rnase inhibitor  (New England Biolabs)


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    Name:
    RNase I
    Description:
    RNase I 25 000 units
    Catalog Number:
    m0243l
    Price:
    270
    Size:
    25 000 units
    Category:
    Ribonucleases RNase
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    New England Biolabs rnase inhibitor
    RNase I
    RNase I 25 000 units
    https://www.bioz.com/result/rnase inhibitor/product/New England Biolabs
    Average 99 stars, based on 13 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    rnase inhibitor - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    99/100 stars

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    1) Product Images from "Template-assisted synthesis of adenine-mutagenized cDNA by a retroelement protein complex"

    Article Title: Template-assisted synthesis of adenine-mutagenized cDNA by a retroelement protein complex

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gky620

    In vitro template-primed cDNA synthesis. ( A ) Bordetella bacteriophage DGR diversification of Mtd. mtd contains a variable region ( VR ), which encodes the receptor-binding site of the Mtd protein. Downstream of VR is the template region ( TR ). Adenines in TR (‘A’) are frequently replaced by another base in VR (‘N’). TR is transcribed to produce TR- RNA, which is then reverse transcribed to TR- cDNA. During this process, adenines in TR are mutagenized, as depicted by ‘X’ in TR -cDNA. Adenine-mutagenized TR- cDNA homes to and replaces VR , resulting in diversification of Mtd. bRT is the DGR reverse transcriptase, and avd the DGR accessory variability determinant. ( B ) Sequence elements of the 580 nt DGR RNA template used for reverse transcription reactions. ( C ) bRT-Avd, bRT, or Avd was incubated with the 580 nt DGR RNA and dNTPs, including [α- 32 P]dCTP, for 2h. Products resulting from the incubation were untreated (U), or treated with RNase (+R), DNase (+D), or both RNase and DNase (+R+D), and resolved by 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled 580 nt DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. The positions of the 580 nt band, and 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. Nuclease-treated samples were loaded at twice the amount as untreated samples, here and throughout unless otherwise indicated. Lane M here and throughout corresponds to radiolabeled, single-stranded DNA molecular mass markers (nt units). ( D ) DGR RNA templates containing internal truncations in TR . ( E ) Radiolabeled cDNA products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with intact (WT) or internally truncated 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Samples were treated with RNase and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs produced from intact template are indicated by red and yellow circles, respectively, as are positions of the correspondingly shorter cDNAs produced from truncated RNA templates. ( F ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Prior to reverse transcription, the RNA template was mock-treated (–Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products of the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 4% (top) or 8% (bottom) denaturing PAGE. In the top gel, the red arrowhead indicates the ∼580 nt species, and the green arrowheads the several ∼540 nt species. In the bottom gel, the black arrowheads indicate the 120 and 90 nt cDNA products. The black vertical line within the gel indicates irrelevant lanes that were removed for display purposes. A 2-fold higher quantity was loaded for +Per samples than –Per samples.
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vitro template-primed cDNA synthesis. ( A ) Bordetella bacteriophage DGR diversification of Mtd. mtd contains a variable region ( VR ), which encodes the receptor-binding site of the Mtd protein. Downstream of VR is the template region ( TR ). Adenines in TR (‘A’) are frequently replaced by another base in VR (‘N’). TR is transcribed to produce TR- RNA, which is then reverse transcribed to TR- cDNA. During this process, adenines in TR are mutagenized, as depicted by ‘X’ in TR -cDNA. Adenine-mutagenized TR- cDNA homes to and replaces VR , resulting in diversification of Mtd. bRT is the DGR reverse transcriptase, and avd the DGR accessory variability determinant. ( B ) Sequence elements of the 580 nt DGR RNA template used for reverse transcription reactions. ( C ) bRT-Avd, bRT, or Avd was incubated with the 580 nt DGR RNA and dNTPs, including [α- 32 P]dCTP, for 2h. Products resulting from the incubation were untreated (U), or treated with RNase (+R), DNase (+D), or both RNase and DNase (+R+D), and resolved by 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled 580 nt DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. The positions of the 580 nt band, and 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. Nuclease-treated samples were loaded at twice the amount as untreated samples, here and throughout unless otherwise indicated. Lane M here and throughout corresponds to radiolabeled, single-stranded DNA molecular mass markers (nt units). ( D ) DGR RNA templates containing internal truncations in TR . ( E ) Radiolabeled cDNA products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with intact (WT) or internally truncated 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Samples were treated with RNase and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs produced from intact template are indicated by red and yellow circles, respectively, as are positions of the correspondingly shorter cDNAs produced from truncated RNA templates. ( F ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Prior to reverse transcription, the RNA template was mock-treated (–Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products of the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 4% (top) or 8% (bottom) denaturing PAGE. In the top gel, the red arrowhead indicates the ∼580 nt species, and the green arrowheads the several ∼540 nt species. In the bottom gel, the black arrowheads indicate the 120 and 90 nt cDNA products. The black vertical line within the gel indicates irrelevant lanes that were removed for display purposes. A 2-fold higher quantity was loaded for +Per samples than –Per samples.

    Techniques Used: In Vitro, Binding Assay, Sequencing, Incubation, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Labeling, Marker, Activity Assay, Produced

    Core DGR RNA. ( A ) Schematic of core DGR RNA. ( B ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the core DGR RNA as template. Prior to the reverse transcription reaction, the RNA template was untreated (-Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products from the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 6% denaturing PAGE. Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled core DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. Red arrowheads indicate radiolabeled product bands that migrate at the same position or slower than the core DGR RNA, and green arrowheads ones that migrate faster. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. The two panels are from the same gel, with the black line indicating that intermediate lanes were removed. ( C ) Internally-labeled core DGR RNA was not incubated (–), or incubated with bRT-Avd alone or bRT-Avd with 100 μM standard dNTPs (+dNTP), 100 μM dCTP (+CTP), 100 μM dNTPs excluding dCTP (+d(A,T,G)TP), or 100 μM nonhydrolyzeable analog of dCTP (+N-dCTP) for 2 h. Incubation products were resolved by denaturing PAGE. The band corresponding to the 5′ fragment of the cleaved core RNA containing either a deoxycytidine alone (5′+dC) or cDNA (5′+cDNA), and the band corresponding to the 3′ fragment of the RNA are indicated. ( D ) The core DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3′ end (RNA-Bio), and either reacted with no protein or used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. The core DGR RNA in its unbiotinylated form (RNA) was also used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. Samples were then purified using streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR -cDNA in the purified samples was assessed by PCR. Products from the PCR reaction were resolved on an agarose gel. ( E ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 12 h with core, hybrid core dA56, or hybrid core A56 DGR RNA as template. Products were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Separate samples of core dA56 and A56 were 5′ 32 P-labeled for visualization of inputs (I). The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs are indicated.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Core DGR RNA. ( A ) Schematic of core DGR RNA. ( B ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the core DGR RNA as template. Prior to the reverse transcription reaction, the RNA template was untreated (-Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products from the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 6% denaturing PAGE. Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled core DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. Red arrowheads indicate radiolabeled product bands that migrate at the same position or slower than the core DGR RNA, and green arrowheads ones that migrate faster. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. The two panels are from the same gel, with the black line indicating that intermediate lanes were removed. ( C ) Internally-labeled core DGR RNA was not incubated (–), or incubated with bRT-Avd alone or bRT-Avd with 100 μM standard dNTPs (+dNTP), 100 μM dCTP (+CTP), 100 μM dNTPs excluding dCTP (+d(A,T,G)TP), or 100 μM nonhydrolyzeable analog of dCTP (+N-dCTP) for 2 h. Incubation products were resolved by denaturing PAGE. The band corresponding to the 5′ fragment of the cleaved core RNA containing either a deoxycytidine alone (5′+dC) or cDNA (5′+cDNA), and the band corresponding to the 3′ fragment of the RNA are indicated. ( D ) The core DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3′ end (RNA-Bio), and either reacted with no protein or used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. The core DGR RNA in its unbiotinylated form (RNA) was also used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. Samples were then purified using streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR -cDNA in the purified samples was assessed by PCR. Products from the PCR reaction were resolved on an agarose gel. ( E ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 12 h with core, hybrid core dA56, or hybrid core A56 DGR RNA as template. Products were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Separate samples of core dA56 and A56 were 5′ 32 P-labeled for visualization of inputs (I). The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs are indicated.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Labeling, Marker, Incubation, Purification, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

    Adenine mutagenesis and template-priming. ( A ) Covalently-linked RNA–cDNA molecule. The linkage is to Sp A56 of the RNA, and the first nucleotide reverse transcribed is TR G117. The RT-PCR product resulting from primers 1 and 2 (blue arrows) is indicated by the dashed red line. ( B ) RT-PCR amplicons from 580 nt DGR RNA reacted with no protein (–), bRT, Avd, or bRT-Avd, separated on a 2% agarose gel and ethidium bromide-stained. The specific amplicon produced from reaction with bRT-Avd shown by the red arrowhead. ( C ) Percentage of substitutions in TR -cDNA determined by sequencing. ( D ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template for 2 h (left) or 12 h (right). Either standard dNTPs (dATP, dGTP, dCTP, TTP), as indicated by ‘+’,were present in the reaction, or standard dNTPs excluding dATP (-A), dGTP (–G), or TTP (-T) were present. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. ( E ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying TTP (top) or dUTP (bottom) concentrations. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. ( F ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying dUTP concentrations. Products were either RNase-treated (top), or both RNase- and UDG-treated (bottom), and resolved by denaturing PAGE.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Adenine mutagenesis and template-priming. ( A ) Covalently-linked RNA–cDNA molecule. The linkage is to Sp A56 of the RNA, and the first nucleotide reverse transcribed is TR G117. The RT-PCR product resulting from primers 1 and 2 (blue arrows) is indicated by the dashed red line. ( B ) RT-PCR amplicons from 580 nt DGR RNA reacted with no protein (–), bRT, Avd, or bRT-Avd, separated on a 2% agarose gel and ethidium bromide-stained. The specific amplicon produced from reaction with bRT-Avd shown by the red arrowhead. ( C ) Percentage of substitutions in TR -cDNA determined by sequencing. ( D ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template for 2 h (left) or 12 h (right). Either standard dNTPs (dATP, dGTP, dCTP, TTP), as indicated by ‘+’,were present in the reaction, or standard dNTPs excluding dATP (-A), dGTP (–G), or TTP (-T) were present. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. ( E ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying TTP (top) or dUTP (bottom) concentrations. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. ( F ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying dUTP concentrations. Products were either RNase-treated (top), or both RNase- and UDG-treated (bottom), and resolved by denaturing PAGE.

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Staining, Amplification, Produced, Sequencing, Activity Assay, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    2) Product Images from "Synthesis of low immunogenicity RNA with high-temperature in vitro transcription"

    Article Title: Synthesis of low immunogenicity RNA with high-temperature in vitro transcription

    Journal: RNA

    doi: 10.1261/rna.073858.119

    High-temperature IVT does not affect antisense dsRNA by-product formation. ( A ) Native gel electrophoresis analysis of IVT reactions on 512B DNA template using wild-type T7 (37°C) with/without RNase III treatment. ( B ) dsRNA immunoblot with J2 antibody on IVT reactions (crude and purified) with 512B template. ( C ) Native gel electrophoresis analyses and dsRNA immunoblot analysis of 512B IVT reactions conducted with TsT7-1 at 37°C versus 50°C.
    Figure Legend Snippet: High-temperature IVT does not affect antisense dsRNA by-product formation. ( A ) Native gel electrophoresis analysis of IVT reactions on 512B DNA template using wild-type T7 (37°C) with/without RNase III treatment. ( B ) dsRNA immunoblot with J2 antibody on IVT reactions (crude and purified) with 512B template. ( C ) Native gel electrophoresis analyses and dsRNA immunoblot analysis of 512B IVT reactions conducted with TsT7-1 at 37°C versus 50°C.

    Techniques Used: Nucleic Acid Electrophoresis, Purification

    3) Product Images from "Template-assisted synthesis of adenine-mutagenized cDNA by a retroelement protein complex"

    Article Title: Template-assisted synthesis of adenine-mutagenized cDNA by a retroelement protein complex

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gky620

    In vitro template-primed cDNA synthesis. ( A ) Bordetella bacteriophage DGR diversification of Mtd. mtd contains a variable region ( VR ), which encodes the receptor-binding site of the Mtd protein. Downstream of VR is the template region ( TR ). Adenines in TR (‘A’) are frequently replaced by another base in VR (‘N’). TR is transcribed to produce TR- RNA, which is then reverse transcribed to TR- cDNA. During this process, adenines in TR are mutagenized, as depicted by ‘X’ in TR -cDNA. Adenine-mutagenized TR- cDNA homes to and replaces VR , resulting in diversification of Mtd. bRT is the DGR reverse transcriptase, and avd the DGR accessory variability determinant. ( B ) Sequence elements of the 580 nt DGR RNA template used for reverse transcription reactions. ( C ) bRT-Avd, bRT, or Avd was incubated with the 580 nt DGR RNA and dNTPs, including [α- 32 P]dCTP, for 2h. Products resulting from the incubation were untreated (U), or treated with RNase (+R), DNase (+D), or both RNase and DNase (+R+D), and resolved by 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled 580 nt DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. The positions of the 580 nt band, and 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. Nuclease-treated samples were loaded at twice the amount as untreated samples, here and throughout unless otherwise indicated. Lane M here and throughout corresponds to radiolabeled, single-stranded DNA molecular mass markers (nt units). ( D ) DGR RNA templates containing internal truncations in TR . ( E ) Radiolabeled cDNA products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with intact (WT) or internally truncated 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Samples were treated with RNase and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs produced from intact template are indicated by red and yellow circles, respectively, as are positions of the correspondingly shorter cDNAs produced from truncated RNA templates. ( F ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Prior to reverse transcription, the RNA template was mock-treated (–Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products of the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 4% (top) or 8% (bottom) denaturing PAGE. In the top gel, the red arrowhead indicates the ∼580 nt species, and the green arrowheads the several ∼540 nt species. In the bottom gel, the black arrowheads indicate the 120 and 90 nt cDNA products. The black vertical line within the gel indicates irrelevant lanes that were removed for display purposes. A 2-fold higher quantity was loaded for +Per samples than –Per samples.
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vitro template-primed cDNA synthesis. ( A ) Bordetella bacteriophage DGR diversification of Mtd. mtd contains a variable region ( VR ), which encodes the receptor-binding site of the Mtd protein. Downstream of VR is the template region ( TR ). Adenines in TR (‘A’) are frequently replaced by another base in VR (‘N’). TR is transcribed to produce TR- RNA, which is then reverse transcribed to TR- cDNA. During this process, adenines in TR are mutagenized, as depicted by ‘X’ in TR -cDNA. Adenine-mutagenized TR- cDNA homes to and replaces VR , resulting in diversification of Mtd. bRT is the DGR reverse transcriptase, and avd the DGR accessory variability determinant. ( B ) Sequence elements of the 580 nt DGR RNA template used for reverse transcription reactions. ( C ) bRT-Avd, bRT, or Avd was incubated with the 580 nt DGR RNA and dNTPs, including [α- 32 P]dCTP, for 2h. Products resulting from the incubation were untreated (U), or treated with RNase (+R), DNase (+D), or both RNase and DNase (+R+D), and resolved by 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled 580 nt DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. The positions of the 580 nt band, and 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. Nuclease-treated samples were loaded at twice the amount as untreated samples, here and throughout unless otherwise indicated. Lane M here and throughout corresponds to radiolabeled, single-stranded DNA molecular mass markers (nt units). ( D ) DGR RNA templates containing internal truncations in TR . ( E ) Radiolabeled cDNA products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with intact (WT) or internally truncated 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Samples were treated with RNase and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs produced from intact template are indicated by red and yellow circles, respectively, as are positions of the correspondingly shorter cDNAs produced from truncated RNA templates. ( F ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Prior to reverse transcription, the RNA template was mock-treated (–Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products of the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 4% (top) or 8% (bottom) denaturing PAGE. In the top gel, the red arrowhead indicates the ∼580 nt species, and the green arrowheads the several ∼540 nt species. In the bottom gel, the black arrowheads indicate the 120 and 90 nt cDNA products. The black vertical line within the gel indicates irrelevant lanes that were removed for display purposes. A 2-fold higher quantity was loaded for +Per samples than –Per samples.

    Techniques Used: In Vitro, Binding Assay, Sequencing, Incubation, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Labeling, Marker, Activity Assay, Produced

    Core DGR RNA. ( A ) Schematic of core DGR RNA. ( B ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the core DGR RNA as template. Prior to the reverse transcription reaction, the RNA template was untreated (-Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products from the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 6% denaturing PAGE. Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled core DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. Red arrowheads indicate radiolabeled product bands that migrate at the same position or slower than the core DGR RNA, and green arrowheads ones that migrate faster. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. The two panels are from the same gel, with the black line indicating that intermediate lanes were removed. ( C ) Internally-labeled core DGR RNA was not incubated (–), or incubated with bRT-Avd alone or bRT-Avd with 100 μM standard dNTPs (+dNTP), 100 μM dCTP (+CTP), 100 μM dNTPs excluding dCTP (+d(A,T,G)TP), or 100 μM nonhydrolyzeable analog of dCTP (+N-dCTP) for 2 h. Incubation products were resolved by denaturing PAGE. The band corresponding to the 5′ fragment of the cleaved core RNA containing either a deoxycytidine alone (5′+dC) or cDNA (5′+cDNA), and the band corresponding to the 3′ fragment of the RNA are indicated. ( D ) The core DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3′ end (RNA-Bio), and either reacted with no protein or used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. The core DGR RNA in its unbiotinylated form (RNA) was also used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. Samples were then purified using streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR -cDNA in the purified samples was assessed by PCR. Products from the PCR reaction were resolved on an agarose gel. ( E ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 12 h with core, hybrid core dA56, or hybrid core A56 DGR RNA as template. Products were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Separate samples of core dA56 and A56 were 5′ 32 P-labeled for visualization of inputs (I). The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs are indicated.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Core DGR RNA. ( A ) Schematic of core DGR RNA. ( B ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the core DGR RNA as template. Prior to the reverse transcription reaction, the RNA template was untreated (-Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products from the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 6% denaturing PAGE. Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled core DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. Red arrowheads indicate radiolabeled product bands that migrate at the same position or slower than the core DGR RNA, and green arrowheads ones that migrate faster. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. The two panels are from the same gel, with the black line indicating that intermediate lanes were removed. ( C ) Internally-labeled core DGR RNA was not incubated (–), or incubated with bRT-Avd alone or bRT-Avd with 100 μM standard dNTPs (+dNTP), 100 μM dCTP (+CTP), 100 μM dNTPs excluding dCTP (+d(A,T,G)TP), or 100 μM nonhydrolyzeable analog of dCTP (+N-dCTP) for 2 h. Incubation products were resolved by denaturing PAGE. The band corresponding to the 5′ fragment of the cleaved core RNA containing either a deoxycytidine alone (5′+dC) or cDNA (5′+cDNA), and the band corresponding to the 3′ fragment of the RNA are indicated. ( D ) The core DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3′ end (RNA-Bio), and either reacted with no protein or used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. The core DGR RNA in its unbiotinylated form (RNA) was also used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. Samples were then purified using streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR -cDNA in the purified samples was assessed by PCR. Products from the PCR reaction were resolved on an agarose gel. ( E ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 12 h with core, hybrid core dA56, or hybrid core A56 DGR RNA as template. Products were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Separate samples of core dA56 and A56 were 5′ 32 P-labeled for visualization of inputs (I). The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs are indicated.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Labeling, Marker, Incubation, Purification, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

    Adenine mutagenesis and template-priming. ( A ) Covalently-linked RNA–cDNA molecule. The linkage is to Sp A56 of the RNA, and the first nucleotide reverse transcribed is TR G117. The RT-PCR product resulting from primers 1 and 2 (blue arrows) is indicated by the dashed red line. ( B ) RT-PCR amplicons from 580 nt DGR RNA reacted with no protein (–), bRT, Avd, or bRT-Avd, separated on a 2% agarose gel and ethidium bromide-stained. The specific amplicon produced from reaction with bRT-Avd shown by the red arrowhead. ( C ) Percentage of substitutions in TR -cDNA determined by sequencing. ( D ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template for 2 h (left) or 12 h (right). Either standard dNTPs (dATP, dGTP, dCTP, TTP), as indicated by ‘+’,were present in the reaction, or standard dNTPs excluding dATP (-A), dGTP (–G), or TTP (-T) were present. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. ( E ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying TTP (top) or dUTP (bottom) concentrations. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. ( F ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying dUTP concentrations. Products were either RNase-treated (top), or both RNase- and UDG-treated (bottom), and resolved by denaturing PAGE.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Adenine mutagenesis and template-priming. ( A ) Covalently-linked RNA–cDNA molecule. The linkage is to Sp A56 of the RNA, and the first nucleotide reverse transcribed is TR G117. The RT-PCR product resulting from primers 1 and 2 (blue arrows) is indicated by the dashed red line. ( B ) RT-PCR amplicons from 580 nt DGR RNA reacted with no protein (–), bRT, Avd, or bRT-Avd, separated on a 2% agarose gel and ethidium bromide-stained. The specific amplicon produced from reaction with bRT-Avd shown by the red arrowhead. ( C ) Percentage of substitutions in TR -cDNA determined by sequencing. ( D ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template for 2 h (left) or 12 h (right). Either standard dNTPs (dATP, dGTP, dCTP, TTP), as indicated by ‘+’,were present in the reaction, or standard dNTPs excluding dATP (-A), dGTP (–G), or TTP (-T) were present. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. ( E ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying TTP (top) or dUTP (bottom) concentrations. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. ( F ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying dUTP concentrations. Products were either RNase-treated (top), or both RNase- and UDG-treated (bottom), and resolved by denaturing PAGE.

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Staining, Amplification, Produced, Sequencing, Activity Assay, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    4) Product Images from "Template-assisted synthesis of adenine-mutagenized cDNA by a retroelement protein complex"

    Article Title: Template-assisted synthesis of adenine-mutagenized cDNA by a retroelement protein complex

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gky620

    In vitro template-primed cDNA synthesis. ( A ) Bordetella bacteriophage DGR diversification of Mtd. mtd contains a variable region ( VR ), which encodes the receptor-binding site of the Mtd protein. Downstream of VR is the template region ( TR ). Adenines in TR (‘A’) are frequently replaced by another base in VR (‘N’). TR is transcribed to produce TR- RNA, which is then reverse transcribed to TR- cDNA. During this process, adenines in TR are mutagenized, as depicted by ‘X’ in TR -cDNA. Adenine-mutagenized TR- cDNA homes to and replaces VR , resulting in diversification of Mtd. bRT is the DGR reverse transcriptase, and avd the DGR accessory variability determinant. ( B ) Sequence elements of the 580 nt DGR RNA template used for reverse transcription reactions. ( C ) bRT-Avd, bRT, or Avd was incubated with the 580 nt DGR RNA and dNTPs, including [α- 32 P]dCTP, for 2h. Products resulting from the incubation were untreated (U), or treated with RNase (+R), DNase (+D), or both RNase and DNase (+R+D), and resolved by 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled 580 nt DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. The positions of the 580 nt band, and 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. Nuclease-treated samples were loaded at twice the amount as untreated samples, here and throughout unless otherwise indicated. Lane M here and throughout corresponds to radiolabeled, single-stranded DNA molecular mass markers (nt units). ( D ) DGR RNA templates containing internal truncations in TR . ( E ) Radiolabeled cDNA products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with intact (WT) or internally truncated 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Samples were treated with RNase and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs produced from intact template are indicated by red and yellow circles, respectively, as are positions of the correspondingly shorter cDNAs produced from truncated RNA templates. ( F ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Prior to reverse transcription, the RNA template was mock-treated (–Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products of the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 4% (top) or 8% (bottom) denaturing PAGE. In the top gel, the red arrowhead indicates the ∼580 nt species, and the green arrowheads the several ∼540 nt species. In the bottom gel, the black arrowheads indicate the 120 and 90 nt cDNA products. The black vertical line within the gel indicates irrelevant lanes that were removed for display purposes. A 2-fold higher quantity was loaded for +Per samples than –Per samples.
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vitro template-primed cDNA synthesis. ( A ) Bordetella bacteriophage DGR diversification of Mtd. mtd contains a variable region ( VR ), which encodes the receptor-binding site of the Mtd protein. Downstream of VR is the template region ( TR ). Adenines in TR (‘A’) are frequently replaced by another base in VR (‘N’). TR is transcribed to produce TR- RNA, which is then reverse transcribed to TR- cDNA. During this process, adenines in TR are mutagenized, as depicted by ‘X’ in TR -cDNA. Adenine-mutagenized TR- cDNA homes to and replaces VR , resulting in diversification of Mtd. bRT is the DGR reverse transcriptase, and avd the DGR accessory variability determinant. ( B ) Sequence elements of the 580 nt DGR RNA template used for reverse transcription reactions. ( C ) bRT-Avd, bRT, or Avd was incubated with the 580 nt DGR RNA and dNTPs, including [α- 32 P]dCTP, for 2h. Products resulting from the incubation were untreated (U), or treated with RNase (+R), DNase (+D), or both RNase and DNase (+R+D), and resolved by 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled 580 nt DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. The positions of the 580 nt band, and 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. Nuclease-treated samples were loaded at twice the amount as untreated samples, here and throughout unless otherwise indicated. Lane M here and throughout corresponds to radiolabeled, single-stranded DNA molecular mass markers (nt units). ( D ) DGR RNA templates containing internal truncations in TR . ( E ) Radiolabeled cDNA products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with intact (WT) or internally truncated 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Samples were treated with RNase and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs produced from intact template are indicated by red and yellow circles, respectively, as are positions of the correspondingly shorter cDNAs produced from truncated RNA templates. ( F ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Prior to reverse transcription, the RNA template was mock-treated (–Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products of the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 4% (top) or 8% (bottom) denaturing PAGE. In the top gel, the red arrowhead indicates the ∼580 nt species, and the green arrowheads the several ∼540 nt species. In the bottom gel, the black arrowheads indicate the 120 and 90 nt cDNA products. The black vertical line within the gel indicates irrelevant lanes that were removed for display purposes. A 2-fold higher quantity was loaded for +Per samples than –Per samples.

    Techniques Used: In Vitro, Binding Assay, Sequencing, Incubation, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Labeling, Marker, Activity Assay, Produced

    Core DGR RNA. ( A ) Schematic of core DGR RNA. ( B ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the core DGR RNA as template. Prior to the reverse transcription reaction, the RNA template was untreated (-Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products from the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 6% denaturing PAGE. Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled core DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. Red arrowheads indicate radiolabeled product bands that migrate at the same position or slower than the core DGR RNA, and green arrowheads ones that migrate faster. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. The two panels are from the same gel, with the black line indicating that intermediate lanes were removed. ( C ) Internally-labeled core DGR RNA was not incubated (–), or incubated with bRT-Avd alone or bRT-Avd with 100 μM standard dNTPs (+dNTP), 100 μM dCTP (+CTP), 100 μM dNTPs excluding dCTP (+d(A,T,G)TP), or 100 μM nonhydrolyzeable analog of dCTP (+N-dCTP) for 2 h. Incubation products were resolved by denaturing PAGE. The band corresponding to the 5′ fragment of the cleaved core RNA containing either a deoxycytidine alone (5′+dC) or cDNA (5′+cDNA), and the band corresponding to the 3′ fragment of the RNA are indicated. ( D ) The core DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3′ end (RNA-Bio), and either reacted with no protein or used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. The core DGR RNA in its unbiotinylated form (RNA) was also used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. Samples were then purified using streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR -cDNA in the purified samples was assessed by PCR. Products from the PCR reaction were resolved on an agarose gel. ( E ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 12 h with core, hybrid core dA56, or hybrid core A56 DGR RNA as template. Products were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Separate samples of core dA56 and A56 were 5′ 32 P-labeled for visualization of inputs (I). The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs are indicated.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Core DGR RNA. ( A ) Schematic of core DGR RNA. ( B ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the core DGR RNA as template. Prior to the reverse transcription reaction, the RNA template was untreated (-Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products from the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 6% denaturing PAGE. Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled core DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. Red arrowheads indicate radiolabeled product bands that migrate at the same position or slower than the core DGR RNA, and green arrowheads ones that migrate faster. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. The two panels are from the same gel, with the black line indicating that intermediate lanes were removed. ( C ) Internally-labeled core DGR RNA was not incubated (–), or incubated with bRT-Avd alone or bRT-Avd with 100 μM standard dNTPs (+dNTP), 100 μM dCTP (+CTP), 100 μM dNTPs excluding dCTP (+d(A,T,G)TP), or 100 μM nonhydrolyzeable analog of dCTP (+N-dCTP) for 2 h. Incubation products were resolved by denaturing PAGE. The band corresponding to the 5′ fragment of the cleaved core RNA containing either a deoxycytidine alone (5′+dC) or cDNA (5′+cDNA), and the band corresponding to the 3′ fragment of the RNA are indicated. ( D ) The core DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3′ end (RNA-Bio), and either reacted with no protein or used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. The core DGR RNA in its unbiotinylated form (RNA) was also used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. Samples were then purified using streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR -cDNA in the purified samples was assessed by PCR. Products from the PCR reaction were resolved on an agarose gel. ( E ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 12 h with core, hybrid core dA56, or hybrid core A56 DGR RNA as template. Products were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Separate samples of core dA56 and A56 were 5′ 32 P-labeled for visualization of inputs (I). The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs are indicated.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Labeling, Marker, Incubation, Purification, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

    Adenine mutagenesis and template-priming. ( A ) Covalently-linked RNA–cDNA molecule. The linkage is to Sp A56 of the RNA, and the first nucleotide reverse transcribed is TR G117. The RT-PCR product resulting from primers 1 and 2 (blue arrows) is indicated by the dashed red line. ( B ) RT-PCR amplicons from 580 nt DGR RNA reacted with no protein (–), bRT, Avd, or bRT-Avd, separated on a 2% agarose gel and ethidium bromide-stained. The specific amplicon produced from reaction with bRT-Avd shown by the red arrowhead. ( C ) Percentage of substitutions in TR -cDNA determined by sequencing. ( D ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template for 2 h (left) or 12 h (right). Either standard dNTPs (dATP, dGTP, dCTP, TTP), as indicated by ‘+’,were present in the reaction, or standard dNTPs excluding dATP (-A), dGTP (–G), or TTP (-T) were present. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. ( E ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying TTP (top) or dUTP (bottom) concentrations. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. ( F ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying dUTP concentrations. Products were either RNase-treated (top), or both RNase- and UDG-treated (bottom), and resolved by denaturing PAGE.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Adenine mutagenesis and template-priming. ( A ) Covalently-linked RNA–cDNA molecule. The linkage is to Sp A56 of the RNA, and the first nucleotide reverse transcribed is TR G117. The RT-PCR product resulting from primers 1 and 2 (blue arrows) is indicated by the dashed red line. ( B ) RT-PCR amplicons from 580 nt DGR RNA reacted with no protein (–), bRT, Avd, or bRT-Avd, separated on a 2% agarose gel and ethidium bromide-stained. The specific amplicon produced from reaction with bRT-Avd shown by the red arrowhead. ( C ) Percentage of substitutions in TR -cDNA determined by sequencing. ( D ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template for 2 h (left) or 12 h (right). Either standard dNTPs (dATP, dGTP, dCTP, TTP), as indicated by ‘+’,were present in the reaction, or standard dNTPs excluding dATP (-A), dGTP (–G), or TTP (-T) were present. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. ( E ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying TTP (top) or dUTP (bottom) concentrations. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. ( F ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying dUTP concentrations. Products were either RNase-treated (top), or both RNase- and UDG-treated (bottom), and resolved by denaturing PAGE.

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Staining, Amplification, Produced, Sequencing, Activity Assay, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    5) Product Images from "Template-assisted synthesis of adenine-mutagenized cDNA by a retroelement protein complex"

    Article Title: Template-assisted synthesis of adenine-mutagenized cDNA by a retroelement protein complex

    Journal: bioRxiv

    doi: 10.1101/344556

    Adenine Mutagenesis and Template-Priming. (A) Covalently-linked RNA-cDNA molecule. The linkage is to Sp A56 of the RNA, and the first nucleotide reverse transcribed is TR G117. The RT-PCR product resulting from primers 1 and 2 (blue arrows) is indicated by the dashed red line. (B) RT-PCR amplicons from 580 nt DGR RNA reacted with no protein (-), bRT, Avd, or bRT-Avd, separated on a 2% agarose gel and ethidium bromide-stained. The specific amplicon produced from reaction with bRT-Avd shown by the red arrowhead. (C) Percentage of substitutions in TR -cDNA determined by sequencing. (D) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template for 2 h (left) or 12 h (right). Either standard dNTPs (dATP, dGTP, dCTP, TTP), as indicated by “+”,were present in the reaction, or standard dNTPs excluding dATP (-A), dGTP (-G), or TTP (-T) were present. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. (E) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying TTP (top) or dUTP (bottom) concentrations. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. (F) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying dUTP concentrations. Products were either RNase-treated (top), or both RNase-and UDG-treated (bottom), and resolved by denaturing PAGE
    Figure Legend Snippet: Adenine Mutagenesis and Template-Priming. (A) Covalently-linked RNA-cDNA molecule. The linkage is to Sp A56 of the RNA, and the first nucleotide reverse transcribed is TR G117. The RT-PCR product resulting from primers 1 and 2 (blue arrows) is indicated by the dashed red line. (B) RT-PCR amplicons from 580 nt DGR RNA reacted with no protein (-), bRT, Avd, or bRT-Avd, separated on a 2% agarose gel and ethidium bromide-stained. The specific amplicon produced from reaction with bRT-Avd shown by the red arrowhead. (C) Percentage of substitutions in TR -cDNA determined by sequencing. (D) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template for 2 h (left) or 12 h (right). Either standard dNTPs (dATP, dGTP, dCTP, TTP), as indicated by “+”,were present in the reaction, or standard dNTPs excluding dATP (-A), dGTP (-G), or TTP (-T) were present. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. (E) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying TTP (top) or dUTP (bottom) concentrations. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. (F) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying dUTP concentrations. Products were either RNase-treated (top), or both RNase-and UDG-treated (bottom), and resolved by denaturing PAGE

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Staining, Amplification, Produced, Sequencing, Activity Assay, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    Core DGR RNA. (A) Schematic of core DGR RNA. (B) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the core DGR RNA as template. Prior to the reverse transcription reaction, the RNA template was untreated (-Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products from the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 6% denaturing PAGE. Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled core DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. Red arrowheads indicate radiolabeled product bands that migrate at the same position or slower than the core DGR RNA, and green arrowheads ones that migrate faster. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. The two panels are from the same gel, with the black line indicating that intermediate lanes were removed. (C) Internally-labeled core DGR RNA was not incubated (−), or incubated with bRT-Avd alone or bRT-Avd with 100 μM standard dNTPs (+dNTP), 100 μM dCTP (+CTP), 100 μM dNTPs excluding dCTP (+d(A,T,G)TP), or 100 μM nonhydrolyzeable analog of dCTP (+N-dCTP) for 2 h. Incubation products were resolved by denaturing PAGE. The band corresponding to the 5’ fragment of the cleaved core RNA containing either a deoxycytidine alone (5’+dC) or cDNA (5’+cDNA), and the band corresponding to the 3’ fragment of the RNA are indicated. (D) The core DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3’ end (RNA-Bio), and either reacted with no protein or used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. The core DGR RNA in its unbiotinylated form (RNA) was also used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. Samples were then purified using streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR -cDNA in the purified samples was assessed by PCR. Products from the PCR reaction were resolved on an agarose gel. (E) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 12 h with core, hybrid core dA56, or hybrid core A56 DGR RNA as template. Products were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Separate samples of core dA56 and A56 were 5’ 32 P-labeled for visualization of inputs (I). The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs are indicated
    Figure Legend Snippet: Core DGR RNA. (A) Schematic of core DGR RNA. (B) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the core DGR RNA as template. Prior to the reverse transcription reaction, the RNA template was untreated (-Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products from the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 6% denaturing PAGE. Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled core DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. Red arrowheads indicate radiolabeled product bands that migrate at the same position or slower than the core DGR RNA, and green arrowheads ones that migrate faster. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. The two panels are from the same gel, with the black line indicating that intermediate lanes were removed. (C) Internally-labeled core DGR RNA was not incubated (−), or incubated with bRT-Avd alone or bRT-Avd with 100 μM standard dNTPs (+dNTP), 100 μM dCTP (+CTP), 100 μM dNTPs excluding dCTP (+d(A,T,G)TP), or 100 μM nonhydrolyzeable analog of dCTP (+N-dCTP) for 2 h. Incubation products were resolved by denaturing PAGE. The band corresponding to the 5’ fragment of the cleaved core RNA containing either a deoxycytidine alone (5’+dC) or cDNA (5’+cDNA), and the band corresponding to the 3’ fragment of the RNA are indicated. (D) The core DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3’ end (RNA-Bio), and either reacted with no protein or used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. The core DGR RNA in its unbiotinylated form (RNA) was also used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. Samples were then purified using streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR -cDNA in the purified samples was assessed by PCR. Products from the PCR reaction were resolved on an agarose gel. (E) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 12 h with core, hybrid core dA56, or hybrid core A56 DGR RNA as template. Products were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Separate samples of core dA56 and A56 were 5’ 32 P-labeled for visualization of inputs (I). The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs are indicated

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Labeling, Marker, Incubation, Purification, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

    TR -Sp Interactions. (A) Complementarity between TR (blue) and Sp (purple) segments. Potential basepairs are numbered (wobble in red). (B) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2h with the WT or mutated 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Numbers over lane labels correspond to the basepair tested by the mutation, with “R” referring to restoration of the basepair. Sp Mut4 corresponds to Sp 55-CAGC substituted with 55-GUCG
    Figure Legend Snippet: TR -Sp Interactions. (A) Complementarity between TR (blue) and Sp (purple) segments. Potential basepairs are numbered (wobble in red). (B) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2h with the WT or mutated 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Numbers over lane labels correspond to the basepair tested by the mutation, with “R” referring to restoration of the basepair. Sp Mut4 corresponds to Sp 55-CAGC substituted with 55-GUCG

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Mutagenesis

    Branched RNA-cDNA. (A) The 580 nt DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3’ end and used as a template for reverse-transcription by bRT-Avd, after which biotinylated RNA was captured with streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR -cDNA was detected by PCR using the indicated primers. (B) The 580 nt DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3’ end (RNA-Bio), and either reacted with no protein or used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. The 580 nt DGR RNA in its unbiotinylated form (RNA) was also used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. Samples were then purified using streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR -cDNA in the purified samples was assessed by PCR. Products from the PCR reaction were resolved on an agarose gel. (C) Hybrid dA56 580 nt DGR RNA containing deoxyadenosine at Sp 56 (indicated with H at 2’ position) and hybrid d56 580 nt DGR RNA containing adenosine at Sp 56 (indicated with OH at 2’). Both molecules terminate at Sp 140 and have a dideoxynucleotide at the 3’ end (indicated with H at 3’). (D) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 12 h with 580 nt DGR RNA, hybrid 580 nt dA56, or hybrid 580 nt A56 DGR RNA as template. Products were untreated (U) or RNase-treated (+R), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Separate samples of dA56 and A56 were 5’ 32 P-labeled for visualization of input templates (I). The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs are indicated
    Figure Legend Snippet: Branched RNA-cDNA. (A) The 580 nt DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3’ end and used as a template for reverse-transcription by bRT-Avd, after which biotinylated RNA was captured with streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR -cDNA was detected by PCR using the indicated primers. (B) The 580 nt DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3’ end (RNA-Bio), and either reacted with no protein or used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. The 580 nt DGR RNA in its unbiotinylated form (RNA) was also used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. Samples were then purified using streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR -cDNA in the purified samples was assessed by PCR. Products from the PCR reaction were resolved on an agarose gel. (C) Hybrid dA56 580 nt DGR RNA containing deoxyadenosine at Sp 56 (indicated with H at 2’ position) and hybrid d56 580 nt DGR RNA containing adenosine at Sp 56 (indicated with OH at 2’). Both molecules terminate at Sp 140 and have a dideoxynucleotide at the 3’ end (indicated with H at 3’). (D) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 12 h with 580 nt DGR RNA, hybrid 580 nt dA56, or hybrid 580 nt A56 DGR RNA as template. Products were untreated (U) or RNase-treated (+R), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Separate samples of dA56 and A56 were 5’ 32 P-labeled for visualization of input templates (I). The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs are indicated

    Techniques Used: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Purification, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Activity Assay, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Labeling

    In vitro template-primed cDNA synthesis. (A) Bordetella bacteriophage DGR diversification of Mtd. mtd contains a variable region ( VR ), which encodes the receptor-binding site of the Mtd protein. Downstream of VR is the template region ( TR ). Adenines in TR (“A”) are frequently replaced by another base in VR (“N”). TR is transcribed to produce TR -RNA, which is then reverse transcribed to TR -cDNA. During this process, adenines in TR are mutagenized, as depicted by “X” in TR -cDNA. Adenine-mutagenized TR -cDNA homes to and replaces VR , resulting in diversification of Mtd. bRT is the DGR reverse transcriptase, and avd the DGR accessory variability determinant. (B) Sequence elements of the 580 nt DGR RNA template used for reverse transcription reactions. (C) bRT-Avd, bRT, or Avd was incubated with the 580 nt DGR RNA and dNTPs, including [α- 32 P]dCTP, for 2h. Products resulting from the incubation were untreated (U), or treated with RNase (+R), DNase (+D), or both RNase and DNase (+R+D), and resolved by 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled 580 nt DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. The positions of the 580 nt band, and 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. Nuclease-treated samples were loaded at twice the amount as untreated samples, here and throughout unless otherwise indicated. Lane M here and throughout corresponds to radiolabeled, single-stranded DNA molecular mass markers (nt units). (D) DGR RNA templates containing internal truncations in TR . (E) Radiolabeled cDNA products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with intact (WT) or internally truncated 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Samples were treated with RNase and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs produced from intact template are indicated by red and yellow circles, respectively, as are positions of the correspondingly shorter cDNAs produced from truncated RNA templates. (F) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Prior to reverse transcription, the RNA template was mock-treated (−Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products of the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 4% (top) or 8% (bottom) denaturing PAGE. In the top gel, the red arrowhead indicates the ~580 nt species, and the green arrowheads the several ~540 nt species. In the bottom gel, the black arrowheads indicate the 120 and 90 nt cDNA products. The black vertical line within the gel indicates irrelevant lanes that were removed for display purposes. A two-fold higher quantity was loaded for +Per samples than −Per samples.
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vitro template-primed cDNA synthesis. (A) Bordetella bacteriophage DGR diversification of Mtd. mtd contains a variable region ( VR ), which encodes the receptor-binding site of the Mtd protein. Downstream of VR is the template region ( TR ). Adenines in TR (“A”) are frequently replaced by another base in VR (“N”). TR is transcribed to produce TR -RNA, which is then reverse transcribed to TR -cDNA. During this process, adenines in TR are mutagenized, as depicted by “X” in TR -cDNA. Adenine-mutagenized TR -cDNA homes to and replaces VR , resulting in diversification of Mtd. bRT is the DGR reverse transcriptase, and avd the DGR accessory variability determinant. (B) Sequence elements of the 580 nt DGR RNA template used for reverse transcription reactions. (C) bRT-Avd, bRT, or Avd was incubated with the 580 nt DGR RNA and dNTPs, including [α- 32 P]dCTP, for 2h. Products resulting from the incubation were untreated (U), or treated with RNase (+R), DNase (+D), or both RNase and DNase (+R+D), and resolved by 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled 580 nt DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. The positions of the 580 nt band, and 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. Nuclease-treated samples were loaded at twice the amount as untreated samples, here and throughout unless otherwise indicated. Lane M here and throughout corresponds to radiolabeled, single-stranded DNA molecular mass markers (nt units). (D) DGR RNA templates containing internal truncations in TR . (E) Radiolabeled cDNA products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with intact (WT) or internally truncated 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Samples were treated with RNase and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs produced from intact template are indicated by red and yellow circles, respectively, as are positions of the correspondingly shorter cDNAs produced from truncated RNA templates. (F) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Prior to reverse transcription, the RNA template was mock-treated (−Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products of the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 4% (top) or 8% (bottom) denaturing PAGE. In the top gel, the red arrowhead indicates the ~580 nt species, and the green arrowheads the several ~540 nt species. In the bottom gel, the black arrowheads indicate the 120 and 90 nt cDNA products. The black vertical line within the gel indicates irrelevant lanes that were removed for display purposes. A two-fold higher quantity was loaded for +Per samples than −Per samples.

    Techniques Used: In Vitro, Binding Assay, Sequencing, Incubation, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Labeling, Marker, Activity Assay, Produced

    Specificity to DGR RNA. (A) Top, Schematic of DGR RNA template and primer P G117 . Bottom, radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with intact 580 nt DGR RNA or DGR RNA truncated at Sp A56 as template. Reverse transcription reactions were carried out in the absence (-P) or presence of primer P G117 . Reaction products were untreated (U), treated with RNase (+R), or treated with DNase (+D), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The blue line indicates ODN-primed cDNA products. The red dot indicates ODN-primed 120 nt cDNA (cDNA + 20 nt primer for a 140 nt band). (B) Protection of internally-labeled 580 nt DGR RNA from RNase by bRT, Avd, or bRT-Avd, with products resolved by 15% denaturing PAGE. The protected band (P) is indicated. (C) RNase protection by Avd, as in panel B, carried out on internally-labeled wild-type 580 nt DGR RNA or 580 nt DGR RNA with scrambled (Sc) Sp sequences, with the first lane in each pair untreated and the second RNase-treated. Products were resolved by denaturing PAGE. The protected band (P) is indicated. (D) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the WT 580 nt DGR RNA or DGR RNA containing scrambled (Sc) Sp sequences as template. The last lane shows the activity of Avd alone for 2 h with the WT 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs indicated. (E) Model of processive polymerization of adenine-mutagenized cDNA by bRT-Avd/RNA ribonucleoprotein particle. The 2’-OH of Sp 56 serves as the priming site and forms a 2’-5’ phosphodiester bond with the cDNA. The first nucleotide reverse transcribed is TR 117. Adenines in TR are unfaithfully reverse transcribed by bRT-Avd (represented by “N”). The RNP promotes processive polymerization, which terminates at one of two stops in the DGR RNA
    Figure Legend Snippet: Specificity to DGR RNA. (A) Top, Schematic of DGR RNA template and primer P G117 . Bottom, radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with intact 580 nt DGR RNA or DGR RNA truncated at Sp A56 as template. Reverse transcription reactions were carried out in the absence (-P) or presence of primer P G117 . Reaction products were untreated (U), treated with RNase (+R), or treated with DNase (+D), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The blue line indicates ODN-primed cDNA products. The red dot indicates ODN-primed 120 nt cDNA (cDNA + 20 nt primer for a 140 nt band). (B) Protection of internally-labeled 580 nt DGR RNA from RNase by bRT, Avd, or bRT-Avd, with products resolved by 15% denaturing PAGE. The protected band (P) is indicated. (C) RNase protection by Avd, as in panel B, carried out on internally-labeled wild-type 580 nt DGR RNA or 580 nt DGR RNA with scrambled (Sc) Sp sequences, with the first lane in each pair untreated and the second RNase-treated. Products were resolved by denaturing PAGE. The protected band (P) is indicated. (D) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the WT 580 nt DGR RNA or DGR RNA containing scrambled (Sc) Sp sequences as template. The last lane shows the activity of Avd alone for 2 h with the WT 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs indicated. (E) Model of processive polymerization of adenine-mutagenized cDNA by bRT-Avd/RNA ribonucleoprotein particle. The 2’-OH of Sp 56 serves as the priming site and forms a 2’-5’ phosphodiester bond with the cDNA. The first nucleotide reverse transcribed is TR 117. Adenines in TR are unfaithfully reverse transcribed by bRT-Avd (represented by “N”). The RNP promotes processive polymerization, which terminates at one of two stops in the DGR RNA

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Labeling

    6) Product Images from "Template-assisted synthesis of adenine-mutagenized cDNA by a retroelement protein complex"

    Article Title: Template-assisted synthesis of adenine-mutagenized cDNA by a retroelement protein complex

    Journal: bioRxiv

    doi: 10.1101/344556

    Adenine Mutagenesis and Template-Priming. (A) Covalently-linked RNA-cDNA molecule. The linkage is to Sp A56 of the RNA, and the first nucleotide reverse transcribed is TR G117. The RT-PCR product resulting from primers 1 and 2 (blue arrows) is indicated by the dashed red line. (B) RT-PCR amplicons from 580 nt DGR RNA reacted with no protein (-), bRT, Avd, or bRT-Avd, separated on a 2% agarose gel and ethidium bromide-stained. The specific amplicon produced from reaction with bRT-Avd shown by the red arrowhead. (C) Percentage of substitutions in TR -cDNA determined by sequencing. (D) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template for 2 h (left) or 12 h (right). Either standard dNTPs (dATP, dGTP, dCTP, TTP), as indicated by “+”,were present in the reaction, or standard dNTPs excluding dATP (-A), dGTP (-G), or TTP (-T) were present. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. (E) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying TTP (top) or dUTP (bottom) concentrations. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. (F) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying dUTP concentrations. Products were either RNase-treated (top), or both RNase-and UDG-treated (bottom), and resolved by denaturing PAGE
    Figure Legend Snippet: Adenine Mutagenesis and Template-Priming. (A) Covalently-linked RNA-cDNA molecule. The linkage is to Sp A56 of the RNA, and the first nucleotide reverse transcribed is TR G117. The RT-PCR product resulting from primers 1 and 2 (blue arrows) is indicated by the dashed red line. (B) RT-PCR amplicons from 580 nt DGR RNA reacted with no protein (-), bRT, Avd, or bRT-Avd, separated on a 2% agarose gel and ethidium bromide-stained. The specific amplicon produced from reaction with bRT-Avd shown by the red arrowhead. (C) Percentage of substitutions in TR -cDNA determined by sequencing. (D) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template for 2 h (left) or 12 h (right). Either standard dNTPs (dATP, dGTP, dCTP, TTP), as indicated by “+”,were present in the reaction, or standard dNTPs excluding dATP (-A), dGTP (-G), or TTP (-T) were present. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. (E) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying TTP (top) or dUTP (bottom) concentrations. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. (F) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying dUTP concentrations. Products were either RNase-treated (top), or both RNase-and UDG-treated (bottom), and resolved by denaturing PAGE

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Staining, Amplification, Produced, Sequencing, Activity Assay, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    Core DGR RNA. (A) Schematic of core DGR RNA. (B) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the core DGR RNA as template. Prior to the reverse transcription reaction, the RNA template was untreated (-Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products from the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 6% denaturing PAGE. Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled core DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. Red arrowheads indicate radiolabeled product bands that migrate at the same position or slower than the core DGR RNA, and green arrowheads ones that migrate faster. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. The two panels are from the same gel, with the black line indicating that intermediate lanes were removed. (C) Internally-labeled core DGR RNA was not incubated (−), or incubated with bRT-Avd alone or bRT-Avd with 100 μM standard dNTPs (+dNTP), 100 μM dCTP (+CTP), 100 μM dNTPs excluding dCTP (+d(A,T,G)TP), or 100 μM nonhydrolyzeable analog of dCTP (+N-dCTP) for 2 h. Incubation products were resolved by denaturing PAGE. The band corresponding to the 5’ fragment of the cleaved core RNA containing either a deoxycytidine alone (5’+dC) or cDNA (5’+cDNA), and the band corresponding to the 3’ fragment of the RNA are indicated. (D) The core DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3’ end (RNA-Bio), and either reacted with no protein or used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. The core DGR RNA in its unbiotinylated form (RNA) was also used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. Samples were then purified using streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR -cDNA in the purified samples was assessed by PCR. Products from the PCR reaction were resolved on an agarose gel. (E) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 12 h with core, hybrid core dA56, or hybrid core A56 DGR RNA as template. Products were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Separate samples of core dA56 and A56 were 5’ 32 P-labeled for visualization of inputs (I). The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs are indicated
    Figure Legend Snippet: Core DGR RNA. (A) Schematic of core DGR RNA. (B) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the core DGR RNA as template. Prior to the reverse transcription reaction, the RNA template was untreated (-Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products from the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 6% denaturing PAGE. Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled core DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. Red arrowheads indicate radiolabeled product bands that migrate at the same position or slower than the core DGR RNA, and green arrowheads ones that migrate faster. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. The two panels are from the same gel, with the black line indicating that intermediate lanes were removed. (C) Internally-labeled core DGR RNA was not incubated (−), or incubated with bRT-Avd alone or bRT-Avd with 100 μM standard dNTPs (+dNTP), 100 μM dCTP (+CTP), 100 μM dNTPs excluding dCTP (+d(A,T,G)TP), or 100 μM nonhydrolyzeable analog of dCTP (+N-dCTP) for 2 h. Incubation products were resolved by denaturing PAGE. The band corresponding to the 5’ fragment of the cleaved core RNA containing either a deoxycytidine alone (5’+dC) or cDNA (5’+cDNA), and the band corresponding to the 3’ fragment of the RNA are indicated. (D) The core DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3’ end (RNA-Bio), and either reacted with no protein or used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. The core DGR RNA in its unbiotinylated form (RNA) was also used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. Samples were then purified using streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR -cDNA in the purified samples was assessed by PCR. Products from the PCR reaction were resolved on an agarose gel. (E) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 12 h with core, hybrid core dA56, or hybrid core A56 DGR RNA as template. Products were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Separate samples of core dA56 and A56 were 5’ 32 P-labeled for visualization of inputs (I). The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs are indicated

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Labeling, Marker, Incubation, Purification, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

    In vitro template-primed cDNA synthesis. (A) Bordetella bacteriophage DGR diversification of Mtd. mtd contains a variable region ( VR ), which encodes the receptor-binding site of the Mtd protein. Downstream of VR is the template region ( TR ). Adenines in TR (“A”) are frequently replaced by another base in VR (“N”). TR is transcribed to produce TR -RNA, which is then reverse transcribed to TR -cDNA. During this process, adenines in TR are mutagenized, as depicted by “X” in TR -cDNA. Adenine-mutagenized TR -cDNA homes to and replaces VR , resulting in diversification of Mtd. bRT is the DGR reverse transcriptase, and avd the DGR accessory variability determinant. (B) Sequence elements of the 580 nt DGR RNA template used for reverse transcription reactions. (C) bRT-Avd, bRT, or Avd was incubated with the 580 nt DGR RNA and dNTPs, including [α- 32 P]dCTP, for 2h. Products resulting from the incubation were untreated (U), or treated with RNase (+R), DNase (+D), or both RNase and DNase (+R+D), and resolved by 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled 580 nt DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. The positions of the 580 nt band, and 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. Nuclease-treated samples were loaded at twice the amount as untreated samples, here and throughout unless otherwise indicated. Lane M here and throughout corresponds to radiolabeled, single-stranded DNA molecular mass markers (nt units). (D) DGR RNA templates containing internal truncations in TR . (E) Radiolabeled cDNA products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with intact (WT) or internally truncated 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Samples were treated with RNase and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs produced from intact template are indicated by red and yellow circles, respectively, as are positions of the correspondingly shorter cDNAs produced from truncated RNA templates. (F) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Prior to reverse transcription, the RNA template was mock-treated (−Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products of the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 4% (top) or 8% (bottom) denaturing PAGE. In the top gel, the red arrowhead indicates the ~580 nt species, and the green arrowheads the several ~540 nt species. In the bottom gel, the black arrowheads indicate the 120 and 90 nt cDNA products. The black vertical line within the gel indicates irrelevant lanes that were removed for display purposes. A two-fold higher quantity was loaded for +Per samples than −Per samples.
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vitro template-primed cDNA synthesis. (A) Bordetella bacteriophage DGR diversification of Mtd. mtd contains a variable region ( VR ), which encodes the receptor-binding site of the Mtd protein. Downstream of VR is the template region ( TR ). Adenines in TR (“A”) are frequently replaced by another base in VR (“N”). TR is transcribed to produce TR -RNA, which is then reverse transcribed to TR -cDNA. During this process, adenines in TR are mutagenized, as depicted by “X” in TR -cDNA. Adenine-mutagenized TR -cDNA homes to and replaces VR , resulting in diversification of Mtd. bRT is the DGR reverse transcriptase, and avd the DGR accessory variability determinant. (B) Sequence elements of the 580 nt DGR RNA template used for reverse transcription reactions. (C) bRT-Avd, bRT, or Avd was incubated with the 580 nt DGR RNA and dNTPs, including [α- 32 P]dCTP, for 2h. Products resulting from the incubation were untreated (U), or treated with RNase (+R), DNase (+D), or both RNase and DNase (+R+D), and resolved by 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled 580 nt DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. The positions of the 580 nt band, and 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. Nuclease-treated samples were loaded at twice the amount as untreated samples, here and throughout unless otherwise indicated. Lane M here and throughout corresponds to radiolabeled, single-stranded DNA molecular mass markers (nt units). (D) DGR RNA templates containing internal truncations in TR . (E) Radiolabeled cDNA products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with intact (WT) or internally truncated 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Samples were treated with RNase and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs produced from intact template are indicated by red and yellow circles, respectively, as are positions of the correspondingly shorter cDNAs produced from truncated RNA templates. (F) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Prior to reverse transcription, the RNA template was mock-treated (−Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products of the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 4% (top) or 8% (bottom) denaturing PAGE. In the top gel, the red arrowhead indicates the ~580 nt species, and the green arrowheads the several ~540 nt species. In the bottom gel, the black arrowheads indicate the 120 and 90 nt cDNA products. The black vertical line within the gel indicates irrelevant lanes that were removed for display purposes. A two-fold higher quantity was loaded for +Per samples than −Per samples.

    Techniques Used: In Vitro, Binding Assay, Sequencing, Incubation, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Labeling, Marker, Activity Assay, Produced

    7) Product Images from "Template-assisted synthesis of adenine-mutagenized cDNA by a retroelement protein complex"

    Article Title: Template-assisted synthesis of adenine-mutagenized cDNA by a retroelement protein complex

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gky620

    In vitro template-primed cDNA synthesis. ( A ) Bordetella bacteriophage DGR diversification of Mtd. mtd contains a variable region ( VR ), which encodes the receptor-binding site of the Mtd protein. Downstream of VR is the template region ( TR ). Adenines in TR (‘A’) are frequently replaced by another base in VR (‘N’). TR is transcribed to produce TR- RNA, which is then reverse transcribed to TR- cDNA. During this process, adenines in TR are mutagenized, as depicted by ‘X’ in TR -cDNA. Adenine-mutagenized TR- cDNA homes to and replaces VR , resulting in diversification of Mtd. bRT is the DGR reverse transcriptase, and avd the DGR accessory variability determinant. ( B ) Sequence elements of the 580 nt DGR RNA template used for reverse transcription reactions. ( C ) bRT-Avd, bRT, or Avd was incubated with the 580 nt DGR RNA and dNTPs, including [α- 32 P]dCTP, for 2h. Products resulting from the incubation were untreated (U), or treated with RNase (+R), DNase (+D), or both RNase and DNase (+R+D), and resolved by 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled 580 nt DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. The positions of the 580 nt band, and 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. Nuclease-treated samples were loaded at twice the amount as untreated samples, here and throughout unless otherwise indicated. Lane M here and throughout corresponds to radiolabeled, single-stranded DNA molecular mass markers (nt units). ( D ) DGR RNA templates containing internal truncations in TR . ( E ) Radiolabeled cDNA products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with intact (WT) or internally truncated 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Samples were treated with RNase and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs produced from intact template are indicated by red and yellow circles, respectively, as are positions of the correspondingly shorter cDNAs produced from truncated RNA templates. ( F ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Prior to reverse transcription, the RNA template was mock-treated (–Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products of the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 4% (top) or 8% (bottom) denaturing PAGE. In the top gel, the red arrowhead indicates the ∼580 nt species, and the green arrowheads the several ∼540 nt species. In the bottom gel, the black arrowheads indicate the 120 and 90 nt cDNA products. The black vertical line within the gel indicates irrelevant lanes that were removed for display purposes. A 2-fold higher quantity was loaded for +Per samples than –Per samples.
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vitro template-primed cDNA synthesis. ( A ) Bordetella bacteriophage DGR diversification of Mtd. mtd contains a variable region ( VR ), which encodes the receptor-binding site of the Mtd protein. Downstream of VR is the template region ( TR ). Adenines in TR (‘A’) are frequently replaced by another base in VR (‘N’). TR is transcribed to produce TR- RNA, which is then reverse transcribed to TR- cDNA. During this process, adenines in TR are mutagenized, as depicted by ‘X’ in TR -cDNA. Adenine-mutagenized TR- cDNA homes to and replaces VR , resulting in diversification of Mtd. bRT is the DGR reverse transcriptase, and avd the DGR accessory variability determinant. ( B ) Sequence elements of the 580 nt DGR RNA template used for reverse transcription reactions. ( C ) bRT-Avd, bRT, or Avd was incubated with the 580 nt DGR RNA and dNTPs, including [α- 32 P]dCTP, for 2h. Products resulting from the incubation were untreated (U), or treated with RNase (+R), DNase (+D), or both RNase and DNase (+R+D), and resolved by 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled 580 nt DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. The positions of the 580 nt band, and 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. Nuclease-treated samples were loaded at twice the amount as untreated samples, here and throughout unless otherwise indicated. Lane M here and throughout corresponds to radiolabeled, single-stranded DNA molecular mass markers (nt units). ( D ) DGR RNA templates containing internal truncations in TR . ( E ) Radiolabeled cDNA products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with intact (WT) or internally truncated 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Samples were treated with RNase and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs produced from intact template are indicated by red and yellow circles, respectively, as are positions of the correspondingly shorter cDNAs produced from truncated RNA templates. ( F ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Prior to reverse transcription, the RNA template was mock-treated (–Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products of the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 4% (top) or 8% (bottom) denaturing PAGE. In the top gel, the red arrowhead indicates the ∼580 nt species, and the green arrowheads the several ∼540 nt species. In the bottom gel, the black arrowheads indicate the 120 and 90 nt cDNA products. The black vertical line within the gel indicates irrelevant lanes that were removed for display purposes. A 2-fold higher quantity was loaded for +Per samples than –Per samples.

    Techniques Used: In Vitro, Binding Assay, Sequencing, Incubation, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Labeling, Marker, Activity Assay, Produced

    Branched RNA–cDNA. ( A ) The 580 nt DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3′ end and used as a template for reverse-transcription by bRT-Avd, after which biotinylated RNA was captured with streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR- cDNA was detected by PCR using the indicated primers. ( B ) The 580 nt DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3′ end (RNA-Bio), and either reacted with no protein or used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. The 580 nt DGR RNA in its unbiotinylated form (RNA) was also used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. Samples were then purified using streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR -cDNA in the purified samples was assessed by PCR. Products from the PCR reaction were resolved on an agarose gel. ( C ) Hybrid dA56 580 nt DGR RNA containing deoxyadenosine at Sp 56 (indicated with H at 2′ position) and hybrid d56 580 nt DGR RNA containing adenosine at Sp 56 (indicated with OH at 2′). Both molecules terminate at Sp 140 and have a dideoxynucleotide at the 3′ end (indicated with H at 3′). ( D ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 12 h with 580 nt DGR RNA, hybrid 580 nt dA56, or hybrid 580 nt A56 DGR RNA as template. Products were untreated (U) or RNase-treated (+R), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Separate samples of dA56 and A56 were 5′ 32 P-labeled for visualization of input templates (I). The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs are indicated.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Branched RNA–cDNA. ( A ) The 580 nt DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3′ end and used as a template for reverse-transcription by bRT-Avd, after which biotinylated RNA was captured with streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR- cDNA was detected by PCR using the indicated primers. ( B ) The 580 nt DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3′ end (RNA-Bio), and either reacted with no protein or used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. The 580 nt DGR RNA in its unbiotinylated form (RNA) was also used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. Samples were then purified using streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR -cDNA in the purified samples was assessed by PCR. Products from the PCR reaction were resolved on an agarose gel. ( C ) Hybrid dA56 580 nt DGR RNA containing deoxyadenosine at Sp 56 (indicated with H at 2′ position) and hybrid d56 580 nt DGR RNA containing adenosine at Sp 56 (indicated with OH at 2′). Both molecules terminate at Sp 140 and have a dideoxynucleotide at the 3′ end (indicated with H at 3′). ( D ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 12 h with 580 nt DGR RNA, hybrid 580 nt dA56, or hybrid 580 nt A56 DGR RNA as template. Products were untreated (U) or RNase-treated (+R), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Separate samples of dA56 and A56 were 5′ 32 P-labeled for visualization of input templates (I). The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs are indicated.

    Techniques Used: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Purification, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Activity Assay, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Labeling

    Core DGR RNA. ( A ) Schematic of core DGR RNA. ( B ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the core DGR RNA as template. Prior to the reverse transcription reaction, the RNA template was untreated (-Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products from the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 6% denaturing PAGE. Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled core DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. Red arrowheads indicate radiolabeled product bands that migrate at the same position or slower than the core DGR RNA, and green arrowheads ones that migrate faster. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. The two panels are from the same gel, with the black line indicating that intermediate lanes were removed. ( C ) Internally-labeled core DGR RNA was not incubated (–), or incubated with bRT-Avd alone or bRT-Avd with 100 μM standard dNTPs (+dNTP), 100 μM dCTP (+CTP), 100 μM dNTPs excluding dCTP (+d(A,T,G)TP), or 100 μM nonhydrolyzeable analog of dCTP (+N-dCTP) for 2 h. Incubation products were resolved by denaturing PAGE. The band corresponding to the 5′ fragment of the cleaved core RNA containing either a deoxycytidine alone (5′+dC) or cDNA (5′+cDNA), and the band corresponding to the 3′ fragment of the RNA are indicated. ( D ) The core DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3′ end (RNA-Bio), and either reacted with no protein or used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. The core DGR RNA in its unbiotinylated form (RNA) was also used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. Samples were then purified using streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR -cDNA in the purified samples was assessed by PCR. Products from the PCR reaction were resolved on an agarose gel. ( E ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 12 h with core, hybrid core dA56, or hybrid core A56 DGR RNA as template. Products were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Separate samples of core dA56 and A56 were 5′ 32 P-labeled for visualization of inputs (I). The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs are indicated.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Core DGR RNA. ( A ) Schematic of core DGR RNA. ( B ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the core DGR RNA as template. Prior to the reverse transcription reaction, the RNA template was untreated (-Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products from the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 6% denaturing PAGE. Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled core DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. Red arrowheads indicate radiolabeled product bands that migrate at the same position or slower than the core DGR RNA, and green arrowheads ones that migrate faster. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. The two panels are from the same gel, with the black line indicating that intermediate lanes were removed. ( C ) Internally-labeled core DGR RNA was not incubated (–), or incubated with bRT-Avd alone or bRT-Avd with 100 μM standard dNTPs (+dNTP), 100 μM dCTP (+CTP), 100 μM dNTPs excluding dCTP (+d(A,T,G)TP), or 100 μM nonhydrolyzeable analog of dCTP (+N-dCTP) for 2 h. Incubation products were resolved by denaturing PAGE. The band corresponding to the 5′ fragment of the cleaved core RNA containing either a deoxycytidine alone (5′+dC) or cDNA (5′+cDNA), and the band corresponding to the 3′ fragment of the RNA are indicated. ( D ) The core DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3′ end (RNA-Bio), and either reacted with no protein or used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. The core DGR RNA in its unbiotinylated form (RNA) was also used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. Samples were then purified using streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR -cDNA in the purified samples was assessed by PCR. Products from the PCR reaction were resolved on an agarose gel. ( E ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 12 h with core, hybrid core dA56, or hybrid core A56 DGR RNA as template. Products were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Separate samples of core dA56 and A56 were 5′ 32 P-labeled for visualization of inputs (I). The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs are indicated.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Labeling, Marker, Incubation, Purification, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

    TR -Sp interactions. ( A ) Complementarity between TR (blue) and Sp (purple) segments. Potential basepairs are numbered (wobble in red). ( B ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2h with the WT or mutated 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Numbers over lane labels correspond to the basepair tested by the mutation, with ‘R’ referring to restoration of the basepair. Sp Mut4 corresponds to Sp 55-CAGC substituted with 55-GUCG.
    Figure Legend Snippet: TR -Sp interactions. ( A ) Complementarity between TR (blue) and Sp (purple) segments. Potential basepairs are numbered (wobble in red). ( B ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2h with the WT or mutated 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Numbers over lane labels correspond to the basepair tested by the mutation, with ‘R’ referring to restoration of the basepair. Sp Mut4 corresponds to Sp 55-CAGC substituted with 55-GUCG.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Mutagenesis

    Adenine mutagenesis and template-priming. ( A ) Covalently-linked RNA–cDNA molecule. The linkage is to Sp A56 of the RNA, and the first nucleotide reverse transcribed is TR G117. The RT-PCR product resulting from primers 1 and 2 (blue arrows) is indicated by the dashed red line. ( B ) RT-PCR amplicons from 580 nt DGR RNA reacted with no protein (–), bRT, Avd, or bRT-Avd, separated on a 2% agarose gel and ethidium bromide-stained. The specific amplicon produced from reaction with bRT-Avd shown by the red arrowhead. ( C ) Percentage of substitutions in TR -cDNA determined by sequencing. ( D ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template for 2 h (left) or 12 h (right). Either standard dNTPs (dATP, dGTP, dCTP, TTP), as indicated by ‘+’,were present in the reaction, or standard dNTPs excluding dATP (-A), dGTP (–G), or TTP (-T) were present. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. ( E ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying TTP (top) or dUTP (bottom) concentrations. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. ( F ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying dUTP concentrations. Products were either RNase-treated (top), or both RNase- and UDG-treated (bottom), and resolved by denaturing PAGE.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Adenine mutagenesis and template-priming. ( A ) Covalently-linked RNA–cDNA molecule. The linkage is to Sp A56 of the RNA, and the first nucleotide reverse transcribed is TR G117. The RT-PCR product resulting from primers 1 and 2 (blue arrows) is indicated by the dashed red line. ( B ) RT-PCR amplicons from 580 nt DGR RNA reacted with no protein (–), bRT, Avd, or bRT-Avd, separated on a 2% agarose gel and ethidium bromide-stained. The specific amplicon produced from reaction with bRT-Avd shown by the red arrowhead. ( C ) Percentage of substitutions in TR -cDNA determined by sequencing. ( D ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template for 2 h (left) or 12 h (right). Either standard dNTPs (dATP, dGTP, dCTP, TTP), as indicated by ‘+’,were present in the reaction, or standard dNTPs excluding dATP (-A), dGTP (–G), or TTP (-T) were present. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. ( E ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying TTP (top) or dUTP (bottom) concentrations. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. ( F ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying dUTP concentrations. Products were either RNase-treated (top), or both RNase- and UDG-treated (bottom), and resolved by denaturing PAGE.

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Staining, Amplification, Produced, Sequencing, Activity Assay, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    Specificity to DGR RNA. ( A ) Top, schematic of DGR RNA template and primer P G117 . Bottom, radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with intact 580 nt DGR RNA or DGR RNA truncated at Sp A56 as template. Reverse transcription reactions were carried out in the absence (-P) or presence of primer P G117 . Reaction products were untreated (U), treated with RNase (+R), or treated with DNase (+D), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The blue line indicates ODN-primed cDNA products. The red dot indicates ODN-primed 120 nt cDNA (cDNA + 20 nt primer for a 140 nt band). ( B ) Protection of internally-labeled 580 nt DGR RNA from RNase by bRT, Avd, or bRT-Avd, with products resolved by 15% denaturing PAGE. The protected band (P) is indicated. ( C ) RNase protection by Avd, as in panel B, carried out on internally-labeled wild-type 580 nt DGR RNA or 580 nt DGR RNA with scrambled (Sc) Sp sequences, with the first lane in each pair untreated and the second RNase-treated. Products were resolved by denaturing PAGE. The protected band (P) is indicated. ( D ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the WT 580 nt DGR RNA or DGR RNA containing scrambled (Sc) Sp sequences as template. The last lane shows the activity of Avd alone for 2 h with the WT 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs indicated. ( E ) Model of processive polymerization of adenine-mutagenized cDNA by bRT-Avd/RNA ribonucleoprotein particle. The 2′-OH of Sp 56 serves as the priming site and forms a 2′-5′ phosphodiester bond with the cDNA. The first nucleotide reverse transcribed is TR 117. Adenines in TR are unfaithfully reverse transcribed by bRT-Avd (represented by ‘N’). The RNP promotes processive polymerization, which terminates at one of two stops in the DGR RNA.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Specificity to DGR RNA. ( A ) Top, schematic of DGR RNA template and primer P G117 . Bottom, radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with intact 580 nt DGR RNA or DGR RNA truncated at Sp A56 as template. Reverse transcription reactions were carried out in the absence (-P) or presence of primer P G117 . Reaction products were untreated (U), treated with RNase (+R), or treated with DNase (+D), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The blue line indicates ODN-primed cDNA products. The red dot indicates ODN-primed 120 nt cDNA (cDNA + 20 nt primer for a 140 nt band). ( B ) Protection of internally-labeled 580 nt DGR RNA from RNase by bRT, Avd, or bRT-Avd, with products resolved by 15% denaturing PAGE. The protected band (P) is indicated. ( C ) RNase protection by Avd, as in panel B, carried out on internally-labeled wild-type 580 nt DGR RNA or 580 nt DGR RNA with scrambled (Sc) Sp sequences, with the first lane in each pair untreated and the second RNase-treated. Products were resolved by denaturing PAGE. The protected band (P) is indicated. ( D ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the WT 580 nt DGR RNA or DGR RNA containing scrambled (Sc) Sp sequences as template. The last lane shows the activity of Avd alone for 2 h with the WT 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs indicated. ( E ) Model of processive polymerization of adenine-mutagenized cDNA by bRT-Avd/RNA ribonucleoprotein particle. The 2′-OH of Sp 56 serves as the priming site and forms a 2′-5′ phosphodiester bond with the cDNA. The first nucleotide reverse transcribed is TR 117. Adenines in TR are unfaithfully reverse transcribed by bRT-Avd (represented by ‘N’). The RNP promotes processive polymerization, which terminates at one of two stops in the DGR RNA.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Labeling

    8) Product Images from "A reverse transcriptase-mediated ribosomal RNA depletion (RTR2D) strategy for the cost-effective construction of RNA sequencing libraries"

    Article Title: A reverse transcriptase-mediated ribosomal RNA depletion (RTR2D) strategy for the cost-effective construction of RNA sequencing libraries

    Journal: Journal of Advanced Research

    doi: 10.1016/j.jare.2019.12.005

    The schematic representation of the workflow for the reverse transcriptase-mediated ribosomal RNA depletion (RTR2D) strategy. Total RNA (usually 0.5–1.0 µg) is incubated and hybridized with a panel of 30 (human mouse) rRNA-specific DNA oligo probes ( a ), followed by reverse transcription (RT) ( b ). After the removal of excess oligo probes with Exonuclease I ( c ), the resultant RT products are subjected to RNase H digestion to degrade the rRNA portions of the RNA:DNA hybrid ( d ), and then the DNA components are degraded by DNase I ( e ). The intact mRNAs and noncoding RNAs are subsequently purified by ethanol precipitation ( f ) and subjected to RNA-seq library construction ( g ). The locations and sequences of individual rRNA-specific probes are shown in Suppl. Fig. S2 and Suppl. Table S1.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The schematic representation of the workflow for the reverse transcriptase-mediated ribosomal RNA depletion (RTR2D) strategy. Total RNA (usually 0.5–1.0 µg) is incubated and hybridized with a panel of 30 (human mouse) rRNA-specific DNA oligo probes ( a ), followed by reverse transcription (RT) ( b ). After the removal of excess oligo probes with Exonuclease I ( c ), the resultant RT products are subjected to RNase H digestion to degrade the rRNA portions of the RNA:DNA hybrid ( d ), and then the DNA components are degraded by DNase I ( e ). The intact mRNAs and noncoding RNAs are subsequently purified by ethanol precipitation ( f ) and subjected to RNA-seq library construction ( g ). The locations and sequences of individual rRNA-specific probes are shown in Suppl. Fig. S2 and Suppl. Table S1.

    Techniques Used: Incubation, Purification, Ethanol Precipitation, RNA Sequencing Assay

    9) Product Images from "nextPARS: parallel probing of RNA structures in Illumina"

    Article Title: nextPARS: parallel probing of RNA structures in Illumina

    Journal: RNA

    doi: 10.1261/rna.063073.117

    Summary of the different steps performed in the nextPARS protocol. From the cells or tissue of interest ( A ), total RNA is extracted ( B ) and then poly(A) + RNA is selected ( C ) to initially prepare the samples for nextPARS analyses. Once the quality and quantity of poly(A) + RNA samples is confirmed, RNA samples are denatured and in vitro folded to perform the enzymatic probing of the molecules with the corresponding concentrations of RNase V1 and S1 nuclease ( D ). For the library preparation using the Illumina TruSeq Small RNA Sample Preparation Kit, an initial phosphatase treatment of the 3′ends and a kinase treatment of the 5′ ends are required ( E ) to then ligate the corresponding 5′ and 3′ adapters at the ends of the RNA fragments ( F ). Then a reverse transcription of the RNA fragments and a PCR amplification are performed to obtain the library ( G ). The library is size-selected to get rid of primers and adapters dimers using an acrylamide gel and a final quality control is performed ( H ). Libraries are sequenced in single-reads with read lengths of 50 nucleotides (nt) using Illumina sequencing platforms ( I ) and computational analyses are done as described in the Materials and Methods section in order to map Illumina reads and determine the enzymatic cleavage points, using the first nucleotide in the 5′ end of the reads (which correspond to the 5′end of original RNA fragments) ( J ).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Summary of the different steps performed in the nextPARS protocol. From the cells or tissue of interest ( A ), total RNA is extracted ( B ) and then poly(A) + RNA is selected ( C ) to initially prepare the samples for nextPARS analyses. Once the quality and quantity of poly(A) + RNA samples is confirmed, RNA samples are denatured and in vitro folded to perform the enzymatic probing of the molecules with the corresponding concentrations of RNase V1 and S1 nuclease ( D ). For the library preparation using the Illumina TruSeq Small RNA Sample Preparation Kit, an initial phosphatase treatment of the 3′ends and a kinase treatment of the 5′ ends are required ( E ) to then ligate the corresponding 5′ and 3′ adapters at the ends of the RNA fragments ( F ). Then a reverse transcription of the RNA fragments and a PCR amplification are performed to obtain the library ( G ). The library is size-selected to get rid of primers and adapters dimers using an acrylamide gel and a final quality control is performed ( H ). Libraries are sequenced in single-reads with read lengths of 50 nucleotides (nt) using Illumina sequencing platforms ( I ) and computational analyses are done as described in the Materials and Methods section in order to map Illumina reads and determine the enzymatic cleavage points, using the first nucleotide in the 5′ end of the reads (which correspond to the 5′end of original RNA fragments) ( J ).

    Techniques Used: In Vitro, Sample Prep, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Acrylamide Gel Assay, Sequencing

    Probing of RNA molecules with RNase A enzyme. Examples of the signals obtained in some RNA molecules when performing nextPARS using RNase A, an enzyme that cuts specifically in single-stranded cytosines (C) and uracils (U). Scores were calculated for each site by first capping all read counts for a given transcript at the 95th percentile and then normalizing to have a maximum of 1 (as done in the “Computation of nextPARS scores” of the Materials and Methods, but since Rnase A is the only enzyme in this case, there will be no subtraction performed, so all values will then fall in the range of 0 to 1). Cuts are considered for signals above a threshold of 0.8. ( A ]). In green, nucleotides with a cut signal above 0.8; green crosses (+) show cuts obtained in a C or U; pink asterisks (*) show cuts obtained in a G or A; and blue arrows (→) show cuts obtained in double-stranded positions. ( B ) Table summarizing the total number (N) and percentages (%) of cuts with a signal above 0.8 threshold obtained in five different RNA fragments with known secondary structure (TETp4p6, TETp9-9.1, SRA, B2, U1): first column, N and % of cuts with a signal above 0.8 in the molecules; second column, N and % of these cuts in C or U nucleotides; and third column, N and % of cuts in G or A nucleotides.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Probing of RNA molecules with RNase A enzyme. Examples of the signals obtained in some RNA molecules when performing nextPARS using RNase A, an enzyme that cuts specifically in single-stranded cytosines (C) and uracils (U). Scores were calculated for each site by first capping all read counts for a given transcript at the 95th percentile and then normalizing to have a maximum of 1 (as done in the “Computation of nextPARS scores” of the Materials and Methods, but since Rnase A is the only enzyme in this case, there will be no subtraction performed, so all values will then fall in the range of 0 to 1). Cuts are considered for signals above a threshold of 0.8. ( A ]). In green, nucleotides with a cut signal above 0.8; green crosses (+) show cuts obtained in a C or U; pink asterisks (*) show cuts obtained in a G or A; and blue arrows (→) show cuts obtained in double-stranded positions. ( B ) Table summarizing the total number (N) and percentages (%) of cuts with a signal above 0.8 threshold obtained in five different RNA fragments with known secondary structure (TETp4p6, TETp9-9.1, SRA, B2, U1): first column, N and % of cuts with a signal above 0.8 in the molecules; second column, N and % of these cuts in C or U nucleotides; and third column, N and % of cuts in G or A nucleotides.

    Techniques Used:

    10) Product Images from "Template-assisted synthesis of adenine-mutagenized cDNA by a retroelement protein complex"

    Article Title: Template-assisted synthesis of adenine-mutagenized cDNA by a retroelement protein complex

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gky620

    In vitro template-primed cDNA synthesis. ( A ) Bordetella bacteriophage DGR diversification of Mtd. mtd contains a variable region ( VR ), which encodes the receptor-binding site of the Mtd protein. Downstream of VR is the template region ( TR ). Adenines in TR (‘A’) are frequently replaced by another base in VR (‘N’). TR is transcribed to produce TR- RNA, which is then reverse transcribed to TR- cDNA. During this process, adenines in TR are mutagenized, as depicted by ‘X’ in TR -cDNA. Adenine-mutagenized TR- cDNA homes to and replaces VR , resulting in diversification of Mtd. bRT is the DGR reverse transcriptase, and avd the DGR accessory variability determinant. ( B ) Sequence elements of the 580 nt DGR RNA template used for reverse transcription reactions. ( C ) bRT-Avd, bRT, or Avd was incubated with the 580 nt DGR RNA and dNTPs, including [α- 32 P]dCTP, for 2h. Products resulting from the incubation were untreated (U), or treated with RNase (+R), DNase (+D), or both RNase and DNase (+R+D), and resolved by 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled 580 nt DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. The positions of the 580 nt band, and 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. Nuclease-treated samples were loaded at twice the amount as untreated samples, here and throughout unless otherwise indicated. Lane M here and throughout corresponds to radiolabeled, single-stranded DNA molecular mass markers (nt units). ( D ) DGR RNA templates containing internal truncations in TR . ( E ) Radiolabeled cDNA products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with intact (WT) or internally truncated 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Samples were treated with RNase and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs produced from intact template are indicated by red and yellow circles, respectively, as are positions of the correspondingly shorter cDNAs produced from truncated RNA templates. ( F ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Prior to reverse transcription, the RNA template was mock-treated (–Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products of the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 4% (top) or 8% (bottom) denaturing PAGE. In the top gel, the red arrowhead indicates the ∼580 nt species, and the green arrowheads the several ∼540 nt species. In the bottom gel, the black arrowheads indicate the 120 and 90 nt cDNA products. The black vertical line within the gel indicates irrelevant lanes that were removed for display purposes. A 2-fold higher quantity was loaded for +Per samples than –Per samples.
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vitro template-primed cDNA synthesis. ( A ) Bordetella bacteriophage DGR diversification of Mtd. mtd contains a variable region ( VR ), which encodes the receptor-binding site of the Mtd protein. Downstream of VR is the template region ( TR ). Adenines in TR (‘A’) are frequently replaced by another base in VR (‘N’). TR is transcribed to produce TR- RNA, which is then reverse transcribed to TR- cDNA. During this process, adenines in TR are mutagenized, as depicted by ‘X’ in TR -cDNA. Adenine-mutagenized TR- cDNA homes to and replaces VR , resulting in diversification of Mtd. bRT is the DGR reverse transcriptase, and avd the DGR accessory variability determinant. ( B ) Sequence elements of the 580 nt DGR RNA template used for reverse transcription reactions. ( C ) bRT-Avd, bRT, or Avd was incubated with the 580 nt DGR RNA and dNTPs, including [α- 32 P]dCTP, for 2h. Products resulting from the incubation were untreated (U), or treated with RNase (+R), DNase (+D), or both RNase and DNase (+R+D), and resolved by 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled 580 nt DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. The positions of the 580 nt band, and 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. Nuclease-treated samples were loaded at twice the amount as untreated samples, here and throughout unless otherwise indicated. Lane M here and throughout corresponds to radiolabeled, single-stranded DNA molecular mass markers (nt units). ( D ) DGR RNA templates containing internal truncations in TR . ( E ) Radiolabeled cDNA products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with intact (WT) or internally truncated 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Samples were treated with RNase and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs produced from intact template are indicated by red and yellow circles, respectively, as are positions of the correspondingly shorter cDNAs produced from truncated RNA templates. ( F ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Prior to reverse transcription, the RNA template was mock-treated (–Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products of the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 4% (top) or 8% (bottom) denaturing PAGE. In the top gel, the red arrowhead indicates the ∼580 nt species, and the green arrowheads the several ∼540 nt species. In the bottom gel, the black arrowheads indicate the 120 and 90 nt cDNA products. The black vertical line within the gel indicates irrelevant lanes that were removed for display purposes. A 2-fold higher quantity was loaded for +Per samples than –Per samples.

    Techniques Used: In Vitro, Binding Assay, Sequencing, Incubation, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Labeling, Marker, Activity Assay, Produced

    Branched RNA–cDNA. ( A ) The 580 nt DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3′ end and used as a template for reverse-transcription by bRT-Avd, after which biotinylated RNA was captured with streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR- cDNA was detected by PCR using the indicated primers. ( B ) The 580 nt DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3′ end (RNA-Bio), and either reacted with no protein or used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. The 580 nt DGR RNA in its unbiotinylated form (RNA) was also used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. Samples were then purified using streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR -cDNA in the purified samples was assessed by PCR. Products from the PCR reaction were resolved on an agarose gel. ( C ) Hybrid dA56 580 nt DGR RNA containing deoxyadenosine at Sp 56 (indicated with H at 2′ position) and hybrid d56 580 nt DGR RNA containing adenosine at Sp 56 (indicated with OH at 2′). Both molecules terminate at Sp 140 and have a dideoxynucleotide at the 3′ end (indicated with H at 3′). ( D ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 12 h with 580 nt DGR RNA, hybrid 580 nt dA56, or hybrid 580 nt A56 DGR RNA as template. Products were untreated (U) or RNase-treated (+R), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Separate samples of dA56 and A56 were 5′ 32 P-labeled for visualization of input templates (I). The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs are indicated.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Branched RNA–cDNA. ( A ) The 580 nt DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3′ end and used as a template for reverse-transcription by bRT-Avd, after which biotinylated RNA was captured with streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR- cDNA was detected by PCR using the indicated primers. ( B ) The 580 nt DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3′ end (RNA-Bio), and either reacted with no protein or used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. The 580 nt DGR RNA in its unbiotinylated form (RNA) was also used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. Samples were then purified using streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR -cDNA in the purified samples was assessed by PCR. Products from the PCR reaction were resolved on an agarose gel. ( C ) Hybrid dA56 580 nt DGR RNA containing deoxyadenosine at Sp 56 (indicated with H at 2′ position) and hybrid d56 580 nt DGR RNA containing adenosine at Sp 56 (indicated with OH at 2′). Both molecules terminate at Sp 140 and have a dideoxynucleotide at the 3′ end (indicated with H at 3′). ( D ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 12 h with 580 nt DGR RNA, hybrid 580 nt dA56, or hybrid 580 nt A56 DGR RNA as template. Products were untreated (U) or RNase-treated (+R), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Separate samples of dA56 and A56 were 5′ 32 P-labeled for visualization of input templates (I). The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs are indicated.

    Techniques Used: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Purification, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Activity Assay, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Labeling

    Core DGR RNA. ( A ) Schematic of core DGR RNA. ( B ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the core DGR RNA as template. Prior to the reverse transcription reaction, the RNA template was untreated (-Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products from the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 6% denaturing PAGE. Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled core DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. Red arrowheads indicate radiolabeled product bands that migrate at the same position or slower than the core DGR RNA, and green arrowheads ones that migrate faster. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. The two panels are from the same gel, with the black line indicating that intermediate lanes were removed. ( C ) Internally-labeled core DGR RNA was not incubated (–), or incubated with bRT-Avd alone or bRT-Avd with 100 μM standard dNTPs (+dNTP), 100 μM dCTP (+CTP), 100 μM dNTPs excluding dCTP (+d(A,T,G)TP), or 100 μM nonhydrolyzeable analog of dCTP (+N-dCTP) for 2 h. Incubation products were resolved by denaturing PAGE. The band corresponding to the 5′ fragment of the cleaved core RNA containing either a deoxycytidine alone (5′+dC) or cDNA (5′+cDNA), and the band corresponding to the 3′ fragment of the RNA are indicated. ( D ) The core DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3′ end (RNA-Bio), and either reacted with no protein or used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. The core DGR RNA in its unbiotinylated form (RNA) was also used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. Samples were then purified using streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR -cDNA in the purified samples was assessed by PCR. Products from the PCR reaction were resolved on an agarose gel. ( E ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 12 h with core, hybrid core dA56, or hybrid core A56 DGR RNA as template. Products were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Separate samples of core dA56 and A56 were 5′ 32 P-labeled for visualization of inputs (I). The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs are indicated.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Core DGR RNA. ( A ) Schematic of core DGR RNA. ( B ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the core DGR RNA as template. Prior to the reverse transcription reaction, the RNA template was untreated (-Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products from the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 6% denaturing PAGE. Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled core DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. Red arrowheads indicate radiolabeled product bands that migrate at the same position or slower than the core DGR RNA, and green arrowheads ones that migrate faster. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. The two panels are from the same gel, with the black line indicating that intermediate lanes were removed. ( C ) Internally-labeled core DGR RNA was not incubated (–), or incubated with bRT-Avd alone or bRT-Avd with 100 μM standard dNTPs (+dNTP), 100 μM dCTP (+CTP), 100 μM dNTPs excluding dCTP (+d(A,T,G)TP), or 100 μM nonhydrolyzeable analog of dCTP (+N-dCTP) for 2 h. Incubation products were resolved by denaturing PAGE. The band corresponding to the 5′ fragment of the cleaved core RNA containing either a deoxycytidine alone (5′+dC) or cDNA (5′+cDNA), and the band corresponding to the 3′ fragment of the RNA are indicated. ( D ) The core DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3′ end (RNA-Bio), and either reacted with no protein or used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. The core DGR RNA in its unbiotinylated form (RNA) was also used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. Samples were then purified using streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR -cDNA in the purified samples was assessed by PCR. Products from the PCR reaction were resolved on an agarose gel. ( E ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 12 h with core, hybrid core dA56, or hybrid core A56 DGR RNA as template. Products were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Separate samples of core dA56 and A56 were 5′ 32 P-labeled for visualization of inputs (I). The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs are indicated.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Labeling, Marker, Incubation, Purification, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

    TR -Sp interactions. ( A ) Complementarity between TR (blue) and Sp (purple) segments. Potential basepairs are numbered (wobble in red). ( B ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2h with the WT or mutated 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Numbers over lane labels correspond to the basepair tested by the mutation, with ‘R’ referring to restoration of the basepair. Sp Mut4 corresponds to Sp 55-CAGC substituted with 55-GUCG.
    Figure Legend Snippet: TR -Sp interactions. ( A ) Complementarity between TR (blue) and Sp (purple) segments. Potential basepairs are numbered (wobble in red). ( B ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2h with the WT or mutated 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Numbers over lane labels correspond to the basepair tested by the mutation, with ‘R’ referring to restoration of the basepair. Sp Mut4 corresponds to Sp 55-CAGC substituted with 55-GUCG.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Mutagenesis

    Adenine mutagenesis and template-priming. ( A ) Covalently-linked RNA–cDNA molecule. The linkage is to Sp A56 of the RNA, and the first nucleotide reverse transcribed is TR G117. The RT-PCR product resulting from primers 1 and 2 (blue arrows) is indicated by the dashed red line. ( B ) RT-PCR amplicons from 580 nt DGR RNA reacted with no protein (–), bRT, Avd, or bRT-Avd, separated on a 2% agarose gel and ethidium bromide-stained. The specific amplicon produced from reaction with bRT-Avd shown by the red arrowhead. ( C ) Percentage of substitutions in TR -cDNA determined by sequencing. ( D ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template for 2 h (left) or 12 h (right). Either standard dNTPs (dATP, dGTP, dCTP, TTP), as indicated by ‘+’,were present in the reaction, or standard dNTPs excluding dATP (-A), dGTP (–G), or TTP (-T) were present. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. ( E ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying TTP (top) or dUTP (bottom) concentrations. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. ( F ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying dUTP concentrations. Products were either RNase-treated (top), or both RNase- and UDG-treated (bottom), and resolved by denaturing PAGE.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Adenine mutagenesis and template-priming. ( A ) Covalently-linked RNA–cDNA molecule. The linkage is to Sp A56 of the RNA, and the first nucleotide reverse transcribed is TR G117. The RT-PCR product resulting from primers 1 and 2 (blue arrows) is indicated by the dashed red line. ( B ) RT-PCR amplicons from 580 nt DGR RNA reacted with no protein (–), bRT, Avd, or bRT-Avd, separated on a 2% agarose gel and ethidium bromide-stained. The specific amplicon produced from reaction with bRT-Avd shown by the red arrowhead. ( C ) Percentage of substitutions in TR -cDNA determined by sequencing. ( D ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template for 2 h (left) or 12 h (right). Either standard dNTPs (dATP, dGTP, dCTP, TTP), as indicated by ‘+’,were present in the reaction, or standard dNTPs excluding dATP (-A), dGTP (–G), or TTP (-T) were present. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. ( E ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying TTP (top) or dUTP (bottom) concentrations. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. ( F ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying dUTP concentrations. Products were either RNase-treated (top), or both RNase- and UDG-treated (bottom), and resolved by denaturing PAGE.

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Staining, Amplification, Produced, Sequencing, Activity Assay, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    Specificity to DGR RNA. ( A ) Top, schematic of DGR RNA template and primer P G117 . Bottom, radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with intact 580 nt DGR RNA or DGR RNA truncated at Sp A56 as template. Reverse transcription reactions were carried out in the absence (-P) or presence of primer P G117 . Reaction products were untreated (U), treated with RNase (+R), or treated with DNase (+D), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The blue line indicates ODN-primed cDNA products. The red dot indicates ODN-primed 120 nt cDNA (cDNA + 20 nt primer for a 140 nt band). ( B ) Protection of internally-labeled 580 nt DGR RNA from RNase by bRT, Avd, or bRT-Avd, with products resolved by 15% denaturing PAGE. The protected band (P) is indicated. ( C ) RNase protection by Avd, as in panel B, carried out on internally-labeled wild-type 580 nt DGR RNA or 580 nt DGR RNA with scrambled (Sc) Sp sequences, with the first lane in each pair untreated and the second RNase-treated. Products were resolved by denaturing PAGE. The protected band (P) is indicated. ( D ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the WT 580 nt DGR RNA or DGR RNA containing scrambled (Sc) Sp sequences as template. The last lane shows the activity of Avd alone for 2 h with the WT 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs indicated. ( E ) Model of processive polymerization of adenine-mutagenized cDNA by bRT-Avd/RNA ribonucleoprotein particle. The 2′-OH of Sp 56 serves as the priming site and forms a 2′-5′ phosphodiester bond with the cDNA. The first nucleotide reverse transcribed is TR 117. Adenines in TR are unfaithfully reverse transcribed by bRT-Avd (represented by ‘N’). The RNP promotes processive polymerization, which terminates at one of two stops in the DGR RNA.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Specificity to DGR RNA. ( A ) Top, schematic of DGR RNA template and primer P G117 . Bottom, radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with intact 580 nt DGR RNA or DGR RNA truncated at Sp A56 as template. Reverse transcription reactions were carried out in the absence (-P) or presence of primer P G117 . Reaction products were untreated (U), treated with RNase (+R), or treated with DNase (+D), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The blue line indicates ODN-primed cDNA products. The red dot indicates ODN-primed 120 nt cDNA (cDNA + 20 nt primer for a 140 nt band). ( B ) Protection of internally-labeled 580 nt DGR RNA from RNase by bRT, Avd, or bRT-Avd, with products resolved by 15% denaturing PAGE. The protected band (P) is indicated. ( C ) RNase protection by Avd, as in panel B, carried out on internally-labeled wild-type 580 nt DGR RNA or 580 nt DGR RNA with scrambled (Sc) Sp sequences, with the first lane in each pair untreated and the second RNase-treated. Products were resolved by denaturing PAGE. The protected band (P) is indicated. ( D ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the WT 580 nt DGR RNA or DGR RNA containing scrambled (Sc) Sp sequences as template. The last lane shows the activity of Avd alone for 2 h with the WT 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs indicated. ( E ) Model of processive polymerization of adenine-mutagenized cDNA by bRT-Avd/RNA ribonucleoprotein particle. The 2′-OH of Sp 56 serves as the priming site and forms a 2′-5′ phosphodiester bond with the cDNA. The first nucleotide reverse transcribed is TR 117. Adenines in TR are unfaithfully reverse transcribed by bRT-Avd (represented by ‘N’). The RNP promotes processive polymerization, which terminates at one of two stops in the DGR RNA.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Labeling

    11) Product Images from "Template-assisted synthesis of adenine-mutagenized cDNA by a retroelement protein complex"

    Article Title: Template-assisted synthesis of adenine-mutagenized cDNA by a retroelement protein complex

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gky620

    In vitro template-primed cDNA synthesis. ( A ) Bordetella bacteriophage DGR diversification of Mtd. mtd contains a variable region ( VR ), which encodes the receptor-binding site of the Mtd protein. Downstream of VR is the template region ( TR ). Adenines in TR (‘A’) are frequently replaced by another base in VR (‘N’). TR is transcribed to produce TR- RNA, which is then reverse transcribed to TR- cDNA. During this process, adenines in TR are mutagenized, as depicted by ‘X’ in TR -cDNA. Adenine-mutagenized TR- cDNA homes to and replaces VR , resulting in diversification of Mtd. bRT is the DGR reverse transcriptase, and avd the DGR accessory variability determinant. ( B ) Sequence elements of the 580 nt DGR RNA template used for reverse transcription reactions. ( C ) bRT-Avd, bRT, or Avd was incubated with the 580 nt DGR RNA and dNTPs, including [α- 32 P]dCTP, for 2h. Products resulting from the incubation were untreated (U), or treated with RNase (+R), DNase (+D), or both RNase and DNase (+R+D), and resolved by 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled 580 nt DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. The positions of the 580 nt band, and 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. Nuclease-treated samples were loaded at twice the amount as untreated samples, here and throughout unless otherwise indicated. Lane M here and throughout corresponds to radiolabeled, single-stranded DNA molecular mass markers (nt units). ( D ) DGR RNA templates containing internal truncations in TR . ( E ) Radiolabeled cDNA products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with intact (WT) or internally truncated 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Samples were treated with RNase and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs produced from intact template are indicated by red and yellow circles, respectively, as are positions of the correspondingly shorter cDNAs produced from truncated RNA templates. ( F ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Prior to reverse transcription, the RNA template was mock-treated (–Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products of the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 4% (top) or 8% (bottom) denaturing PAGE. In the top gel, the red arrowhead indicates the ∼580 nt species, and the green arrowheads the several ∼540 nt species. In the bottom gel, the black arrowheads indicate the 120 and 90 nt cDNA products. The black vertical line within the gel indicates irrelevant lanes that were removed for display purposes. A 2-fold higher quantity was loaded for +Per samples than –Per samples.
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vitro template-primed cDNA synthesis. ( A ) Bordetella bacteriophage DGR diversification of Mtd. mtd contains a variable region ( VR ), which encodes the receptor-binding site of the Mtd protein. Downstream of VR is the template region ( TR ). Adenines in TR (‘A’) are frequently replaced by another base in VR (‘N’). TR is transcribed to produce TR- RNA, which is then reverse transcribed to TR- cDNA. During this process, adenines in TR are mutagenized, as depicted by ‘X’ in TR -cDNA. Adenine-mutagenized TR- cDNA homes to and replaces VR , resulting in diversification of Mtd. bRT is the DGR reverse transcriptase, and avd the DGR accessory variability determinant. ( B ) Sequence elements of the 580 nt DGR RNA template used for reverse transcription reactions. ( C ) bRT-Avd, bRT, or Avd was incubated with the 580 nt DGR RNA and dNTPs, including [α- 32 P]dCTP, for 2h. Products resulting from the incubation were untreated (U), or treated with RNase (+R), DNase (+D), or both RNase and DNase (+R+D), and resolved by 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled 580 nt DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. The positions of the 580 nt band, and 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. Nuclease-treated samples were loaded at twice the amount as untreated samples, here and throughout unless otherwise indicated. Lane M here and throughout corresponds to radiolabeled, single-stranded DNA molecular mass markers (nt units). ( D ) DGR RNA templates containing internal truncations in TR . ( E ) Radiolabeled cDNA products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with intact (WT) or internally truncated 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Samples were treated with RNase and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs produced from intact template are indicated by red and yellow circles, respectively, as are positions of the correspondingly shorter cDNAs produced from truncated RNA templates. ( F ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Prior to reverse transcription, the RNA template was mock-treated (–Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products of the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 4% (top) or 8% (bottom) denaturing PAGE. In the top gel, the red arrowhead indicates the ∼580 nt species, and the green arrowheads the several ∼540 nt species. In the bottom gel, the black arrowheads indicate the 120 and 90 nt cDNA products. The black vertical line within the gel indicates irrelevant lanes that were removed for display purposes. A 2-fold higher quantity was loaded for +Per samples than –Per samples.

    Techniques Used: In Vitro, Binding Assay, Sequencing, Incubation, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Labeling, Marker, Activity Assay, Produced

    Core DGR RNA. ( A ) Schematic of core DGR RNA. ( B ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the core DGR RNA as template. Prior to the reverse transcription reaction, the RNA template was untreated (-Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products from the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 6% denaturing PAGE. Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled core DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. Red arrowheads indicate radiolabeled product bands that migrate at the same position or slower than the core DGR RNA, and green arrowheads ones that migrate faster. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. The two panels are from the same gel, with the black line indicating that intermediate lanes were removed. ( C ) Internally-labeled core DGR RNA was not incubated (–), or incubated with bRT-Avd alone or bRT-Avd with 100 μM standard dNTPs (+dNTP), 100 μM dCTP (+CTP), 100 μM dNTPs excluding dCTP (+d(A,T,G)TP), or 100 μM nonhydrolyzeable analog of dCTP (+N-dCTP) for 2 h. Incubation products were resolved by denaturing PAGE. The band corresponding to the 5′ fragment of the cleaved core RNA containing either a deoxycytidine alone (5′+dC) or cDNA (5′+cDNA), and the band corresponding to the 3′ fragment of the RNA are indicated. ( D ) The core DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3′ end (RNA-Bio), and either reacted with no protein or used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. The core DGR RNA in its unbiotinylated form (RNA) was also used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. Samples were then purified using streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR -cDNA in the purified samples was assessed by PCR. Products from the PCR reaction were resolved on an agarose gel. ( E ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 12 h with core, hybrid core dA56, or hybrid core A56 DGR RNA as template. Products were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Separate samples of core dA56 and A56 were 5′ 32 P-labeled for visualization of inputs (I). The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs are indicated.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Core DGR RNA. ( A ) Schematic of core DGR RNA. ( B ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the core DGR RNA as template. Prior to the reverse transcription reaction, the RNA template was untreated (-Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products from the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 6% denaturing PAGE. Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled core DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. Red arrowheads indicate radiolabeled product bands that migrate at the same position or slower than the core DGR RNA, and green arrowheads ones that migrate faster. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. The two panels are from the same gel, with the black line indicating that intermediate lanes were removed. ( C ) Internally-labeled core DGR RNA was not incubated (–), or incubated with bRT-Avd alone or bRT-Avd with 100 μM standard dNTPs (+dNTP), 100 μM dCTP (+CTP), 100 μM dNTPs excluding dCTP (+d(A,T,G)TP), or 100 μM nonhydrolyzeable analog of dCTP (+N-dCTP) for 2 h. Incubation products were resolved by denaturing PAGE. The band corresponding to the 5′ fragment of the cleaved core RNA containing either a deoxycytidine alone (5′+dC) or cDNA (5′+cDNA), and the band corresponding to the 3′ fragment of the RNA are indicated. ( D ) The core DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3′ end (RNA-Bio), and either reacted with no protein or used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. The core DGR RNA in its unbiotinylated form (RNA) was also used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. Samples were then purified using streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR -cDNA in the purified samples was assessed by PCR. Products from the PCR reaction were resolved on an agarose gel. ( E ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 12 h with core, hybrid core dA56, or hybrid core A56 DGR RNA as template. Products were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Separate samples of core dA56 and A56 were 5′ 32 P-labeled for visualization of inputs (I). The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs are indicated.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Labeling, Marker, Incubation, Purification, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

    Adenine mutagenesis and template-priming. ( A ) Covalently-linked RNA–cDNA molecule. The linkage is to Sp A56 of the RNA, and the first nucleotide reverse transcribed is TR G117. The RT-PCR product resulting from primers 1 and 2 (blue arrows) is indicated by the dashed red line. ( B ) RT-PCR amplicons from 580 nt DGR RNA reacted with no protein (–), bRT, Avd, or bRT-Avd, separated on a 2% agarose gel and ethidium bromide-stained. The specific amplicon produced from reaction with bRT-Avd shown by the red arrowhead. ( C ) Percentage of substitutions in TR -cDNA determined by sequencing. ( D ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template for 2 h (left) or 12 h (right). Either standard dNTPs (dATP, dGTP, dCTP, TTP), as indicated by ‘+’,were present in the reaction, or standard dNTPs excluding dATP (-A), dGTP (–G), or TTP (-T) were present. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. ( E ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying TTP (top) or dUTP (bottom) concentrations. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. ( F ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying dUTP concentrations. Products were either RNase-treated (top), or both RNase- and UDG-treated (bottom), and resolved by denaturing PAGE.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Adenine mutagenesis and template-priming. ( A ) Covalently-linked RNA–cDNA molecule. The linkage is to Sp A56 of the RNA, and the first nucleotide reverse transcribed is TR G117. The RT-PCR product resulting from primers 1 and 2 (blue arrows) is indicated by the dashed red line. ( B ) RT-PCR amplicons from 580 nt DGR RNA reacted with no protein (–), bRT, Avd, or bRT-Avd, separated on a 2% agarose gel and ethidium bromide-stained. The specific amplicon produced from reaction with bRT-Avd shown by the red arrowhead. ( C ) Percentage of substitutions in TR -cDNA determined by sequencing. ( D ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template for 2 h (left) or 12 h (right). Either standard dNTPs (dATP, dGTP, dCTP, TTP), as indicated by ‘+’,were present in the reaction, or standard dNTPs excluding dATP (-A), dGTP (–G), or TTP (-T) were present. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. ( E ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying TTP (top) or dUTP (bottom) concentrations. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. ( F ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying dUTP concentrations. Products were either RNase-treated (top), or both RNase- and UDG-treated (bottom), and resolved by denaturing PAGE.

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Staining, Amplification, Produced, Sequencing, Activity Assay, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    12) Product Images from "Novel One-step Mechanism for tRNA 3?-End Maturation by the Exoribonuclease RNase R of Mycoplasma genitalium *"

    Article Title: Novel One-step Mechanism for tRNA 3?-End Maturation by the Exoribonuclease RNase R of Mycoplasma genitalium *

    Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.324970

    RNase R processes pre-tRNA 1 Gly but not mature tRNA independent of the 5′-phosphorylation status. The RNA substrates were uniformly labeled with 32 P and treated with RNase R for the time periods indicated. RNA products were separated and detected
    Figure Legend Snippet: RNase R processes pre-tRNA 1 Gly but not mature tRNA independent of the 5′-phosphorylation status. The RNA substrates were uniformly labeled with 32 P and treated with RNase R for the time periods indicated. RNA products were separated and detected

    Techniques Used: Labeling

    13) Product Images from "A long non-coding RNA is required for targeting centromeric protein A to the human centromere"

    Article Title: A long non-coding RNA is required for targeting centromeric protein A to the human centromere

    Journal: eLife

    doi: 10.7554/eLife.03254

    Centromeric transcripts are 1.3 kb in length. ( A ) To determine the size of the centromeric α-satellite transcripts, the graph of the distance (in y) between the border of the Northern blot and each band of the molecular weight as a function of the number of bases was made. The distance of the centromeric α-satellite transcript band was analyzed using the standard curve from this graph to deduce its size. ( B ) Total RNAs treated with RNase A were separated on a denaturing gel, and revealed by Northern blot with radiolabeled centromeric α-satellite probes. ( C ) eG1-synchronized cells were treated, or not, with α-amanitin (2 hr). RNAs were processed and analyzed on Northern blot as in ( B ) to examine whether trace DNA contamination could yield the same band as in ( A ). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03254.010
    Figure Legend Snippet: Centromeric transcripts are 1.3 kb in length. ( A ) To determine the size of the centromeric α-satellite transcripts, the graph of the distance (in y) between the border of the Northern blot and each band of the molecular weight as a function of the number of bases was made. The distance of the centromeric α-satellite transcript band was analyzed using the standard curve from this graph to deduce its size. ( B ) Total RNAs treated with RNase A were separated on a denaturing gel, and revealed by Northern blot with radiolabeled centromeric α-satellite probes. ( C ) eG1-synchronized cells were treated, or not, with α-amanitin (2 hr). RNAs were processed and analyzed on Northern blot as in ( B ) to examine whether trace DNA contamination could yield the same band as in ( A ). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03254.010

    Techniques Used: Northern Blot, Molecular Weight

    14) Product Images from "Synthesis of low immunogenicity RNA with high-temperature in vitro transcription"

    Article Title: Synthesis of low immunogenicity RNA with high-temperature in vitro transcription

    Journal: RNA

    doi: 10.1261/rna.073858.119

    High-temperature IVT does not affect antisense dsRNA by-product formation. ( A ) Native gel electrophoresis analysis of IVT reactions on 512B DNA template using wild-type T7 (37°C) with/without RNase III treatment. ( B ) dsRNA immunoblot with J2 antibody on IVT reactions (crude and purified) with 512B template. ( C ) Native gel electrophoresis analyses and dsRNA immunoblot analysis of 512B IVT reactions conducted with TsT7-1 at 37°C versus 50°C.
    Figure Legend Snippet: High-temperature IVT does not affect antisense dsRNA by-product formation. ( A ) Native gel electrophoresis analysis of IVT reactions on 512B DNA template using wild-type T7 (37°C) with/without RNase III treatment. ( B ) dsRNA immunoblot with J2 antibody on IVT reactions (crude and purified) with 512B template. ( C ) Native gel electrophoresis analyses and dsRNA immunoblot analysis of 512B IVT reactions conducted with TsT7-1 at 37°C versus 50°C.

    Techniques Used: Nucleic Acid Electrophoresis, Purification

    15) Product Images from "Template-assisted synthesis of adenine-mutagenized cDNA by a retroelement protein complex"

    Article Title: Template-assisted synthesis of adenine-mutagenized cDNA by a retroelement protein complex

    Journal: bioRxiv

    doi: 10.1101/344556

    Adenine Mutagenesis and Template-Priming. (A) Covalently-linked RNA-cDNA molecule. The linkage is to Sp A56 of the RNA, and the first nucleotide reverse transcribed is TR G117. The RT-PCR product resulting from primers 1 and 2 (blue arrows) is indicated by the dashed red line. (B) RT-PCR amplicons from 580 nt DGR RNA reacted with no protein (-), bRT, Avd, or bRT-Avd, separated on a 2% agarose gel and ethidium bromide-stained. The specific amplicon produced from reaction with bRT-Avd shown by the red arrowhead. (C) Percentage of substitutions in TR -cDNA determined by sequencing. (D) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template for 2 h (left) or 12 h (right). Either standard dNTPs (dATP, dGTP, dCTP, TTP), as indicated by “+”,were present in the reaction, or standard dNTPs excluding dATP (-A), dGTP (-G), or TTP (-T) were present. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. (E) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying TTP (top) or dUTP (bottom) concentrations. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. (F) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying dUTP concentrations. Products were either RNase-treated (top), or both RNase-and UDG-treated (bottom), and resolved by denaturing PAGE
    Figure Legend Snippet: Adenine Mutagenesis and Template-Priming. (A) Covalently-linked RNA-cDNA molecule. The linkage is to Sp A56 of the RNA, and the first nucleotide reverse transcribed is TR G117. The RT-PCR product resulting from primers 1 and 2 (blue arrows) is indicated by the dashed red line. (B) RT-PCR amplicons from 580 nt DGR RNA reacted with no protein (-), bRT, Avd, or bRT-Avd, separated on a 2% agarose gel and ethidium bromide-stained. The specific amplicon produced from reaction with bRT-Avd shown by the red arrowhead. (C) Percentage of substitutions in TR -cDNA determined by sequencing. (D) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template for 2 h (left) or 12 h (right). Either standard dNTPs (dATP, dGTP, dCTP, TTP), as indicated by “+”,were present in the reaction, or standard dNTPs excluding dATP (-A), dGTP (-G), or TTP (-T) were present. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. (E) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying TTP (top) or dUTP (bottom) concentrations. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. (F) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying dUTP concentrations. Products were either RNase-treated (top), or both RNase-and UDG-treated (bottom), and resolved by denaturing PAGE

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Staining, Amplification, Produced, Sequencing, Activity Assay, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    Core DGR RNA. (A) Schematic of core DGR RNA. (B) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the core DGR RNA as template. Prior to the reverse transcription reaction, the RNA template was untreated (-Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products from the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 6% denaturing PAGE. Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled core DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. Red arrowheads indicate radiolabeled product bands that migrate at the same position or slower than the core DGR RNA, and green arrowheads ones that migrate faster. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. The two panels are from the same gel, with the black line indicating that intermediate lanes were removed. (C) Internally-labeled core DGR RNA was not incubated (−), or incubated with bRT-Avd alone or bRT-Avd with 100 μM standard dNTPs (+dNTP), 100 μM dCTP (+CTP), 100 μM dNTPs excluding dCTP (+d(A,T,G)TP), or 100 μM nonhydrolyzeable analog of dCTP (+N-dCTP) for 2 h. Incubation products were resolved by denaturing PAGE. The band corresponding to the 5’ fragment of the cleaved core RNA containing either a deoxycytidine alone (5’+dC) or cDNA (5’+cDNA), and the band corresponding to the 3’ fragment of the RNA are indicated. (D) The core DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3’ end (RNA-Bio), and either reacted with no protein or used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. The core DGR RNA in its unbiotinylated form (RNA) was also used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. Samples were then purified using streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR -cDNA in the purified samples was assessed by PCR. Products from the PCR reaction were resolved on an agarose gel. (E) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 12 h with core, hybrid core dA56, or hybrid core A56 DGR RNA as template. Products were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Separate samples of core dA56 and A56 were 5’ 32 P-labeled for visualization of inputs (I). The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs are indicated
    Figure Legend Snippet: Core DGR RNA. (A) Schematic of core DGR RNA. (B) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the core DGR RNA as template. Prior to the reverse transcription reaction, the RNA template was untreated (-Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products from the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 6% denaturing PAGE. Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled core DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. Red arrowheads indicate radiolabeled product bands that migrate at the same position or slower than the core DGR RNA, and green arrowheads ones that migrate faster. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. The two panels are from the same gel, with the black line indicating that intermediate lanes were removed. (C) Internally-labeled core DGR RNA was not incubated (−), or incubated with bRT-Avd alone or bRT-Avd with 100 μM standard dNTPs (+dNTP), 100 μM dCTP (+CTP), 100 μM dNTPs excluding dCTP (+d(A,T,G)TP), or 100 μM nonhydrolyzeable analog of dCTP (+N-dCTP) for 2 h. Incubation products were resolved by denaturing PAGE. The band corresponding to the 5’ fragment of the cleaved core RNA containing either a deoxycytidine alone (5’+dC) or cDNA (5’+cDNA), and the band corresponding to the 3’ fragment of the RNA are indicated. (D) The core DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3’ end (RNA-Bio), and either reacted with no protein or used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. The core DGR RNA in its unbiotinylated form (RNA) was also used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. Samples were then purified using streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR -cDNA in the purified samples was assessed by PCR. Products from the PCR reaction were resolved on an agarose gel. (E) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 12 h with core, hybrid core dA56, or hybrid core A56 DGR RNA as template. Products were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Separate samples of core dA56 and A56 were 5’ 32 P-labeled for visualization of inputs (I). The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs are indicated

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Labeling, Marker, Incubation, Purification, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

    In vitro template-primed cDNA synthesis. (A) Bordetella bacteriophage DGR diversification of Mtd. mtd contains a variable region ( VR ), which encodes the receptor-binding site of the Mtd protein. Downstream of VR is the template region ( TR ). Adenines in TR (“A”) are frequently replaced by another base in VR (“N”). TR is transcribed to produce TR -RNA, which is then reverse transcribed to TR -cDNA. During this process, adenines in TR are mutagenized, as depicted by “X” in TR -cDNA. Adenine-mutagenized TR -cDNA homes to and replaces VR , resulting in diversification of Mtd. bRT is the DGR reverse transcriptase, and avd the DGR accessory variability determinant. (B) Sequence elements of the 580 nt DGR RNA template used for reverse transcription reactions. (C) bRT-Avd, bRT, or Avd was incubated with the 580 nt DGR RNA and dNTPs, including [α- 32 P]dCTP, for 2h. Products resulting from the incubation were untreated (U), or treated with RNase (+R), DNase (+D), or both RNase and DNase (+R+D), and resolved by 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled 580 nt DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. The positions of the 580 nt band, and 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. Nuclease-treated samples were loaded at twice the amount as untreated samples, here and throughout unless otherwise indicated. Lane M here and throughout corresponds to radiolabeled, single-stranded DNA molecular mass markers (nt units). (D) DGR RNA templates containing internal truncations in TR . (E) Radiolabeled cDNA products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with intact (WT) or internally truncated 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Samples were treated with RNase and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs produced from intact template are indicated by red and yellow circles, respectively, as are positions of the correspondingly shorter cDNAs produced from truncated RNA templates. (F) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Prior to reverse transcription, the RNA template was mock-treated (−Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products of the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 4% (top) or 8% (bottom) denaturing PAGE. In the top gel, the red arrowhead indicates the ~580 nt species, and the green arrowheads the several ~540 nt species. In the bottom gel, the black arrowheads indicate the 120 and 90 nt cDNA products. The black vertical line within the gel indicates irrelevant lanes that were removed for display purposes. A two-fold higher quantity was loaded for +Per samples than −Per samples.
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vitro template-primed cDNA synthesis. (A) Bordetella bacteriophage DGR diversification of Mtd. mtd contains a variable region ( VR ), which encodes the receptor-binding site of the Mtd protein. Downstream of VR is the template region ( TR ). Adenines in TR (“A”) are frequently replaced by another base in VR (“N”). TR is transcribed to produce TR -RNA, which is then reverse transcribed to TR -cDNA. During this process, adenines in TR are mutagenized, as depicted by “X” in TR -cDNA. Adenine-mutagenized TR -cDNA homes to and replaces VR , resulting in diversification of Mtd. bRT is the DGR reverse transcriptase, and avd the DGR accessory variability determinant. (B) Sequence elements of the 580 nt DGR RNA template used for reverse transcription reactions. (C) bRT-Avd, bRT, or Avd was incubated with the 580 nt DGR RNA and dNTPs, including [α- 32 P]dCTP, for 2h. Products resulting from the incubation were untreated (U), or treated with RNase (+R), DNase (+D), or both RNase and DNase (+R+D), and resolved by 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled 580 nt DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. The positions of the 580 nt band, and 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. Nuclease-treated samples were loaded at twice the amount as untreated samples, here and throughout unless otherwise indicated. Lane M here and throughout corresponds to radiolabeled, single-stranded DNA molecular mass markers (nt units). (D) DGR RNA templates containing internal truncations in TR . (E) Radiolabeled cDNA products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with intact (WT) or internally truncated 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Samples were treated with RNase and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs produced from intact template are indicated by red and yellow circles, respectively, as are positions of the correspondingly shorter cDNAs produced from truncated RNA templates. (F) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Prior to reverse transcription, the RNA template was mock-treated (−Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products of the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 4% (top) or 8% (bottom) denaturing PAGE. In the top gel, the red arrowhead indicates the ~580 nt species, and the green arrowheads the several ~540 nt species. In the bottom gel, the black arrowheads indicate the 120 and 90 nt cDNA products. The black vertical line within the gel indicates irrelevant lanes that were removed for display purposes. A two-fold higher quantity was loaded for +Per samples than −Per samples.

    Techniques Used: In Vitro, Binding Assay, Sequencing, Incubation, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Labeling, Marker, Activity Assay, Produced

    Related Articles

    Isolation:

    Article Title: RNase If -treated quantitative PCR for dsRNA quantitation of RNAi trait in genetically modified crops
    Article Snippet: .. RNase If t reatment The isolated RNA was digested with RNase If (New England Biolabs, Ipswich, MA, USA) per the manufacturer’s protocol at 37 °C for 10 min followed by heat inactivation at 70 °C for 20 min. .. The digested samples were purified using the RNA Clean-up and concentration kit (Norgen) following the manufacturer’s protocol.

    Labeling:

    Article Title: Direct labeling of RNA with multiple biotins allows sensitive expression profiling of acute leukemia class predictor genes
    Article Snippet: .. Surprisingly, fragmentation with RNase III dramatically increased the labeling efficiency of cRNA to > 90% (Figure ). .. We also fragmented cRNA labeled internally during IVT and tested for the level of biotin incorporation using a gel shift assay (Figure ).

    Purification:

    Article Title: RNA targeting with CRISPR-Cas13a
    Article Snippet: .. Briefly, reactions consisted of 45 nM purified LwaCas13a, 22.5 nM crRNA, 125 nM quenched fluorescent RNA reporter (RNAse Alert v2, Thermo Scientific), 2 μL murine RNase inhibitor (New England Biolabs), 100 ng of background total human RNA (purified from HEK293FT culture), and varying amounts of input nucleic acid target, unless otherwise indicated, in nuclease assay buffer (40 mM Tris-HCl, 60 mM NaCl, 6 mM MgCl2, pH 7.3). .. Reactions were allowed to proceed for 1-3 hr at 37°C (unless otherwise indicated) on a fluorescent plate reader (BioTek) with fluorescent kinetics measured every 5 min.

    Produced:

    Article Title: Direct labeling of RNA with multiple biotins allows sensitive expression profiling of acute leukemia class predictor genes
    Article Snippet: .. Both enzymes fragmented cRNA, however RNase III produced a fragment size range more similar to the standard method of magnesium hydrolysis (Figure ). cRNA, total RNA and poly(A) RNA were all fragmented by RNase III and the average fragment size ranged from ∼20 to 200 nt. .. A benefit of RNase fragmentation is that dephosphorylation can be performed simultaneously using SAP.

    Incubation:

    Article Title: An origin of the immunogenicity of in vitro transcribed RNA
    Article Snippet: .. 100 ng/μl of RNA was incubated with indicated concentrations of RNase III (NEB) or RNase If (NEB) in 10 mM Tris, pH 8.5 and 2 mM MgCl2 at 37°C for 30 min. .. The reaction was terminated using 1/10 volume of proteinase K (NEB) and incubated at 25°C for 20 min. RNA was purified with Direct-zol RNA MiniPrep Kit (Zymo research) followed by QIAquick PCR purification kit (Qiagen).

    other:

    Article Title: Recognition and discrimination of target mRNAs by Sib RNAs, a cis-encoded sRNA family
    Article Snippet: These results suggest that the SibC–ibsC mRNA complex with unpaired regions is a poorer substrate for RNase III than the complete duplex.

    Article Title: Cellular 5′-3′ mRNA Exonuclease Xrn1 Controls Double-stranded RNA Accumulation and Anti-Viral Responses
    Article Snippet: Beads were then washed with IP buffer 4 times then treated with either 20u/ml RNase III or 20 μl/ml RNaseA/T1 (25u/ml /1000u/ml respectively) for 15 min at 37°C.

    Nuclease Assay:

    Article Title: RNA targeting with CRISPR-Cas13a
    Article Snippet: .. Briefly, reactions consisted of 45 nM purified LwaCas13a, 22.5 nM crRNA, 125 nM quenched fluorescent RNA reporter (RNAse Alert v2, Thermo Scientific), 2 μL murine RNase inhibitor (New England Biolabs), 100 ng of background total human RNA (purified from HEK293FT culture), and varying amounts of input nucleic acid target, unless otherwise indicated, in nuclease assay buffer (40 mM Tris-HCl, 60 mM NaCl, 6 mM MgCl2, pH 7.3). .. Reactions were allowed to proceed for 1-3 hr at 37°C (unless otherwise indicated) on a fluorescent plate reader (BioTek) with fluorescent kinetics measured every 5 min.

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    New England Biolabs murine rnase inhibitor
    Biochemical characterization of LwaCas13a <t>RNA</t> cleavage activity a, LwaCas13a has more active <t>RNAse</t> activity than LshCas13a. b, Gel electrophoresis of ssRNA1 after incubation with LwaCas13a and with and without crRNA 1 for varying amounts of times. c, Gel electrophoresis of ssRNA1 after incubation with varying amounts of LwaCas13a-crRNA complex. d, Sequence and structure of ssRNA 4 and ssRNA 5. crRNA spacer sequence is highlighted in blue. e, Gel electrophoresis of ssRNA 4 and ssRNA 5 after incubation with LwaCas13a and crRNA 1. f, Sequence and structure of ssRNA 4 with sites of poly-x modifications highlighted in red. crRNA spacer sequence is highlighted in blue. g, Gel electrophoresis of ssRNA 4 with each of 4 possible poly-x modifications incubated with LwaCas13a and crRNA 1. h, LwaCas13a can process pre-crRNA from the L. wadei CRISPR-Cas locus. i, Cleavage efficiency of ssRNA 1 for crRNA spacer truncations after incubation with LwaCas13a.
    Murine Rnase Inhibitor, supplied by New England Biolabs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 52 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Effect of VIC oligo-4 on the interaction of eIF4A in the 48S complex with the base of the DLP structure. ( A ) 43S model showing the binding site of VIC oligo-4 to the ES6S C-D helix. VIC oligo-4 binding to purified rabbit 40S subunit was analyzed by <t>RNAse</t> H cleavage as described previously ( 21 ). The resulting 18S rRNA fragments were analyzed by electrophoresis in a 0.8% agarose gel. ( B ) Effect of VIC oligo-4 addition (10 μM) on translation programmed with SV DLP capsid and SV ΔDLP capsid mRNAs in RRL. Note that elimination of the DLP structure impaired AUG recognition, giving rise to aberrant products (gray arrowheads) that resulted from spurious initiation at downstream AUGs, as reported previously ( 24 ). ( C ) Crosslinking assays using SV DLPU1 mRNA in the presence of 10 μM of VIC oligo-4. Ribosomal fractions (P100) and post-ribosomal fractions (S100) were analyzed. The change in intensity of the eIF4A band was measured from three independent experiments; data are represented as the mean ± SEM. ( D ) Effect of VIC oligo-4 on 48S formation and eIF4A crosslinking. The experiment was performed as in Figure 1C ; as VIC oligo-4 reduced 48S formation, the volume of fraction 11 was adjusted to analyze an equivalent cpm. Arrows shows the direction of sedimentation.
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    Biochemical characterization of LwaCas13a RNA cleavage activity a, LwaCas13a has more active RNAse activity than LshCas13a. b, Gel electrophoresis of ssRNA1 after incubation with LwaCas13a and with and without crRNA 1 for varying amounts of times. c, Gel electrophoresis of ssRNA1 after incubation with varying amounts of LwaCas13a-crRNA complex. d, Sequence and structure of ssRNA 4 and ssRNA 5. crRNA spacer sequence is highlighted in blue. e, Gel electrophoresis of ssRNA 4 and ssRNA 5 after incubation with LwaCas13a and crRNA 1. f, Sequence and structure of ssRNA 4 with sites of poly-x modifications highlighted in red. crRNA spacer sequence is highlighted in blue. g, Gel electrophoresis of ssRNA 4 with each of 4 possible poly-x modifications incubated with LwaCas13a and crRNA 1. h, LwaCas13a can process pre-crRNA from the L. wadei CRISPR-Cas locus. i, Cleavage efficiency of ssRNA 1 for crRNA spacer truncations after incubation with LwaCas13a.

    Journal: Nature

    Article Title: RNA targeting with CRISPR-Cas13a

    doi: 10.1038/nature24049

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Biochemical characterization of LwaCas13a RNA cleavage activity a, LwaCas13a has more active RNAse activity than LshCas13a. b, Gel electrophoresis of ssRNA1 after incubation with LwaCas13a and with and without crRNA 1 for varying amounts of times. c, Gel electrophoresis of ssRNA1 after incubation with varying amounts of LwaCas13a-crRNA complex. d, Sequence and structure of ssRNA 4 and ssRNA 5. crRNA spacer sequence is highlighted in blue. e, Gel electrophoresis of ssRNA 4 and ssRNA 5 after incubation with LwaCas13a and crRNA 1. f, Sequence and structure of ssRNA 4 with sites of poly-x modifications highlighted in red. crRNA spacer sequence is highlighted in blue. g, Gel electrophoresis of ssRNA 4 with each of 4 possible poly-x modifications incubated with LwaCas13a and crRNA 1. h, LwaCas13a can process pre-crRNA from the L. wadei CRISPR-Cas locus. i, Cleavage efficiency of ssRNA 1 for crRNA spacer truncations after incubation with LwaCas13a.

    Article Snippet: Briefly, reactions consisted of 45 nM purified LwaCas13a, 22.5 nM crRNA, 125 nM quenched fluorescent RNA reporter (RNAse Alert v2, Thermo Scientific), 2 μL murine RNase inhibitor (New England Biolabs), 100 ng of background total human RNA (purified from HEK293FT culture), and varying amounts of input nucleic acid target, unless otherwise indicated, in nuclease assay buffer (40 mM Tris-HCl, 60 mM NaCl, 6 mM MgCl2, pH 7.3).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Nucleic Acid Electrophoresis, Incubation, Sequencing, CRISPR

    In vitro template-primed cDNA synthesis. ( A ) Bordetella bacteriophage DGR diversification of Mtd. mtd contains a variable region ( VR ), which encodes the receptor-binding site of the Mtd protein. Downstream of VR is the template region ( TR ). Adenines in TR (‘A’) are frequently replaced by another base in VR (‘N’). TR is transcribed to produce TR- RNA, which is then reverse transcribed to TR- cDNA. During this process, adenines in TR are mutagenized, as depicted by ‘X’ in TR -cDNA. Adenine-mutagenized TR- cDNA homes to and replaces VR , resulting in diversification of Mtd. bRT is the DGR reverse transcriptase, and avd the DGR accessory variability determinant. ( B ) Sequence elements of the 580 nt DGR RNA template used for reverse transcription reactions. ( C ) bRT-Avd, bRT, or Avd was incubated with the 580 nt DGR RNA and dNTPs, including [α- 32 P]dCTP, for 2h. Products resulting from the incubation were untreated (U), or treated with RNase (+R), DNase (+D), or both RNase and DNase (+R+D), and resolved by 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled 580 nt DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. The positions of the 580 nt band, and 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. Nuclease-treated samples were loaded at twice the amount as untreated samples, here and throughout unless otherwise indicated. Lane M here and throughout corresponds to radiolabeled, single-stranded DNA molecular mass markers (nt units). ( D ) DGR RNA templates containing internal truncations in TR . ( E ) Radiolabeled cDNA products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with intact (WT) or internally truncated 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Samples were treated with RNase and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs produced from intact template are indicated by red and yellow circles, respectively, as are positions of the correspondingly shorter cDNAs produced from truncated RNA templates. ( F ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Prior to reverse transcription, the RNA template was mock-treated (–Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products of the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 4% (top) or 8% (bottom) denaturing PAGE. In the top gel, the red arrowhead indicates the ∼580 nt species, and the green arrowheads the several ∼540 nt species. In the bottom gel, the black arrowheads indicate the 120 and 90 nt cDNA products. The black vertical line within the gel indicates irrelevant lanes that were removed for display purposes. A 2-fold higher quantity was loaded for +Per samples than –Per samples.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Template-assisted synthesis of adenine-mutagenized cDNA by a retroelement protein complex

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gky620

    Figure Lengend Snippet: In vitro template-primed cDNA synthesis. ( A ) Bordetella bacteriophage DGR diversification of Mtd. mtd contains a variable region ( VR ), which encodes the receptor-binding site of the Mtd protein. Downstream of VR is the template region ( TR ). Adenines in TR (‘A’) are frequently replaced by another base in VR (‘N’). TR is transcribed to produce TR- RNA, which is then reverse transcribed to TR- cDNA. During this process, adenines in TR are mutagenized, as depicted by ‘X’ in TR -cDNA. Adenine-mutagenized TR- cDNA homes to and replaces VR , resulting in diversification of Mtd. bRT is the DGR reverse transcriptase, and avd the DGR accessory variability determinant. ( B ) Sequence elements of the 580 nt DGR RNA template used for reverse transcription reactions. ( C ) bRT-Avd, bRT, or Avd was incubated with the 580 nt DGR RNA and dNTPs, including [α- 32 P]dCTP, for 2h. Products resulting from the incubation were untreated (U), or treated with RNase (+R), DNase (+D), or both RNase and DNase (+R+D), and resolved by 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled 580 nt DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. The positions of the 580 nt band, and 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. Nuclease-treated samples were loaded at twice the amount as untreated samples, here and throughout unless otherwise indicated. Lane M here and throughout corresponds to radiolabeled, single-stranded DNA molecular mass markers (nt units). ( D ) DGR RNA templates containing internal truncations in TR . ( E ) Radiolabeled cDNA products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with intact (WT) or internally truncated 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Samples were treated with RNase and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs produced from intact template are indicated by red and yellow circles, respectively, as are positions of the correspondingly shorter cDNAs produced from truncated RNA templates. ( F ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Prior to reverse transcription, the RNA template was mock-treated (–Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products of the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 4% (top) or 8% (bottom) denaturing PAGE. In the top gel, the red arrowhead indicates the ∼580 nt species, and the green arrowheads the several ∼540 nt species. In the bottom gel, the black arrowheads indicate the 120 and 90 nt cDNA products. The black vertical line within the gel indicates irrelevant lanes that were removed for display purposes. A 2-fold higher quantity was loaded for +Per samples than –Per samples.

    Article Snippet: Reverse transcription reactions with HIV-1 RT were carried out as above, except in 10 μl and containing 10 units RNase inhibitor (NEB), 0.1 μCi/μl [α-32 P]dCTP, 30 ng/μl RNA template, 1 μM PG117 primer ( ) and 2 units of HIV-1 RT (Worthington Biochemical), and the reaction was carried out for 30 min.

    Techniques: In Vitro, Binding Assay, Sequencing, Incubation, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Labeling, Marker, Activity Assay, Produced

    Core DGR RNA. ( A ) Schematic of core DGR RNA. ( B ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the core DGR RNA as template. Prior to the reverse transcription reaction, the RNA template was untreated (-Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products from the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 6% denaturing PAGE. Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled core DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. Red arrowheads indicate radiolabeled product bands that migrate at the same position or slower than the core DGR RNA, and green arrowheads ones that migrate faster. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. The two panels are from the same gel, with the black line indicating that intermediate lanes were removed. ( C ) Internally-labeled core DGR RNA was not incubated (–), or incubated with bRT-Avd alone or bRT-Avd with 100 μM standard dNTPs (+dNTP), 100 μM dCTP (+CTP), 100 μM dNTPs excluding dCTP (+d(A,T,G)TP), or 100 μM nonhydrolyzeable analog of dCTP (+N-dCTP) for 2 h. Incubation products were resolved by denaturing PAGE. The band corresponding to the 5′ fragment of the cleaved core RNA containing either a deoxycytidine alone (5′+dC) or cDNA (5′+cDNA), and the band corresponding to the 3′ fragment of the RNA are indicated. ( D ) The core DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3′ end (RNA-Bio), and either reacted with no protein or used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. The core DGR RNA in its unbiotinylated form (RNA) was also used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. Samples were then purified using streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR -cDNA in the purified samples was assessed by PCR. Products from the PCR reaction were resolved on an agarose gel. ( E ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 12 h with core, hybrid core dA56, or hybrid core A56 DGR RNA as template. Products were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Separate samples of core dA56 and A56 were 5′ 32 P-labeled for visualization of inputs (I). The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs are indicated.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Template-assisted synthesis of adenine-mutagenized cDNA by a retroelement protein complex

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gky620

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Core DGR RNA. ( A ) Schematic of core DGR RNA. ( B ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the core DGR RNA as template. Prior to the reverse transcription reaction, the RNA template was untreated (-Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products from the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 6% denaturing PAGE. Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled core DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. Red arrowheads indicate radiolabeled product bands that migrate at the same position or slower than the core DGR RNA, and green arrowheads ones that migrate faster. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. The two panels are from the same gel, with the black line indicating that intermediate lanes were removed. ( C ) Internally-labeled core DGR RNA was not incubated (–), or incubated with bRT-Avd alone or bRT-Avd with 100 μM standard dNTPs (+dNTP), 100 μM dCTP (+CTP), 100 μM dNTPs excluding dCTP (+d(A,T,G)TP), or 100 μM nonhydrolyzeable analog of dCTP (+N-dCTP) for 2 h. Incubation products were resolved by denaturing PAGE. The band corresponding to the 5′ fragment of the cleaved core RNA containing either a deoxycytidine alone (5′+dC) or cDNA (5′+cDNA), and the band corresponding to the 3′ fragment of the RNA are indicated. ( D ) The core DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3′ end (RNA-Bio), and either reacted with no protein or used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. The core DGR RNA in its unbiotinylated form (RNA) was also used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. Samples were then purified using streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR -cDNA in the purified samples was assessed by PCR. Products from the PCR reaction were resolved on an agarose gel. ( E ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 12 h with core, hybrid core dA56, or hybrid core A56 DGR RNA as template. Products were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Separate samples of core dA56 and A56 were 5′ 32 P-labeled for visualization of inputs (I). The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs are indicated.

    Article Snippet: Reverse transcription reactions with HIV-1 RT were carried out as above, except in 10 μl and containing 10 units RNase inhibitor (NEB), 0.1 μCi/μl [α-32 P]dCTP, 30 ng/μl RNA template, 1 μM PG117 primer ( ) and 2 units of HIV-1 RT (Worthington Biochemical), and the reaction was carried out for 30 min.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Labeling, Marker, Incubation, Purification, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

    Adenine mutagenesis and template-priming. ( A ) Covalently-linked RNA–cDNA molecule. The linkage is to Sp A56 of the RNA, and the first nucleotide reverse transcribed is TR G117. The RT-PCR product resulting from primers 1 and 2 (blue arrows) is indicated by the dashed red line. ( B ) RT-PCR amplicons from 580 nt DGR RNA reacted with no protein (–), bRT, Avd, or bRT-Avd, separated on a 2% agarose gel and ethidium bromide-stained. The specific amplicon produced from reaction with bRT-Avd shown by the red arrowhead. ( C ) Percentage of substitutions in TR -cDNA determined by sequencing. ( D ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template for 2 h (left) or 12 h (right). Either standard dNTPs (dATP, dGTP, dCTP, TTP), as indicated by ‘+’,were present in the reaction, or standard dNTPs excluding dATP (-A), dGTP (–G), or TTP (-T) were present. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. ( E ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying TTP (top) or dUTP (bottom) concentrations. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. ( F ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying dUTP concentrations. Products were either RNase-treated (top), or both RNase- and UDG-treated (bottom), and resolved by denaturing PAGE.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Template-assisted synthesis of adenine-mutagenized cDNA by a retroelement protein complex

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gky620

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Adenine mutagenesis and template-priming. ( A ) Covalently-linked RNA–cDNA molecule. The linkage is to Sp A56 of the RNA, and the first nucleotide reverse transcribed is TR G117. The RT-PCR product resulting from primers 1 and 2 (blue arrows) is indicated by the dashed red line. ( B ) RT-PCR amplicons from 580 nt DGR RNA reacted with no protein (–), bRT, Avd, or bRT-Avd, separated on a 2% agarose gel and ethidium bromide-stained. The specific amplicon produced from reaction with bRT-Avd shown by the red arrowhead. ( C ) Percentage of substitutions in TR -cDNA determined by sequencing. ( D ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template for 2 h (left) or 12 h (right). Either standard dNTPs (dATP, dGTP, dCTP, TTP), as indicated by ‘+’,were present in the reaction, or standard dNTPs excluding dATP (-A), dGTP (–G), or TTP (-T) were present. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. ( E ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying TTP (top) or dUTP (bottom) concentrations. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. ( F ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying dUTP concentrations. Products were either RNase-treated (top), or both RNase- and UDG-treated (bottom), and resolved by denaturing PAGE.

    Article Snippet: Reverse transcription reactions with HIV-1 RT were carried out as above, except in 10 μl and containing 10 units RNase inhibitor (NEB), 0.1 μCi/μl [α-32 P]dCTP, 30 ng/μl RNA template, 1 μM PG117 primer ( ) and 2 units of HIV-1 RT (Worthington Biochemical), and the reaction was carried out for 30 min.

    Techniques: Mutagenesis, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Staining, Amplification, Produced, Sequencing, Activity Assay, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    Effect of VIC oligo-4 on the interaction of eIF4A in the 48S complex with the base of the DLP structure. ( A ) 43S model showing the binding site of VIC oligo-4 to the ES6S C-D helix. VIC oligo-4 binding to purified rabbit 40S subunit was analyzed by RNAse H cleavage as described previously ( 21 ). The resulting 18S rRNA fragments were analyzed by electrophoresis in a 0.8% agarose gel. ( B ) Effect of VIC oligo-4 addition (10 μM) on translation programmed with SV DLP capsid and SV ΔDLP capsid mRNAs in RRL. Note that elimination of the DLP structure impaired AUG recognition, giving rise to aberrant products (gray arrowheads) that resulted from spurious initiation at downstream AUGs, as reported previously ( 24 ). ( C ) Crosslinking assays using SV DLPU1 mRNA in the presence of 10 μM of VIC oligo-4. Ribosomal fractions (P100) and post-ribosomal fractions (S100) were analyzed. The change in intensity of the eIF4A band was measured from three independent experiments; data are represented as the mean ± SEM. ( D ) Effect of VIC oligo-4 on 48S formation and eIF4A crosslinking. The experiment was performed as in Figure 1C ; as VIC oligo-4 reduced 48S formation, the volume of fraction 11 was adjusted to analyze an equivalent cpm. Arrows shows the direction of sedimentation.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Translation initiation of alphavirus mRNA reveals new insights into the topology of the 48S initiation complex

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gky071

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of VIC oligo-4 on the interaction of eIF4A in the 48S complex with the base of the DLP structure. ( A ) 43S model showing the binding site of VIC oligo-4 to the ES6S C-D helix. VIC oligo-4 binding to purified rabbit 40S subunit was analyzed by RNAse H cleavage as described previously ( 21 ). The resulting 18S rRNA fragments were analyzed by electrophoresis in a 0.8% agarose gel. ( B ) Effect of VIC oligo-4 addition (10 μM) on translation programmed with SV DLP capsid and SV ΔDLP capsid mRNAs in RRL. Note that elimination of the DLP structure impaired AUG recognition, giving rise to aberrant products (gray arrowheads) that resulted from spurious initiation at downstream AUGs, as reported previously ( 24 ). ( C ) Crosslinking assays using SV DLPU1 mRNA in the presence of 10 μM of VIC oligo-4. Ribosomal fractions (P100) and post-ribosomal fractions (S100) were analyzed. The change in intensity of the eIF4A band was measured from three independent experiments; data are represented as the mean ± SEM. ( D ) Effect of VIC oligo-4 on 48S formation and eIF4A crosslinking. The experiment was performed as in Figure 1C ; as VIC oligo-4 reduced 48S formation, the volume of fraction 11 was adjusted to analyze an equivalent cpm. Arrows shows the direction of sedimentation.

    Article Snippet: Briefly, samples were annealed at 65°C for 5′ with 10 pmol of oligonucleotides covering the indicated regions of 18S rRNA and digested with 5 U of RNase H (NEB) for 15 min at 37°C.

    Techniques: Binding Assay, Purification, Electrophoresis, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Sedimentation

    eIF4A activity within the 48S complex. ( A ) RNase H-mapping of RNA–RNA interactions between SV-DLP U1 and 18S rRNA. The analysis was carried out in the absence or presence of 1 μM hippuristanol, with identification of the resulting RNA fragments indicated. For clarity, a schematic diagram of the ES6S and h16–18 regions of rabbit 18S rRNA with the primers used for RNase H digestion is shown. The use of oligos 4 and 9 limited the region of 18S rRNA (509–830) where the crosslinkings concentrated. Bands corresponding to crosslinking of SV DLP U1 mRNA with the ES6S region (680–1863) and h16-h18 helices (1–662) were quantified by densitometry and expressed as a ratio. Data are the mean ± SEM from four independent experiments. ( B ) Effect of eIF4A inhibition on 48S toeprinting generated by SV-DLP U1 and SV-ΔDLP U1 mRNAs. Assays were carried out in the absence of presence of 1 μM of hippuristanol; positions of resulting primer extensions are annotated with respect to the A (+1) position of AUG, and they have been assigned with a precision of ±1 nt. The bottom shows a 2D structural model of the first 100 nt of 26S mRNA, showing the secondary structure derived from SHAPE analysis ( 21 ). Reactivity to SHAPE reagent (NMIA) is higher for unpaired nucleotides (red) and low for those involved in pairings (black). Stops corresponding to toeprints are marked with arrowheads. Quantification of toeprint ratios (17–19/23–25) in absence or presence of hippuristanol is shown from three independent experiments; data are the mean ± SEM.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Translation initiation of alphavirus mRNA reveals new insights into the topology of the 48S initiation complex

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gky071

    Figure Lengend Snippet: eIF4A activity within the 48S complex. ( A ) RNase H-mapping of RNA–RNA interactions between SV-DLP U1 and 18S rRNA. The analysis was carried out in the absence or presence of 1 μM hippuristanol, with identification of the resulting RNA fragments indicated. For clarity, a schematic diagram of the ES6S and h16–18 regions of rabbit 18S rRNA with the primers used for RNase H digestion is shown. The use of oligos 4 and 9 limited the region of 18S rRNA (509–830) where the crosslinkings concentrated. Bands corresponding to crosslinking of SV DLP U1 mRNA with the ES6S region (680–1863) and h16-h18 helices (1–662) were quantified by densitometry and expressed as a ratio. Data are the mean ± SEM from four independent experiments. ( B ) Effect of eIF4A inhibition on 48S toeprinting generated by SV-DLP U1 and SV-ΔDLP U1 mRNAs. Assays were carried out in the absence of presence of 1 μM of hippuristanol; positions of resulting primer extensions are annotated with respect to the A (+1) position of AUG, and they have been assigned with a precision of ±1 nt. The bottom shows a 2D structural model of the first 100 nt of 26S mRNA, showing the secondary structure derived from SHAPE analysis ( 21 ). Reactivity to SHAPE reagent (NMIA) is higher for unpaired nucleotides (red) and low for those involved in pairings (black). Stops corresponding to toeprints are marked with arrowheads. Quantification of toeprint ratios (17–19/23–25) in absence or presence of hippuristanol is shown from three independent experiments; data are the mean ± SEM.

    Article Snippet: Briefly, samples were annealed at 65°C for 5′ with 10 pmol of oligonucleotides covering the indicated regions of 18S rRNA and digested with 5 U of RNase H (NEB) for 15 min at 37°C.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Inhibition, Generated, Derivative Assay

    RNase H cutting has much less effect on second-intron splicing when the SV40 late poly(A) signal defines the terminal exon. (A) This experiment was done as described in the legend to Fig. except that transcripts were postcut at the poly(A)

    Journal:

    Article Title: Functional Coupling of Last-Intron Splicing and 3?-End Processing to Transcription In Vitro: the Poly(A) Signal Couples to Splicing before Committing to Cleavage ▿Functional Coupling of Last-Intron Splicing and 3?-End Processing to Transcription In Vitro: the Poly(A) Signal Couples to Splicing before Committing to Cleavage ▿ †

    doi: 10.1128/MCB.01410-07

    Figure Lengend Snippet: RNase H cutting has much less effect on second-intron splicing when the SV40 late poly(A) signal defines the terminal exon. (A) This experiment was done as described in the legend to Fig. except that transcripts were postcut at the poly(A)

    Article Snippet: This conclusion follows from the observation that in spite of the inhibition caused by precutting with RNase H, second-intron splicing still remains more efficient in the presence of a functional poly(A) signal than in its absence (Fig. , compare lines 2 and 3).

    Techniques: