Structured Review

Abcam ryr1
Information on homology modeling for hRyR1. (A) Sequence analysis of human (top) and Oryctolagus cuniculus <t>RyR1</t> (bottom). (B) Ramachandran plot results of hRyR1. (C) Crystal structure of the central domain of hRyR1.
Ryr1, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 98/100, based on 18 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
https://www.bioz.com/result/ryr1/product/Abcam
Average 98 stars, based on 18 article reviews
Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
ryr1 - by Bioz Stars, 2022-12
98/100 stars

Images

1) Product Images from "Identification of Potential Human Ryanodine Receptor 1 Agonists and Molecular Mechanisms of Natural Small-Molecule Phenols as Anxiolytics"

Article Title: Identification of Potential Human Ryanodine Receptor 1 Agonists and Molecular Mechanisms of Natural Small-Molecule Phenols as Anxiolytics

Journal: ACS Omega

doi: 10.1021/acsomega.1c04468

Information on homology modeling for hRyR1. (A) Sequence analysis of human (top) and Oryctolagus cuniculus RyR1 (bottom). (B) Ramachandran plot results of hRyR1. (C) Crystal structure of the central domain of hRyR1.
Figure Legend Snippet: Information on homology modeling for hRyR1. (A) Sequence analysis of human (top) and Oryctolagus cuniculus RyR1 (bottom). (B) Ramachandran plot results of hRyR1. (C) Crystal structure of the central domain of hRyR1.

Techniques Used: Sequencing

Effect of 10 NSMPs on the expression levels of RyR1 in RTSMCs. (A) After RTSMCs were treated with 4-CmC or different concentrations of NSMPs, the protein expression of RyR1 was detected by western blotting. (B) Quantitative histogram of RyR1 treated with 4-CmC or different concentrations of NSMPs. The results are the treatment group means, and vertical lines represent SD. Significant differences from the control group are denoted by * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of 10 NSMPs on the expression levels of RyR1 in RTSMCs. (A) After RTSMCs were treated with 4-CmC or different concentrations of NSMPs, the protein expression of RyR1 was detected by western blotting. (B) Quantitative histogram of RyR1 treated with 4-CmC or different concentrations of NSMPs. The results are the treatment group means, and vertical lines represent SD. Significant differences from the control group are denoted by * P

Techniques Used: Expressing, Western Blot

(A) Chemical structures of nine RyR1 agonists and (B) correlation between the Libdock score and −log EC 50 from in vivo biological tests.
Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Chemical structures of nine RyR1 agonists and (B) correlation between the Libdock score and −log EC 50 from in vivo biological tests.

Techniques Used: In Vivo

2) Product Images from "Intravenous Administration of a MTMR2-Encoding AAV Vector Ameliorates the Phenotype of Myotubular Myopathy in Mice"

Article Title: Intravenous Administration of a MTMR2-Encoding AAV Vector Ameliorates the Phenotype of Myotubular Myopathy in Mice

Journal: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology

doi: 10.1093/jnen/nly002

Restoration of XLMTM muscle biomarkers by Mtmr2 gene transfer. (A) Localization of desmin (left panels), DHPR1α (middle panels), and Ryr1 (right panels) proteins in tibialis anterior cross sections from Mtm1 -KO and WT mice 2 weeks after intramuscular delivery of either rAAV9- Mtmr2 , rAAV9- Mtm1 , or saline. Scale bar = 20 µm. (B) Transcript levels of AChR subunits (Chrn-α1, Chrn-δ, and Chrn-γ) in untreated and AAV-treated TA muscle (WT-PBS n = 7; KO-PBS n = 8; KO- Mtmr2 n = 8; KO- Mtm1 n = 3). (C) The number of Pax7-positive cells per myofiber was quantified in TA of wild-type and Mtm1 -KO mice 2 weeks after PBS, rAAV9- Mtmr2 or rAAV9- Mtm1 administration (WT-PBS n = 10; KO-PBS n = 9; KO- Mtmr2 n = 9; KO- Mtm1 n = 5). *, **, ***, p
Figure Legend Snippet: Restoration of XLMTM muscle biomarkers by Mtmr2 gene transfer. (A) Localization of desmin (left panels), DHPR1α (middle panels), and Ryr1 (right panels) proteins in tibialis anterior cross sections from Mtm1 -KO and WT mice 2 weeks after intramuscular delivery of either rAAV9- Mtmr2 , rAAV9- Mtm1 , or saline. Scale bar = 20 µm. (B) Transcript levels of AChR subunits (Chrn-α1, Chrn-δ, and Chrn-γ) in untreated and AAV-treated TA muscle (WT-PBS n = 7; KO-PBS n = 8; KO- Mtmr2 n = 8; KO- Mtm1 n = 3). (C) The number of Pax7-positive cells per myofiber was quantified in TA of wild-type and Mtm1 -KO mice 2 weeks after PBS, rAAV9- Mtmr2 or rAAV9- Mtm1 administration (WT-PBS n = 10; KO-PBS n = 9; KO- Mtmr2 n = 9; KO- Mtm1 n = 5). *, **, ***, p

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

3) Product Images from "Intravenous Administration of a MTMR2-Encoding AAV Vector Ameliorates the Phenotype of Myotubular Myopathy in Mice"

Article Title: Intravenous Administration of a MTMR2-Encoding AAV Vector Ameliorates the Phenotype of Myotubular Myopathy in Mice

Journal: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology

doi: 10.1093/jnen/nly002

Restoration of XLMTM muscle biomarkers by Mtmr2 gene transfer. (A) Localization of desmin (left panels), DHPR1α (middle panels), and Ryr1 (right panels) proteins in tibialis anterior cross sections from Mtm1 -KO and WT mice 2 weeks after intramuscular delivery of either rAAV9- Mtmr2 , rAAV9- Mtm1 , or saline. Scale bar = 20 µm. (B) Transcript levels of AChR subunits (Chrn-α1, Chrn-δ, and Chrn-γ) in untreated and AAV-treated TA muscle (WT-PBS n = 7; KO-PBS n = 8; KO- Mtmr2 n = 8; KO- Mtm1 n = 3). (C) The number of Pax7-positive cells per myofiber was quantified in TA of wild-type and Mtm1 -KO mice 2 weeks after PBS, rAAV9- Mtmr2 or rAAV9- Mtm1 administration (WT-PBS n = 10; KO-PBS n = 9; KO- Mtmr2 n = 9; KO- Mtm1 n = 5). *, **, ***, p
Figure Legend Snippet: Restoration of XLMTM muscle biomarkers by Mtmr2 gene transfer. (A) Localization of desmin (left panels), DHPR1α (middle panels), and Ryr1 (right panels) proteins in tibialis anterior cross sections from Mtm1 -KO and WT mice 2 weeks after intramuscular delivery of either rAAV9- Mtmr2 , rAAV9- Mtm1 , or saline. Scale bar = 20 µm. (B) Transcript levels of AChR subunits (Chrn-α1, Chrn-δ, and Chrn-γ) in untreated and AAV-treated TA muscle (WT-PBS n = 7; KO-PBS n = 8; KO- Mtmr2 n = 8; KO- Mtm1 n = 3). (C) The number of Pax7-positive cells per myofiber was quantified in TA of wild-type and Mtm1 -KO mice 2 weeks after PBS, rAAV9- Mtmr2 or rAAV9- Mtm1 administration (WT-PBS n = 10; KO-PBS n = 9; KO- Mtmr2 n = 9; KO- Mtm1 n = 5). *, **, ***, p

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

4) Product Images from "The myopathy-causing mutation DNM2-S619L leads to defective tubulation in vitro and in developing zebrafish"

Article Title: The myopathy-causing mutation DNM2-S619L leads to defective tubulation in vitro and in developing zebrafish

Journal: Disease Models & Mechanisms

doi: 10.1242/dmm.012286

T-tubule and sarcoplasmic reticulum abnormalities in DNM2-S619L larval muscle. (A–D) Electron micrographs of longitudinal sections through zebrafish muscle at 3 dpf. (A,C) Muscle from DNM2-WT larvae shows the typical sarcomere striations of vertebrate striated muscle. (B,D) Muscle from DNM2-S619L larvae demonstrates extensive swelling and vacuolization in the region of the SR and T-tubules. Scale bars: 1 μm. (E-H) Confocal micrographs of isolated myofibers subjected to immunofluorescence analysis. (E) Wild-type (WT) myofiber showing the expected pattern of RyR1 staining. (F,G) RyR1 expression is irregular in DNM2-S619L myofibers, and is often found aggregated. (H) α-actinin staining was normal, indicating that other elements of the muscle structure in S619L myofibers are not disturbed.
Figure Legend Snippet: T-tubule and sarcoplasmic reticulum abnormalities in DNM2-S619L larval muscle. (A–D) Electron micrographs of longitudinal sections through zebrafish muscle at 3 dpf. (A,C) Muscle from DNM2-WT larvae shows the typical sarcomere striations of vertebrate striated muscle. (B,D) Muscle from DNM2-S619L larvae demonstrates extensive swelling and vacuolization in the region of the SR and T-tubules. Scale bars: 1 μm. (E-H) Confocal micrographs of isolated myofibers subjected to immunofluorescence analysis. (E) Wild-type (WT) myofiber showing the expected pattern of RyR1 staining. (F,G) RyR1 expression is irregular in DNM2-S619L myofibers, and is often found aggregated. (H) α-actinin staining was normal, indicating that other elements of the muscle structure in S619L myofibers are not disturbed.

Techniques Used: Isolation, Immunofluorescence, Staining, Expressing

5) Product Images from "Upregulation of the CaV 1.1-ryanodine receptor complex in a rat model of critical illness myopathy"

Article Title: Upregulation of the CaV 1.1-ryanodine receptor complex in a rat model of critical illness myopathy

Journal: American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology

doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00032.2011

Fibers with elevated RYR1 contain fast myosin. Shown is a field from a tibialis anterior muscle double labeled for myosin II and RYR1. All 3 fibers in the field are positive for fast myosin. In the lower center of the field is a small fiber that stains
Figure Legend Snippet: Fibers with elevated RYR1 contain fast myosin. Shown is a field from a tibialis anterior muscle double labeled for myosin II and RYR1. All 3 fibers in the field are positive for fast myosin. In the lower center of the field is a small fiber that stains

Techniques Used: Labeling

Marked elevation of RYR1 in a subset of fibers. A : RYR1 staining in 2 fibers from the tibialis anterior muscle in a control rat. The staining is well organized into parallel stripes running perpendicular to the length of the fiber. B : RYR1 staining in
Figure Legend Snippet: Marked elevation of RYR1 in a subset of fibers. A : RYR1 staining in 2 fibers from the tibialis anterior muscle in a control rat. The staining is well organized into parallel stripes running perpendicular to the length of the fiber. B : RYR1 staining in

Techniques Used: Staining

Expression of the ryanodine receptor (RYR) increases in critical illness myopathy (CIM).  A : skeletal muscle membranes prepared from individual control (Con) or CIM animals were analyzed in Western blot analysis using a monoclonal antibody to RYR. There
Figure Legend Snippet: Expression of the ryanodine receptor (RYR) increases in critical illness myopathy (CIM). A : skeletal muscle membranes prepared from individual control (Con) or CIM animals were analyzed in Western blot analysis using a monoclonal antibody to RYR. There

Techniques Used: Expressing, Western Blot

Voltage-gated calcium channel type 1.1 (Ca V 1.1) and RYR1 are upregulated in the same fibers in CIM. Two fields from an individual tibialis anterior muscle double labeled for Ca V 1.1 and RYR1 are shown. In the field at the top , a severely atrophied muscle
Figure Legend Snippet: Voltage-gated calcium channel type 1.1 (Ca V 1.1) and RYR1 are upregulated in the same fibers in CIM. Two fields from an individual tibialis anterior muscle double labeled for Ca V 1.1 and RYR1 are shown. In the field at the top , a severely atrophied muscle

Techniques Used: Labeling

Calpain II is elevated in fibers with elevated RYR1. Shown is a field from a tibialis anterior muscle double labeled for calpain II and RYR1. In the field are two atrophied fibers that have elevated levels of both calpain II and RYR1. The normal fibers
Figure Legend Snippet: Calpain II is elevated in fibers with elevated RYR1. Shown is a field from a tibialis anterior muscle double labeled for calpain II and RYR1. In the field are two atrophied fibers that have elevated levels of both calpain II and RYR1. The normal fibers

Techniques Used: Labeling

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  • 90
    Abcam anti ryr2
    Glutamate-induced mitochondrial ROS generation promoted the oxidation of Ca 2+ -handling proteins in rat SANPCs. a Measurement of ROS levels in isolated SANPC mitochondria with or without 5 mM glutamate treatment ( n = 5 per group). b Measurement of glutamate-induced ROS in SANPC mitochondria treated with vehicle or 10 µM FCCP, 10 µM rotenone or 10 µM HQNO ( n = 5 per group). c – h To assess the oxidation status of <t>RyR2,</t> <t>SERCA2a</t> and CaMKII, the free thiol contents of these immunoprecipitated proteins were measured using the DNP <t>antibody.</t> Representative western blot images and semiquantitative analyses of glutamate-induced oxidation of <t>RyR2</t> ( c , d ), SERCA2a ( e , f ) and CaMKII ( g , h ) treated with vehicle, 10 µM FCCP, 10 µM rotenone or 10 µM HQNO are shown. * P
    Anti Ryr2, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/anti ryr2/product/Abcam
    Average 90 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    anti ryr2 - by Bioz Stars, 2022-12
    90/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    90
    Abcam anti p ryr2
    Inhibiting mmu_circ_0000021 expression reduced the infarct size and improved cardiac function following I/R. A , D , E LV function was determined by echocardiograms ( A ) including EF ( D ) and FS ( E ). B , F The size of the infarct and the region of the myocardial infarction were determined using TTC. C In the sham group, the amount of <t>RyR2,</t> PLN, and their phosphorylated forms were reduced. G – L qRT-PCR showed changes in PLN, <t>RyR2,</t> SERCA2a and the changes of miR-143-3p/NPY axis after the inhibition of mmu_circ_0000021 expression. * P
    Anti P Ryr2, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/anti p ryr2/product/Abcam
    Average 90 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    anti p ryr2 - by Bioz Stars, 2022-12
    90/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    88
    Abcam ryanodine receptor 2
    Inhibiting mmu_circ_0000021 expression reduced the infarct size and improved cardiac function following I/R. A , D , E LV function was determined by echocardiograms ( A ) including EF ( D ) and FS ( E ). B , F The size of the infarct and the region of the myocardial infarction were determined using TTC. C In the sham group, the amount of <t>RyR2,</t> PLN, and their phosphorylated forms were reduced. G – L qRT-PCR showed changes in PLN, <t>RyR2,</t> SERCA2a and the changes of miR-143-3p/NPY axis after the inhibition of mmu_circ_0000021 expression. * P
    Ryanodine Receptor 2, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/ryanodine receptor 2/product/Abcam
    Average 88 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    ryanodine receptor 2 - by Bioz Stars, 2022-12
    88/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    Image Search Results


    Glutamate-induced mitochondrial ROS generation promoted the oxidation of Ca 2+ -handling proteins in rat SANPCs. a Measurement of ROS levels in isolated SANPC mitochondria with or without 5 mM glutamate treatment ( n = 5 per group). b Measurement of glutamate-induced ROS in SANPC mitochondria treated with vehicle or 10 µM FCCP, 10 µM rotenone or 10 µM HQNO ( n = 5 per group). c – h To assess the oxidation status of RyR2, SERCA2a and CaMKII, the free thiol contents of these immunoprecipitated proteins were measured using the DNP antibody. Representative western blot images and semiquantitative analyses of glutamate-induced oxidation of RyR2 ( c , d ), SERCA2a ( e , f ) and CaMKII ( g , h ) treated with vehicle, 10 µM FCCP, 10 µM rotenone or 10 µM HQNO are shown. * P

    Journal: Cell Research

    Article Title: Glutamate drives ‘local Ca2+ release’ in cardiac pacemaker cells

    doi: 10.1038/s41422-022-00693-z

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Glutamate-induced mitochondrial ROS generation promoted the oxidation of Ca 2+ -handling proteins in rat SANPCs. a Measurement of ROS levels in isolated SANPC mitochondria with or without 5 mM glutamate treatment ( n = 5 per group). b Measurement of glutamate-induced ROS in SANPC mitochondria treated with vehicle or 10 µM FCCP, 10 µM rotenone or 10 µM HQNO ( n = 5 per group). c – h To assess the oxidation status of RyR2, SERCA2a and CaMKII, the free thiol contents of these immunoprecipitated proteins were measured using the DNP antibody. Representative western blot images and semiquantitative analyses of glutamate-induced oxidation of RyR2 ( c , d ), SERCA2a ( e , f ) and CaMKII ( g , h ) treated with vehicle, 10 µM FCCP, 10 µM rotenone or 10 µM HQNO are shown. * P

    Article Snippet: Immunoprecipitation (IP) was performed by incubating protein lysate with anti-RyR2 (Abcam, USA), anti-SERCA2a (Abcam, USA), anti-CaMKII (Abcam, USA) antibodies in 1 mL IP buffer, respectively, on a microtube rotator at 4 °C overnight.

    Techniques: Isolation, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blot

    Glutamate triggered LCRs by increasing the oxidation of Ca 2+ -handling proteins. a , b To assess the oxidation status of RyR2, the free thiol content of immunoprecipitated RyR2 was measured using the anti-DNP antibody. Western blot showing increased oxidation of RyR2 under 5 mM glutamate treatment. a Representative western blot bands. b Pooled data from a . n = 6 per group. c , d To assess the oxidation status of SERCA2a, the free thiol content of immunoprecipitated SERCA2a was measured using the DNP antibody. Western blot showing increased oxidation of SERCA2a under glutamate treatment. c Representative western blot bands. d Pooled data from c . n = 6 per group. e , f To assess the oxidation status of CaMKII, the free thiol content of immunoprecipitated CaMKII was measured using the DNP antibody. Western blot showing increased oxidation of CaMKII under glutamate treatment. e Representative western blot bands. f Pooled data from e . n = 6 per group. g Representative confocal line-scan images of LCRs in permeabilized SANPCs. h – k Pooled data from g demonstrated that oxidation inhibitors (5 mM DTT or 10 μM dantrolene) reversed glutamate-induced increases in LCR number ( h ), LCR size ( i ), LCR duration ( j ) and LCR amplitude ( k ) in permeabilized SANPCs compared to the vehicle group ( n = 4–8 per group, cells were isolated from at least 4 rats). DAN, dantrolene. * P

    Journal: Cell Research

    Article Title: Glutamate drives ‘local Ca2+ release’ in cardiac pacemaker cells

    doi: 10.1038/s41422-022-00693-z

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Glutamate triggered LCRs by increasing the oxidation of Ca 2+ -handling proteins. a , b To assess the oxidation status of RyR2, the free thiol content of immunoprecipitated RyR2 was measured using the anti-DNP antibody. Western blot showing increased oxidation of RyR2 under 5 mM glutamate treatment. a Representative western blot bands. b Pooled data from a . n = 6 per group. c , d To assess the oxidation status of SERCA2a, the free thiol content of immunoprecipitated SERCA2a was measured using the DNP antibody. Western blot showing increased oxidation of SERCA2a under glutamate treatment. c Representative western blot bands. d Pooled data from c . n = 6 per group. e , f To assess the oxidation status of CaMKII, the free thiol content of immunoprecipitated CaMKII was measured using the DNP antibody. Western blot showing increased oxidation of CaMKII under glutamate treatment. e Representative western blot bands. f Pooled data from e . n = 6 per group. g Representative confocal line-scan images of LCRs in permeabilized SANPCs. h – k Pooled data from g demonstrated that oxidation inhibitors (5 mM DTT or 10 μM dantrolene) reversed glutamate-induced increases in LCR number ( h ), LCR size ( i ), LCR duration ( j ) and LCR amplitude ( k ) in permeabilized SANPCs compared to the vehicle group ( n = 4–8 per group, cells were isolated from at least 4 rats). DAN, dantrolene. * P

    Article Snippet: Immunoprecipitation (IP) was performed by incubating protein lysate with anti-RyR2 (Abcam, USA), anti-SERCA2a (Abcam, USA), anti-CaMKII (Abcam, USA) antibodies in 1 mL IP buffer, respectively, on a microtube rotator at 4 °C overnight.

    Techniques: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blot, Isolation

    Inhibiting mmu_circ_0000021 expression reduced the infarct size and improved cardiac function following I/R. A , D , E LV function was determined by echocardiograms ( A ) including EF ( D ) and FS ( E ). B , F The size of the infarct and the region of the myocardial infarction were determined using TTC. C In the sham group, the amount of RyR2, PLN, and their phosphorylated forms were reduced. G – L qRT-PCR showed changes in PLN, RyR2, SERCA2a and the changes of miR-143-3p/NPY axis after the inhibition of mmu_circ_0000021 expression. * P

    Journal: Cell Death Discovery

    Article Title: CircRNA mmu_circ_0000021 regulates microvascular function via the miR-143-3p/NPY axis and intracellular calcium following ischemia/reperfusion injury

    doi: 10.1038/s41420-022-01108-z

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Inhibiting mmu_circ_0000021 expression reduced the infarct size and improved cardiac function following I/R. A , D , E LV function was determined by echocardiograms ( A ) including EF ( D ) and FS ( E ). B , F The size of the infarct and the region of the myocardial infarction were determined using TTC. C In the sham group, the amount of RyR2, PLN, and their phosphorylated forms were reduced. G – L qRT-PCR showed changes in PLN, RyR2, SERCA2a and the changes of miR-143-3p/NPY axis after the inhibition of mmu_circ_0000021 expression. * P

    Article Snippet: Antibodies for anti-phospholamban (PLN), anti-RyR2, anti-p-PLN, anti-p-RyR2 were from Abcam (Cambridge, UK).

    Techniques: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Inhibition

    NPY is the target of mmu_circ_0000021 in NMCMs. A Target binding of miR-143-3p and NPY. B Dual-luciferase reporter assay for miR-143-3p and NPY. C , D In vivo and in vitro experimental verification of mmu_circ_0000021, expression of miR-143-3p and NPY. E Gene and protein expression of NPY after plasmid transfection. F Western blot showing that the increase of NPY caused by mmu_circ_0000021 was attenuated by miR-143-3p. G Overexpression of NPY increased the level of p-RyR2 and p-PLN and vice versa. H Overexpression of NPY increased the fluo-4am value in NMCMs. * P

    Journal: Cell Death Discovery

    Article Title: CircRNA mmu_circ_0000021 regulates microvascular function via the miR-143-3p/NPY axis and intracellular calcium following ischemia/reperfusion injury

    doi: 10.1038/s41420-022-01108-z

    Figure Lengend Snippet: NPY is the target of mmu_circ_0000021 in NMCMs. A Target binding of miR-143-3p and NPY. B Dual-luciferase reporter assay for miR-143-3p and NPY. C , D In vivo and in vitro experimental verification of mmu_circ_0000021, expression of miR-143-3p and NPY. E Gene and protein expression of NPY after plasmid transfection. F Western blot showing that the increase of NPY caused by mmu_circ_0000021 was attenuated by miR-143-3p. G Overexpression of NPY increased the level of p-RyR2 and p-PLN and vice versa. H Overexpression of NPY increased the fluo-4am value in NMCMs. * P

    Article Snippet: Antibodies for anti-phospholamban (PLN), anti-RyR2, anti-p-PLN, anti-p-RyR2 were from Abcam (Cambridge, UK).

    Techniques: Binding Assay, Luciferase, Reporter Assay, In Vivo, In Vitro, Expressing, Plasmid Preparation, Transfection, Western Blot, Over Expression