels). β-Actin was analyzed as an internal control (bottom panel). These protein bands were quantified and statistically analyzed ( F ). After exposure to bradykinin and Fluo3, dynamic changes in levels of intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) were immediately observed and recorded by confocal microscopy ( G ). Marked enhancement of fluorescent signals showed the increased intensities of intracellular Ca 2+ following bradykinin treatment ( H ). Each value represents the mean ± standard deviation (SD) for n = 9. Representative immunoblots and confocal images are shown. An asterisk (*) indicates that a value significantly ( p < 0.05) differed from the respective control. Scale bar, 20 μm.

    Journal: Cancers

    Article Title: The Bradykinin-BDKRB1 Axis Regulates Aquaporin 4 Gene Expression and Consequential Migration and Invasion of Malignant Glioblastoma Cells via a Ca 2+ -MEK1-ERK1/2-NF-κB Mechanism

    doi: 10.3390/cancers12030667

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of bradykinin on viability, levels, and functions of bradykinin receptor (BDKR) B1/2 in human malignant glioblastoma cells. Human U87 MG glioblastoma cells were stained with a fluorescent 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) dye and reacted with a monoclonal antibody against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a biomarker of astrocytes ( A ). Fluorescent signals were observed and analyzed using confocal microscopy. U87 MG cells were treated with 100 nM bradykinin for 6, 12, and 24 h or with 10, 50, and 100 nM bradykinin for 24 h. Cell morphologies were observed and photographed using a light microscope ( B ). Cell survival was analyzed using a trypan blue exclusion method ( C , D ). Levels of BDKRB1 and BDKRB2 were immunodetected ( E , top two panels). β-Actin was analyzed as an internal control (bottom panel). These protein bands were quantified and statistically analyzed ( F ). After exposure to bradykinin and Fluo3, dynamic changes in levels of intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) were immediately observed and recorded by confocal microscopy ( G ). Marked enhancement of fluorescent signals showed the increased intensities of intracellular Ca 2+ following bradykinin treatment ( H ). Each value represents the mean ± standard deviation (SD) for n = 9. Representative immunoblots and confocal images are shown. An asterisk (*) indicates that a value significantly ( p < 0.05) differed from the respective control. Scale bar, 20 μm.

    Article Snippet: Briefly, after culturing human glioblastoma cells in antibiotic-free DMEM at 37 °C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO 2 for 24 h, the BDKRB1 siRNA duplex solution, which was diluted in siRNA transfection medium (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), was added to U87 MG cells.

    Techniques: Staining, Biomarker Assay, Confocal Microscopy, Light Microscopy, Standard Deviation, Western Blot

    Effects of bradykinin on aquaporin-4 (AQP4) mRNA and protein expressions in human malignant glioblastoma cells. Human U87 MG glioblastoma cells were treated with 100 nM bradykinin for 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. Levels of AQP4 mRNA were analyzed using an RT-PCR ( A , top panel). Amounts of β-actin mRNA were examined as an internal control (bottom panel). These DNA bands were quantified and statistically analyzed ( B ). Expression of AQP4 mRNA was further quantified using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis ( C ). Human U87 MG cells were exposed to bradykinin for 24 h. Levels and distribution of AQP4 were immunodetected ( D , left panel). The nucleus was stained with 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) (middle panel). The merged signals are shown in the right panel ( D ) and were quantified and statistically analyzed ( E ). Expression of the bradykinin receptor (BDKR) B1 was knocked-down using RNA interference. Control cells received scrambled siRNA. Levels of BDKRB1 were immunodetected ( F , top panel). β-Actin was immunodetected as an internal control. These protein bands were quantified and statistically analyzed (bottom panel). Human U87 MG cells were pretreated with BDKRB1 siRNA and then exposed to bradykinin. Expression of AQP4 mRNA was quantified with a real-time PCR ( G ). Each value represents the mean ± standard deviation (SD), n = 9. Symbols * and # indicate that the values significantly ( p < 0.05) differed from the control and BDKRB1 siRNA-treated groups, respectively. Representative DNA agarose gels, confocal images, and immunoblots are shown. Scale bar, 5 μm.

    Journal: Cancers

    Article Title: The Bradykinin-BDKRB1 Axis Regulates Aquaporin 4 Gene Expression and Consequential Migration and Invasion of Malignant Glioblastoma Cells via a Ca 2+ -MEK1-ERK1/2-NF-κB Mechanism

    doi: 10.3390/cancers12030667

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of bradykinin on aquaporin-4 (AQP4) mRNA and protein expressions in human malignant glioblastoma cells. Human U87 MG glioblastoma cells were treated with 100 nM bradykinin for 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. Levels of AQP4 mRNA were analyzed using an RT-PCR ( A , top panel). Amounts of β-actin mRNA were examined as an internal control (bottom panel). These DNA bands were quantified and statistically analyzed ( B ). Expression of AQP4 mRNA was further quantified using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis ( C ). Human U87 MG cells were exposed to bradykinin for 24 h. Levels and distribution of AQP4 were immunodetected ( D , left panel). The nucleus was stained with 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) (middle panel). The merged signals are shown in the right panel ( D ) and were quantified and statistically analyzed ( E ). Expression of the bradykinin receptor (BDKR) B1 was knocked-down using RNA interference. Control cells received scrambled siRNA. Levels of BDKRB1 were immunodetected ( F , top panel). β-Actin was immunodetected as an internal control. These protein bands were quantified and statistically analyzed (bottom panel). Human U87 MG cells were pretreated with BDKRB1 siRNA and then exposed to bradykinin. Expression of AQP4 mRNA was quantified with a real-time PCR ( G ). Each value represents the mean ± standard deviation (SD), n = 9. Symbols * and # indicate that the values significantly ( p < 0.05) differed from the control and BDKRB1 siRNA-treated groups, respectively. Representative DNA agarose gels, confocal images, and immunoblots are shown. Scale bar, 5 μm.

    Article Snippet: Briefly, after culturing human glioblastoma cells in antibiotic-free DMEM at 37 °C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO 2 for 24 h, the BDKRB1 siRNA duplex solution, which was diluted in siRNA transfection medium (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), was added to U87 MG cells.

    Techniques: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Staining, Standard Deviation, Western Blot

    Effects of bradykinin on the migration and invasion of human malignant glioblastoma cells. Human U87 MG glioblastoma cells were treated with 100 nM bradykinin for 24 h. A wound-healing assay was carried out to determine migration of U87 MG cells ( A ). Cell migration was quantified by analyzing the blank area ( B ). In parallel, invasion by U87 MG cells was further analyzed using a Matrigel-based invasion assay ( C ). Invading cells were counted and statistically analyzed ( D ). Human U87 MG cells were pretreated with bradykinin receptor B1 (BDKRB1) siRNA and then exposed to bradykinin. Wound-healing ( E ) and Matrigel-invasion ( F ) assays were performed, and results were statistically analyzed. Each value represents the mean ± standard deviation (SD), n = 9. Symbols * and # indicate that the values significantly ( p < 0.05) differed from the control and BDKRB1 siRNA-treated groups, respectively. Representative morphological images are shown.

    Journal: Cancers

    Article Title: The Bradykinin-BDKRB1 Axis Regulates Aquaporin 4 Gene Expression and Consequential Migration and Invasion of Malignant Glioblastoma Cells via a Ca 2+ -MEK1-ERK1/2-NF-κB Mechanism

    doi: 10.3390/cancers12030667

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of bradykinin on the migration and invasion of human malignant glioblastoma cells. Human U87 MG glioblastoma cells were treated with 100 nM bradykinin for 24 h. A wound-healing assay was carried out to determine migration of U87 MG cells ( A ). Cell migration was quantified by analyzing the blank area ( B ). In parallel, invasion by U87 MG cells was further analyzed using a Matrigel-based invasion assay ( C ). Invading cells were counted and statistically analyzed ( D ). Human U87 MG cells were pretreated with bradykinin receptor B1 (BDKRB1) siRNA and then exposed to bradykinin. Wound-healing ( E ) and Matrigel-invasion ( F ) assays were performed, and results were statistically analyzed. Each value represents the mean ± standard deviation (SD), n = 9. Symbols * and # indicate that the values significantly ( p < 0.05) differed from the control and BDKRB1 siRNA-treated groups, respectively. Representative morphological images are shown.

    Article Snippet: Briefly, after culturing human glioblastoma cells in antibiotic-free DMEM at 37 °C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO 2 for 24 h, the BDKRB1 siRNA duplex solution, which was diluted in siRNA transfection medium (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), was added to U87 MG cells.

    Techniques: Migration, Wound Healing Assay, Invasion Assay, Standard Deviation