Structured Review

Carl Zeiss semithin sections
The primary degenerative event in the course of the degeneration is located in the outer nuclear layer of CCDKO mice and leads to the secondary development of RPE damage. (A) Superior-inferior oriented sagittal <t>semithin</t> histology of the outer retina of CCDKO mice and age-matched C57Bl/6 wildtype mice at the level of the optic disc between 2 weeks and over 20 months of age. A localized drop-out of nuclei from the ONL (white arrowheads) as early as 2 weeks of age in CCDKO mice suggests a primary pathological event in the retina that initiates the progressive inferior retinal degeneration in this model finally leading to the complete loss of retinal layers from 8 months of age onwards. The RPE underneath these lesions is secondarily affected. White arrows: drop out of photoreceptor columns, black arrowheads: descending retinal vessels, INL: inner nuclear layer, OPL: outer plexiform layer, ONL: outer nuclear layer, IS: inner segments, OS: outer segments, RPE: retinal pigment epithelium. (B) Quantitative morphometry of RPE damage on the same sections. We observed an normal age-related increase of RPE damage in wildtype mice ( C57Bl/6 : Pearson r 2 = 0.5562, p
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Images

1) Product Images from "Differential Modulation of Retinal Degeneration by Ccl2 and Cx3cr1 Chemokine Signalling"

Article Title: Differential Modulation of Retinal Degeneration by Ccl2 and Cx3cr1 Chemokine Signalling

Journal: PLoS ONE

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035551

The primary degenerative event in the course of the degeneration is located in the outer nuclear layer of CCDKO mice and leads to the secondary development of RPE damage. (A) Superior-inferior oriented sagittal semithin histology of the outer retina of CCDKO mice and age-matched C57Bl/6 wildtype mice at the level of the optic disc between 2 weeks and over 20 months of age. A localized drop-out of nuclei from the ONL (white arrowheads) as early as 2 weeks of age in CCDKO mice suggests a primary pathological event in the retina that initiates the progressive inferior retinal degeneration in this model finally leading to the complete loss of retinal layers from 8 months of age onwards. The RPE underneath these lesions is secondarily affected. White arrows: drop out of photoreceptor columns, black arrowheads: descending retinal vessels, INL: inner nuclear layer, OPL: outer plexiform layer, ONL: outer nuclear layer, IS: inner segments, OS: outer segments, RPE: retinal pigment epithelium. (B) Quantitative morphometry of RPE damage on the same sections. We observed an normal age-related increase of RPE damage in wildtype mice ( C57Bl/6 : Pearson r 2 = 0.5562, p
Figure Legend Snippet: The primary degenerative event in the course of the degeneration is located in the outer nuclear layer of CCDKO mice and leads to the secondary development of RPE damage. (A) Superior-inferior oriented sagittal semithin histology of the outer retina of CCDKO mice and age-matched C57Bl/6 wildtype mice at the level of the optic disc between 2 weeks and over 20 months of age. A localized drop-out of nuclei from the ONL (white arrowheads) as early as 2 weeks of age in CCDKO mice suggests a primary pathological event in the retina that initiates the progressive inferior retinal degeneration in this model finally leading to the complete loss of retinal layers from 8 months of age onwards. The RPE underneath these lesions is secondarily affected. White arrows: drop out of photoreceptor columns, black arrowheads: descending retinal vessels, INL: inner nuclear layer, OPL: outer plexiform layer, ONL: outer nuclear layer, IS: inner segments, OS: outer segments, RPE: retinal pigment epithelium. (B) Quantitative morphometry of RPE damage on the same sections. We observed an normal age-related increase of RPE damage in wildtype mice ( C57Bl/6 : Pearson r 2 = 0.5562, p

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

2) Product Images from "Organization and metamorphic remodeling of the nervous system in juveniles of Phoronopsis harmeri (Phoronida): insights into evolution of the bilaterian nervous system"

Article Title: Organization and metamorphic remodeling of the nervous system in juveniles of Phoronopsis harmeri (Phoronida): insights into evolution of the bilaterian nervous system

Journal: Frontiers in Zoology

doi: 10.1186/1742-9994-11-35

Organization of main nerve elements at first stages of metamorphosis of Phoronopsis harmeri. Sagittal semithin (A, C) and thin (B, D-E) sections. (A) One of dorsolateral groups of perikarya. (B) Perikarya (pink) of dorsolateral group, which is associated with the main nerve ring. (C) The main nerve ring. (D) Perikaryon (pink) in the main nerve ring. (E) The neuropil of the main nerve ring. Abbreviations: bc – blastocoel; c2 – tentacular coelom; c3 – trunk coelom; d – diaphragm; dcv – dense-core vesicle; gp – groups of perikarya; m – mitochondrion; mc – muscle cell; mt – microtubule; n – nucleus; nc – nephridial channel; nf – nerve fiber; pl – preoral lobe; sv – synaptic vesicle; tn – main nerve ring.
Figure Legend Snippet: Organization of main nerve elements at first stages of metamorphosis of Phoronopsis harmeri. Sagittal semithin (A, C) and thin (B, D-E) sections. (A) One of dorsolateral groups of perikarya. (B) Perikarya (pink) of dorsolateral group, which is associated with the main nerve ring. (C) The main nerve ring. (D) Perikaryon (pink) in the main nerve ring. (E) The neuropil of the main nerve ring. Abbreviations: bc – blastocoel; c2 – tentacular coelom; c3 – trunk coelom; d – diaphragm; dcv – dense-core vesicle; gp – groups of perikarya; m – mitochondrion; mc – muscle cell; mt – microtubule; n – nucleus; nc – nephridial channel; nf – nerve fiber; pl – preoral lobe; sv – synaptic vesicle; tn – main nerve ring.

Techniques Used:

Some nerve elements of the trunk in 3-day-old juvenile of Phoronopsis harmeri. Cross semithin (A) and thin (B-F) sections of the anterior body part. (A) Whole section with formed definitive digestive tract and blood vessels. (B) The giant nerve fiber, which is completely enveloped by two cells and accompanied by several nerve fibers of common diameter. (C) Group of nerve fibers (arrowheads) in the epithelium of descending branch of the digestive tract. (D) Large projection of nerve cell contains synaptic vesicles and located in the epithelium of descending branch of the digestive tract. (E) Projection of neurosecretory cell (arrowheads) in the epithelium of ascending branch of the digestive tract. (F) Neuron (pink) with dense-core synaptic vesicles and nerve fibers, some of which contain clear (electron-lucent) vesicles in the epithelium of the esophagus. Abbreviations: ab – ascending branch of digestive tract; am – anal mesentery; bc – blastocoel; bl – basal lamina; c3 – trunk coelom; cc – coelomic lining; cv – clear (electron-lucent) synaptic vesicle; db – descending branch of digestive tract; dcv – dense-core vesicle; ec – enveloping cell; ep – epidermis; llv – left lateral blood vessel; lm – longitudinal muscles; m – mitochondria; mc – muscle cells; mv – median blood vessel; n – nucleus; nf – nerve fiber; sv – synaptic vesicles.
Figure Legend Snippet: Some nerve elements of the trunk in 3-day-old juvenile of Phoronopsis harmeri. Cross semithin (A) and thin (B-F) sections of the anterior body part. (A) Whole section with formed definitive digestive tract and blood vessels. (B) The giant nerve fiber, which is completely enveloped by two cells and accompanied by several nerve fibers of common diameter. (C) Group of nerve fibers (arrowheads) in the epithelium of descending branch of the digestive tract. (D) Large projection of nerve cell contains synaptic vesicles and located in the epithelium of descending branch of the digestive tract. (E) Projection of neurosecretory cell (arrowheads) in the epithelium of ascending branch of the digestive tract. (F) Neuron (pink) with dense-core synaptic vesicles and nerve fibers, some of which contain clear (electron-lucent) vesicles in the epithelium of the esophagus. Abbreviations: ab – ascending branch of digestive tract; am – anal mesentery; bc – blastocoel; bl – basal lamina; c3 – trunk coelom; cc – coelomic lining; cv – clear (electron-lucent) synaptic vesicle; db – descending branch of digestive tract; dcv – dense-core vesicle; ec – enveloping cell; ep – epidermis; llv – left lateral blood vessel; lm – longitudinal muscles; m – mitochondria; mc – muscle cells; mv – median blood vessel; n – nucleus; nf – nerve fiber; sv – synaptic vesicles.

Techniques Used:

Morphological and ultrasrtuctural changes of the larval hood and tentacles at the firsts stages of metamorphosis of Phoronopsis harmeri. (A-C) The anterior portion of the body of live animals. (D, F, G) Semithin sections. (E, H-K) Thin section. (A) First stage of metamorphosis: the hood (pl) remains its integrity. (B) The next (second) stage of metamorphosis: the hood (pl) turns into cellular debris and engulfed. (C) The third stage of metamorphosis: larval tentacles (t) form a “cup” and surround the hood. (D) The second stage of metamorphosis, sagittal section; the oral side is to the right, the anal side is to the left, the apical is at the top. ( E) Thick basal lamina (bl) and spacious blastocoel (bc) under degenerated cells of the preoral lobe and the apical organ, which still remains synaptic vesicles (sv). (F) Sagittal section of the protocoel (c1), degenerated hood (pl), and the apical organ (ao). (G) The cross section of the tentacle, which starts to acquire the definitive style via the peeling of the postoral ciliated band (po). (H) The mediofrontal neurite bundle (arrowheads). (I) The medioabfrontal neurite bundles (arrowheads). (J) The lateroabfrontal neurite bundle (arrowheads), which is associated with gland cell (gc). (K) Laterofrontal neurite bundle (arrowheads) is associated with laterofrontal sensory cell (lfc), which undergoes the cell death. Abbreviations: az – abfrontal zone; bm – blood masses; bv – blood vessel; c2 – tentacular coelom; c3 – trunk coelom; es – esophagus; fz – frontal zone; lfz – laterofrontal zone; m – mouth; mc – muscle cell; mi – microvilli; mv – median blood vessel; n – nucleus; nf – nerve fiber; pt – posterior part of the larval body with the telotroch; sd – stomach diverticulum; st – stomach; tn – main nerve ring; tt – telotroch.
Figure Legend Snippet: Morphological and ultrasrtuctural changes of the larval hood and tentacles at the firsts stages of metamorphosis of Phoronopsis harmeri. (A-C) The anterior portion of the body of live animals. (D, F, G) Semithin sections. (E, H-K) Thin section. (A) First stage of metamorphosis: the hood (pl) remains its integrity. (B) The next (second) stage of metamorphosis: the hood (pl) turns into cellular debris and engulfed. (C) The third stage of metamorphosis: larval tentacles (t) form a “cup” and surround the hood. (D) The second stage of metamorphosis, sagittal section; the oral side is to the right, the anal side is to the left, the apical is at the top. ( E) Thick basal lamina (bl) and spacious blastocoel (bc) under degenerated cells of the preoral lobe and the apical organ, which still remains synaptic vesicles (sv). (F) Sagittal section of the protocoel (c1), degenerated hood (pl), and the apical organ (ao). (G) The cross section of the tentacle, which starts to acquire the definitive style via the peeling of the postoral ciliated band (po). (H) The mediofrontal neurite bundle (arrowheads). (I) The medioabfrontal neurite bundles (arrowheads). (J) The lateroabfrontal neurite bundle (arrowheads), which is associated with gland cell (gc). (K) Laterofrontal neurite bundle (arrowheads) is associated with laterofrontal sensory cell (lfc), which undergoes the cell death. Abbreviations: az – abfrontal zone; bm – blood masses; bv – blood vessel; c2 – tentacular coelom; c3 – trunk coelom; es – esophagus; fz – frontal zone; lfz – laterofrontal zone; m – mouth; mc – muscle cell; mi – microvilli; mv – median blood vessel; n – nucleus; nf – nerve fiber; pt – posterior part of the larval body with the telotroch; sd – stomach diverticulum; st – stomach; tn – main nerve ring; tt – telotroch.

Techniques Used: Hood

Serotonin-like immunoreactive nervous system in Phoronopsis harmeri during the first stages of metamorphosis. (A-G) Animals at one of the first stages of metamorphosis (the “hood-eating stage”). (H-J) Animals at the stage when the postoral ciliated band is ingested. In all images, the apical is at the top, and the oral side is to the right. Z-projections (B, D, E, G, H) of animals after mono- and double staining for serotonin (yellow) and phalloidin (blue). (A) Whole animal viewed from the top; SEM. (B) Anterior portion of the body. The intertentacular branches are indicated by opened arrowheads. (C) Sagittal semithin section of the anterior portion of the body. (D) Optical sagittal section of the anterior part of the body. The serotonin-like immunoreactive cells in the esophagus are indicated by closed arrowheads. The nerve ring around the anus is indicated by arrows. (E) The portion of tentacular (main) nerve ring with intertentacular branches (arrowheads). (F) Middle part of the body with nerve plexus and nonsensory perikarya (double close arrowheads). (G) Whole anterior part of the body. (H) Anterior part of the body; SEM. (I) Whole anterior part of the animal. The main nerve ring is indicated by double arrowheads. (J) Part of the main nerve ring and lateroabfrontal neurites. The intertentacular branches are indicated by open arrowheads. Abbreviations: ao – apical organ; bc – blastocoel; c3 – trunk coelom; es – esophagus; gp – groups of perikarya; m – mouth; la – lateroabfrontal neurite bundles; of – oral field; p – proctodaeum; pl – preoral lobe; po – postoral ciliated band; pp – remnant of the hood; pt – posterior part of the larval body with the telotroch; sg – neurites of the second group; st – stomach; t – tentacle; tn – tentacular (main) nerve ring; tt – telotroch; yt – youngest tentacles.
Figure Legend Snippet: Serotonin-like immunoreactive nervous system in Phoronopsis harmeri during the first stages of metamorphosis. (A-G) Animals at one of the first stages of metamorphosis (the “hood-eating stage”). (H-J) Animals at the stage when the postoral ciliated band is ingested. In all images, the apical is at the top, and the oral side is to the right. Z-projections (B, D, E, G, H) of animals after mono- and double staining for serotonin (yellow) and phalloidin (blue). (A) Whole animal viewed from the top; SEM. (B) Anterior portion of the body. The intertentacular branches are indicated by opened arrowheads. (C) Sagittal semithin section of the anterior portion of the body. (D) Optical sagittal section of the anterior part of the body. The serotonin-like immunoreactive cells in the esophagus are indicated by closed arrowheads. The nerve ring around the anus is indicated by arrows. (E) The portion of tentacular (main) nerve ring with intertentacular branches (arrowheads). (F) Middle part of the body with nerve plexus and nonsensory perikarya (double close arrowheads). (G) Whole anterior part of the body. (H) Anterior part of the body; SEM. (I) Whole anterior part of the animal. The main nerve ring is indicated by double arrowheads. (J) Part of the main nerve ring and lateroabfrontal neurites. The intertentacular branches are indicated by open arrowheads. Abbreviations: ao – apical organ; bc – blastocoel; c3 – trunk coelom; es – esophagus; gp – groups of perikarya; m – mouth; la – lateroabfrontal neurite bundles; of – oral field; p – proctodaeum; pl – preoral lobe; po – postoral ciliated band; pp – remnant of the hood; pt – posterior part of the larval body with the telotroch; sg – neurites of the second group; st – stomach; t – tentacle; tn – tentacular (main) nerve ring; tt – telotroch; yt – youngest tentacles.

Techniques Used: Double Staining, Hood

Organization of the dorsal ganglion in 3-day-old juvenile of Phoronopsis harmeri . Cross semithin (A) and thin (B-D) sections of the head region. (A) Two dorsolateral groups of perikarya (pink boxes) connect via thick commissure. (B) A portion of one of the dorsolateral group of perikarya: sensory (blue) and nonsensory (pink) perikarya are visible. Perikarya of both types bear centrioles (arrowheads). (C) A portion of the commissure, which consists of nerve fibers of different types. (D) A proximal portion of the giant nerve fiber associated with epidermal cell (blue), which contacts the epidermis surface and bears the centriole (arrowhead). Abbreviations: bl – basal lamina; c – commissure; c2 – mesocoel; cc – coelomic lining; cv – clear (electron-lucent) synaptic vesicle; dcv – dense-core vesicle; er – erythrocyte; es – esophagus; G – Golgi apparatus; gf – giant nerve fiber; m – mouth; mc – mitochondria; mi – microvilli; mnr – minor nerve ring; mt – microtubule; n – nucleus; nf – nerve fiber; tt – telotroch.
Figure Legend Snippet: Organization of the dorsal ganglion in 3-day-old juvenile of Phoronopsis harmeri . Cross semithin (A) and thin (B-D) sections of the head region. (A) Two dorsolateral groups of perikarya (pink boxes) connect via thick commissure. (B) A portion of one of the dorsolateral group of perikarya: sensory (blue) and nonsensory (pink) perikarya are visible. Perikarya of both types bear centrioles (arrowheads). (C) A portion of the commissure, which consists of nerve fibers of different types. (D) A proximal portion of the giant nerve fiber associated with epidermal cell (blue), which contacts the epidermis surface and bears the centriole (arrowhead). Abbreviations: bl – basal lamina; c – commissure; c2 – mesocoel; cc – coelomic lining; cv – clear (electron-lucent) synaptic vesicle; dcv – dense-core vesicle; er – erythrocyte; es – esophagus; G – Golgi apparatus; gf – giant nerve fiber; m – mouth; mc – mitochondria; mi – microvilli; mnr – minor nerve ring; mt – microtubule; n – nucleus; nf – nerve fiber; tt – telotroch.

Techniques Used:

3) Product Images from "Egg envelopes and cuticle renewal inPorcellio embryos and marsupial mancas"

Article Title: Egg envelopes and cuticle renewal inPorcellio embryos and marsupial mancas

Journal: ZooKeys

doi: 10.3897/zookeys.176.2418

Structure of distal chorion ( ch ) and proximal vitelline membrane ( vm ), covering Porcellio scaber A, B, D, F and Porcellio dilatatus C, E early-stage embryo. A The early-stage embryo with large amount of yolk ( y ) and no visible limb buds. B Semithin section of the embryo peripheral region. Chorion is separated from the embryo surface. The vitelline membrane is closely apposed to the embryo surface. C SEM micrograph of the early-stage embryo. The outer egg envelope, chorion, is visible. D TEM micrograph of one-layered chorion, including electron lucent “lacunae” (white arrow). There is a layer of artificially spilt yolk underneath the chorion. E SEM micrograph of the early-stage embryo. Chorion is artificially removed and the inner egg envelope, vitelline membrane, is exposed. F TEM micrograph of vitelline membrane, composed of three layers: main proximal homogenous layer (*), thin middle electron dense layer (white arrow) and superficial corrugated lucent layer (black arrow). Bars: A, C, E 200 µm; B 10 µm; D 0.5 µm; F 200 nm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Structure of distal chorion ( ch ) and proximal vitelline membrane ( vm ), covering Porcellio scaber A, B, D, F and Porcellio dilatatus C, E early-stage embryo. A The early-stage embryo with large amount of yolk ( y ) and no visible limb buds. B Semithin section of the embryo peripheral region. Chorion is separated from the embryo surface. The vitelline membrane is closely apposed to the embryo surface. C SEM micrograph of the early-stage embryo. The outer egg envelope, chorion, is visible. D TEM micrograph of one-layered chorion, including electron lucent “lacunae” (white arrow). There is a layer of artificially spilt yolk underneath the chorion. E SEM micrograph of the early-stage embryo. Chorion is artificially removed and the inner egg envelope, vitelline membrane, is exposed. F TEM micrograph of vitelline membrane, composed of three layers: main proximal homogenous layer (*), thin middle electron dense layer (white arrow) and superficial corrugated lucent layer (black arrow). Bars: A, C, E 200 µm; B 10 µm; D 0.5 µm; F 200 nm.

Techniques Used: Transmission Electron Microscopy

Cuticle structure and renewal in Porcellio scaber prehatching late-stage embryo. A Swelled embryo inside the vitelline membrane ( vm ), prior to hatching. B Semithin section of the embryo peripheral region. The vitelline membrane is artificially removed. Clearly discernible exoskeletal cuticle ( c ), detached from the underlying hypodermis ( hd ). C, D, E TEM micrographs of exoskeletal cuticle in different regions of the same specimen, composed of three principal layers: the outermost thin electron dense epicuticle ( ep ), the middle exocuticle ( ex ) and the innermost endocuticle with several sublayers ( en ). The micrographs show features of cuticle renewal: cuticle detachment from the hypodermis, partial disintegration of proximal portion of endocuticle (*) and irregularly arranged electron dense particles on outer apical plasma membrane surface (white arrows). Pore canals (black arrow) in the endocuticle consist of electron lucent central part and electron dense margins C . Cuticular scales ( sc ) are fully elaborated and the exocuticle has the characteristic pattern of chitin-protein fibers arrangement D . Exocuticle is hardly discernible E . F TEM micrograph of completely structured sensillum transverse section in the hypodermis. Dendritic outer segments (*) and enveloping cells (white *). Bars: A 500 µm; B 10 µm; C, E 1 µm; D 0.5 µm; F 200 nm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Cuticle structure and renewal in Porcellio scaber prehatching late-stage embryo. A Swelled embryo inside the vitelline membrane ( vm ), prior to hatching. B Semithin section of the embryo peripheral region. The vitelline membrane is artificially removed. Clearly discernible exoskeletal cuticle ( c ), detached from the underlying hypodermis ( hd ). C, D, E TEM micrographs of exoskeletal cuticle in different regions of the same specimen, composed of three principal layers: the outermost thin electron dense epicuticle ( ep ), the middle exocuticle ( ex ) and the innermost endocuticle with several sublayers ( en ). The micrographs show features of cuticle renewal: cuticle detachment from the hypodermis, partial disintegration of proximal portion of endocuticle (*) and irregularly arranged electron dense particles on outer apical plasma membrane surface (white arrows). Pore canals (black arrow) in the endocuticle consist of electron lucent central part and electron dense margins C . Cuticular scales ( sc ) are fully elaborated and the exocuticle has the characteristic pattern of chitin-protein fibers arrangement D . Exocuticle is hardly discernible E . F TEM micrograph of completely structured sensillum transverse section in the hypodermis. Dendritic outer segments (*) and enveloping cells (white *). Bars: A 500 µm; B 10 µm; C, E 1 µm; D 0.5 µm; F 200 nm.

Techniques Used: Transmission Electron Microscopy

Cuticle structure and renewal in Porcellio scaber marsupial mancas. A The early-stage marsupial manca, immediately after hatching B The mid-stage marsupial manca C The late-stage marsupial manca, just prior to release from the marsupium D–F Semithin sections of the manca peripheral region in the early-stage marsupial manca D in the mid-stage marsupial manca E and in the late-stage marsupial manca F . Cuticle ( c ), overlying the hypodermis ( hd ), becomes progressively more similar to adult cuticle. G–K TEM micrographs of exoskeletal cuticle in the early-stage marsupial manca G, J in the mid-stage marsupial manca H and in the late-stage marsupial manca I, K Three main layers are distinguished: epicuticle ( ep ), exocuticle ( ex ) and endocuticle ( en ). The micrographs show morphological characteristics of cuticle renewal: detachment of the old cuticle ( oc ) from the hypodermis, ecdysal space (*) between the detached cuticle and the newly forming cuticle ( nc ) and partial degradation of the old cuticle H, I protrusions with electron dense tips (white arrows) on apical surfaces of hypodermal cells G, I, J . The new cuticle consists of two layers, external electron dense epicuticle and internal electron lucent procuticle H, I, K . Helicoidal chitin-protein fibers arrangement is discernible in some regions of late-stage marsupial manca K . Bars: A–C 500 µm; D–F 10 µm; G–I 1 µm; J, K 200 nm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Cuticle structure and renewal in Porcellio scaber marsupial mancas. A The early-stage marsupial manca, immediately after hatching B The mid-stage marsupial manca C The late-stage marsupial manca, just prior to release from the marsupium D–F Semithin sections of the manca peripheral region in the early-stage marsupial manca D in the mid-stage marsupial manca E and in the late-stage marsupial manca F . Cuticle ( c ), overlying the hypodermis ( hd ), becomes progressively more similar to adult cuticle. G–K TEM micrographs of exoskeletal cuticle in the early-stage marsupial manca G, J in the mid-stage marsupial manca H and in the late-stage marsupial manca I, K Three main layers are distinguished: epicuticle ( ep ), exocuticle ( ex ) and endocuticle ( en ). The micrographs show morphological characteristics of cuticle renewal: detachment of the old cuticle ( oc ) from the hypodermis, ecdysal space (*) between the detached cuticle and the newly forming cuticle ( nc ) and partial degradation of the old cuticle H, I protrusions with electron dense tips (white arrows) on apical surfaces of hypodermal cells G, I, J . The new cuticle consists of two layers, external electron dense epicuticle and internal electron lucent procuticle H, I, K . Helicoidal chitin-protein fibers arrangement is discernible in some regions of late-stage marsupial manca K . Bars: A–C 500 µm; D–F 10 µm; G–I 1 µm; J, K 200 nm.

Techniques Used: Transmission Electron Microscopy

Structure of vitelline membrane ( vm ), covering Porcellio scaber A–D and Porcellio dilatatus E–G late-stage embryo. A Ventrally bent late-stage embryo, yolk is completely enclosed into the midgut glands ( mg ). B Semithin section of the embryo peripheral region. Vitelline membrane is slightly detached from the hypodermis ( hd ). C, D TEM micrographs of the vitelline membrane in osmicated specimen C and in non-osmicated specimen D Main proximal homogenous layer (*), thin middle electron dense layer (white arrow) and superficial corrugated lucent layer (black arrow). Hypodermis is covered with an extracellular matrix (ECM). E SEM micrograph of the late-stage embryo surrounded by vitelline membrane. F, G SEM micrographs of the late-stage embryo surface area. The vitelline membrane is artificially slit and fibers (arrows) between the outer embryo surface, covered with an extracellular matrix (s), and the vitelline membrane are exposed. Bars: A 500 µm; B, F 10 µm; C, D 200 nm; E 200 µm; G 5 µm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Structure of vitelline membrane ( vm ), covering Porcellio scaber A–D and Porcellio dilatatus E–G late-stage embryo. A Ventrally bent late-stage embryo, yolk is completely enclosed into the midgut glands ( mg ). B Semithin section of the embryo peripheral region. Vitelline membrane is slightly detached from the hypodermis ( hd ). C, D TEM micrographs of the vitelline membrane in osmicated specimen C and in non-osmicated specimen D Main proximal homogenous layer (*), thin middle electron dense layer (white arrow) and superficial corrugated lucent layer (black arrow). Hypodermis is covered with an extracellular matrix (ECM). E SEM micrograph of the late-stage embryo surrounded by vitelline membrane. F, G SEM micrographs of the late-stage embryo surface area. The vitelline membrane is artificially slit and fibers (arrows) between the outer embryo surface, covered with an extracellular matrix (s), and the vitelline membrane are exposed. Bars: A 500 µm; B, F 10 µm; C, D 200 nm; E 200 µm; G 5 µm.

Techniques Used: Transmission Electron Microscopy

Structure of distal chorion ( ch ) and proximal vitelline membrane ( vm ), covering Porcellio scaber mid-stage embryo. A The mid-stage embryo with visible limb buds ( lb ) and midgut glands primordia ( mg ). B Semithin section of the embryo peripheral region. Chorion is separated from the embryo surface. The vitelline membrane is slightly detached from the embryo cells; * - a wider space between embryo surface and vitelline membrane. C, D TEM micrographs of one-layered chorion, including electron lucent “lacunae” (white arrow). E, F TEM micrographs of vitelline membrane, composed of three layers: main proximal homogenous layer (*), thin middle electron dense layer (white arrow) and superficial corrugated lucent layer (black arrow). Bars: A 200 µm; B 10 µm; C, E 0.5 µm; D, F 200 nm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Structure of distal chorion ( ch ) and proximal vitelline membrane ( vm ), covering Porcellio scaber mid-stage embryo. A The mid-stage embryo with visible limb buds ( lb ) and midgut glands primordia ( mg ). B Semithin section of the embryo peripheral region. Chorion is separated from the embryo surface. The vitelline membrane is slightly detached from the embryo cells; * - a wider space between embryo surface and vitelline membrane. C, D TEM micrographs of one-layered chorion, including electron lucent “lacunae” (white arrow). E, F TEM micrographs of vitelline membrane, composed of three layers: main proximal homogenous layer (*), thin middle electron dense layer (white arrow) and superficial corrugated lucent layer (black arrow). Bars: A 200 µm; B 10 µm; C, E 0.5 µm; D, F 200 nm.

Techniques Used: Transmission Electron Microscopy

4) Product Images from "Morphology, microanatomy and sequence data of Sclerolinum contortum (Siboglindae, Annelida) of the Gulf of Mexico"

Article Title: Morphology, microanatomy and sequence data of Sclerolinum contortum (Siboglindae, Annelida) of the Gulf of Mexico

Journal: Organisms, Diversity & Evolution

doi: 10.1007/s13127-012-0121-3

Semithin section series of anterior trunk region with only a few bacteriocytes embedded within a non-symbiotic mesenchyme ( a-b ) and posterior trunk region with massive bacteriocyte tissue ( c-d ). a Lateral pyriform glands opening into epidermal papillae devoid of cuticular plaques; dorsal blood vessel clogged by the intravasal body. b Ventral and dorsal blood vessel connecting to blood lacunae (arrowhead); epidermis with papilla bearing cuticular plaque (double arrowhead). c Posterior end of the trophosome showing bacteriocytes filling the body cavity. d Thickening of the epidermis and longitudinal muscle layer in combination with dense arrangement of cuticular plaques (double arrowhead). Abbreviations: bc = bacteriocyte; bl = blood lacuna; cc = coelomic cavity; dv = dorsal blood vessel; ep = epidermis; od = oviduct; iv = intravasal body; lp = lateral papilla; ml = body wall muscle layer; ms = mesenchyme; py = pyriform gland; vv = ventral blood vessel
Figure Legend Snippet: Semithin section series of anterior trunk region with only a few bacteriocytes embedded within a non-symbiotic mesenchyme ( a-b ) and posterior trunk region with massive bacteriocyte tissue ( c-d ). a Lateral pyriform glands opening into epidermal papillae devoid of cuticular plaques; dorsal blood vessel clogged by the intravasal body. b Ventral and dorsal blood vessel connecting to blood lacunae (arrowhead); epidermis with papilla bearing cuticular plaque (double arrowhead). c Posterior end of the trophosome showing bacteriocytes filling the body cavity. d Thickening of the epidermis and longitudinal muscle layer in combination with dense arrangement of cuticular plaques (double arrowhead). Abbreviations: bc = bacteriocyte; bl = blood lacuna; cc = coelomic cavity; dv = dorsal blood vessel; ep = epidermis; od = oviduct; iv = intravasal body; lp = lateral papilla; ml = body wall muscle layer; ms = mesenchyme; py = pyriform gland; vv = ventral blood vessel

Techniques Used: Mass Spectrometry

Female reproductive system. a Semithin transverse section of the single ovary provided with small blood vessels (asterisk), containing oocytes, located between the oviduct and the ventral blood vessel. b Ultrastructure of the oviduct composed of an inner ciliated epithelium with apical junctional complexes (arrowhead) and a basal matrix (double arrowhead) surrounded by a myoepithelium. c Oocyte in the first meiotic prophase full of yolk granules and lipid droplets surrounded by a small blood vessel, blood lacuna and flattened follicle cells. d Oocyte in direct contact with blood lacuna ramifying into the oolemma (arrowhead). e Egg envelope consisting of extracellular matrix penetrated by microvilli. f Light microscopy of oocyte. Abbreviations: bc = bacteriocyte; bl = blood lacuna; bv = blood vessel; cc = coelomic cavity; ci = cilium; ep = epidermis; fc = follicle cell; ge = germinal vesicle; ld = lipid droplet; mc = myocytes; ml = body wall muscle layer; mm = median mesentery; ms = mesenchyme; mv = microvilli; ne = nucleolus; oc = oocyte; od = oviduct; vv = ventral blood vessel; y = yolk granule
Figure Legend Snippet: Female reproductive system. a Semithin transverse section of the single ovary provided with small blood vessels (asterisk), containing oocytes, located between the oviduct and the ventral blood vessel. b Ultrastructure of the oviduct composed of an inner ciliated epithelium with apical junctional complexes (arrowhead) and a basal matrix (double arrowhead) surrounded by a myoepithelium. c Oocyte in the first meiotic prophase full of yolk granules and lipid droplets surrounded by a small blood vessel, blood lacuna and flattened follicle cells. d Oocyte in direct contact with blood lacuna ramifying into the oolemma (arrowhead). e Egg envelope consisting of extracellular matrix penetrated by microvilli. f Light microscopy of oocyte. Abbreviations: bc = bacteriocyte; bl = blood lacuna; bv = blood vessel; cc = coelomic cavity; ci = cilium; ep = epidermis; fc = follicle cell; ge = germinal vesicle; ld = lipid droplet; mc = myocytes; ml = body wall muscle layer; mm = median mesentery; ms = mesenchyme; mv = microvilli; ne = nucleolus; oc = oocyte; od = oviduct; vv = ventral blood vessel; y = yolk granule

Techniques Used: Light Microscopy, Mass Spectrometry

Semithin section series of the opisthosoma. a Opisthosomal septum consisting of an anterior circular and a posterior longitudinal myoepithelial layer. b Multicellular epidermal glands with prominent nuclei (arrowhead) filling the coelomic cavity of the opisthosoma. Median mesentery (arrow) provided with blood lacunae and suspending the ventral and dorsal blood vessel. Last one at a more median position. Double arrowhead = uncini. Abbreviations: bl = blood lacuna; cc = coelomic cavity; cm = circular muscle layer; dv = dorsal blood vessel; eg = epidermal gland; ep = epidermis; lm = longitudinal muscle layer; vv = ventral blood vessel
Figure Legend Snippet: Semithin section series of the opisthosoma. a Opisthosomal septum consisting of an anterior circular and a posterior longitudinal myoepithelial layer. b Multicellular epidermal glands with prominent nuclei (arrowhead) filling the coelomic cavity of the opisthosoma. Median mesentery (arrow) provided with blood lacunae and suspending the ventral and dorsal blood vessel. Last one at a more median position. Double arrowhead = uncini. Abbreviations: bl = blood lacuna; cc = coelomic cavity; cm = circular muscle layer; dv = dorsal blood vessel; eg = epidermal gland; ep = epidermis; lm = longitudinal muscle layer; vv = ventral blood vessel

Techniques Used:

Semithin section series of tentacles and forepart. a Left tentacle at distal position with vascularized epidermis overlaying a single-layered myoepithelium (arrowhead) surrounding a central coelomic cavity. Right tentacle at proximal position with mesenchyme filling the coelomic cavity. Each tentacle with two blood vessels (asterisk). b Base of cephalic lobe and of tentacles and beginning of the dorsal furrow; cephalic lobe with the brain consisting of central neuropil and peripheral somata; tentacles with mesodermal strands. c Forepart anterior to the frenulum with densely packed pyriform glands, single ventral nerve cord, and paired dorsal blood vessels (asterisk). d Forepart posterior to the frenulum with pyriform glands loosely distributed from dorsal to lateral and ventral nerve encasing the ciliated field. Abbreviations: bl = blood lacuna; cc = coelomic cavity; cf = ciliated field; ep = epidermis; df = dorsal furrow; dv = dorsal blood vessel; me = mesoderm; ml = body wall muscle layer; nc = nerve cord; np = neuropil; py = pyriform gland; sg = single gland cell; so = somata; vv = ventral blood vessel
Figure Legend Snippet: Semithin section series of tentacles and forepart. a Left tentacle at distal position with vascularized epidermis overlaying a single-layered myoepithelium (arrowhead) surrounding a central coelomic cavity. Right tentacle at proximal position with mesenchyme filling the coelomic cavity. Each tentacle with two blood vessels (asterisk). b Base of cephalic lobe and of tentacles and beginning of the dorsal furrow; cephalic lobe with the brain consisting of central neuropil and peripheral somata; tentacles with mesodermal strands. c Forepart anterior to the frenulum with densely packed pyriform glands, single ventral nerve cord, and paired dorsal blood vessels (asterisk). d Forepart posterior to the frenulum with pyriform glands loosely distributed from dorsal to lateral and ventral nerve encasing the ciliated field. Abbreviations: bl = blood lacuna; cc = coelomic cavity; cf = ciliated field; ep = epidermis; df = dorsal furrow; dv = dorsal blood vessel; me = mesoderm; ml = body wall muscle layer; nc = nerve cord; np = neuropil; py = pyriform gland; sg = single gland cell; so = somata; vv = ventral blood vessel

Techniques Used:

5) Product Images from "GRIM-19, a Cell Death Regulatory Protein, Is Essential for Assembly and Function of Mitochondrial Complex I"

Article Title: GRIM-19, a Cell Death Regulatory Protein, Is Essential for Assembly and Function of Mitochondrial Complex I

Journal: Molecular and Cellular Biology

doi: 10.1128/MCB.24.19.8447-8456.2004

In vitro outgrowth of blastocysts. Intercrossed embryos at E3.5 were collected (day 0) and cultured for 4 days. The blastocysts were photographed at different objective magnifications as indicated. The bottom row of panel B shows semithin sections of the blastocysts stained with toluidine blue. TB, TG, and ICM are indicated by arrows. Scale bar = 50 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: In vitro outgrowth of blastocysts. Intercrossed embryos at E3.5 were collected (day 0) and cultured for 4 days. The blastocysts were photographed at different objective magnifications as indicated. The bottom row of panel B shows semithin sections of the blastocysts stained with toluidine blue. TB, TG, and ICM are indicated by arrows. Scale bar = 50 μm.

Techniques Used: In Vitro, Cell Culture, Staining

6) Product Images from "Reconstitution of Mammary Gland Development In Vitro: Requirement of c-met and c-erbB2 Signaling for Branching and Alveolar Morphogenesis "

Article Title: Reconstitution of Mammary Gland Development In Vitro: Requirement of c-met and c-erbB2 Signaling for Branching and Alveolar Morphogenesis

Journal: The Journal of Cell Biology

doi:

Effect of neuregulin on morphogenesis of mammary epithelial cells EpH4/K6 on matrigel. Cells were cultured for 6 d in medium containing hormones in the presence of neuregulin ( a and c ; for the control in the absence of neuregulin refer to Fig. 1 a ). Large alveolar structures were formed which were predominantly built up by a single layer of columnar epithelial cells. Identical structures were observed in EpH4/K6 cells transfected with a trk/c-erbB2 hybrid receptor and stimulated with NGF ( b and d ). Top , micrograph using Nomarski optics; bottom , semithin sections of Epon-embedded cultures. Bars: ( b ) 50 μm; ( d ) 25 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of neuregulin on morphogenesis of mammary epithelial cells EpH4/K6 on matrigel. Cells were cultured for 6 d in medium containing hormones in the presence of neuregulin ( a and c ; for the control in the absence of neuregulin refer to Fig. 1 a ). Large alveolar structures were formed which were predominantly built up by a single layer of columnar epithelial cells. Identical structures were observed in EpH4/K6 cells transfected with a trk/c-erbB2 hybrid receptor and stimulated with NGF ( b and d ). Top , micrograph using Nomarski optics; bottom , semithin sections of Epon-embedded cultures. Bars: ( b ) 50 μm; ( d ) 25 μm.

Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Transfection

Effect of HGF/SF on the morphology of EpH4/K6 mammary epithelial cells on matrigel. Cells were cultured in medium containing hormones in the absence ( a and d ) or in the presence of HGF/SF ( b and e ). Small aggregates with ( arrow ) or without lumen were formed in the absence of factor. HGF/SF induced branching tubules with prominent lumina ( arrows in b ) and end buds ( arrowheads in b ). Gab1-transfected EpH4/K6 cells exhibited a similar morphogenic response in the absence of HGF/SF ( c and f ). Top , micrographs using Nomarski optics; bottom , semithin sections of Epon-embedded cultures. Bars: ( a ) 50 μm; ( c ) 25 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of HGF/SF on the morphology of EpH4/K6 mammary epithelial cells on matrigel. Cells were cultured in medium containing hormones in the absence ( a and d ) or in the presence of HGF/SF ( b and e ). Small aggregates with ( arrow ) or without lumen were formed in the absence of factor. HGF/SF induced branching tubules with prominent lumina ( arrows in b ) and end buds ( arrowheads in b ). Gab1-transfected EpH4/K6 cells exhibited a similar morphogenic response in the absence of HGF/SF ( c and f ). Top , micrographs using Nomarski optics; bottom , semithin sections of Epon-embedded cultures. Bars: ( a ) 50 μm; ( c ) 25 μm.

Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Transfection

7) Product Images from "The nervous system of the lophophore in the ctenostome Amathia gracilis provides insight into the morphology of ancestral ectoprocts and the monophyly of the lophophorates"

Article Title: The nervous system of the lophophore in the ctenostome Amathia gracilis provides insight into the morphology of ancestral ectoprocts and the monophyly of the lophophorates

Journal: BMC Evolutionary Biology

doi: 10.1186/s12862-016-0744-7

Organization of tentacles in Amathia gracilis . a Semithin transverse section of tentacle base. Zonality of the tentacle epithelium is evident. b Ultrathin transverse section of the frontal and latero-frontal zone of the tentacle base. Abbreviations: az - abfrontal zone; cc - coelomic cavity; cu - cuticle; ECM - extracellular matrix; fc - frontal cell; fz - frontal zone; lf - latero-frontal tentacle nerve; lfc - latero-frontal cell; lz - lateral zone; mi - microvilli; mf - medio-frontal tentacle nerve; pl - pylorus
Figure Legend Snippet: Organization of tentacles in Amathia gracilis . a Semithin transverse section of tentacle base. Zonality of the tentacle epithelium is evident. b Ultrathin transverse section of the frontal and latero-frontal zone of the tentacle base. Abbreviations: az - abfrontal zone; cc - coelomic cavity; cu - cuticle; ECM - extracellular matrix; fc - frontal cell; fz - frontal zone; lf - latero-frontal tentacle nerve; lfc - latero-frontal cell; lz - lateral zone; mi - microvilli; mf - medio-frontal tentacle nerve; pl - pylorus

Techniques Used:

Organization of the central zone of the cerebral ganglion in Amathia gracilis . Semithin cross sections ( a – b ): the anal side is at the top, and the oral side is at the bottom. Anal view of Z-projections ( c – f ) of the lophophore after mono- and double staining for tyrosinated α-tubulin (green) and DAPI (magenta). a Cross section at the level of the tentacle bases. b Cross section at the level of the vestibulum. c Paired perikarya (double arrowheads) in the central zone of the cerebral ganglion. d Neurites of the central zone of the cerebral ganglion. e Paired perikarya (double arrowheads) and the chiasm (arrowhead) in the lower portion of the central zone. f Neurites forming a chiasm (arrowhead) in the central zone. Abbreviations: cg - cerebral ganglion; cnp - neuropil of central zone; cpk - perikarya of central zone; con - circum-oral nerve ring; dcn - cross neuropiles (commissures) in the distal zone; dpk - perikarya of distal zone; lpg - lower portion of the cerebral ganglion; mf - medio-frontal nerve of tentacle; mv - muscles of vestibulum; pl - pylorus; ppk - perikarya of proximal zone; tb - tentacle base; ve - vestibulum; upg - upper portion of the cerebral ganglion
Figure Legend Snippet: Organization of the central zone of the cerebral ganglion in Amathia gracilis . Semithin cross sections ( a – b ): the anal side is at the top, and the oral side is at the bottom. Anal view of Z-projections ( c – f ) of the lophophore after mono- and double staining for tyrosinated α-tubulin (green) and DAPI (magenta). a Cross section at the level of the tentacle bases. b Cross section at the level of the vestibulum. c Paired perikarya (double arrowheads) in the central zone of the cerebral ganglion. d Neurites of the central zone of the cerebral ganglion. e Paired perikarya (double arrowheads) and the chiasm (arrowhead) in the lower portion of the central zone. f Neurites forming a chiasm (arrowhead) in the central zone. Abbreviations: cg - cerebral ganglion; cnp - neuropil of central zone; cpk - perikarya of central zone; con - circum-oral nerve ring; dcn - cross neuropiles (commissures) in the distal zone; dpk - perikarya of distal zone; lpg - lower portion of the cerebral ganglion; mf - medio-frontal nerve of tentacle; mv - muscles of vestibulum; pl - pylorus; ppk - perikarya of proximal zone; tb - tentacle base; ve - vestibulum; upg - upper portion of the cerebral ganglion

Techniques Used: Double Staining

Organization of the proximal zone of the cerebral ganglion of Amathia gracilis . a Transverse semithin section of the proximal zone of the cerebral ganglion. The anal side is toward the top, and the oral side is toward the bottom. b The lophophore base: confocal sections (LCM). Z-stack projection of several slides adjacent to the anus after double staining for tyrosinated α-tubulin (green) and DAPI (magenta). c LCM: Z-projection of two most distal perikarya. Abbreviations: ci - cilia of tentacles; pl - pylorus; ppk - proximal perikarya; tsn - tentacle sheath nerve; ve - vestibulum
Figure Legend Snippet: Organization of the proximal zone of the cerebral ganglion of Amathia gracilis . a Transverse semithin section of the proximal zone of the cerebral ganglion. The anal side is toward the top, and the oral side is toward the bottom. b The lophophore base: confocal sections (LCM). Z-stack projection of several slides adjacent to the anus after double staining for tyrosinated α-tubulin (green) and DAPI (magenta). c LCM: Z-projection of two most distal perikarya. Abbreviations: ci - cilia of tentacles; pl - pylorus; ppk - proximal perikarya; tsn - tentacle sheath nerve; ve - vestibulum

Techniques Used: Laser Capture Microdissection, Double Staining

8) Product Images from "The conus valves of the adult gilthead seabream (Sparus auratus)"

Article Title: The conus valves of the adult gilthead seabream (Sparus auratus)

Journal: Journal of Anatomy

doi: 10.1046/j.1469-7580.2003.00186.x

Semithin longitudinal section of the conus valves. Each valvar leaflet shows a luminal (single arrow) and a parietal (arrowhead) fibrosa. The former continues distally (double arrow) in the flap-like valvar portion. The stout proximal body (asterisk) consists of a dense cellular tissue. The sinus wall is composed of a dense fibrous tissue which is bounded, from proximal to distal, by the conus myocardium (C), the loose subepicardial tissue (SEp) and the bulbus arteriosus (B). The sinus wall is much thicker when it is bounded by the subepicardial tissue. Scale bar = 1 mm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Semithin longitudinal section of the conus valves. Each valvar leaflet shows a luminal (single arrow) and a parietal (arrowhead) fibrosa. The former continues distally (double arrow) in the flap-like valvar portion. The stout proximal body (asterisk) consists of a dense cellular tissue. The sinus wall is composed of a dense fibrous tissue which is bounded, from proximal to distal, by the conus myocardium (C), the loose subepicardial tissue (SEp) and the bulbus arteriosus (B). The sinus wall is much thicker when it is bounded by the subepicardial tissue. Scale bar = 1 mm.

Techniques Used:

9) Product Images from "Pre-Implantation Mouse Embryos Cultured In Vitro under Different Oxygen Concentrations Show Altered Ultrastructures"

Article Title: Pre-Implantation Mouse Embryos Cultured In Vitro under Different Oxygen Concentrations Show Altered Ultrastructures

Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

doi: 10.3390/ijerph17103384

Ultrastructural evaluation of 2-cell and 4-cell embryos. A–C. Representative micrographs of 2-cell embryo groups. A. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrograph of a 2-cell embryo of the IVF-5% group, showing a small blastomere forming (b). Arrows indicate the intercellular contacts (TEM. Bar: 2 μm). Inset in A. A representative image of a semithin section of a 2-cell embryo (LM. Mag: 40x). B. A representative picture of in vitro fertilized (IVF)-20% 2-cell embryo with evident nucleus (N) and nucleolus (Nu). Different blastomeres with cellular junctions (arrow) are visible (TEM. Bar: 4 μm). C. High magnification of IVF-20% 2-cell embryo adjacent blastomeres showing continuous intercellular contacts (arrow). Abundant cellular debris (*) is present in the inter-blastomeric space (TEM. Bar: 1 μm). D–F . Representative micrographs of 4-cell embryo groups. D. TEM micrograph of IVF-5% 4-cell embryo with evident nucleus (N) and nucleoli (Nu). Several vacuoles (V) and mitochondria (m) are evident. (TEM. Bar: 2 μm). E. Representative picture of IVF-20% 4-cell embryo showing numerous vacuoles (V), vacuolated mitochondria (vm) and blastomeric fragments (bf). Double arrows indicate the interruption of the intercellular contacts between blastomeres (TEM. Bar: 2 μm). F. TEM micrograph showing the inter-blastomeric cleft between 3 cells of IVF 20% (TEM. Bar: 1 μm). bc: blastocoel cavity; m: mitochondria; V: vacuoles; ZP: zona pellucida; vm: vacuolated mitochondria; mv: microvilli; arrow: intercellular contact; N: nucleus; nm: nuclear membrane; ER: endoplasmic reticulum.
Figure Legend Snippet: Ultrastructural evaluation of 2-cell and 4-cell embryos. A–C. Representative micrographs of 2-cell embryo groups. A. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrograph of a 2-cell embryo of the IVF-5% group, showing a small blastomere forming (b). Arrows indicate the intercellular contacts (TEM. Bar: 2 μm). Inset in A. A representative image of a semithin section of a 2-cell embryo (LM. Mag: 40x). B. A representative picture of in vitro fertilized (IVF)-20% 2-cell embryo with evident nucleus (N) and nucleolus (Nu). Different blastomeres with cellular junctions (arrow) are visible (TEM. Bar: 4 μm). C. High magnification of IVF-20% 2-cell embryo adjacent blastomeres showing continuous intercellular contacts (arrow). Abundant cellular debris (*) is present in the inter-blastomeric space (TEM. Bar: 1 μm). D–F . Representative micrographs of 4-cell embryo groups. D. TEM micrograph of IVF-5% 4-cell embryo with evident nucleus (N) and nucleoli (Nu). Several vacuoles (V) and mitochondria (m) are evident. (TEM. Bar: 2 μm). E. Representative picture of IVF-20% 4-cell embryo showing numerous vacuoles (V), vacuolated mitochondria (vm) and blastomeric fragments (bf). Double arrows indicate the interruption of the intercellular contacts between blastomeres (TEM. Bar: 2 μm). F. TEM micrograph showing the inter-blastomeric cleft between 3 cells of IVF 20% (TEM. Bar: 1 μm). bc: blastocoel cavity; m: mitochondria; V: vacuoles; ZP: zona pellucida; vm: vacuolated mitochondria; mv: microvilli; arrow: intercellular contact; N: nucleus; nm: nuclear membrane; ER: endoplasmic reticulum.

Techniques Used: Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, In Vitro

Ultrastructural analysis of morulae. A–C. Representative micrographs of morulae from the control and IVF 5% groups, showing similar morphological features. A. Ultrastructure of the control group morula with large round nucleus (N). Arrow indicates the intercellular contacts. (TEM. Bar: 1 μm). Inset in A: a representative image of a semithin section of in vivo morula. Numerous blastomeres with well-stained nuclei are visible (LM. Mag: 40x). B. Morula showing numerous vacuoles (V) and vacuolated mitochondria (vm) (TEM. Bar: 2 μm). C. Representative picture of IVF-5% morula high electron-dense mitochondria (m) and vacuoles (V) (TEM. Bar: 0.6 μm). D–G. IVF-20% morula ultrastructure. D. Ultrastructure of IVF-20% morula with blastomeres in a compaction stage. Arrows indicate the intercellular contacts (TEM. Bar: 2 μm). Inset in D. A representative image of a semithin section of IVF-20% morulae (LM. Mag: 40x). E. High magnification of an IVF-20% morula nucleus (N) with evident nucleolus (Nu) and patches of hetero- (Hc) and euchromatin (Eu) (TEM. Bar: 1 μm). F–G. High magnification of an IVF-20% multivesicular body (mvb) (TEM. Bar: 0.6 μm) and vacuolated mitochondria (vm) (TEM. Bars: 0.6 and 0.8 μm). N: nucleus; Nm: nuclear membrane; V: vacuoles; m: mitochondria; vm: vacuolated mitochondria; mv: microvilli; Gl: glycogen granules; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; nu: nucleolus; arrow: intercellular contact; Hc: heterochromatin; Eu: euchromatin; mvb: multivesicular body.
Figure Legend Snippet: Ultrastructural analysis of morulae. A–C. Representative micrographs of morulae from the control and IVF 5% groups, showing similar morphological features. A. Ultrastructure of the control group morula with large round nucleus (N). Arrow indicates the intercellular contacts. (TEM. Bar: 1 μm). Inset in A: a representative image of a semithin section of in vivo morula. Numerous blastomeres with well-stained nuclei are visible (LM. Mag: 40x). B. Morula showing numerous vacuoles (V) and vacuolated mitochondria (vm) (TEM. Bar: 2 μm). C. Representative picture of IVF-5% morula high electron-dense mitochondria (m) and vacuoles (V) (TEM. Bar: 0.6 μm). D–G. IVF-20% morula ultrastructure. D. Ultrastructure of IVF-20% morula with blastomeres in a compaction stage. Arrows indicate the intercellular contacts (TEM. Bar: 2 μm). Inset in D. A representative image of a semithin section of IVF-20% morulae (LM. Mag: 40x). E. High magnification of an IVF-20% morula nucleus (N) with evident nucleolus (Nu) and patches of hetero- (Hc) and euchromatin (Eu) (TEM. Bar: 1 μm). F–G. High magnification of an IVF-20% multivesicular body (mvb) (TEM. Bar: 0.6 μm) and vacuolated mitochondria (vm) (TEM. Bars: 0.6 and 0.8 μm). N: nucleus; Nm: nuclear membrane; V: vacuoles; m: mitochondria; vm: vacuolated mitochondria; mv: microvilli; Gl: glycogen granules; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; nu: nucleolus; arrow: intercellular contact; Hc: heterochromatin; Eu: euchromatin; mvb: multivesicular body.

Techniques Used: Transmission Electron Microscopy, In Vivo, Staining

Ultrastructure of a control group blastocyst. A. TEM micrograph of TE cell with a large nucleus (N). The cell showed a clear nuclear content of heterochromatin (Hc) and euchromatin (Eu) (TEM. Bar: 1 μm). Inset in A . A representative image of a semithin section of a whole blastocyst (LM. Mag: 40x). B. TE cell with evident chromosomes (Ch) (TEM. Bar: 1 μm). C. High magnification of intercellular junction (arrow) (TEM. Bar: 0.4 μm). Inset in C. Details of endoplasmic reticulum vesicle (ER) and vacuole (V). (TEM. Bar: 0.4 μm). D. Ultrastructure of ICM. Nuclei (N) show patches of heterochromatin (Hc) and euchromatin (Eu) (TEM. Bar: 2 μm). E. High magnification of microvilli (TEM. Bar: 0.2 μm). F. High magnification of intact intercellular junction (TEM. Bar: 0.4 μm). N: nucleus; Hc: heterochromatin; Eu: Euchromatin; nm: nuclear membrane; mv: microvilli; V: vacuoles; Gl: glycogen granules; arrow: intercellular contacts; bc: blastocoel cavity.
Figure Legend Snippet: Ultrastructure of a control group blastocyst. A. TEM micrograph of TE cell with a large nucleus (N). The cell showed a clear nuclear content of heterochromatin (Hc) and euchromatin (Eu) (TEM. Bar: 1 μm). Inset in A . A representative image of a semithin section of a whole blastocyst (LM. Mag: 40x). B. TE cell with evident chromosomes (Ch) (TEM. Bar: 1 μm). C. High magnification of intercellular junction (arrow) (TEM. Bar: 0.4 μm). Inset in C. Details of endoplasmic reticulum vesicle (ER) and vacuole (V). (TEM. Bar: 0.4 μm). D. Ultrastructure of ICM. Nuclei (N) show patches of heterochromatin (Hc) and euchromatin (Eu) (TEM. Bar: 2 μm). E. High magnification of microvilli (TEM. Bar: 0.2 μm). F. High magnification of intact intercellular junction (TEM. Bar: 0.4 μm). N: nucleus; Hc: heterochromatin; Eu: Euchromatin; nm: nuclear membrane; mv: microvilli; V: vacuoles; Gl: glycogen granules; arrow: intercellular contacts; bc: blastocoel cavity.

Techniques Used: Transmission Electron Microscopy

10) Product Images from "Rho kinase activity controls directional cell movements during primitive streak formation in the rabbit embryo"

Article Title: Rho kinase activity controls directional cell movements during primitive streak formation in the rabbit embryo

Journal: Development (Cambridge, England)

doi: 10.1242/dev.111583

Dose-dependent reshaping of primitive streak . (A-F,S,T) Dorsal views of control (A, Sa and top row of T) and ROCK-inhibited embryos (B-F, Sb-Se and bottom row of T) analysed for brachyury (A-F, Sa-Se), wnt3 , nodal , dickkopf1 , cerberus and chordin (all in T) in sagittal (G-K) or transversal (L-R) sections. Anterior is to the top in dorsal views and to the left in sagittal sections. Black dots mark posterior embryonic disc borders. Asterisks mark epiblast-trophoblast border. Arrows mark the position of the epithelio-mesenchymal hinge (EMH) in H and L and the chordoneural hinge in J. (M) High magnification of occasional mesoderm cells (red) in the brachyury -negative area shown in L. (N) Transversal semithin section from presumptive primitive streak area showing one half of a treated embryo (midline is near the right edge). Box indicates the area shown in O. (O) Ultrathin section showing bottle cell (blue), mesodermal cell (pink) and hypoblast cell (yellow). (P,Q) Epiblast cells from the PGE area (P) and from the anterior half of the embryonic disc (Q). (R) Trophoblast cell. Arrowheads point to the existing basement membrane (Q,R). (S) Drawing of mesoderm displacement by ROCK inhibition: Mammotypic (a), reptilian-like (b), amniote precursor-like (c,d) and amphibian-like or teleost-like (e) gastrulation centres. Dark blue colour marks EMT area. Red dotted lines indicate the border of the EMH. Light blue colour marks the EMT-free epiblast. Curved arrows indicate the dorso-ventral direction of EMT and subsequent lateral mesoderm migration. e, epiblast; h, hypoblast; m, mesoderm; n, node. Scale bar in A: 100 µm for A-F, T; 50 µm for G, I, L; 25 µm for H, J, K, M; scale bar in P: 10 µm for N, 2 µm for O, 1 µm for P-R.
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-dependent reshaping of primitive streak . (A-F,S,T) Dorsal views of control (A, Sa and top row of T) and ROCK-inhibited embryos (B-F, Sb-Se and bottom row of T) analysed for brachyury (A-F, Sa-Se), wnt3 , nodal , dickkopf1 , cerberus and chordin (all in T) in sagittal (G-K) or transversal (L-R) sections. Anterior is to the top in dorsal views and to the left in sagittal sections. Black dots mark posterior embryonic disc borders. Asterisks mark epiblast-trophoblast border. Arrows mark the position of the epithelio-mesenchymal hinge (EMH) in H and L and the chordoneural hinge in J. (M) High magnification of occasional mesoderm cells (red) in the brachyury -negative area shown in L. (N) Transversal semithin section from presumptive primitive streak area showing one half of a treated embryo (midline is near the right edge). Box indicates the area shown in O. (O) Ultrathin section showing bottle cell (blue), mesodermal cell (pink) and hypoblast cell (yellow). (P,Q) Epiblast cells from the PGE area (P) and from the anterior half of the embryonic disc (Q). (R) Trophoblast cell. Arrowheads point to the existing basement membrane (Q,R). (S) Drawing of mesoderm displacement by ROCK inhibition: Mammotypic (a), reptilian-like (b), amniote precursor-like (c,d) and amphibian-like or teleost-like (e) gastrulation centres. Dark blue colour marks EMT area. Red dotted lines indicate the border of the EMH. Light blue colour marks the EMT-free epiblast. Curved arrows indicate the dorso-ventral direction of EMT and subsequent lateral mesoderm migration. e, epiblast; h, hypoblast; m, mesoderm; n, node. Scale bar in A: 100 µm for A-F, T; 50 µm for G, I, L; 25 µm for H, J, K, M; scale bar in P: 10 µm for N, 2 µm for O, 1 µm for P-R.

Techniques Used: Inhibition, Migration

11) Product Images from "Formation of the hindgut cuticular lining during embryonic development of Porcellioscaber ( Crustacea, Isopoda)"

Article Title: Formation of the hindgut cuticular lining during embryonic development of Porcellioscaber ( Crustacea, Isopoda)

Journal: ZooKeys

doi: 10.3897/zookeys.515.9468

Hindgut epithelium and cuticle in Porcellio scaber adults. A Semithin section of the hindgut anterior chamber. Gut cells protrude apically into the gut lumen. The apical membrane forms an apical labyrinth (AL), that is covered with the cuticle (C). N – nucleus of gut cell B Semithin section of the hindgut papillate region. Gut cells bulge basally into the hemocoel. Apical and basal labyrinths (AL, BL) are evident. Cuticle covers apical cell surface (C). N – nucleus of gut cell C, D Ultrastructure of the cuticle in anterior chamber. The cuticle is composed of thin electron dense epicuticle (EPI) and much thicker ''lamellated'' electron lucent procuticle (PRO). Several thin sublayers are discernible in the outermost part of the epicuticle ( D inset - white →). A layer of medium electron density is visible between the epi- and procuticle ( D - black →). A cuticular spine is present on the cuticle surface E, F Ultrastructure of the gut cuticle in papillate region. Epicuticle (EPI) and procuticle (PRO) are about the same thickness. Both are composed of morphologically homogenous matrix. Abundant mitochondria are observed closely to the membranes of the apical labyrinth (AL) F Several thin sublayers in the outermost region of the epicuticle are visible.
Figure Legend Snippet: Hindgut epithelium and cuticle in Porcellio scaber adults. A Semithin section of the hindgut anterior chamber. Gut cells protrude apically into the gut lumen. The apical membrane forms an apical labyrinth (AL), that is covered with the cuticle (C). N – nucleus of gut cell B Semithin section of the hindgut papillate region. Gut cells bulge basally into the hemocoel. Apical and basal labyrinths (AL, BL) are evident. Cuticle covers apical cell surface (C). N – nucleus of gut cell C, D Ultrastructure of the cuticle in anterior chamber. The cuticle is composed of thin electron dense epicuticle (EPI) and much thicker ''lamellated'' electron lucent procuticle (PRO). Several thin sublayers are discernible in the outermost part of the epicuticle ( D inset - white →). A layer of medium electron density is visible between the epi- and procuticle ( D - black →). A cuticular spine is present on the cuticle surface E, F Ultrastructure of the gut cuticle in papillate region. Epicuticle (EPI) and procuticle (PRO) are about the same thickness. Both are composed of morphologically homogenous matrix. Abundant mitochondria are observed closely to the membranes of the apical labyrinth (AL) F Several thin sublayers in the outermost region of the epicuticle are visible.

Techniques Used:

12) Product Images from "Data showing the shapes of cones and Müller cells within the fovea of monkeys reconstructed from serial sections and focused ion beam analysis"

Article Title: Data showing the shapes of cones and Müller cells within the fovea of monkeys reconstructed from serial sections and focused ion beam analysis

Journal: Data in Brief

doi: 10.1016/j.dib.2018.08.195

Central foveolar Müller cells (MC) are seen in the foveolar centre. Within the outer retina they do not contain cell organelles and appear white in semithin sections. Surprisingly the shape of the Müller cells is often rectangular or triangular.
Figure Legend Snippet: Central foveolar Müller cells (MC) are seen in the foveolar centre. Within the outer retina they do not contain cell organelles and appear white in semithin sections. Surprisingly the shape of the Müller cells is often rectangular or triangular.

Techniques Used:

13) Product Images from "Delayed Transplantation of Adult Neural Precursor Cells Promotes Remyelination and Functional Neurological Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury"

Article Title: Delayed Transplantation of Adult Neural Precursor Cells Promotes Remyelination and Functional Neurological Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury

Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4184-05.2006

Evidence of remyelination of injured spinal cord white matter by grafted NPC 8 weeks after transplantation. A–C , Cross sections of osmium tetroxide-fixed semithin sections of the spinal cord stained with Toluidine Blue 8 weeks after transplantation are depicted for the plain injured, injured control, and NPC-transplanted groups, respectively, at low ( A I –C I ) and higher ( A II –C II ) magnification. The enlargement of the microscopic fields in the boxed areas in A I –C I shows the examples of the myelin profiles present in spinal cord white matter of the plain injured, injured control, and NPC-transplanted groups, respectively. As observed in C II , the NPC-transplanted group showed more extensive oligodendrocyte-myelinated profiles in the area that was occupied by YFP-NPCs. The presence of YFP-NPCs was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy in the adjacent sections. D , E , Myelin index measurements on the three groups showed a significant increase in the MR in the NPC-transplanted group, indicating enhanced myelination in this group compared with the plain and control injury groups ( D ; p
Figure Legend Snippet: Evidence of remyelination of injured spinal cord white matter by grafted NPC 8 weeks after transplantation. A–C , Cross sections of osmium tetroxide-fixed semithin sections of the spinal cord stained with Toluidine Blue 8 weeks after transplantation are depicted for the plain injured, injured control, and NPC-transplanted groups, respectively, at low ( A I –C I ) and higher ( A II –C II ) magnification. The enlargement of the microscopic fields in the boxed areas in A I –C I shows the examples of the myelin profiles present in spinal cord white matter of the plain injured, injured control, and NPC-transplanted groups, respectively. As observed in C II , the NPC-transplanted group showed more extensive oligodendrocyte-myelinated profiles in the area that was occupied by YFP-NPCs. The presence of YFP-NPCs was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy in the adjacent sections. D , E , Myelin index measurements on the three groups showed a significant increase in the MR in the NPC-transplanted group, indicating enhanced myelination in this group compared with the plain and control injury groups ( D ; p

Techniques Used: Transplantation Assay, Staining, Fluorescence, Microscopy

14) Product Images from "Enhanced Secretion of Amylase from Exocrine Pancreas of Connexin32-deficient Mice "

Article Title: Enhanced Secretion of Amylase from Exocrine Pancreas of Connexin32-deficient Mice

Journal: The Journal of Cell Biology

doi:

Organization of Cx32 (−/−) pancreas. ( A ) Semithin sections of Cx32 (−/−) pancreas. Cx32 (−/−) pancreas shows a typical organization of exocrine and endocrine tissue. Note that large acinar cells containing numerous zymogen granules are observed. ( B ) Electron microscope view of Cx32 (−/−) pancreas showing the characteristic ultrastructure of fully differentiated acinar and duct cells. Bar: ( A ) 40 μm; ( B ) 8 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Organization of Cx32 (−/−) pancreas. ( A ) Semithin sections of Cx32 (−/−) pancreas. Cx32 (−/−) pancreas shows a typical organization of exocrine and endocrine tissue. Note that large acinar cells containing numerous zymogen granules are observed. ( B ) Electron microscope view of Cx32 (−/−) pancreas showing the characteristic ultrastructure of fully differentiated acinar and duct cells. Bar: ( A ) 40 μm; ( B ) 8 μm.

Techniques Used: Microscopy

15) Product Images from "Oligomerization of KCC2 Correlates with Development of Inhibitory Neurotransmission"

Article Title: Oligomerization of KCC2 Correlates with Development of Inhibitory Neurotransmission

Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3257-06.2006

Ultrastructural localization of KCC2 in LSO neurons during maturation. Location of KCC2 molecules in the LSO of P4 ( A , C , E , F ) and P12 ( B , D , G , H ) rats, revealed with the preembedding immunogold technique. A , B , Semithin sections with labeled neurons in the LSO. Silver-intensified gold particles were found at the presumed surface of somatic and dendritic membranes (arrows). C , D , High-magnification electron micrographs illustrated labeled dendritic profiles with boutons (asterisks) making asymmetrical synapses (arrowheads) onto the dendrite. KCC2 was localized homogenously along the perisynaptic and extrasynaptic membranes at both ages. The postsynaptic thickening was almost devoid of KCC2 (arrowheads). E–H , High-magnification ultrastructural analysis showed even distribution of gold particles at perisynaptic sites (arrows) of excitatory ( E , G ) and inhibitory ( F , H ) synapses (asterisks). n, Neuronal soma; d, dendrite. Scale bars: (in A ) A , B , 30 μm; (in C ) C–H , 500 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Ultrastructural localization of KCC2 in LSO neurons during maturation. Location of KCC2 molecules in the LSO of P4 ( A , C , E , F ) and P12 ( B , D , G , H ) rats, revealed with the preembedding immunogold technique. A , B , Semithin sections with labeled neurons in the LSO. Silver-intensified gold particles were found at the presumed surface of somatic and dendritic membranes (arrows). C , D , High-magnification electron micrographs illustrated labeled dendritic profiles with boutons (asterisks) making asymmetrical synapses (arrowheads) onto the dendrite. KCC2 was localized homogenously along the perisynaptic and extrasynaptic membranes at both ages. The postsynaptic thickening was almost devoid of KCC2 (arrowheads). E–H , High-magnification ultrastructural analysis showed even distribution of gold particles at perisynaptic sites (arrows) of excitatory ( E , G ) and inhibitory ( F , H ) synapses (asterisks). n, Neuronal soma; d, dendrite. Scale bars: (in A ) A , B , 30 μm; (in C ) C–H , 500 μm.

Techniques Used: Labeling

16) Product Images from "Protracted Morphological Changes in the Corticospinal Tract Within the Cervical Spinal Cord After Intracerebral Hemorrhage in the Right Striatum of Mice"

Article Title: Protracted Morphological Changes in the Corticospinal Tract Within the Cervical Spinal Cord After Intracerebral Hemorrhage in the Right Striatum of Mice

Journal: Frontiers in Neuroscience

doi: 10.3389/fnins.2020.00506

(A) Changes in the overall pathology of the dorsal corticospinal tracts in spinal cord at the C5 level post-ICH in adult mice detected by confocal microscopy. Representative toluidine blue–stained semithin horizontal sections of dorsal corticospinal tracts at the C5 spinal cord level demonstrating abnormalities particularly in the contralesional corticospinal tract under bright field (63×, oil immersion) at (ii) W1 post-ICH, (iii) W2 post-ICH, (iv) W3 post-ICH, (v) W4 post-ICH, and (vi) W5 post-ICH compared to (i) sham group at W1. (vii) The normalized areas of ipsilesional CSTs of the sham and ICH groups, demonstrating that there were no significant changes in the ipsilesional CSTs after ICH ( p > 0.05) (viii) The ratios of total areas of contralesional CST fields to that of ipsilesional CST fields, showing that abnormal axons and myelin sheaths were present significantly in the contralesional dorsal corticospinal tract in the spinal cord after ICH for weeks (* p
Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Changes in the overall pathology of the dorsal corticospinal tracts in spinal cord at the C5 level post-ICH in adult mice detected by confocal microscopy. Representative toluidine blue–stained semithin horizontal sections of dorsal corticospinal tracts at the C5 spinal cord level demonstrating abnormalities particularly in the contralesional corticospinal tract under bright field (63×, oil immersion) at (ii) W1 post-ICH, (iii) W2 post-ICH, (iv) W3 post-ICH, (v) W4 post-ICH, and (vi) W5 post-ICH compared to (i) sham group at W1. (vii) The normalized areas of ipsilesional CSTs of the sham and ICH groups, demonstrating that there were no significant changes in the ipsilesional CSTs after ICH ( p > 0.05) (viii) The ratios of total areas of contralesional CST fields to that of ipsilesional CST fields, showing that abnormal axons and myelin sheaths were present significantly in the contralesional dorsal corticospinal tract in the spinal cord after ICH for weeks (* p

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Confocal Microscopy, Staining

17) Product Images from "?1 Integrin Is Essential for Teratoma Growth and Angiogenesis "

Article Title: ?1 Integrin Is Essential for Teratoma Growth and Angiogenesis

Journal: The Journal of Cell Biology

doi:

Semithin sections of a normal and a β1-null teratoma stained with methylene blue and immunostained for vWF. Vessels ( V ) in normal teratomas ( A ) have a smooth inner surface and are tightly embedded within the surrounding tissue ( arrows ). Vessels of β1-null teratomas ( B ) have an irregular surface and have lost contacts to the surrounding tissue ( arrows ). Bar, 20 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Semithin sections of a normal and a β1-null teratoma stained with methylene blue and immunostained for vWF. Vessels ( V ) in normal teratomas ( A ) have a smooth inner surface and are tightly embedded within the surrounding tissue ( arrows ). Vessels of β1-null teratomas ( B ) have an irregular surface and have lost contacts to the surrounding tissue ( arrows ). Bar, 20 μm.

Techniques Used: Staining

18) Product Images from "Injection of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by intravenous or intraperitoneal routes is a viable alternative to spinal cord injury treatment in mice"

Article Title: Injection of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by intravenous or intraperitoneal routes is a viable alternative to spinal cord injury treatment in mice

Journal: Neural Regeneration Research

doi: 10.4103/1673-5374.233448

Morphometry of myelinated nerve fibers in toluidine blue-stained semithin sections of the injured spinal cord. The increased tissue disorganization in groups that received only the injection of DMEM compared to groups that received the injection of MSCs (A and A’). Scale bars: 20 µm. A larger number of myelinated fibers are observed in animals that received transplants of cells (B). MSC-transplanted animals also showed larger area of axons (C), myelin (D) and fiber (E). In F, MSC animals had more fibers in the optimal range for spinal cord g-ratio, which is correlated with better conduction velocity (0.7–0.8 range). n = 3 per group. Results were expressed as the mean ± SEM. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Morphometry of myelinated nerve fibers in toluidine blue-stained semithin sections of the injured spinal cord. The increased tissue disorganization in groups that received only the injection of DMEM compared to groups that received the injection of MSCs (A and A’). Scale bars: 20 µm. A larger number of myelinated fibers are observed in animals that received transplants of cells (B). MSC-transplanted animals also showed larger area of axons (C), myelin (D) and fiber (E). In F, MSC animals had more fibers in the optimal range for spinal cord g-ratio, which is correlated with better conduction velocity (0.7–0.8 range). n = 3 per group. Results were expressed as the mean ± SEM. * P

Techniques Used: Staining, Injection

19) Product Images from "Muscle Fiber Viability, a Novel Method for the Fast Detection of Ischemic Muscle Injury in Rats"

Article Title: Muscle Fiber Viability, a Novel Method for the Fast Detection of Ischemic Muscle Injury in Rats

Journal: PLoS ONE

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084783

Morphology of muscle fibers in control animals and after 8 and 9 hours of ischemia. Normal morphology of muscle fibers, semithin sections from control muscle (A). After 8 hours of ischemia (B), mostly mitochondria-rich fibers seemed to be affected, while other fibers appeared to be normal. After 9 hours of ischemia (C), almost all fibers showed mild or moderate degree of damage. Toluidine blue staining. Bar: 20 µm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Morphology of muscle fibers in control animals and after 8 and 9 hours of ischemia. Normal morphology of muscle fibers, semithin sections from control muscle (A). After 8 hours of ischemia (B), mostly mitochondria-rich fibers seemed to be affected, while other fibers appeared to be normal. After 9 hours of ischemia (C), almost all fibers showed mild or moderate degree of damage. Toluidine blue staining. Bar: 20 µm.

Techniques Used: Staining

Morphological signs of ischemic-reperfusion damage of muscle fibers as demonstrated on semithin sections. Marked morphological changes were visible in all fibers even after 8(A), while after 9 hours of ischemia followed by 2 hours of reperfusion (B) necrosis (double arrow) was already evident in the majority of the fibers. Toluidine blue staining. Bar: 20 µm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Morphological signs of ischemic-reperfusion damage of muscle fibers as demonstrated on semithin sections. Marked morphological changes were visible in all fibers even after 8(A), while after 9 hours of ischemia followed by 2 hours of reperfusion (B) necrosis (double arrow) was already evident in the majority of the fibers. Toluidine blue staining. Bar: 20 µm.

Techniques Used: Staining

20) Product Images from "Histopathological and functional effects of antimony on the renal cortex of growing albino rat"

Article Title: Histopathological and functional effects of antimony on the renal cortex of growing albino rat

Journal: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology

doi:

A photomicrograph of a semithin section of a renal cortex of albino rat from group II showing distal convoluted tubules (D) with marked peritubular congestion (C) and apical vacuolation (arrows) (Toluidine blue X 1000).
Figure Legend Snippet: A photomicrograph of a semithin section of a renal cortex of albino rat from group II showing distal convoluted tubules (D) with marked peritubular congestion (C) and apical vacuolation (arrows) (Toluidine blue X 1000).

Techniques Used:

A photomicrograph of a semithin section of a renal cortex of albino rat from group IV, showing part of a glomerulus with obliteration of Bowman’s space as well as congestion and dilatation of glomerular capillaries (C). Multiple vacuoles (V) in
Figure Legend Snippet: A photomicrograph of a semithin section of a renal cortex of albino rat from group IV, showing part of a glomerulus with obliteration of Bowman’s space as well as congestion and dilatation of glomerular capillaries (C). Multiple vacuoles (V) in

Techniques Used:

A photomicrograph of a semithin section of a renal cortex of albino rat from group IV, showing proximal convoluted tubules with apical destruction of the tubular cells and migration of the nuclei (N) towards the wide lumen (L). Note the peritubular haemorrhage
Figure Legend Snippet: A photomicrograph of a semithin section of a renal cortex of albino rat from group IV, showing proximal convoluted tubules with apical destruction of the tubular cells and migration of the nuclei (N) towards the wide lumen (L). Note the peritubular haemorrhage

Techniques Used: Migration

A photomicrograph of a semithin section of a renal cortex of albino rat from group IV, showing distal convoluted tubule with apical vacuolation (V), obliteration of the lumen (arrow) and basal location of the nuclei (N) (Toluidine blue; X 1000).
Figure Legend Snippet: A photomicrograph of a semithin section of a renal cortex of albino rat from group IV, showing distal convoluted tubule with apical vacuolation (V), obliteration of the lumen (arrow) and basal location of the nuclei (N) (Toluidine blue; X 1000).

Techniques Used:

A photomicrograph of a semithin section of a renal cortex of a control albino rat, showing glomerular capillaries (C), some of which containing red blood cells (R). Capillary endothelial cells (E) are occasionally seen bulging into the capillary lumen
Figure Legend Snippet: A photomicrograph of a semithin section of a renal cortex of a control albino rat, showing glomerular capillaries (C), some of which containing red blood cells (R). Capillary endothelial cells (E) are occasionally seen bulging into the capillary lumen

Techniques Used:

A photomicrograph of a semithin section of a renal cortex of albino rat from group III, showing dilatation and congestion of glomerular capillaries (C). Note obliteration of the Bowman’s space and thickening with irregularity of Bowman’s
Figure Legend Snippet: A photomicrograph of a semithin section of a renal cortex of albino rat from group III, showing dilatation and congestion of glomerular capillaries (C). Note obliteration of the Bowman’s space and thickening with irregularity of Bowman’s

Techniques Used:

A photomicrograph of a semithin section of a renal cortex of albino rat from group III, showing dilated and congested glomerular capillaries (C). Bowman’s space (BS) is dilated and containing necrotic tissues (NT). The proximal convoluted tubules
Figure Legend Snippet: A photomicrograph of a semithin section of a renal cortex of albino rat from group III, showing dilated and congested glomerular capillaries (C). Bowman’s space (BS) is dilated and containing necrotic tissues (NT). The proximal convoluted tubules

Techniques Used:

A photomicrograph of a semithin section of a renal cortex of albino rat from group IV, showing parts of proximal (P) and distal (D) convoluted tubules with destruction of tubular cells, apical direction of the nuclei (N) , necrotic tissues (NT) and red
Figure Legend Snippet: A photomicrograph of a semithin section of a renal cortex of albino rat from group IV, showing parts of proximal (P) and distal (D) convoluted tubules with destruction of tubular cells, apical direction of the nuclei (N) , necrotic tissues (NT) and red

Techniques Used:

A photomicrograph of a semithin section of a renal cortex of a control albino rat, showing the cells of proximal convoluted tubules (P) with their rounded basal nuclei (N), indistinct cell boundaries and well defined luminal brush border (arrow). Note
Figure Legend Snippet: A photomicrograph of a semithin section of a renal cortex of a control albino rat, showing the cells of proximal convoluted tubules (P) with their rounded basal nuclei (N), indistinct cell boundaries and well defined luminal brush border (arrow). Note

Techniques Used:

21) Product Images from "Caveolin-1 modulates intraocular pressure: implications for caveolae mechanoprotection in glaucoma"

Article Title: Caveolin-1 modulates intraocular pressure: implications for caveolae mechanoprotection in glaucoma

Journal: Scientific Reports

doi: 10.1038/srep37127

Morphological and ultrastructural analyses of Cav-1 −/− conventional outflow pathway. ( a ) Semithin sections (Richardson’s stain) through the iridocorneal angle of representative control ( upper left panel ) and Cav-1 −/− ( upper right panel ) eyes. Middle and lower panels in ( a ) show higher magnifications by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The chamber angle is open in control and Cav-1 −/− eyes while obvious abnormalities of ciliary body (CB), trabecular meshwork (TM), and Schlemm’s canal (SC) are absent. At higher magnification ( middle and lower panels ), giant vacuoles (GV) are detectable in both genotypes. ( b–e ) Quantitative ultrastructural analyses of control and Cav-1 −/− eyes. No significant differences in the number of GVs ( b ) or their sizes ( c ) were observed. ( d ) Endothelial nuclei diameter, a measurement of endothelial thickness, was not significantly different between genotypes. ( e ) The JCT depth was also not significantly different between Cav-1 −/− and control eyes. Eyes from 4 Cav-1 −/− mice and 7 littermate controls were used for these quantitative analyses. Numbers of GVs were quantified in 86 non-overlapping images from Cav-1 −/− eyes and 151 images from controls. Giant vacuole diameter measurements were made on 74 Cav-1 −/− and 107 control GVs. Endothelial cell nuclei diameters were measured from 118 Cav-1 −/− and 155 control nuclei. The depth of the JCT was measured at seven locations in each image for a total of 490 and 735 measurements in Cav-1 −/− and control eyes, respectively. For a schematic on how these measurements were made, see Supplementary Fig. 2 .
Figure Legend Snippet: Morphological and ultrastructural analyses of Cav-1 −/− conventional outflow pathway. ( a ) Semithin sections (Richardson’s stain) through the iridocorneal angle of representative control ( upper left panel ) and Cav-1 −/− ( upper right panel ) eyes. Middle and lower panels in ( a ) show higher magnifications by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The chamber angle is open in control and Cav-1 −/− eyes while obvious abnormalities of ciliary body (CB), trabecular meshwork (TM), and Schlemm’s canal (SC) are absent. At higher magnification ( middle and lower panels ), giant vacuoles (GV) are detectable in both genotypes. ( b–e ) Quantitative ultrastructural analyses of control and Cav-1 −/− eyes. No significant differences in the number of GVs ( b ) or their sizes ( c ) were observed. ( d ) Endothelial nuclei diameter, a measurement of endothelial thickness, was not significantly different between genotypes. ( e ) The JCT depth was also not significantly different between Cav-1 −/− and control eyes. Eyes from 4 Cav-1 −/− mice and 7 littermate controls were used for these quantitative analyses. Numbers of GVs were quantified in 86 non-overlapping images from Cav-1 −/− eyes and 151 images from controls. Giant vacuole diameter measurements were made on 74 Cav-1 −/− and 107 control GVs. Endothelial cell nuclei diameters were measured from 118 Cav-1 −/− and 155 control nuclei. The depth of the JCT was measured at seven locations in each image for a total of 490 and 735 measurements in Cav-1 −/− and control eyes, respectively. For a schematic on how these measurements were made, see Supplementary Fig. 2 .

Techniques Used: Staining, Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Mouse Assay

22) Product Images from "Rapid transformation of white adipocytes into fat-oxidizing machines"

Article Title: Rapid transformation of white adipocytes into fat-oxidizing machines

Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

doi: 10.1073/pnas.0308258100

Hyperleptinemia induces extensive lipid depletion in adipose tissue. ( A ) Semithin section of normal epididymal fat pad tissue from control rats 14 days after infusion with β-galactosidase adenovirus. ( B ) Epididymal fat cells 14 days after infusion with leptin adenovirus. The cells are fat-depleted with a few residual lipid droplets and a highly indented surface. ( C ) Low magnification electron microscopic view showing a highly convoluted surface of postadipocytes embedded within an exceedingly thick layer of apparently amorphous material, which separates individual cells from the collagen-fibril-rich interstitial matrix.
Figure Legend Snippet: Hyperleptinemia induces extensive lipid depletion in adipose tissue. ( A ) Semithin section of normal epididymal fat pad tissue from control rats 14 days after infusion with β-galactosidase adenovirus. ( B ) Epididymal fat cells 14 days after infusion with leptin adenovirus. The cells are fat-depleted with a few residual lipid droplets and a highly indented surface. ( C ) Low magnification electron microscopic view showing a highly convoluted surface of postadipocytes embedded within an exceedingly thick layer of apparently amorphous material, which separates individual cells from the collagen-fibril-rich interstitial matrix.

Techniques Used:

23) Product Images from "Gpr126/Adgrg6 Has Schwann Cell Autonomous and Nonautonomous Functions in Peripheral Nerve Injury and Repair"

Article Title: Gpr126/Adgrg6 Has Schwann Cell Autonomous and Nonautonomous Functions in Peripheral Nerve Injury and Repair

Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3854-15.2016

Remyelination is impaired in inducible Gpr126 mutants. A , B , Toluidine blue-stained semithin sciatic nerve sections reveal impaired remyelination in tamoxifen-injected icKO animals ( B ) compared with control animals ( A ) 21 dpi. Scale bar: (in A ) A , B , 20 μm. C , D , TEM micrographs of control-injected ( C ) or tamoxifen-injected ( D ) icKO sciatic nerves at 21 dpi. Axons in control nerves are well myelinated. In tamoxifen-injected icKO sciatic nerves, myelin debris is evident ( D , black arrows), few axons are myelinated, large caliber axons are observed in bundles ( D , asterisks), and SC cytoplasmic protrusions are observed ( D , white arrows). Scale bar: (in C ) C , D , 2 μm. E , F , Quantification of nerve abnormalities in control-injected (black ) versus tamoxifen-injected (gray) icKO animals at 21 dpi. E , More area is covered by myelin debris in tamoxifen-injected icKO mice compared with controls ( p = 5.8 × 10 −13 , Student's t test). F , Fewer axons are myelinated in tamoxifen-injected compared with control-injected icKO animals ( p = 2.3 × 10 −08 , Student's t test). G , H , G-ratio analyses show that when remyelination occurs in tamoxifen-injected animals, the myelin sheaths are thinner than in control-injected animals ( p = 0.003, ANOVA). Error bars are shown as ±SD.
Figure Legend Snippet: Remyelination is impaired in inducible Gpr126 mutants. A , B , Toluidine blue-stained semithin sciatic nerve sections reveal impaired remyelination in tamoxifen-injected icKO animals ( B ) compared with control animals ( A ) 21 dpi. Scale bar: (in A ) A , B , 20 μm. C , D , TEM micrographs of control-injected ( C ) or tamoxifen-injected ( D ) icKO sciatic nerves at 21 dpi. Axons in control nerves are well myelinated. In tamoxifen-injected icKO sciatic nerves, myelin debris is evident ( D , black arrows), few axons are myelinated, large caliber axons are observed in bundles ( D , asterisks), and SC cytoplasmic protrusions are observed ( D , white arrows). Scale bar: (in C ) C , D , 2 μm. E , F , Quantification of nerve abnormalities in control-injected (black ) versus tamoxifen-injected (gray) icKO animals at 21 dpi. E , More area is covered by myelin debris in tamoxifen-injected icKO mice compared with controls ( p = 5.8 × 10 −13 , Student's t test). F , Fewer axons are myelinated in tamoxifen-injected compared with control-injected icKO animals ( p = 2.3 × 10 −08 , Student's t test). G , H , G-ratio analyses show that when remyelination occurs in tamoxifen-injected animals, the myelin sheaths are thinner than in control-injected animals ( p = 0.003, ANOVA). Error bars are shown as ±SD.

Techniques Used: Staining, Injection, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Mouse Assay

Gpr126 is dispensable for maintenance of MBP protein levels and gross myelin morphology up to 4 months. A – B″ , IHC of sciatic nerve cross sections stained with MBP (red), LacZ (green), and DAPI (blue) 4 weeks following final control ( A–A″ ) or tamoxifen ( B–B″ ) injections. Scale bar: (in A ), A–B″ , 50 μm. C–F , Toluidine blue stained semithin sections of control-injected ( C , E ) and tamoxifen-injected ( D , F ) animals reveal no gross differences 4 weeks ( C , D ) or 4 months ( E , F ) following the final injections. Scale bar: (in C ) C–F , 20 μm. G , Number of SC nuclei is not significantly different in tamoxifen-injected animals compared with controls 4 weeks after injection. H , qPCR 4 weeks after tamoxifen injection reveals that expression of key SC differentiation genes ( Sox10 , Oct6 , Mbp ) is not significantly altered between the two groups. Error bars are shown as ±SD.
Figure Legend Snippet: Gpr126 is dispensable for maintenance of MBP protein levels and gross myelin morphology up to 4 months. A – B″ , IHC of sciatic nerve cross sections stained with MBP (red), LacZ (green), and DAPI (blue) 4 weeks following final control ( A–A″ ) or tamoxifen ( B–B″ ) injections. Scale bar: (in A ), A–B″ , 50 μm. C–F , Toluidine blue stained semithin sections of control-injected ( C , E ) and tamoxifen-injected ( D , F ) animals reveal no gross differences 4 weeks ( C , D ) or 4 months ( E , F ) following the final injections. Scale bar: (in C ) C–F , 20 μm. G , Number of SC nuclei is not significantly different in tamoxifen-injected animals compared with controls 4 weeks after injection. H , qPCR 4 weeks after tamoxifen injection reveals that expression of key SC differentiation genes ( Sox10 , Oct6 , Mbp ) is not significantly altered between the two groups. Error bars are shown as ±SD.

Techniques Used: Immunohistochemistry, Staining, Injection, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

Demyelination is not impaired in inducible Gpr126 mutants following injury. A , B , Toluidine blue-stained semithin sciatic nerve sections reveal grossly equal demyelination in tamoxifen-injected icKO animals ( B ) compared with control animals ( A ) at 3 dpi. Scale bar: (in A ) A , B , 50 μm. C , D , TEM micrographs of control-injected ( C ) or tamoxifen-injected ( D ) icKO sciatic nerves at 3 dpi. Scale bar: (in C ) C , D , 2 μm. E , Quantification reveals no significant differences in the area covered by myelin debris in control-injected (black bar) versus tamoxifen-injected (gray bar) icKO animals ( p = 0.914, Student's t test). Error bars are shown as ±SD.
Figure Legend Snippet: Demyelination is not impaired in inducible Gpr126 mutants following injury. A , B , Toluidine blue-stained semithin sciatic nerve sections reveal grossly equal demyelination in tamoxifen-injected icKO animals ( B ) compared with control animals ( A ) at 3 dpi. Scale bar: (in A ) A , B , 50 μm. C , D , TEM micrographs of control-injected ( C ) or tamoxifen-injected ( D ) icKO sciatic nerves at 3 dpi. Scale bar: (in C ) C , D , 2 μm. E , Quantification reveals no significant differences in the area covered by myelin debris in control-injected (black bar) versus tamoxifen-injected (gray bar) icKO animals ( p = 0.914, Student's t test). Error bars are shown as ±SD.

Techniques Used: Staining, Injection, Transmission Electron Microscopy

24) Product Images from "Pemphigus IgG Causes Skin Splitting in the Presence of Both Desmoglein 1 and Desmoglein 3"

Article Title: Pemphigus IgG Causes Skin Splitting in the Presence of Both Desmoglein 1 and Desmoglein 3

Journal:

doi: 10.2353/ajpath.2007.070028

Inhibition of Rho GTPases by toxin B caused keratinocyte dissociation in the deep epidermis. Staining of semithin sections of human skin with toluidine blue ( a ) revealed profound cell dissociation in deep epidermal layers in response to inhibition of
Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibition of Rho GTPases by toxin B caused keratinocyte dissociation in the deep epidermis. Staining of semithin sections of human skin with toluidine blue ( a ) revealed profound cell dissociation in deep epidermal layers in response to inhibition of

Techniques Used: Inhibition, Staining

25) Product Images from "Axonal Ensheathment in the Nervous System of Lamprey: Implications for the Evolution of Myelinating Glia"

Article Title: Axonal Ensheathment in the Nervous System of Lamprey: Implications for the Evolution of Myelinating Glia

Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1034-18.2018

Maturation-dependent radial growth of central lamprey axons. A , Micrograph of a semithin-sectioned larval body piece stained with methylene blue and Azure II. SCs and LLNs are indicated. B , B′ , Magnification of the larval SC ( B ) and scheme ( B′ ) to illustrate regions selected for quantification of axonal calibers in the ventral, lateral, and dorsal SC (red, green, and purple boxes, respectively). Arrowheads point at giant reticulospinal axons (G) and Mauthner axons (Mth). C , Scanning electron micrograph of the larval (left) and adult (right) SC illustrating maturation-dependent growth. Displayed is one half SC each. Note the different scale bar sizes. D , D′ , Calibers of the 18 giant reticulospinal axons in the ventral SC of larval ( D ) and adult ( D′ ) lamprey. n = 18 giant axons each in 1 larvae and 1 adult. E , E′ , Axonal calibers in the lateral SC of larval ( E ) and adult ( E′ ) lamprey. Arrowheads point at values for giant Mauthner axons (Mth). n = 239 axons in 2 larvae; n = 500 axons in 1 adult. F , F′ , Axonal calibers in the dorsal SC of larval ( F ) and adult ( F′ ) lamprey. n = 510 axons in 2 larvae; n = 449 axons in 1 adult. Note the maturation-dependent radial growth of axons in all analyzed SC regions.
Figure Legend Snippet: Maturation-dependent radial growth of central lamprey axons. A , Micrograph of a semithin-sectioned larval body piece stained with methylene blue and Azure II. SCs and LLNs are indicated. B , B′ , Magnification of the larval SC ( B ) and scheme ( B′ ) to illustrate regions selected for quantification of axonal calibers in the ventral, lateral, and dorsal SC (red, green, and purple boxes, respectively). Arrowheads point at giant reticulospinal axons (G) and Mauthner axons (Mth). C , Scanning electron micrograph of the larval (left) and adult (right) SC illustrating maturation-dependent growth. Displayed is one half SC each. Note the different scale bar sizes. D , D′ , Calibers of the 18 giant reticulospinal axons in the ventral SC of larval ( D ) and adult ( D′ ) lamprey. n = 18 giant axons each in 1 larvae and 1 adult. E , E′ , Axonal calibers in the lateral SC of larval ( E ) and adult ( E′ ) lamprey. Arrowheads point at values for giant Mauthner axons (Mth). n = 239 axons in 2 larvae; n = 500 axons in 1 adult. F , F′ , Axonal calibers in the dorsal SC of larval ( F ) and adult ( F′ ) lamprey. n = 510 axons in 2 larvae; n = 449 axons in 1 adult. Note the maturation-dependent radial growth of axons in all analyzed SC regions.

Techniques Used: Staining

26) Product Images from "Vacuolar organization in the nodule parenchyma is important for the functioning of pea root nodules"

Article Title: Vacuolar organization in the nodule parenchyma is important for the functioning of pea root nodules

Journal: Symbiosis (Philadelphia, Pa.)

doi: 10.1007/s13199-011-0126-2

Immunolocalization of EGL1 protein in pea root nodules using polyclonal primary antibody is presented. ( a - c) Immunolocalization of EGL1 protein on semithin longitudinal sections using secondary antibody conjugated to Alexa Fluor 488. Green fluorescence indicates the presence of EGL1 protein. ( a) Distal part of pea root nodule. Green fluorescence of cells except nuclei, which exhibit red fluorescence, is visible. ( b) Control immunostaining where preimmune serum was used instead of primary antibody. Notice that cells are almost non-fluorescent. ( c) Proximal part of pea root nodule. Notice intense green fluorescence of cell walls of the outer cortex cells. Cell nuclei and cytoplasm of infected cells as well as tracheary elements exhibit red fluorescence. ( d and e) Transmission electron microscopy immunolocalization of EGL1 protein on ultrathin sections using secondary antibody conjugated to gold particles (10 nm in diameter). ( d) Intense immunogold labeling of the cytoplasm of meristematic cell and ground labeling of its cell wall is shown. ( e) Immunogold labeling of cell wall and infection thread in early symbiotic zone is presented. Notice that the cell wall and the infection thread wall are intensively labeled. The infection thread matrix shows only background labeling. ( f and g ) Immunogold labeling of cell walls within outer cortex. Crevice-like structures in cell walls are artificial. Abbreviations: b —bacterium inside infection thread, c —cortex covering nodule meristem, cw —cell wall, e— nodule endodermis , ER— endoplasmic reticulum, G— Golgi body, ITM —infection thread matrix, ITW —infection thread wall, np —nodule parenchyma, oc —outer cortex, vb —vascular bundle, M— nodule meristem, LS —late symbiotic zone, star —crevice like structure, te —tracheary elements, VB —vascular bundle, ve —vascular endodermis, ES —early symbiotic zone. Bars: A-C = 50 μm, D-F = 0,5 μm
Figure Legend Snippet: Immunolocalization of EGL1 protein in pea root nodules using polyclonal primary antibody is presented. ( a - c) Immunolocalization of EGL1 protein on semithin longitudinal sections using secondary antibody conjugated to Alexa Fluor 488. Green fluorescence indicates the presence of EGL1 protein. ( a) Distal part of pea root nodule. Green fluorescence of cells except nuclei, which exhibit red fluorescence, is visible. ( b) Control immunostaining where preimmune serum was used instead of primary antibody. Notice that cells are almost non-fluorescent. ( c) Proximal part of pea root nodule. Notice intense green fluorescence of cell walls of the outer cortex cells. Cell nuclei and cytoplasm of infected cells as well as tracheary elements exhibit red fluorescence. ( d and e) Transmission electron microscopy immunolocalization of EGL1 protein on ultrathin sections using secondary antibody conjugated to gold particles (10 nm in diameter). ( d) Intense immunogold labeling of the cytoplasm of meristematic cell and ground labeling of its cell wall is shown. ( e) Immunogold labeling of cell wall and infection thread in early symbiotic zone is presented. Notice that the cell wall and the infection thread wall are intensively labeled. The infection thread matrix shows only background labeling. ( f and g ) Immunogold labeling of cell walls within outer cortex. Crevice-like structures in cell walls are artificial. Abbreviations: b —bacterium inside infection thread, c —cortex covering nodule meristem, cw —cell wall, e— nodule endodermis , ER— endoplasmic reticulum, G— Golgi body, ITM —infection thread matrix, ITW —infection thread wall, np —nodule parenchyma, oc —outer cortex, vb —vascular bundle, M— nodule meristem, LS —late symbiotic zone, star —crevice like structure, te —tracheary elements, VB —vascular bundle, ve —vascular endodermis, ES —early symbiotic zone. Bars: A-C = 50 μm, D-F = 0,5 μm

Techniques Used: Fluorescence, Immunostaining, Infection, Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy, Labeling

27) Product Images from "Injection of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by intravenous or intraperitoneal routes is a viable alternative to spinal cord injury treatment in mice"

Article Title: Injection of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by intravenous or intraperitoneal routes is a viable alternative to spinal cord injury treatment in mice

Journal: Neural Regeneration Research

doi: 10.4103/1673-5374.233448

Morphometry of myelinated nerve fibers in toluidine blue-stained semithin sections of the injured spinal cord. The increased tissue disorganization in groups that received only the injection of DMEM compared to groups that received the injection of MSCs (A and A’). Scale bars: 20 µm. A larger number of myelinated fibers are observed in animals that received transplants of cells (B). MSC-transplanted animals also showed larger area of axons (C), myelin (D) and fiber (E). In F, MSC animals had more fibers in the optimal range for spinal cord g-ratio, which is correlated with better conduction velocity (0.7–0.8 range). n = 3 per group. Results were expressed as the mean ± SEM. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Morphometry of myelinated nerve fibers in toluidine blue-stained semithin sections of the injured spinal cord. The increased tissue disorganization in groups that received only the injection of DMEM compared to groups that received the injection of MSCs (A and A’). Scale bars: 20 µm. A larger number of myelinated fibers are observed in animals that received transplants of cells (B). MSC-transplanted animals also showed larger area of axons (C), myelin (D) and fiber (E). In F, MSC animals had more fibers in the optimal range for spinal cord g-ratio, which is correlated with better conduction velocity (0.7–0.8 range). n = 3 per group. Results were expressed as the mean ± SEM. * P

Techniques Used: Staining, Injection

28) Product Images from "Data showing the shapes of cones and Müller cells within the fovea of monkeys reconstructed from serial sections and focused ion beam analysis"

Article Title: Data showing the shapes of cones and Müller cells within the fovea of monkeys reconstructed from serial sections and focused ion beam analysis

Journal: Data in Brief

doi: 10.1016/j.dib.2018.08.195

Central foveolar Müller cells (MC) are seen in the foveolar centre. Within the outer retina they do not contain cell organelles and appear white in semithin sections. Surprisingly the shape of the Müller cells is often rectangular or triangular.
Figure Legend Snippet: Central foveolar Müller cells (MC) are seen in the foveolar centre. Within the outer retina they do not contain cell organelles and appear white in semithin sections. Surprisingly the shape of the Müller cells is often rectangular or triangular.

Techniques Used:

29) Product Images from "In Vitro Repression of Brca1-associated RING Domain Gene, Bard1, Induces Phenotypic Changes in Mammary Epithelial Cells "

Article Title: In Vitro Repression of Brca1-associated RING Domain Gene, Bard1, Induces Phenotypic Changes in Mammary Epithelial Cells

Journal: The Journal of Cell Biology

doi:

Repression of Bard1 abrogates hydrocortisone-induced lumen formation by TAC-2 cells. Cells were suspended in collagen gels at 10 4 cells/ml and incubated with 1 μg/ml hydrocortisone and 10 μg/ml insulin for 8 d. Under these conditions, PC3 cells form alveolar-like cystic structures containing widely patent lumina ( A ) delimited by a palisade of cubic epithelial cells ( D ). In marked contrast, AB-I cells form solid ball-like structures ( B ) devoid of lumen ( E ), and AB-K cells form irregular aggregates ( C ) containing small focal lumina ( F ). The three-dimensional structures illustrated in A , B , and C are representative of the vast majority of colonies formed by PC3, Ab-I, and AB-K cells, respectively. A–C , Bright-field microscopy; D–F , semithin sections. Bars, 100 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Repression of Bard1 abrogates hydrocortisone-induced lumen formation by TAC-2 cells. Cells were suspended in collagen gels at 10 4 cells/ml and incubated with 1 μg/ml hydrocortisone and 10 μg/ml insulin for 8 d. Under these conditions, PC3 cells form alveolar-like cystic structures containing widely patent lumina ( A ) delimited by a palisade of cubic epithelial cells ( D ). In marked contrast, AB-I cells form solid ball-like structures ( B ) devoid of lumen ( E ), and AB-K cells form irregular aggregates ( C ) containing small focal lumina ( F ). The three-dimensional structures illustrated in A , B , and C are representative of the vast majority of colonies formed by PC3, Ab-I, and AB-K cells, respectively. A–C , Bright-field microscopy; D–F , semithin sections. Bars, 100 μm.

Techniques Used: Incubation, Microscopy

30) Product Images from "The nervous system in the cyclostome bryozoan Crisia eburnea as revealed by transmission electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy"

Article Title: The nervous system in the cyclostome bryozoan Crisia eburnea as revealed by transmission electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy

Journal: Frontiers in Zoology

doi: 10.1186/s12983-018-0295-4

Organization of colony and zooids in Crisia eburnea . Photographs of live animals ( a - b ) and semithin sections (C-E). a A part of colony. b The same colony in higher magnification: tentacles and pores (arrowheads) in the wall of cystids are visible. c Sagittal longitudinal section of distal portion of zooid; tentacles semi-retracted. d Eight tentacles in the cross section. e Cross section of two branches of the digestive tract. Abbreviations: a – anus; as – atrial sphincter; ca – cardia; cae – caecum; cl – calcified layer; cg – cerebral ganglion; ec – epidermis; es – esophagus; int – intestine; lph – lophophore; mo – mouth; ms – membranous sac; pe – unmineralized cuticle; ph – pharynx; py - pylorus; t – tentacle; ts – tentacle sheath; z – zooid
Figure Legend Snippet: Organization of colony and zooids in Crisia eburnea . Photographs of live animals ( a - b ) and semithin sections (C-E). a A part of colony. b The same colony in higher magnification: tentacles and pores (arrowheads) in the wall of cystids are visible. c Sagittal longitudinal section of distal portion of zooid; tentacles semi-retracted. d Eight tentacles in the cross section. e Cross section of two branches of the digestive tract. Abbreviations: a – anus; as – atrial sphincter; ca – cardia; cae – caecum; cl – calcified layer; cg – cerebral ganglion; ec – epidermis; es – esophagus; int – intestine; lph – lophophore; mo – mouth; ms – membranous sac; pe – unmineralized cuticle; ph – pharynx; py - pylorus; t – tentacle; ts – tentacle sheath; z – zooid

Techniques Used: Mass Spectrometry

31) Product Images from "PIC1, an Ancient Permease in Arabidopsis Chloroplasts, Mediates Iron Transport [W]"

Article Title: PIC1, an Ancient Permease in Arabidopsis Chloroplasts, Mediates Iron Transport [W]

Journal: The Plant Cell

doi: 10.1105/tpc.106.047407

Leaf Morphology Is Changed in pic1-1 Mutant Plants. (A) and (B) Rosette leaves from 4-week-old Col-0 wild-type (A) and homozygous pic1-1 mutant (B) plants. Leaves of pic1-1/pic1-1 are reduced in size, and the diameter of primary, secondary, and tertiary veins is not graduated, as in the wild type. Before photography, leaves were destained in 70% ethanol. (C) to (F) Semithin cross sections of rosette leaves from 17-d-old Col-0 wild-type (C) and pic1-1/pic1-1 (D) as well as from 7-d-old cotyledons of Col-0 (E) and homozygous pic1-1 (F) . In pic1-1/pic1-1 mutants, the organization of the leaf mesophyll into palisade and spongy parenchyma cells is lost (D) . Furthermore, the leaf surface is extremely curled, and inside the cells no chloroplasts are visible ( [D] and [F] ). (G) and (H) Transmission electron micrographs of cortex cells from 7-d-old cotyledons of Col-0 (G) and pic1-1/pic1-1 (H) seedlings. Please note that the cotyledon cells in homozygous pic1-1 plants do not contain correctly developed chloroplasts (H) .
Figure Legend Snippet: Leaf Morphology Is Changed in pic1-1 Mutant Plants. (A) and (B) Rosette leaves from 4-week-old Col-0 wild-type (A) and homozygous pic1-1 mutant (B) plants. Leaves of pic1-1/pic1-1 are reduced in size, and the diameter of primary, secondary, and tertiary veins is not graduated, as in the wild type. Before photography, leaves were destained in 70% ethanol. (C) to (F) Semithin cross sections of rosette leaves from 17-d-old Col-0 wild-type (C) and pic1-1/pic1-1 (D) as well as from 7-d-old cotyledons of Col-0 (E) and homozygous pic1-1 (F) . In pic1-1/pic1-1 mutants, the organization of the leaf mesophyll into palisade and spongy parenchyma cells is lost (D) . Furthermore, the leaf surface is extremely curled, and inside the cells no chloroplasts are visible ( [D] and [F] ). (G) and (H) Transmission electron micrographs of cortex cells from 7-d-old cotyledons of Col-0 (G) and pic1-1/pic1-1 (H) seedlings. Please note that the cotyledon cells in homozygous pic1-1 plants do not contain correctly developed chloroplasts (H) .

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Transmission Assay

32) Product Images from "The conus arteriosus of the adult gilthead seabream (Sparus auratus)"

Article Title: The conus arteriosus of the adult gilthead seabream (Sparus auratus)

Journal: Journal of Anatomy

doi: 10.1046/j.0021-8782.2002.00110.x

(a) Confocal microscope image of the conus after FITC-conjugated phalloidin staining. Longitudinal section. Conus myocardial cells (C) are helicoidally arranged and form a compact tissue which differentiates clearly from the ventricular (V) myocardium. Single and double arrow indicate the outer and inner fibrous layers, respectively. Star, valve leaflet. The bright spots correspond to autofluorescent erythrocytes. (b) Longitudinal, semithin section of the conus. Similar area to that indicated by double arrow in (a). Myocytes are arranged in parallel keeping an oblique orientation with respect to the main heart axis. Orientated myocardial cells extend between the dense connective tissue which forms the inner fibrous layer (arrows) and the rest of the conus myocardium. Note the presence of vessels and of individual myofibrils (arrowhead). The endocardium covers the inner side of the conus and is formed of flattened cells. A valve leaflet (star) appears in the upper part of the photograph. (c) Semithin section of the ventricle. Myocardial cells in the ventricle form an outer monolayer to which myocardial trabeculae are attached. Striated myofibrils become apparent when the trabeculae are sectioned longitudinally. Arrowheads indicate the epicardial side. Scale bars = a, 100 μm; b–c, 25 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Confocal microscope image of the conus after FITC-conjugated phalloidin staining. Longitudinal section. Conus myocardial cells (C) are helicoidally arranged and form a compact tissue which differentiates clearly from the ventricular (V) myocardium. Single and double arrow indicate the outer and inner fibrous layers, respectively. Star, valve leaflet. The bright spots correspond to autofluorescent erythrocytes. (b) Longitudinal, semithin section of the conus. Similar area to that indicated by double arrow in (a). Myocytes are arranged in parallel keeping an oblique orientation with respect to the main heart axis. Orientated myocardial cells extend between the dense connective tissue which forms the inner fibrous layer (arrows) and the rest of the conus myocardium. Note the presence of vessels and of individual myofibrils (arrowhead). The endocardium covers the inner side of the conus and is formed of flattened cells. A valve leaflet (star) appears in the upper part of the photograph. (c) Semithin section of the ventricle. Myocardial cells in the ventricle form an outer monolayer to which myocardial trabeculae are attached. Striated myofibrils become apparent when the trabeculae are sectioned longitudinally. Arrowheads indicate the epicardial side. Scale bars = a, 100 μm; b–c, 25 μm.

Techniques Used: Microscopy, Staining

33) Product Images from "Localization of caveolin-1 and c-src in mature and differentiating photoreceptors: raft proteins co-distribute with rhodopsin during development"

Article Title: Localization of caveolin-1 and c-src in mature and differentiating photoreceptors: raft proteins co-distribute with rhodopsin during development

Journal: Journal of molecular histology

doi: 10.1007/s10735-011-9360-4

Immunolabeling of the adult Syrian hamster retina. a : Structure of the hamster retina, semithin section tolouidin blue staining. Layers: retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), outer segments (OS), inner segments (IS), outer nuclear layer (ONL), outer plexiform
Figure Legend Snippet: Immunolabeling of the adult Syrian hamster retina. a : Structure of the hamster retina, semithin section tolouidin blue staining. Layers: retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), outer segments (OS), inner segments (IS), outer nuclear layer (ONL), outer plexiform

Techniques Used: Immunolabeling, Staining

a Phospho-caveolin labeling in Xenopus laevis retina, semithin section. Phospho-caveolin is localized to the rim of the OS and most probably to the cilia ( arrows ). b Immunoprecipation with rhodopsin using whole retinal lysates from different stages of
Figure Legend Snippet: a Phospho-caveolin labeling in Xenopus laevis retina, semithin section. Phospho-caveolin is localized to the rim of the OS and most probably to the cilia ( arrows ). b Immunoprecipation with rhodopsin using whole retinal lysates from different stages of

Techniques Used: Labeling

34) Product Images from "Invasion of Spores of the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Gigaspora decipiens by Burkholderia spp."

Article Title: Invasion of Spores of the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Gigaspora decipiens by Burkholderia spp.

Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

doi: 10.1128/AEM.69.10.6250-6256.2003

(A) SEM of a G. decipiens spore (S) with attached sporogenous cell (SC) inoculated with B. pseudomallei . (B) Field emission SEM of the junction between the spore and sporogenous cell shown in panel A. B, bacterium. (C) Field emission SEM of G. decipiens hyphae, adherent B. pseudomallei (arrows), and associated fibrillar material. H, hypha. (D) Optical semithin section of B. vietnamiensis -inoculated G. decipiens stained with toluidine blue. Bacteria (arrows) are present throughout the cytoplasm. CW, cell wall. (E) TEM of G. decipiens cytoplasm containing bacteria (arrowheads).
Figure Legend Snippet: (A) SEM of a G. decipiens spore (S) with attached sporogenous cell (SC) inoculated with B. pseudomallei . (B) Field emission SEM of the junction between the spore and sporogenous cell shown in panel A. B, bacterium. (C) Field emission SEM of G. decipiens hyphae, adherent B. pseudomallei (arrows), and associated fibrillar material. H, hypha. (D) Optical semithin section of B. vietnamiensis -inoculated G. decipiens stained with toluidine blue. Bacteria (arrows) are present throughout the cytoplasm. CW, cell wall. (E) TEM of G. decipiens cytoplasm containing bacteria (arrowheads).

Techniques Used: Staining, Transmission Electron Microscopy

35) Product Images from "Altered Ion Channels in an Animal Model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Type IA"

Article Title: Altered Ion Channels in an Animal Model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Type IA

Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3328-04.2005

Electron microscopy of Trembler-J nodes and heminodes. These are images of semithin ( A ) and thin ( B-D ) sections of Trembler-J sciatic nerves. A shows an aberrantly short internode (between the apposing arrowheads that mark the flanking nodes). In B and
Figure Legend Snippet: Electron microscopy of Trembler-J nodes and heminodes. These are images of semithin ( A ) and thin ( B-D ) sections of Trembler-J sciatic nerves. A shows an aberrantly short internode (between the apposing arrowheads that mark the flanking nodes). In B and

Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy

36) Product Images from "Anatomical, immnunohistochemical and physiological characteristics of the vomeronasal vessels in cows and their possible role in vomeronasal reception"

Article Title: Anatomical, immnunohistochemical and physiological characteristics of the vomeronasal vessels in cows and their possible role in vomeronasal reception

Journal:

doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2008.00889.x

(A) Semithin transversal section of an artery (Aa) and vein (Vv) in which the muscular layer (Ml) of both vessels is quite evident. (B) Detail of the wall of one vomeronasal artery showing its different components: the tunica adventitia (Ta) with its
Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Semithin transversal section of an artery (Aa) and vein (Vv) in which the muscular layer (Ml) of both vessels is quite evident. (B) Detail of the wall of one vomeronasal artery showing its different components: the tunica adventitia (Ta) with its

Techniques Used:

37) Product Images from "Metamorphic remodeling of morphology and the body cavity in Phoronopsis harmeri (Lophotrochozoa, Phoronida): the evolution of the phoronid body plan and life cycle"

Article Title: Metamorphic remodeling of morphology and the body cavity in Phoronopsis harmeri (Lophotrochozoa, Phoronida): the evolution of the phoronid body plan and life cycle

Journal: BMC Evolutionary Biology

doi: 10.1186/s12862-015-0504-0

Details of metamorphic remodeling of external morphology in Phoronopsis harmeri . Photographs according to SEM (A-B, D-G) and semithin section ( c ). a Tentacles (t) of metamorphic animal with continuous rope of postoral ciliated band (rpb). b A portion of tentacle with degenerated epithelium of postoral ciliated band: line of former location of the postoral ciliated band is indicated by arrowheads. c Pair of latero-frontal ropes of postoral ciliated band is evident on each tentacle. d Tentacles after remodeling: line of former location of the postoral ciliated band is indicated by arrowheads. e Anterior portion of the body in metamorphic animal with partly consumed preoral lobe (pl) and spacious oral disc (od) with peeled epithelium (pe). f A portion of the oral disc is covered by basal lamina (bl). g Cross section of juvenile tentacles (t) with erythrocytes (er). Abbreviations: c2 – mesocoel; m – mouth; tv – tentacle vessel
Figure Legend Snippet: Details of metamorphic remodeling of external morphology in Phoronopsis harmeri . Photographs according to SEM (A-B, D-G) and semithin section ( c ). a Tentacles (t) of metamorphic animal with continuous rope of postoral ciliated band (rpb). b A portion of tentacle with degenerated epithelium of postoral ciliated band: line of former location of the postoral ciliated band is indicated by arrowheads. c Pair of latero-frontal ropes of postoral ciliated band is evident on each tentacle. d Tentacles after remodeling: line of former location of the postoral ciliated band is indicated by arrowheads. e Anterior portion of the body in metamorphic animal with partly consumed preoral lobe (pl) and spacious oral disc (od) with peeled epithelium (pe). f A portion of the oral disc is covered by basal lamina (bl). g Cross section of juvenile tentacles (t) with erythrocytes (er). Abbreviations: c2 – mesocoel; m – mouth; tv – tentacle vessel

Techniques Used:

Organization of the protocoel in 4-day-old juvenile of Phoronopsis harmeri . Color code: red – median blood vessel; cyan – protocoel; blue – mesocoel. a Sagittal semithin section of the epistome. b Sagittal thin section of the protocoel (c1), mesocoel (c2), and median blood vessel (mv). Desmosomes are indicated by double arrowheads. c Portion of the protocoel lining (lc1). Large cell with phagosome (ph), which contains degenerated myofilaments (mf). Abbreviations: bb – basal body; bl – basal lamina; c – cilium; c3 – trunk coelom; emc – muscle cells, which form musculature of esophagus; er – erythrocyte; es – esophagus; G – Golgi apparatus; lc3 – lining of trunk coelom; m – mouth; n – nucleus; pmc – projections of muscle cells
Figure Legend Snippet: Organization of the protocoel in 4-day-old juvenile of Phoronopsis harmeri . Color code: red – median blood vessel; cyan – protocoel; blue – mesocoel. a Sagittal semithin section of the epistome. b Sagittal thin section of the protocoel (c1), mesocoel (c2), and median blood vessel (mv). Desmosomes are indicated by double arrowheads. c Portion of the protocoel lining (lc1). Large cell with phagosome (ph), which contains degenerated myofilaments (mf). Abbreviations: bb – basal body; bl – basal lamina; c – cilium; c3 – trunk coelom; emc – muscle cells, which form musculature of esophagus; er – erythrocyte; es – esophagus; G – Golgi apparatus; lc3 – lining of trunk coelom; m – mouth; n – nucleus; pmc – projections of muscle cells

Techniques Used:

Organization of the protocoel at first stage of metamorphosis of Phoronopsis harmeri . a Sagittal semithin section of the protocoel (c1). Degenerated epithelium of the preoral lobe (dpl) is above the protocoel. Thick protrusions of basal lamina are indicated by arrowheads. b Thin section of the protocoel lateral wall, which includes large bundle of muscle cells. c Thin section of the protocoel lower wall. It contacts the esophagus (es) and muscle cells, which form the musculature (emc) of the esophagus. Desmosomes between cells of the protocoel lining are shown by double arrowheads. d The protocoel upper wall is formed by myoepithelial cells. Abbreviations: bb – basal body; bc – blastocoel; bl – basal lamina; lc1 – lining of protocoel; mc – muscular basal protrusions of cells of protocoel lining; rer – rough endoplasmic reticulum; sr – striated rootlet
Figure Legend Snippet: Organization of the protocoel at first stage of metamorphosis of Phoronopsis harmeri . a Sagittal semithin section of the protocoel (c1). Degenerated epithelium of the preoral lobe (dpl) is above the protocoel. Thick protrusions of basal lamina are indicated by arrowheads. b Thin section of the protocoel lateral wall, which includes large bundle of muscle cells. c Thin section of the protocoel lower wall. It contacts the esophagus (es) and muscle cells, which form the musculature (emc) of the esophagus. Desmosomes between cells of the protocoel lining are shown by double arrowheads. d The protocoel upper wall is formed by myoepithelial cells. Abbreviations: bb – basal body; bc – blastocoel; bl – basal lamina; lc1 – lining of protocoel; mc – muscular basal protrusions of cells of protocoel lining; rer – rough endoplasmic reticulum; sr – striated rootlet

Techniques Used:

Organization of the competent larvae of Phoronopsis harmeri. In all photographs, the apical side is to the top. a Whole larva viewed from the ventro-lateral side; SEM. b Photograph of a live larva viewed from the left. c Sagittal semithin section of whole larva; the ventral side is to the left. d Longitudinal semithin section of the preoral lobe of larva; the ventral side is to the left. e Longitudinal semithin section of the protonephridium, which bears upper and lower groups of terminal cells. Abbreviations: ao – apical organ; bc – blastocoel; bm – blood mass; bv – blood vessels; c – canal of protonephridium; c1 – protocoel; c2 – mesocoel; c3 – metacoel; d – diaphragm; dv – dorsal blood vessel; es – esophagus; lc2 – mesocoel lining; lg – lower group of terminal cells; m – mouth; mg – midgut; ms – metasomal sac; oms – opening of metasomal sac; pl – preoral lobe; sd – stomach diverticulum; st – stomach; t – tentacle; tt – telotroch; ug – upper group of terminal cells, vm – ventral mesentery
Figure Legend Snippet: Organization of the competent larvae of Phoronopsis harmeri. In all photographs, the apical side is to the top. a Whole larva viewed from the ventro-lateral side; SEM. b Photograph of a live larva viewed from the left. c Sagittal semithin section of whole larva; the ventral side is to the left. d Longitudinal semithin section of the preoral lobe of larva; the ventral side is to the left. e Longitudinal semithin section of the protonephridium, which bears upper and lower groups of terminal cells. Abbreviations: ao – apical organ; bc – blastocoel; bm – blood mass; bv – blood vessels; c – canal of protonephridium; c1 – protocoel; c2 – mesocoel; c3 – metacoel; d – diaphragm; dv – dorsal blood vessel; es – esophagus; lc2 – mesocoel lining; lg – lower group of terminal cells; m – mouth; mg – midgut; ms – metasomal sac; oms – opening of metasomal sac; pl – preoral lobe; sd – stomach diverticulum; st – stomach; t – tentacle; tt – telotroch; ug – upper group of terminal cells, vm – ventral mesentery

Techniques Used: Mass Spectrometry

Organization of the protocoel at later stages of metamorphosis of Phoronopsis harmeri . a Sagittal semithin section of the protocoel (c1) at stage of eating of the peoral lobe. Degenerated epithelium of the preoral lobe (dpl) is above the protocoel. b Sagittal semithin section of the protocoel in 1-h-old juvenile. c Thin section of the protocoel of 1-h-old juvenile. The lumen of protocoel is filled with thick apical protrusions (plc1) of cells of the protocoel lining (lc1). Desmosomes between cells are indicated by double arrowheads. Abbreviations: bc – blastocoel; bl – basal lamina; c3 – trunk coelom; ECM – extracellular matrix; emc – muscle cells, which form esophageal musculature; es – esophagus; m – mouth; mc – muscle cells in blastocoel; n – nucleus; nu – nucleolus; mv – median blood vessel; rer – rough endoplasmic reticulum; sr – striated rootlet
Figure Legend Snippet: Organization of the protocoel at later stages of metamorphosis of Phoronopsis harmeri . a Sagittal semithin section of the protocoel (c1) at stage of eating of the peoral lobe. Degenerated epithelium of the preoral lobe (dpl) is above the protocoel. b Sagittal semithin section of the protocoel in 1-h-old juvenile. c Thin section of the protocoel of 1-h-old juvenile. The lumen of protocoel is filled with thick apical protrusions (plc1) of cells of the protocoel lining (lc1). Desmosomes between cells are indicated by double arrowheads. Abbreviations: bc – blastocoel; bl – basal lamina; c3 – trunk coelom; ECM – extracellular matrix; emc – muscle cells, which form esophageal musculature; es – esophagus; m – mouth; mc – muscle cells in blastocoel; n – nucleus; nu – nucleolus; mv – median blood vessel; rer – rough endoplasmic reticulum; sr – striated rootlet

Techniques Used:

38) Product Images from "The nervous system in the cyclostome bryozoan Crisia eburnea as revealed by transmission electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy"

Article Title: The nervous system in the cyclostome bryozoan Crisia eburnea as revealed by transmission electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy

Journal: Frontiers in Zoology

doi: 10.1186/s12983-018-0295-4

Organization of colony and zooids in Crisia eburnea . Photographs of live animals ( a - b ) and semithin sections (C-E). a A part of colony. b The same colony in higher magnification: tentacles and pores (arrowheads) in the wall of cystids are visible. c Sagittal longitudinal section of distal portion of zooid; tentacles semi-retracted. d Eight tentacles in the cross section. e Cross section of two branches of the digestive tract. Abbreviations: a – anus; as – atrial sphincter; ca – cardia; cae – caecum; cl – calcified layer; cg – cerebral ganglion; ec – epidermis; es – esophagus; int – intestine; lph – lophophore; mo – mouth; ms – membranous sac; pe – unmineralized cuticle; ph – pharynx; py - pylorus; t – tentacle; ts – tentacle sheath; z – zooid
Figure Legend Snippet: Organization of colony and zooids in Crisia eburnea . Photographs of live animals ( a - b ) and semithin sections (C-E). a A part of colony. b The same colony in higher magnification: tentacles and pores (arrowheads) in the wall of cystids are visible. c Sagittal longitudinal section of distal portion of zooid; tentacles semi-retracted. d Eight tentacles in the cross section. e Cross section of two branches of the digestive tract. Abbreviations: a – anus; as – atrial sphincter; ca – cardia; cae – caecum; cl – calcified layer; cg – cerebral ganglion; ec – epidermis; es – esophagus; int – intestine; lph – lophophore; mo – mouth; ms – membranous sac; pe – unmineralized cuticle; ph – pharynx; py - pylorus; t – tentacle; ts – tentacle sheath; z – zooid

Techniques Used: Mass Spectrometry

39) Product Images from "Testicular FasL is expressed by sperm cells"

Article Title: Testicular FasL is expressed by sperm cells

Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

doi: 10.1073/pnas.051566098

Morphological study of seminiferous epithelium from SCE adult rats. The semithin sections show: ( a ) Aspermatogenic Sertoli-cell-only testis from 41-day-old rat irradiated in utero ; ( b ) the recovery of spermatogenesis 63 days after birth (arrow heads indicate spermatocytes); ( c ) the abdominal testis, showing the absence of spermatogenesis; and ( d ) controlateral scrotal testis in unilaterally cryptorchid SCE rat (210× magnification for all). ( e ) Northern blot analysis of FasL expression in SCE rat testes. Total RNA from unilaterally cryptorchid SCE rat testis and Sertoli-cell-only testis from irradiated in utero rats of different ages were analyzed by Northern blot analysis. Each band was normalized by ethidium bromide staining of the gel before transfer ( Lower ). Results are representative of three independent experiments.
Figure Legend Snippet: Morphological study of seminiferous epithelium from SCE adult rats. The semithin sections show: ( a ) Aspermatogenic Sertoli-cell-only testis from 41-day-old rat irradiated in utero ; ( b ) the recovery of spermatogenesis 63 days after birth (arrow heads indicate spermatocytes); ( c ) the abdominal testis, showing the absence of spermatogenesis; and ( d ) controlateral scrotal testis in unilaterally cryptorchid SCE rat (210× magnification for all). ( e ) Northern blot analysis of FasL expression in SCE rat testes. Total RNA from unilaterally cryptorchid SCE rat testis and Sertoli-cell-only testis from irradiated in utero rats of different ages were analyzed by Northern blot analysis. Each band was normalized by ethidium bromide staining of the gel before transfer ( Lower ). Results are representative of three independent experiments.

Techniques Used: Irradiation, In Utero, Northern Blot, Expressing, Staining

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Light Microscopy:

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Article Snippet: .. Semithin sections were made with a glass knife, stained with Azure II - Methylene Blue and imaged by Zeiss AxioImager Z.1 light microscope, equipped with a HRC Axiocam camera. .. Ultrathin sections were made with a Reichert Ultracut S ultramicrotome (Leica), contrasted with 4% uranyl acetate for 10 minutes and 10% lead citrate for 5 minutes and inspected with a Philips CM100 transmission electron microscope, equipped by BioScan 792 camera (Gatan).

Article Title: Reconstitution of Mammary Gland Development In Vitro: Requirement of c-met and c-erbB2 Signaling for Branching and Alveolar Morphogenesis
Article Snippet: .. For light microscopy, semithin sections (0.5 μm) were stained with toluidin blue and analyzed in a Zeiss Axiophot light microscope. .. Ultrathin sections (50–70 nm) were contrasted with lead citrate and analyzed in a Zeiss EM 10 electron microscope.

Article Title: Morphology, microanatomy and sequence data of Sclerolinum contortum (Siboglindae, Annelida) of the Gulf of Mexico
Article Snippet: .. Semithin sections were viewed with a Zeiss Axio Imager A1 light microscope, and ultrathin sections were analyzed with a Zeiss EM 902 transmission electron microscope. .. Measurements of taxonomic characters and statistical analyses Taxonomic characters were measured by using Image J software, version 1.40 g. Correlations of the length of the worms with body diameters, measured at different body regions, were statistically tested using Excel (Microsoft) by creating regression plots.

Staining:

Article Title: Egg envelopes and cuticle renewal inPorcellio embryos and marsupial mancas
Article Snippet: .. Semithin sections were made with a glass knife, stained with Azure II - Methylene Blue and imaged by Zeiss AxioImager Z.1 light microscope, equipped with a HRC Axiocam camera. .. Ultrathin sections were made with a Reichert Ultracut S ultramicrotome (Leica), contrasted with 4% uranyl acetate for 10 minutes and 10% lead citrate for 5 minutes and inspected with a Philips CM100 transmission electron microscope, equipped by BioScan 792 camera (Gatan).

Article Title: The conus valves of the adult gilthead seabream (Sparus auratus)
Article Snippet: .. Semithin sections were cut with a LKB III ultratome, stained with 1% toluidine blue, and observed with a Zeiss III photomicroscope. .. Ultrathin sections were cut with a Leica Ultracut UCT, stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate, and examined with a Zeiss ME 10C microscope.

Article Title: The nervous system of the lophophore in the ctenostome Amathia gracilis provides insight into the morphology of ancestral ectoprocts and the monophyly of the lophophorates
Article Snippet: .. Semithin sections were stained with methylene blue, observed with a Zeiss Axioplan2 microscope, and photographed with an AxioCam HRm camera. .. Ultrathin sections were stained in uranyl acetate followed by lead nitrate and were examined with JEM-1011 JEOL and JEM-100 B-1 JEOL transmission electron microscopes (JEOL, Akishima, Japan).

Article Title: Reconstitution of Mammary Gland Development In Vitro: Requirement of c-met and c-erbB2 Signaling for Branching and Alveolar Morphogenesis
Article Snippet: .. For light microscopy, semithin sections (0.5 μm) were stained with toluidin blue and analyzed in a Zeiss Axiophot light microscope. .. Ultrathin sections (50–70 nm) were contrasted with lead citrate and analyzed in a Zeiss EM 10 electron microscope.

Article Title: Differential Modulation of Retinal Degeneration by Ccl2 and Cx3cr1 Chemokine Signalling
Article Snippet: .. Semithin sections were stained with a 1% mixture of toluidine blue-borax in 50% ethanol and images taken using bright field microscopy (Oberserver.Z1 Axio, Carl Zeiss Microimaging, Jena, Germany). .. To evaluate the pathological changes in the retina and the RPE over time sections from age-matched CCDKO and C57Bl/6 wildtype mice between 2 weeks and 22 months of age were assessed under bright field microscopy using a 100× objective and a 10× ocular lense.

Article Title: Organization and metamorphic remodeling of the nervous system in juveniles of Phoronopsis harmeri (Phoronida): insights into evolution of the bilaterian nervous system
Article Snippet: .. Semithin sections were stained with methylene blue, observed with Zeiss Axioplan2 microscope and photographed with an AxioCam HRm camera. .. Thin sections were stained with lead citrate and then examined with a JEOL JEM 100B electron microscope.

Article Title: GRIM-19, a Cell Death Regulatory Protein, Is Essential for Assembly and Function of Mitochondrial Complex I
Article Snippet: .. Semithin sections were stained with toluidine blue and examined with a Zeiss microscope. .. Ultrathin sections were stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate and examined with an EM208 transmission electron microscope (Philips Electron Optics).

Microscopy:

Article Title: The nervous system of the lophophore in the ctenostome Amathia gracilis provides insight into the morphology of ancestral ectoprocts and the monophyly of the lophophorates
Article Snippet: .. Semithin sections were stained with methylene blue, observed with a Zeiss Axioplan2 microscope, and photographed with an AxioCam HRm camera. .. Ultrathin sections were stained in uranyl acetate followed by lead nitrate and were examined with JEM-1011 JEOL and JEM-100 B-1 JEOL transmission electron microscopes (JEOL, Akishima, Japan).

Article Title: Differential Modulation of Retinal Degeneration by Ccl2 and Cx3cr1 Chemokine Signalling
Article Snippet: .. Semithin sections were stained with a 1% mixture of toluidine blue-borax in 50% ethanol and images taken using bright field microscopy (Oberserver.Z1 Axio, Carl Zeiss Microimaging, Jena, Germany). .. To evaluate the pathological changes in the retina and the RPE over time sections from age-matched CCDKO and C57Bl/6 wildtype mice between 2 weeks and 22 months of age were assessed under bright field microscopy using a 100× objective and a 10× ocular lense.

Article Title: Organization and metamorphic remodeling of the nervous system in juveniles of Phoronopsis harmeri (Phoronida): insights into evolution of the bilaterian nervous system
Article Snippet: .. Semithin sections were stained with methylene blue, observed with Zeiss Axioplan2 microscope and photographed with an AxioCam HRm camera. .. Thin sections were stained with lead citrate and then examined with a JEOL JEM 100B electron microscope.

Article Title: GRIM-19, a Cell Death Regulatory Protein, Is Essential for Assembly and Function of Mitochondrial Complex I
Article Snippet: .. Semithin sections were stained with toluidine blue and examined with a Zeiss microscope. .. Ultrathin sections were stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate and examined with an EM208 transmission electron microscope (Philips Electron Optics).

Article Title: Morphology, microanatomy and sequence data of Sclerolinum contortum (Siboglindae, Annelida) of the Gulf of Mexico
Article Snippet: .. Semithin sections were viewed with a Zeiss Axio Imager A1 light microscope, and ultrathin sections were analyzed with a Zeiss EM 902 transmission electron microscope. .. Measurements of taxonomic characters and statistical analyses Taxonomic characters were measured by using Image J software, version 1.40 g. Correlations of the length of the worms with body diameters, measured at different body regions, were statistically tested using Excel (Microsoft) by creating regression plots.

Transmission Assay:

Article Title: Morphology, microanatomy and sequence data of Sclerolinum contortum (Siboglindae, Annelida) of the Gulf of Mexico
Article Snippet: .. Semithin sections were viewed with a Zeiss Axio Imager A1 light microscope, and ultrathin sections were analyzed with a Zeiss EM 902 transmission electron microscope. .. Measurements of taxonomic characters and statistical analyses Taxonomic characters were measured by using Image J software, version 1.40 g. Correlations of the length of the worms with body diameters, measured at different body regions, were statistically tested using Excel (Microsoft) by creating regression plots.

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    Carl Zeiss semithin sections
    The primary degenerative event in the course of the degeneration is located in the outer nuclear layer of CCDKO mice and leads to the secondary development of RPE damage. (A) Superior-inferior oriented sagittal <t>semithin</t> histology of the outer retina of CCDKO mice and age-matched C57Bl/6 wildtype mice at the level of the optic disc between 2 weeks and over 20 months of age. A localized drop-out of nuclei from the ONL (white arrowheads) as early as 2 weeks of age in CCDKO mice suggests a primary pathological event in the retina that initiates the progressive inferior retinal degeneration in this model finally leading to the complete loss of retinal layers from 8 months of age onwards. The RPE underneath these lesions is secondarily affected. White arrows: drop out of photoreceptor columns, black arrowheads: descending retinal vessels, INL: inner nuclear layer, OPL: outer plexiform layer, ONL: outer nuclear layer, IS: inner segments, OS: outer segments, RPE: retinal pigment epithelium. (B) Quantitative morphometry of RPE damage on the same sections. We observed an normal age-related increase of RPE damage in wildtype mice ( C57Bl/6 : Pearson r 2 = 0.5562, p
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    The primary degenerative event in the course of the degeneration is located in the outer nuclear layer of CCDKO mice and leads to the secondary development of RPE damage. (A) Superior-inferior oriented sagittal semithin histology of the outer retina of CCDKO mice and age-matched C57Bl/6 wildtype mice at the level of the optic disc between 2 weeks and over 20 months of age. A localized drop-out of nuclei from the ONL (white arrowheads) as early as 2 weeks of age in CCDKO mice suggests a primary pathological event in the retina that initiates the progressive inferior retinal degeneration in this model finally leading to the complete loss of retinal layers from 8 months of age onwards. The RPE underneath these lesions is secondarily affected. White arrows: drop out of photoreceptor columns, black arrowheads: descending retinal vessels, INL: inner nuclear layer, OPL: outer plexiform layer, ONL: outer nuclear layer, IS: inner segments, OS: outer segments, RPE: retinal pigment epithelium. (B) Quantitative morphometry of RPE damage on the same sections. We observed an normal age-related increase of RPE damage in wildtype mice ( C57Bl/6 : Pearson r 2 = 0.5562, p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Differential Modulation of Retinal Degeneration by Ccl2 and Cx3cr1 Chemokine Signalling

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035551

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The primary degenerative event in the course of the degeneration is located in the outer nuclear layer of CCDKO mice and leads to the secondary development of RPE damage. (A) Superior-inferior oriented sagittal semithin histology of the outer retina of CCDKO mice and age-matched C57Bl/6 wildtype mice at the level of the optic disc between 2 weeks and over 20 months of age. A localized drop-out of nuclei from the ONL (white arrowheads) as early as 2 weeks of age in CCDKO mice suggests a primary pathological event in the retina that initiates the progressive inferior retinal degeneration in this model finally leading to the complete loss of retinal layers from 8 months of age onwards. The RPE underneath these lesions is secondarily affected. White arrows: drop out of photoreceptor columns, black arrowheads: descending retinal vessels, INL: inner nuclear layer, OPL: outer plexiform layer, ONL: outer nuclear layer, IS: inner segments, OS: outer segments, RPE: retinal pigment epithelium. (B) Quantitative morphometry of RPE damage on the same sections. We observed an normal age-related increase of RPE damage in wildtype mice ( C57Bl/6 : Pearson r 2 = 0.5562, p

    Article Snippet: Semithin sections were stained with a 1% mixture of toluidine blue-borax in 50% ethanol and images taken using bright field microscopy (Oberserver.Z1 Axio, Carl Zeiss Microimaging, Jena, Germany).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Organization of main nerve elements at first stages of metamorphosis of Phoronopsis harmeri. Sagittal semithin (A, C) and thin (B, D-E) sections. (A) One of dorsolateral groups of perikarya. (B) Perikarya (pink) of dorsolateral group, which is associated with the main nerve ring. (C) The main nerve ring. (D) Perikaryon (pink) in the main nerve ring. (E) The neuropil of the main nerve ring. Abbreviations: bc – blastocoel; c2 – tentacular coelom; c3 – trunk coelom; d – diaphragm; dcv – dense-core vesicle; gp – groups of perikarya; m – mitochondrion; mc – muscle cell; mt – microtubule; n – nucleus; nc – nephridial channel; nf – nerve fiber; pl – preoral lobe; sv – synaptic vesicle; tn – main nerve ring.

    Journal: Frontiers in Zoology

    Article Title: Organization and metamorphic remodeling of the nervous system in juveniles of Phoronopsis harmeri (Phoronida): insights into evolution of the bilaterian nervous system

    doi: 10.1186/1742-9994-11-35

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Organization of main nerve elements at first stages of metamorphosis of Phoronopsis harmeri. Sagittal semithin (A, C) and thin (B, D-E) sections. (A) One of dorsolateral groups of perikarya. (B) Perikarya (pink) of dorsolateral group, which is associated with the main nerve ring. (C) The main nerve ring. (D) Perikaryon (pink) in the main nerve ring. (E) The neuropil of the main nerve ring. Abbreviations: bc – blastocoel; c2 – tentacular coelom; c3 – trunk coelom; d – diaphragm; dcv – dense-core vesicle; gp – groups of perikarya; m – mitochondrion; mc – muscle cell; mt – microtubule; n – nucleus; nc – nephridial channel; nf – nerve fiber; pl – preoral lobe; sv – synaptic vesicle; tn – main nerve ring.

    Article Snippet: Semithin sections were stained with methylene blue, observed with Zeiss Axioplan2 microscope and photographed with an AxioCam HRm camera.

    Techniques:

    Some nerve elements of the trunk in 3-day-old juvenile of Phoronopsis harmeri. Cross semithin (A) and thin (B-F) sections of the anterior body part. (A) Whole section with formed definitive digestive tract and blood vessels. (B) The giant nerve fiber, which is completely enveloped by two cells and accompanied by several nerve fibers of common diameter. (C) Group of nerve fibers (arrowheads) in the epithelium of descending branch of the digestive tract. (D) Large projection of nerve cell contains synaptic vesicles and located in the epithelium of descending branch of the digestive tract. (E) Projection of neurosecretory cell (arrowheads) in the epithelium of ascending branch of the digestive tract. (F) Neuron (pink) with dense-core synaptic vesicles and nerve fibers, some of which contain clear (electron-lucent) vesicles in the epithelium of the esophagus. Abbreviations: ab – ascending branch of digestive tract; am – anal mesentery; bc – blastocoel; bl – basal lamina; c3 – trunk coelom; cc – coelomic lining; cv – clear (electron-lucent) synaptic vesicle; db – descending branch of digestive tract; dcv – dense-core vesicle; ec – enveloping cell; ep – epidermis; llv – left lateral blood vessel; lm – longitudinal muscles; m – mitochondria; mc – muscle cells; mv – median blood vessel; n – nucleus; nf – nerve fiber; sv – synaptic vesicles.

    Journal: Frontiers in Zoology

    Article Title: Organization and metamorphic remodeling of the nervous system in juveniles of Phoronopsis harmeri (Phoronida): insights into evolution of the bilaterian nervous system

    doi: 10.1186/1742-9994-11-35

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Some nerve elements of the trunk in 3-day-old juvenile of Phoronopsis harmeri. Cross semithin (A) and thin (B-F) sections of the anterior body part. (A) Whole section with formed definitive digestive tract and blood vessels. (B) The giant nerve fiber, which is completely enveloped by two cells and accompanied by several nerve fibers of common diameter. (C) Group of nerve fibers (arrowheads) in the epithelium of descending branch of the digestive tract. (D) Large projection of nerve cell contains synaptic vesicles and located in the epithelium of descending branch of the digestive tract. (E) Projection of neurosecretory cell (arrowheads) in the epithelium of ascending branch of the digestive tract. (F) Neuron (pink) with dense-core synaptic vesicles and nerve fibers, some of which contain clear (electron-lucent) vesicles in the epithelium of the esophagus. Abbreviations: ab – ascending branch of digestive tract; am – anal mesentery; bc – blastocoel; bl – basal lamina; c3 – trunk coelom; cc – coelomic lining; cv – clear (electron-lucent) synaptic vesicle; db – descending branch of digestive tract; dcv – dense-core vesicle; ec – enveloping cell; ep – epidermis; llv – left lateral blood vessel; lm – longitudinal muscles; m – mitochondria; mc – muscle cells; mv – median blood vessel; n – nucleus; nf – nerve fiber; sv – synaptic vesicles.

    Article Snippet: Semithin sections were stained with methylene blue, observed with Zeiss Axioplan2 microscope and photographed with an AxioCam HRm camera.

    Techniques:

    Morphological and ultrasrtuctural changes of the larval hood and tentacles at the firsts stages of metamorphosis of Phoronopsis harmeri. (A-C) The anterior portion of the body of live animals. (D, F, G) Semithin sections. (E, H-K) Thin section. (A) First stage of metamorphosis: the hood (pl) remains its integrity. (B) The next (second) stage of metamorphosis: the hood (pl) turns into cellular debris and engulfed. (C) The third stage of metamorphosis: larval tentacles (t) form a “cup” and surround the hood. (D) The second stage of metamorphosis, sagittal section; the oral side is to the right, the anal side is to the left, the apical is at the top. ( E) Thick basal lamina (bl) and spacious blastocoel (bc) under degenerated cells of the preoral lobe and the apical organ, which still remains synaptic vesicles (sv). (F) Sagittal section of the protocoel (c1), degenerated hood (pl), and the apical organ (ao). (G) The cross section of the tentacle, which starts to acquire the definitive style via the peeling of the postoral ciliated band (po). (H) The mediofrontal neurite bundle (arrowheads). (I) The medioabfrontal neurite bundles (arrowheads). (J) The lateroabfrontal neurite bundle (arrowheads), which is associated with gland cell (gc). (K) Laterofrontal neurite bundle (arrowheads) is associated with laterofrontal sensory cell (lfc), which undergoes the cell death. Abbreviations: az – abfrontal zone; bm – blood masses; bv – blood vessel; c2 – tentacular coelom; c3 – trunk coelom; es – esophagus; fz – frontal zone; lfz – laterofrontal zone; m – mouth; mc – muscle cell; mi – microvilli; mv – median blood vessel; n – nucleus; nf – nerve fiber; pt – posterior part of the larval body with the telotroch; sd – stomach diverticulum; st – stomach; tn – main nerve ring; tt – telotroch.

    Journal: Frontiers in Zoology

    Article Title: Organization and metamorphic remodeling of the nervous system in juveniles of Phoronopsis harmeri (Phoronida): insights into evolution of the bilaterian nervous system

    doi: 10.1186/1742-9994-11-35

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Morphological and ultrasrtuctural changes of the larval hood and tentacles at the firsts stages of metamorphosis of Phoronopsis harmeri. (A-C) The anterior portion of the body of live animals. (D, F, G) Semithin sections. (E, H-K) Thin section. (A) First stage of metamorphosis: the hood (pl) remains its integrity. (B) The next (second) stage of metamorphosis: the hood (pl) turns into cellular debris and engulfed. (C) The third stage of metamorphosis: larval tentacles (t) form a “cup” and surround the hood. (D) The second stage of metamorphosis, sagittal section; the oral side is to the right, the anal side is to the left, the apical is at the top. ( E) Thick basal lamina (bl) and spacious blastocoel (bc) under degenerated cells of the preoral lobe and the apical organ, which still remains synaptic vesicles (sv). (F) Sagittal section of the protocoel (c1), degenerated hood (pl), and the apical organ (ao). (G) The cross section of the tentacle, which starts to acquire the definitive style via the peeling of the postoral ciliated band (po). (H) The mediofrontal neurite bundle (arrowheads). (I) The medioabfrontal neurite bundles (arrowheads). (J) The lateroabfrontal neurite bundle (arrowheads), which is associated with gland cell (gc). (K) Laterofrontal neurite bundle (arrowheads) is associated with laterofrontal sensory cell (lfc), which undergoes the cell death. Abbreviations: az – abfrontal zone; bm – blood masses; bv – blood vessel; c2 – tentacular coelom; c3 – trunk coelom; es – esophagus; fz – frontal zone; lfz – laterofrontal zone; m – mouth; mc – muscle cell; mi – microvilli; mv – median blood vessel; n – nucleus; nf – nerve fiber; pt – posterior part of the larval body with the telotroch; sd – stomach diverticulum; st – stomach; tn – main nerve ring; tt – telotroch.

    Article Snippet: Semithin sections were stained with methylene blue, observed with Zeiss Axioplan2 microscope and photographed with an AxioCam HRm camera.

    Techniques: Hood

    Serotonin-like immunoreactive nervous system in Phoronopsis harmeri during the first stages of metamorphosis. (A-G) Animals at one of the first stages of metamorphosis (the “hood-eating stage”). (H-J) Animals at the stage when the postoral ciliated band is ingested. In all images, the apical is at the top, and the oral side is to the right. Z-projections (B, D, E, G, H) of animals after mono- and double staining for serotonin (yellow) and phalloidin (blue). (A) Whole animal viewed from the top; SEM. (B) Anterior portion of the body. The intertentacular branches are indicated by opened arrowheads. (C) Sagittal semithin section of the anterior portion of the body. (D) Optical sagittal section of the anterior part of the body. The serotonin-like immunoreactive cells in the esophagus are indicated by closed arrowheads. The nerve ring around the anus is indicated by arrows. (E) The portion of tentacular (main) nerve ring with intertentacular branches (arrowheads). (F) Middle part of the body with nerve plexus and nonsensory perikarya (double close arrowheads). (G) Whole anterior part of the body. (H) Anterior part of the body; SEM. (I) Whole anterior part of the animal. The main nerve ring is indicated by double arrowheads. (J) Part of the main nerve ring and lateroabfrontal neurites. The intertentacular branches are indicated by open arrowheads. Abbreviations: ao – apical organ; bc – blastocoel; c3 – trunk coelom; es – esophagus; gp – groups of perikarya; m – mouth; la – lateroabfrontal neurite bundles; of – oral field; p – proctodaeum; pl – preoral lobe; po – postoral ciliated band; pp – remnant of the hood; pt – posterior part of the larval body with the telotroch; sg – neurites of the second group; st – stomach; t – tentacle; tn – tentacular (main) nerve ring; tt – telotroch; yt – youngest tentacles.

    Journal: Frontiers in Zoology

    Article Title: Organization and metamorphic remodeling of the nervous system in juveniles of Phoronopsis harmeri (Phoronida): insights into evolution of the bilaterian nervous system

    doi: 10.1186/1742-9994-11-35

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Serotonin-like immunoreactive nervous system in Phoronopsis harmeri during the first stages of metamorphosis. (A-G) Animals at one of the first stages of metamorphosis (the “hood-eating stage”). (H-J) Animals at the stage when the postoral ciliated band is ingested. In all images, the apical is at the top, and the oral side is to the right. Z-projections (B, D, E, G, H) of animals after mono- and double staining for serotonin (yellow) and phalloidin (blue). (A) Whole animal viewed from the top; SEM. (B) Anterior portion of the body. The intertentacular branches are indicated by opened arrowheads. (C) Sagittal semithin section of the anterior portion of the body. (D) Optical sagittal section of the anterior part of the body. The serotonin-like immunoreactive cells in the esophagus are indicated by closed arrowheads. The nerve ring around the anus is indicated by arrows. (E) The portion of tentacular (main) nerve ring with intertentacular branches (arrowheads). (F) Middle part of the body with nerve plexus and nonsensory perikarya (double close arrowheads). (G) Whole anterior part of the body. (H) Anterior part of the body; SEM. (I) Whole anterior part of the animal. The main nerve ring is indicated by double arrowheads. (J) Part of the main nerve ring and lateroabfrontal neurites. The intertentacular branches are indicated by open arrowheads. Abbreviations: ao – apical organ; bc – blastocoel; c3 – trunk coelom; es – esophagus; gp – groups of perikarya; m – mouth; la – lateroabfrontal neurite bundles; of – oral field; p – proctodaeum; pl – preoral lobe; po – postoral ciliated band; pp – remnant of the hood; pt – posterior part of the larval body with the telotroch; sg – neurites of the second group; st – stomach; t – tentacle; tn – tentacular (main) nerve ring; tt – telotroch; yt – youngest tentacles.

    Article Snippet: Semithin sections were stained with methylene blue, observed with Zeiss Axioplan2 microscope and photographed with an AxioCam HRm camera.

    Techniques: Double Staining, Hood

    Organization of the dorsal ganglion in 3-day-old juvenile of Phoronopsis harmeri . Cross semithin (A) and thin (B-D) sections of the head region. (A) Two dorsolateral groups of perikarya (pink boxes) connect via thick commissure. (B) A portion of one of the dorsolateral group of perikarya: sensory (blue) and nonsensory (pink) perikarya are visible. Perikarya of both types bear centrioles (arrowheads). (C) A portion of the commissure, which consists of nerve fibers of different types. (D) A proximal portion of the giant nerve fiber associated with epidermal cell (blue), which contacts the epidermis surface and bears the centriole (arrowhead). Abbreviations: bl – basal lamina; c – commissure; c2 – mesocoel; cc – coelomic lining; cv – clear (electron-lucent) synaptic vesicle; dcv – dense-core vesicle; er – erythrocyte; es – esophagus; G – Golgi apparatus; gf – giant nerve fiber; m – mouth; mc – mitochondria; mi – microvilli; mnr – minor nerve ring; mt – microtubule; n – nucleus; nf – nerve fiber; tt – telotroch.

    Journal: Frontiers in Zoology

    Article Title: Organization and metamorphic remodeling of the nervous system in juveniles of Phoronopsis harmeri (Phoronida): insights into evolution of the bilaterian nervous system

    doi: 10.1186/1742-9994-11-35

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Organization of the dorsal ganglion in 3-day-old juvenile of Phoronopsis harmeri . Cross semithin (A) and thin (B-D) sections of the head region. (A) Two dorsolateral groups of perikarya (pink boxes) connect via thick commissure. (B) A portion of one of the dorsolateral group of perikarya: sensory (blue) and nonsensory (pink) perikarya are visible. Perikarya of both types bear centrioles (arrowheads). (C) A portion of the commissure, which consists of nerve fibers of different types. (D) A proximal portion of the giant nerve fiber associated with epidermal cell (blue), which contacts the epidermis surface and bears the centriole (arrowhead). Abbreviations: bl – basal lamina; c – commissure; c2 – mesocoel; cc – coelomic lining; cv – clear (electron-lucent) synaptic vesicle; dcv – dense-core vesicle; er – erythrocyte; es – esophagus; G – Golgi apparatus; gf – giant nerve fiber; m – mouth; mc – mitochondria; mi – microvilli; mnr – minor nerve ring; mt – microtubule; n – nucleus; nf – nerve fiber; tt – telotroch.

    Article Snippet: Semithin sections were stained with methylene blue, observed with Zeiss Axioplan2 microscope and photographed with an AxioCam HRm camera.

    Techniques:

    Structure of distal chorion ( ch ) and proximal vitelline membrane ( vm ), covering Porcellio scaber A, B, D, F and Porcellio dilatatus C, E early-stage embryo. A The early-stage embryo with large amount of yolk ( y ) and no visible limb buds. B Semithin section of the embryo peripheral region. Chorion is separated from the embryo surface. The vitelline membrane is closely apposed to the embryo surface. C SEM micrograph of the early-stage embryo. The outer egg envelope, chorion, is visible. D TEM micrograph of one-layered chorion, including electron lucent “lacunae” (white arrow). There is a layer of artificially spilt yolk underneath the chorion. E SEM micrograph of the early-stage embryo. Chorion is artificially removed and the inner egg envelope, vitelline membrane, is exposed. F TEM micrograph of vitelline membrane, composed of three layers: main proximal homogenous layer (*), thin middle electron dense layer (white arrow) and superficial corrugated lucent layer (black arrow). Bars: A, C, E 200 µm; B 10 µm; D 0.5 µm; F 200 nm.

    Journal: ZooKeys

    Article Title: Egg envelopes and cuticle renewal inPorcellio embryos and marsupial mancas

    doi: 10.3897/zookeys.176.2418

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Structure of distal chorion ( ch ) and proximal vitelline membrane ( vm ), covering Porcellio scaber A, B, D, F and Porcellio dilatatus C, E early-stage embryo. A The early-stage embryo with large amount of yolk ( y ) and no visible limb buds. B Semithin section of the embryo peripheral region. Chorion is separated from the embryo surface. The vitelline membrane is closely apposed to the embryo surface. C SEM micrograph of the early-stage embryo. The outer egg envelope, chorion, is visible. D TEM micrograph of one-layered chorion, including electron lucent “lacunae” (white arrow). There is a layer of artificially spilt yolk underneath the chorion. E SEM micrograph of the early-stage embryo. Chorion is artificially removed and the inner egg envelope, vitelline membrane, is exposed. F TEM micrograph of vitelline membrane, composed of three layers: main proximal homogenous layer (*), thin middle electron dense layer (white arrow) and superficial corrugated lucent layer (black arrow). Bars: A, C, E 200 µm; B 10 µm; D 0.5 µm; F 200 nm.

    Article Snippet: Semithin sections were made with a glass knife, stained with Azure II - Methylene Blue and imaged by Zeiss AxioImager Z.1 light microscope, equipped with a HRC Axiocam camera.

    Techniques: Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Cuticle structure and renewal in Porcellio scaber prehatching late-stage embryo. A Swelled embryo inside the vitelline membrane ( vm ), prior to hatching. B Semithin section of the embryo peripheral region. The vitelline membrane is artificially removed. Clearly discernible exoskeletal cuticle ( c ), detached from the underlying hypodermis ( hd ). C, D, E TEM micrographs of exoskeletal cuticle in different regions of the same specimen, composed of three principal layers: the outermost thin electron dense epicuticle ( ep ), the middle exocuticle ( ex ) and the innermost endocuticle with several sublayers ( en ). The micrographs show features of cuticle renewal: cuticle detachment from the hypodermis, partial disintegration of proximal portion of endocuticle (*) and irregularly arranged electron dense particles on outer apical plasma membrane surface (white arrows). Pore canals (black arrow) in the endocuticle consist of electron lucent central part and electron dense margins C . Cuticular scales ( sc ) are fully elaborated and the exocuticle has the characteristic pattern of chitin-protein fibers arrangement D . Exocuticle is hardly discernible E . F TEM micrograph of completely structured sensillum transverse section in the hypodermis. Dendritic outer segments (*) and enveloping cells (white *). Bars: A 500 µm; B 10 µm; C, E 1 µm; D 0.5 µm; F 200 nm.

    Journal: ZooKeys

    Article Title: Egg envelopes and cuticle renewal inPorcellio embryos and marsupial mancas

    doi: 10.3897/zookeys.176.2418

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Cuticle structure and renewal in Porcellio scaber prehatching late-stage embryo. A Swelled embryo inside the vitelline membrane ( vm ), prior to hatching. B Semithin section of the embryo peripheral region. The vitelline membrane is artificially removed. Clearly discernible exoskeletal cuticle ( c ), detached from the underlying hypodermis ( hd ). C, D, E TEM micrographs of exoskeletal cuticle in different regions of the same specimen, composed of three principal layers: the outermost thin electron dense epicuticle ( ep ), the middle exocuticle ( ex ) and the innermost endocuticle with several sublayers ( en ). The micrographs show features of cuticle renewal: cuticle detachment from the hypodermis, partial disintegration of proximal portion of endocuticle (*) and irregularly arranged electron dense particles on outer apical plasma membrane surface (white arrows). Pore canals (black arrow) in the endocuticle consist of electron lucent central part and electron dense margins C . Cuticular scales ( sc ) are fully elaborated and the exocuticle has the characteristic pattern of chitin-protein fibers arrangement D . Exocuticle is hardly discernible E . F TEM micrograph of completely structured sensillum transverse section in the hypodermis. Dendritic outer segments (*) and enveloping cells (white *). Bars: A 500 µm; B 10 µm; C, E 1 µm; D 0.5 µm; F 200 nm.

    Article Snippet: Semithin sections were made with a glass knife, stained with Azure II - Methylene Blue and imaged by Zeiss AxioImager Z.1 light microscope, equipped with a HRC Axiocam camera.

    Techniques: Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Cuticle structure and renewal in Porcellio scaber marsupial mancas. A The early-stage marsupial manca, immediately after hatching B The mid-stage marsupial manca C The late-stage marsupial manca, just prior to release from the marsupium D–F Semithin sections of the manca peripheral region in the early-stage marsupial manca D in the mid-stage marsupial manca E and in the late-stage marsupial manca F . Cuticle ( c ), overlying the hypodermis ( hd ), becomes progressively more similar to adult cuticle. G–K TEM micrographs of exoskeletal cuticle in the early-stage marsupial manca G, J in the mid-stage marsupial manca H and in the late-stage marsupial manca I, K Three main layers are distinguished: epicuticle ( ep ), exocuticle ( ex ) and endocuticle ( en ). The micrographs show morphological characteristics of cuticle renewal: detachment of the old cuticle ( oc ) from the hypodermis, ecdysal space (*) between the detached cuticle and the newly forming cuticle ( nc ) and partial degradation of the old cuticle H, I protrusions with electron dense tips (white arrows) on apical surfaces of hypodermal cells G, I, J . The new cuticle consists of two layers, external electron dense epicuticle and internal electron lucent procuticle H, I, K . Helicoidal chitin-protein fibers arrangement is discernible in some regions of late-stage marsupial manca K . Bars: A–C 500 µm; D–F 10 µm; G–I 1 µm; J, K 200 nm.

    Journal: ZooKeys

    Article Title: Egg envelopes and cuticle renewal inPorcellio embryos and marsupial mancas

    doi: 10.3897/zookeys.176.2418

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Cuticle structure and renewal in Porcellio scaber marsupial mancas. A The early-stage marsupial manca, immediately after hatching B The mid-stage marsupial manca C The late-stage marsupial manca, just prior to release from the marsupium D–F Semithin sections of the manca peripheral region in the early-stage marsupial manca D in the mid-stage marsupial manca E and in the late-stage marsupial manca F . Cuticle ( c ), overlying the hypodermis ( hd ), becomes progressively more similar to adult cuticle. G–K TEM micrographs of exoskeletal cuticle in the early-stage marsupial manca G, J in the mid-stage marsupial manca H and in the late-stage marsupial manca I, K Three main layers are distinguished: epicuticle ( ep ), exocuticle ( ex ) and endocuticle ( en ). The micrographs show morphological characteristics of cuticle renewal: detachment of the old cuticle ( oc ) from the hypodermis, ecdysal space (*) between the detached cuticle and the newly forming cuticle ( nc ) and partial degradation of the old cuticle H, I protrusions with electron dense tips (white arrows) on apical surfaces of hypodermal cells G, I, J . The new cuticle consists of two layers, external electron dense epicuticle and internal electron lucent procuticle H, I, K . Helicoidal chitin-protein fibers arrangement is discernible in some regions of late-stage marsupial manca K . Bars: A–C 500 µm; D–F 10 µm; G–I 1 µm; J, K 200 nm.

    Article Snippet: Semithin sections were made with a glass knife, stained with Azure II - Methylene Blue and imaged by Zeiss AxioImager Z.1 light microscope, equipped with a HRC Axiocam camera.

    Techniques: Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Structure of vitelline membrane ( vm ), covering Porcellio scaber A–D and Porcellio dilatatus E–G late-stage embryo. A Ventrally bent late-stage embryo, yolk is completely enclosed into the midgut glands ( mg ). B Semithin section of the embryo peripheral region. Vitelline membrane is slightly detached from the hypodermis ( hd ). C, D TEM micrographs of the vitelline membrane in osmicated specimen C and in non-osmicated specimen D Main proximal homogenous layer (*), thin middle electron dense layer (white arrow) and superficial corrugated lucent layer (black arrow). Hypodermis is covered with an extracellular matrix (ECM). E SEM micrograph of the late-stage embryo surrounded by vitelline membrane. F, G SEM micrographs of the late-stage embryo surface area. The vitelline membrane is artificially slit and fibers (arrows) between the outer embryo surface, covered with an extracellular matrix (s), and the vitelline membrane are exposed. Bars: A 500 µm; B, F 10 µm; C, D 200 nm; E 200 µm; G 5 µm.

    Journal: ZooKeys

    Article Title: Egg envelopes and cuticle renewal inPorcellio embryos and marsupial mancas

    doi: 10.3897/zookeys.176.2418

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Structure of vitelline membrane ( vm ), covering Porcellio scaber A–D and Porcellio dilatatus E–G late-stage embryo. A Ventrally bent late-stage embryo, yolk is completely enclosed into the midgut glands ( mg ). B Semithin section of the embryo peripheral region. Vitelline membrane is slightly detached from the hypodermis ( hd ). C, D TEM micrographs of the vitelline membrane in osmicated specimen C and in non-osmicated specimen D Main proximal homogenous layer (*), thin middle electron dense layer (white arrow) and superficial corrugated lucent layer (black arrow). Hypodermis is covered with an extracellular matrix (ECM). E SEM micrograph of the late-stage embryo surrounded by vitelline membrane. F, G SEM micrographs of the late-stage embryo surface area. The vitelline membrane is artificially slit and fibers (arrows) between the outer embryo surface, covered with an extracellular matrix (s), and the vitelline membrane are exposed. Bars: A 500 µm; B, F 10 µm; C, D 200 nm; E 200 µm; G 5 µm.

    Article Snippet: Semithin sections were made with a glass knife, stained with Azure II - Methylene Blue and imaged by Zeiss AxioImager Z.1 light microscope, equipped with a HRC Axiocam camera.

    Techniques: Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Structure of distal chorion ( ch ) and proximal vitelline membrane ( vm ), covering Porcellio scaber mid-stage embryo. A The mid-stage embryo with visible limb buds ( lb ) and midgut glands primordia ( mg ). B Semithin section of the embryo peripheral region. Chorion is separated from the embryo surface. The vitelline membrane is slightly detached from the embryo cells; * - a wider space between embryo surface and vitelline membrane. C, D TEM micrographs of one-layered chorion, including electron lucent “lacunae” (white arrow). E, F TEM micrographs of vitelline membrane, composed of three layers: main proximal homogenous layer (*), thin middle electron dense layer (white arrow) and superficial corrugated lucent layer (black arrow). Bars: A 200 µm; B 10 µm; C, E 0.5 µm; D, F 200 nm.

    Journal: ZooKeys

    Article Title: Egg envelopes and cuticle renewal inPorcellio embryos and marsupial mancas

    doi: 10.3897/zookeys.176.2418

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Structure of distal chorion ( ch ) and proximal vitelline membrane ( vm ), covering Porcellio scaber mid-stage embryo. A The mid-stage embryo with visible limb buds ( lb ) and midgut glands primordia ( mg ). B Semithin section of the embryo peripheral region. Chorion is separated from the embryo surface. The vitelline membrane is slightly detached from the embryo cells; * - a wider space between embryo surface and vitelline membrane. C, D TEM micrographs of one-layered chorion, including electron lucent “lacunae” (white arrow). E, F TEM micrographs of vitelline membrane, composed of three layers: main proximal homogenous layer (*), thin middle electron dense layer (white arrow) and superficial corrugated lucent layer (black arrow). Bars: A 200 µm; B 10 µm; C, E 0.5 µm; D, F 200 nm.

    Article Snippet: Semithin sections were made with a glass knife, stained with Azure II - Methylene Blue and imaged by Zeiss AxioImager Z.1 light microscope, equipped with a HRC Axiocam camera.

    Techniques: Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Semithin section series of anterior trunk region with only a few bacteriocytes embedded within a non-symbiotic mesenchyme ( a-b ) and posterior trunk region with massive bacteriocyte tissue ( c-d ). a Lateral pyriform glands opening into epidermal papillae devoid of cuticular plaques; dorsal blood vessel clogged by the intravasal body. b Ventral and dorsal blood vessel connecting to blood lacunae (arrowhead); epidermis with papilla bearing cuticular plaque (double arrowhead). c Posterior end of the trophosome showing bacteriocytes filling the body cavity. d Thickening of the epidermis and longitudinal muscle layer in combination with dense arrangement of cuticular plaques (double arrowhead). Abbreviations: bc = bacteriocyte; bl = blood lacuna; cc = coelomic cavity; dv = dorsal blood vessel; ep = epidermis; od = oviduct; iv = intravasal body; lp = lateral papilla; ml = body wall muscle layer; ms = mesenchyme; py = pyriform gland; vv = ventral blood vessel

    Journal: Organisms, Diversity & Evolution

    Article Title: Morphology, microanatomy and sequence data of Sclerolinum contortum (Siboglindae, Annelida) of the Gulf of Mexico

    doi: 10.1007/s13127-012-0121-3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Semithin section series of anterior trunk region with only a few bacteriocytes embedded within a non-symbiotic mesenchyme ( a-b ) and posterior trunk region with massive bacteriocyte tissue ( c-d ). a Lateral pyriform glands opening into epidermal papillae devoid of cuticular plaques; dorsal blood vessel clogged by the intravasal body. b Ventral and dorsal blood vessel connecting to blood lacunae (arrowhead); epidermis with papilla bearing cuticular plaque (double arrowhead). c Posterior end of the trophosome showing bacteriocytes filling the body cavity. d Thickening of the epidermis and longitudinal muscle layer in combination with dense arrangement of cuticular plaques (double arrowhead). Abbreviations: bc = bacteriocyte; bl = blood lacuna; cc = coelomic cavity; dv = dorsal blood vessel; ep = epidermis; od = oviduct; iv = intravasal body; lp = lateral papilla; ml = body wall muscle layer; ms = mesenchyme; py = pyriform gland; vv = ventral blood vessel

    Article Snippet: Semithin sections were viewed with a Zeiss Axio Imager A1 light microscope, and ultrathin sections were analyzed with a Zeiss EM 902 transmission electron microscope.

    Techniques: Mass Spectrometry

    Female reproductive system. a Semithin transverse section of the single ovary provided with small blood vessels (asterisk), containing oocytes, located between the oviduct and the ventral blood vessel. b Ultrastructure of the oviduct composed of an inner ciliated epithelium with apical junctional complexes (arrowhead) and a basal matrix (double arrowhead) surrounded by a myoepithelium. c Oocyte in the first meiotic prophase full of yolk granules and lipid droplets surrounded by a small blood vessel, blood lacuna and flattened follicle cells. d Oocyte in direct contact with blood lacuna ramifying into the oolemma (arrowhead). e Egg envelope consisting of extracellular matrix penetrated by microvilli. f Light microscopy of oocyte. Abbreviations: bc = bacteriocyte; bl = blood lacuna; bv = blood vessel; cc = coelomic cavity; ci = cilium; ep = epidermis; fc = follicle cell; ge = germinal vesicle; ld = lipid droplet; mc = myocytes; ml = body wall muscle layer; mm = median mesentery; ms = mesenchyme; mv = microvilli; ne = nucleolus; oc = oocyte; od = oviduct; vv = ventral blood vessel; y = yolk granule

    Journal: Organisms, Diversity & Evolution

    Article Title: Morphology, microanatomy and sequence data of Sclerolinum contortum (Siboglindae, Annelida) of the Gulf of Mexico

    doi: 10.1007/s13127-012-0121-3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Female reproductive system. a Semithin transverse section of the single ovary provided with small blood vessels (asterisk), containing oocytes, located between the oviduct and the ventral blood vessel. b Ultrastructure of the oviduct composed of an inner ciliated epithelium with apical junctional complexes (arrowhead) and a basal matrix (double arrowhead) surrounded by a myoepithelium. c Oocyte in the first meiotic prophase full of yolk granules and lipid droplets surrounded by a small blood vessel, blood lacuna and flattened follicle cells. d Oocyte in direct contact with blood lacuna ramifying into the oolemma (arrowhead). e Egg envelope consisting of extracellular matrix penetrated by microvilli. f Light microscopy of oocyte. Abbreviations: bc = bacteriocyte; bl = blood lacuna; bv = blood vessel; cc = coelomic cavity; ci = cilium; ep = epidermis; fc = follicle cell; ge = germinal vesicle; ld = lipid droplet; mc = myocytes; ml = body wall muscle layer; mm = median mesentery; ms = mesenchyme; mv = microvilli; ne = nucleolus; oc = oocyte; od = oviduct; vv = ventral blood vessel; y = yolk granule

    Article Snippet: Semithin sections were viewed with a Zeiss Axio Imager A1 light microscope, and ultrathin sections were analyzed with a Zeiss EM 902 transmission electron microscope.

    Techniques: Light Microscopy, Mass Spectrometry

    Semithin section series of the opisthosoma. a Opisthosomal septum consisting of an anterior circular and a posterior longitudinal myoepithelial layer. b Multicellular epidermal glands with prominent nuclei (arrowhead) filling the coelomic cavity of the opisthosoma. Median mesentery (arrow) provided with blood lacunae and suspending the ventral and dorsal blood vessel. Last one at a more median position. Double arrowhead = uncini. Abbreviations: bl = blood lacuna; cc = coelomic cavity; cm = circular muscle layer; dv = dorsal blood vessel; eg = epidermal gland; ep = epidermis; lm = longitudinal muscle layer; vv = ventral blood vessel

    Journal: Organisms, Diversity & Evolution

    Article Title: Morphology, microanatomy and sequence data of Sclerolinum contortum (Siboglindae, Annelida) of the Gulf of Mexico

    doi: 10.1007/s13127-012-0121-3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Semithin section series of the opisthosoma. a Opisthosomal septum consisting of an anterior circular and a posterior longitudinal myoepithelial layer. b Multicellular epidermal glands with prominent nuclei (arrowhead) filling the coelomic cavity of the opisthosoma. Median mesentery (arrow) provided with blood lacunae and suspending the ventral and dorsal blood vessel. Last one at a more median position. Double arrowhead = uncini. Abbreviations: bl = blood lacuna; cc = coelomic cavity; cm = circular muscle layer; dv = dorsal blood vessel; eg = epidermal gland; ep = epidermis; lm = longitudinal muscle layer; vv = ventral blood vessel

    Article Snippet: Semithin sections were viewed with a Zeiss Axio Imager A1 light microscope, and ultrathin sections were analyzed with a Zeiss EM 902 transmission electron microscope.

    Techniques:

    Semithin section series of tentacles and forepart. a Left tentacle at distal position with vascularized epidermis overlaying a single-layered myoepithelium (arrowhead) surrounding a central coelomic cavity. Right tentacle at proximal position with mesenchyme filling the coelomic cavity. Each tentacle with two blood vessels (asterisk). b Base of cephalic lobe and of tentacles and beginning of the dorsal furrow; cephalic lobe with the brain consisting of central neuropil and peripheral somata; tentacles with mesodermal strands. c Forepart anterior to the frenulum with densely packed pyriform glands, single ventral nerve cord, and paired dorsal blood vessels (asterisk). d Forepart posterior to the frenulum with pyriform glands loosely distributed from dorsal to lateral and ventral nerve encasing the ciliated field. Abbreviations: bl = blood lacuna; cc = coelomic cavity; cf = ciliated field; ep = epidermis; df = dorsal furrow; dv = dorsal blood vessel; me = mesoderm; ml = body wall muscle layer; nc = nerve cord; np = neuropil; py = pyriform gland; sg = single gland cell; so = somata; vv = ventral blood vessel

    Journal: Organisms, Diversity & Evolution

    Article Title: Morphology, microanatomy and sequence data of Sclerolinum contortum (Siboglindae, Annelida) of the Gulf of Mexico

    doi: 10.1007/s13127-012-0121-3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Semithin section series of tentacles and forepart. a Left tentacle at distal position with vascularized epidermis overlaying a single-layered myoepithelium (arrowhead) surrounding a central coelomic cavity. Right tentacle at proximal position with mesenchyme filling the coelomic cavity. Each tentacle with two blood vessels (asterisk). b Base of cephalic lobe and of tentacles and beginning of the dorsal furrow; cephalic lobe with the brain consisting of central neuropil and peripheral somata; tentacles with mesodermal strands. c Forepart anterior to the frenulum with densely packed pyriform glands, single ventral nerve cord, and paired dorsal blood vessels (asterisk). d Forepart posterior to the frenulum with pyriform glands loosely distributed from dorsal to lateral and ventral nerve encasing the ciliated field. Abbreviations: bl = blood lacuna; cc = coelomic cavity; cf = ciliated field; ep = epidermis; df = dorsal furrow; dv = dorsal blood vessel; me = mesoderm; ml = body wall muscle layer; nc = nerve cord; np = neuropil; py = pyriform gland; sg = single gland cell; so = somata; vv = ventral blood vessel

    Article Snippet: Semithin sections were viewed with a Zeiss Axio Imager A1 light microscope, and ultrathin sections were analyzed with a Zeiss EM 902 transmission electron microscope.

    Techniques: