Structured Review

Medicago rhizobium meliloti
Analysis of capsular polysaccharides from wild-type S. <t>meliloti</t> and kdsB2 , smb20804, and smb20805 mutant strains. Wild-type and mutant strains were cultured in liquid medium, cell surface polysaccharides then were isolated via EDTA-TEA extraction and fractionated using Tris-Tricine SDS-PAGE, and polysaccharides were visualized by staining with Alcian blue, as described in Materials and Methods. Lane 1, strain MGM044 (wild-type Rm1021/pTE3 [WT/pTE3]); lane 2, MGM312 (WT/pMW23); lane 3, MGM404 ( kdsB2 ::pDW33/pTE3); lane 4, MGM405 ( kdsB2 ::pDW33/pMW23); lane 5, MGM433 (smb20804::pDW33/pTE3); lane 6, MGM434 (smb20804::pDW33/pMW23); lane 7, MGM383 (smb20805::pDW33/pTE3); and lane 8, MGM385 (smb20805::pDW33 ::pDW33/pMW23). The presence of the plasmid containing rkpZ (pMW23) is indicated beneath each lane with a plus, and the presence of the control plasmid (pTE3) is indicated with a minus. HMW, high molecular weight; LMW, low molecular weight.
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Images

1) Product Images from "The rkp-1 Cluster Is Required for Secretion of Kdo Homopolymeric Capsular Polysaccharide in Sinorhizobium meliloti Strain Rm1021 ▿ Strain Rm1021 ▿ †"

Article Title: The rkp-1 Cluster Is Required for Secretion of Kdo Homopolymeric Capsular Polysaccharide in Sinorhizobium meliloti Strain Rm1021 ▿ Strain Rm1021 ▿ †

Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

doi: 10.1128/JB.00466-09

Analysis of capsular polysaccharides from wild-type S. meliloti and kdsB2 , smb20804, and smb20805 mutant strains. Wild-type and mutant strains were cultured in liquid medium, cell surface polysaccharides then were isolated via EDTA-TEA extraction and fractionated using Tris-Tricine SDS-PAGE, and polysaccharides were visualized by staining with Alcian blue, as described in Materials and Methods. Lane 1, strain MGM044 (wild-type Rm1021/pTE3 [WT/pTE3]); lane 2, MGM312 (WT/pMW23); lane 3, MGM404 ( kdsB2 ::pDW33/pTE3); lane 4, MGM405 ( kdsB2 ::pDW33/pMW23); lane 5, MGM433 (smb20804::pDW33/pTE3); lane 6, MGM434 (smb20804::pDW33/pMW23); lane 7, MGM383 (smb20805::pDW33/pTE3); and lane 8, MGM385 (smb20805::pDW33 ::pDW33/pMW23). The presence of the plasmid containing rkpZ (pMW23) is indicated beneath each lane with a plus, and the presence of the control plasmid (pTE3) is indicated with a minus. HMW, high molecular weight; LMW, low molecular weight.
Figure Legend Snippet: Analysis of capsular polysaccharides from wild-type S. meliloti and kdsB2 , smb20804, and smb20805 mutant strains. Wild-type and mutant strains were cultured in liquid medium, cell surface polysaccharides then were isolated via EDTA-TEA extraction and fractionated using Tris-Tricine SDS-PAGE, and polysaccharides were visualized by staining with Alcian blue, as described in Materials and Methods. Lane 1, strain MGM044 (wild-type Rm1021/pTE3 [WT/pTE3]); lane 2, MGM312 (WT/pMW23); lane 3, MGM404 ( kdsB2 ::pDW33/pTE3); lane 4, MGM405 ( kdsB2 ::pDW33/pMW23); lane 5, MGM433 (smb20804::pDW33/pTE3); lane 6, MGM434 (smb20804::pDW33/pMW23); lane 7, MGM383 (smb20805::pDW33/pTE3); and lane 8, MGM385 (smb20805::pDW33 ::pDW33/pMW23). The presence of the plasmid containing rkpZ (pMW23) is indicated beneath each lane with a plus, and the presence of the control plasmid (pTE3) is indicated with a minus. HMW, high molecular weight; LMW, low molecular weight.

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Cell Culture, Isolation, SDS Page, Staining, Plasmid Preparation, Molecular Weight

Analysis of capsular polysaccharides from wild-type S. meliloti Rm1021 and mutants affecting the rkp-1 gene cluster. Wild-type and mutant strains were cultured in the presence of [U- 14 C]glucose, and cell surface polysaccharides were isolated via EDTA-TEA extraction, fractionated using Tris-Tricine SDS-PAGE, and detected by staining with Alcian blue (A) or by phosphorimaging (B) as described in Materials and Methods. Lane 1, strain MGM044 (wild-type Rm1021/pTE3 [WT/pTE3]); lane 2, MGM312 (WT/pMW23); lane 3, MGM050 ( rkpA ::Nm/pTE3); lane 4, MGM314 ( rkpA ::Nm/pMW23); lane 5, MGM048 ( rkpG ::pDW33/pTE3); lane 6, MGM388 ( rkpG ::pDW33/pMW23); lane 7, MGM454 ( rkpH ::pDW33/pTE3); lane 8, MGM455 ( rkpH ::pDW33/pMW23); lane 9, MGM423 ( rkpI ::pDW33/pTE3); lane 10, MGM424 ( rkpI ::pDW33 pMW23); lane 11, MGM425 ( rkpJ ::pDW33/pTE3); and lane 12, MGM426 ( rkpJ ::pDW33/pMW23). The presence of the plasmid containing rkpZ (pMW23) is indicated beneath each lane with a plus, while the presence of the control plasmid (pTE3) is indicated with a minus. The open triangle refers to the interface between the stacking and separating gel. (C) Organization of the rkp-1 gene cluster in S. meliloti Rm1021. Genes are repre sented as arrows, with the length of the intergenic regions depicted in base pairs. HMW, high molecular weight; LMW, low molecular weight.
Figure Legend Snippet: Analysis of capsular polysaccharides from wild-type S. meliloti Rm1021 and mutants affecting the rkp-1 gene cluster. Wild-type and mutant strains were cultured in the presence of [U- 14 C]glucose, and cell surface polysaccharides were isolated via EDTA-TEA extraction, fractionated using Tris-Tricine SDS-PAGE, and detected by staining with Alcian blue (A) or by phosphorimaging (B) as described in Materials and Methods. Lane 1, strain MGM044 (wild-type Rm1021/pTE3 [WT/pTE3]); lane 2, MGM312 (WT/pMW23); lane 3, MGM050 ( rkpA ::Nm/pTE3); lane 4, MGM314 ( rkpA ::Nm/pMW23); lane 5, MGM048 ( rkpG ::pDW33/pTE3); lane 6, MGM388 ( rkpG ::pDW33/pMW23); lane 7, MGM454 ( rkpH ::pDW33/pTE3); lane 8, MGM455 ( rkpH ::pDW33/pMW23); lane 9, MGM423 ( rkpI ::pDW33/pTE3); lane 10, MGM424 ( rkpI ::pDW33 pMW23); lane 11, MGM425 ( rkpJ ::pDW33/pTE3); and lane 12, MGM426 ( rkpJ ::pDW33/pMW23). The presence of the plasmid containing rkpZ (pMW23) is indicated beneath each lane with a plus, while the presence of the control plasmid (pTE3) is indicated with a minus. The open triangle refers to the interface between the stacking and separating gel. (C) Organization of the rkp-1 gene cluster in S. meliloti Rm1021. Genes are repre sented as arrows, with the length of the intergenic regions depicted in base pairs. HMW, high molecular weight; LMW, low molecular weight.

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Cell Culture, Isolation, SDS Page, Staining, Plasmid Preparation, Molecular Weight

2) Product Images from "Expression of an Exogenous 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Deaminase Gene in Sinorhizobium meliloti Increases Its Ability To Nodulate Alfalfa"

Article Title: Expression of an Exogenous 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Deaminase Gene in Sinorhizobium meliloti Increases Its Ability To Nodulate Alfalfa

Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

doi: 10.1128/AEM.70.10.5891-5897.2004

ACC deaminase activities of the S. meliloti strains induced by 5 mM ACC. R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53K, which is the source of the lrpL and acdS genes, was used as a positive control. Rm1021 and Rm5356 are wild-type strains that were used as negative controls. Rm1021 containing the vector pSP329 was also used as a negative control for Rm1021(pWM2). N/D, no activity detected. The error bars represent the standard error of the mean of two independent assays.
Figure Legend Snippet: ACC deaminase activities of the S. meliloti strains induced by 5 mM ACC. R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53K, which is the source of the lrpL and acdS genes, was used as a positive control. Rm1021 and Rm5356 are wild-type strains that were used as negative controls. Rm1021 containing the vector pSP329 was also used as a negative control for Rm1021(pWM2). N/D, no activity detected. The error bars represent the standard error of the mean of two independent assays.

Techniques Used: Positive Control, Plasmid Preparation, Negative Control, Activity Assay

Construction of S. meliloti Rm11466 by transposon replacement. A 4-kb DNA fragment containing the lrpL and acdS genes from R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53K was inserted into the BamHI site of transposon Tn 5 in pGS220 to construct pWM3. pWM3 is suicidal after being introduced into S. meliloti Rm5356. After double crossover between the IS 50 regions of the two transposons, Tn 5 -233 and Tn 5 -acd, the neomycin resistance gene, leucine-responsive regulatory-like gene ( lrpL ), and the ACC deaminase structural gene ( acdS ) were inserted into megaplasmid pRmeSU47b in S. meliloti Rm5356. The resulting variant was named Rm11466. Restriction sites: B, BamHI; E, EcoRI; H, HindIII. There are multiple HindIII sites in Tn 5 -233 and Tn 5 -acd, but only the locations of the sites inside the IS 50 regions are shown on the restriction map.
Figure Legend Snippet: Construction of S. meliloti Rm11466 by transposon replacement. A 4-kb DNA fragment containing the lrpL and acdS genes from R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53K was inserted into the BamHI site of transposon Tn 5 in pGS220 to construct pWM3. pWM3 is suicidal after being introduced into S. meliloti Rm5356. After double crossover between the IS 50 regions of the two transposons, Tn 5 -233 and Tn 5 -acd, the neomycin resistance gene, leucine-responsive regulatory-like gene ( lrpL ), and the ACC deaminase structural gene ( acdS ) were inserted into megaplasmid pRmeSU47b in S. meliloti Rm5356. The resulting variant was named Rm11466. Restriction sites: B, BamHI; E, EcoRI; H, HindIII. There are multiple HindIII sites in Tn 5 -233 and Tn 5 -acd, but only the locations of the sites inside the IS 50 regions are shown on the restriction map.

Techniques Used: Construct, Variant Assay

3) Product Images from "Alfalfa Root Nodule Invasion Efficiency Is Dependent on Sinorhizobium meliloti Polysaccharides"

Article Title: Alfalfa Root Nodule Invasion Efficiency Is Dependent on Sinorhizobium meliloti Polysaccharides

Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

doi:

Kinetics of colonized curled root hair (CRH) formation, infection thread (IT) initiation, and infection thread extension on alfalfa plants inoculated with various S. meliloti strains. Sets of at least 36 plants were inoculated with Rm1021 (succinoglycan [SG]-producing strain) or Rm9000 (EPS II-producing strain) (A) or with Rm41 (succinoglycan- and K-antigen [KPS]-producing strain) or AK631 (K-antigen-producing strain) (B). The numbers of colonized curled root hairs, initiated infection threads, and extended infection threads per plant were recorded for 12 days. The colonized curled root hair count includes those with initiated and extended infection threads, and the initiated infection thread count includes extended infection threads. Standard error of the mean calculations were performed with the mean daily values from at least 3 groups of 12 plants. The standard errors for the time points were nonoverlapping.
Figure Legend Snippet: Kinetics of colonized curled root hair (CRH) formation, infection thread (IT) initiation, and infection thread extension on alfalfa plants inoculated with various S. meliloti strains. Sets of at least 36 plants were inoculated with Rm1021 (succinoglycan [SG]-producing strain) or Rm9000 (EPS II-producing strain) (A) or with Rm41 (succinoglycan- and K-antigen [KPS]-producing strain) or AK631 (K-antigen-producing strain) (B). The numbers of colonized curled root hairs, initiated infection threads, and extended infection threads per plant were recorded for 12 days. The colonized curled root hair count includes those with initiated and extended infection threads, and the initiated infection thread count includes extended infection threads. Standard error of the mean calculations were performed with the mean daily values from at least 3 groups of 12 plants. The standard errors for the time points were nonoverlapping.

Techniques Used: Infection

Efficiencies of nodule invasion by various S. meliloti strains. Sets of at least 36 plants were inoculated with different strains and scored on day 12 for numbers of colonized curled root hairs (CCRHs), numbers of initiated infection threads (ITs), and numbers of extended infection threads. (A) The relative efficiencies of colonized curled root hair formation were computed by normalizing the numbers of colonized curled root hairs to that of Rm1021 (for Rm7210, Rm9000, and Rm9011) or Rm41 (for AK631 and PP674). (B) The efficiency of infection thread initiation is the percentage of curled root hairs colonized by a particular strain that initiate an infection thread. (C) The efficiency of infection thread extension is the percentage of curled root hairs colonized by a particular strain that have infection threads that are extended (reach the base of the root hair cell). The error bars represent the standard errors of the means computed using the mean values from at least three groups of 12 plants.
Figure Legend Snippet: Efficiencies of nodule invasion by various S. meliloti strains. Sets of at least 36 plants were inoculated with different strains and scored on day 12 for numbers of colonized curled root hairs (CCRHs), numbers of initiated infection threads (ITs), and numbers of extended infection threads. (A) The relative efficiencies of colonized curled root hair formation were computed by normalizing the numbers of colonized curled root hairs to that of Rm1021 (for Rm7210, Rm9000, and Rm9011) or Rm41 (for AK631 and PP674). (B) The efficiency of infection thread initiation is the percentage of curled root hairs colonized by a particular strain that initiate an infection thread. (C) The efficiency of infection thread extension is the percentage of curled root hairs colonized by a particular strain that have infection threads that are extended (reach the base of the root hair cell). The error bars represent the standard errors of the means computed using the mean values from at least three groups of 12 plants.

Techniques Used: Infection

Fluorescence microscopy analyses of infection thread formation mediated by various S. meliloti polysaccharides. All images are composite images of GFP-expressing S. meliloti cells (green) and root hair cells (red). (A) Typical succinoglycan-mediated extended infection thread formed by Rm1021. The infection thread extends from the colonized, curled root hair to the base of the root hair cell. (B) Aborted succinoglycan-mediated infection thread with a densely packed pocket of bacteria near the terminus. (C) Colonized, curled root hair formed by Rm7210, an exoY210 ::Tn 5 mutant of Rm1021 that fails to produce a symbiotically active polysaccharide. (D and E) Aborted, aberrant EPS II-mediated infection threads present on plants inoculated with Rm9000. (F and G) Extended, aberrant, K-antigen-mediated infection threads on plants inoculated with AK631.
Figure Legend Snippet: Fluorescence microscopy analyses of infection thread formation mediated by various S. meliloti polysaccharides. All images are composite images of GFP-expressing S. meliloti cells (green) and root hair cells (red). (A) Typical succinoglycan-mediated extended infection thread formed by Rm1021. The infection thread extends from the colonized, curled root hair to the base of the root hair cell. (B) Aborted succinoglycan-mediated infection thread with a densely packed pocket of bacteria near the terminus. (C) Colonized, curled root hair formed by Rm7210, an exoY210 ::Tn 5 mutant of Rm1021 that fails to produce a symbiotically active polysaccharide. (D and E) Aborted, aberrant EPS II-mediated infection threads present on plants inoculated with Rm9000. (F and G) Extended, aberrant, K-antigen-mediated infection threads on plants inoculated with AK631.

Techniques Used: Fluorescence, Microscopy, Infection, Expressing, Mutagenesis

Models for the perception of succinoglycan (SG), EPS II, and K antigen (KPS) by a host plant and subsequent signal transduction resulting in nodule invasion by S. meliloti . (A) A three-polysaccharide, one-receptor model. (B) A three-polysaccharide, three-receptor model in which the three signal transduction pathways feed into a common signal transduction pathway. (C) A three-polysaccharide, three-receptor model in which the three signal transduction pathways are independent of one another.
Figure Legend Snippet: Models for the perception of succinoglycan (SG), EPS II, and K antigen (KPS) by a host plant and subsequent signal transduction resulting in nodule invasion by S. meliloti . (A) A three-polysaccharide, one-receptor model. (B) A three-polysaccharide, three-receptor model in which the three signal transduction pathways feed into a common signal transduction pathway. (C) A three-polysaccharide, three-receptor model in which the three signal transduction pathways are independent of one another.

Techniques Used: Transduction

4) Product Images from "Infection and Invasion of Roots by Symbiotic, Nitrogen-Fixing Rhizobia during Nodulation of Temperate Legumes"

Article Title: Infection and Invasion of Roots by Symbiotic, Nitrogen-Fixing Rhizobia during Nodulation of Temperate Legumes

Journal: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews

doi: 10.1128/MMBR.68.2.280-300.2004

Examples of mixed infection threads following coinoculation of alfalfa with red- and green-fluorescent bacteria. (A) Infection threads containing only gfp -expressing or DsRed -expressing S. meliloti . (B) A sectored infection thread in which the mixed population gave rise to a series of sectors which increase in length along the thread. The tipmost sector advanced into the epidermal cell body, branched (top arrow), and penetrated the underlying cell (bottom arrow), leaving the distal sectors behind. (C) A root hair infected with dual infection threads. Each thread contains sectors of gfp -expressing and DsRed -expressing bacteria. (D) A jumbled type of mixed infection thread. gfp -expressing and DsRed .)
Figure Legend Snippet: Examples of mixed infection threads following coinoculation of alfalfa with red- and green-fluorescent bacteria. (A) Infection threads containing only gfp -expressing or DsRed -expressing S. meliloti . (B) A sectored infection thread in which the mixed population gave rise to a series of sectors which increase in length along the thread. The tipmost sector advanced into the epidermal cell body, branched (top arrow), and penetrated the underlying cell (bottom arrow), leaving the distal sectors behind. (C) A root hair infected with dual infection threads. Each thread contains sectors of gfp -expressing and DsRed -expressing bacteria. (D) A jumbled type of mixed infection thread. gfp -expressing and DsRed .)

Techniques Used: Infection, Expressing

Root hair morphology on uninoculated and inoculated roots. (A to C) Typical root hairs from zones I, II, and III, respectively, of an uninoculated alfalfa plant. (D) Diagram of an alfalfa seedling, showing the locations of root hair zones I, II, and III. (E to G) Photographs showing how root hair responses to S. meliloti can vary along the length of a single root. The three images were taken from a single inoculated seedling at the locations indicated on the central diagram.
Figure Legend Snippet: Root hair morphology on uninoculated and inoculated roots. (A to C) Typical root hairs from zones I, II, and III, respectively, of an uninoculated alfalfa plant. (D) Diagram of an alfalfa seedling, showing the locations of root hair zones I, II, and III. (E to G) Photographs showing how root hair responses to S. meliloti can vary along the length of a single root. The three images were taken from a single inoculated seedling at the locations indicated on the central diagram.

Techniques Used:

Overview of the nodulation process in plants that form indeterminate nodules. (A) One form of Nod factor synthesized by S. meliloti . The upper arrow indicates the acetyl group added by NodL, and the lower arrow indicates the lipid moiety, the length and degree of saturation of which is modified by NodF and NodE. (B) Diagrammatic cross section of a root, showing gradients of an activating factor at protoxylem poles (blue) and an inhibitor at protophloem poles (red). Together such gradients may determine which root cells can become activated in response to infecting rhizobia. Nodules are typically formed next to the protoxylem poles, which are at the ends of the Y-shaped structure depicted in the center the diagram, rather than above the protophloem poles, which are depicted as ovals. (C) An epidermal cell and two underlying outer cortical cells. The epidermal cell has a nucleus positioned across from the place where a new root hair will form. (D) Root hair initiation in the epidermal cell. (E) Binding of a rhizobial cell to a type I root hair and activation of the underlying cortical cells in response to Nod factor. (F) Continued growth of the root hair, shown as stage II. (G) Curling of the stage II root hair under the influence of Nod factor and growth of a rhizobial microcolony in the curl. The underlying cortical cells have become polarized, and cytoplasmic bridges (PITs) have formed and are shown in grey. (H) Infection thread initiation. (I) Growth of the infection thread down the root hair. The nucleus moves down the root hair in front of the thread. (J) Fusion of the infection thread with the epidermal cell wall and growth of rhizobia into the intracellular space between the epidermal cell and the underlying cortical cell. (K) Growth of the infection thread through PITs in the outer cortical cells. (L) Enlarged view of the root hair shown in panel I. The curl has been unrolled to show that topologically, the bacteria in the infection thread are still outside the root hair. The plant cell wall and plant cell membrane are shown as black and dashed lines, respectively. Microtubules are located between the nucleus and the infection thread tip (blue). Actin cables are depicted as orange strands. These are likely to be found where indicated in the diagram because cytoplasmic streaming is seen in these areas during the progression of infection threads down root hairs. Bacteria are topologically outside the root until they later bud from the tip of the thread and enter nodule cells as membrane-enclosed bacteria. (M) Diagram showing root tissues and a young nodule not yet emerged from the root. The derivation of nodule tissues from root tissues is indicated. (N) A longitudinal section of 10-day-old alfalfa nodule. The nodule was infected with GFP-expressing S. meliloti , and the infection thread network can be seen behind the meristem region of the nodule. The initial infection site that gave rise to the bacteria in the nodule can be seen on the nodule periphery at the left. Propidium iodide (red) was used to counterstain the plant tissue. The root from which the nodule emerged is seen in cross-section at the right.
Figure Legend Snippet: Overview of the nodulation process in plants that form indeterminate nodules. (A) One form of Nod factor synthesized by S. meliloti . The upper arrow indicates the acetyl group added by NodL, and the lower arrow indicates the lipid moiety, the length and degree of saturation of which is modified by NodF and NodE. (B) Diagrammatic cross section of a root, showing gradients of an activating factor at protoxylem poles (blue) and an inhibitor at protophloem poles (red). Together such gradients may determine which root cells can become activated in response to infecting rhizobia. Nodules are typically formed next to the protoxylem poles, which are at the ends of the Y-shaped structure depicted in the center the diagram, rather than above the protophloem poles, which are depicted as ovals. (C) An epidermal cell and two underlying outer cortical cells. The epidermal cell has a nucleus positioned across from the place where a new root hair will form. (D) Root hair initiation in the epidermal cell. (E) Binding of a rhizobial cell to a type I root hair and activation of the underlying cortical cells in response to Nod factor. (F) Continued growth of the root hair, shown as stage II. (G) Curling of the stage II root hair under the influence of Nod factor and growth of a rhizobial microcolony in the curl. The underlying cortical cells have become polarized, and cytoplasmic bridges (PITs) have formed and are shown in grey. (H) Infection thread initiation. (I) Growth of the infection thread down the root hair. The nucleus moves down the root hair in front of the thread. (J) Fusion of the infection thread with the epidermal cell wall and growth of rhizobia into the intracellular space between the epidermal cell and the underlying cortical cell. (K) Growth of the infection thread through PITs in the outer cortical cells. (L) Enlarged view of the root hair shown in panel I. The curl has been unrolled to show that topologically, the bacteria in the infection thread are still outside the root hair. The plant cell wall and plant cell membrane are shown as black and dashed lines, respectively. Microtubules are located between the nucleus and the infection thread tip (blue). Actin cables are depicted as orange strands. These are likely to be found where indicated in the diagram because cytoplasmic streaming is seen in these areas during the progression of infection threads down root hairs. Bacteria are topologically outside the root until they later bud from the tip of the thread and enter nodule cells as membrane-enclosed bacteria. (M) Diagram showing root tissues and a young nodule not yet emerged from the root. The derivation of nodule tissues from root tissues is indicated. (N) A longitudinal section of 10-day-old alfalfa nodule. The nodule was infected with GFP-expressing S. meliloti , and the infection thread network can be seen behind the meristem region of the nodule. The initial infection site that gave rise to the bacteria in the nodule can be seen on the nodule periphery at the left. Propidium iodide (red) was used to counterstain the plant tissue. The root from which the nodule emerged is seen in cross-section at the right.

Techniques Used: Synthesized, Modification, Binding Assay, Activation Assay, Infection, Expressing

Architecture of the infection thread network inside a 10-day-old alfalfa nodule. An alfalfa nodule, induced by wild-type S. meliloti strain Rm1021, was fixed, embedded, and sliced into 1-μm-thick sections. Fifteen sections were dyed to reveal the bacteria and plant cell structures, photographed, and reassembled into a three-dimensional volume. (A) Projection of all 15 sections onto a single plane. The nuclei in each section are outlined in red, and the infection threads are filled in with green. The infection thread network appears to be polarized and growing toward the meristem, which is in the left side of the image. (B) Three-dimensional reconstruction of the nuclei and infection threads, showing a volume from the central part of the data set shown in panel A.
Figure Legend Snippet: Architecture of the infection thread network inside a 10-day-old alfalfa nodule. An alfalfa nodule, induced by wild-type S. meliloti strain Rm1021, was fixed, embedded, and sliced into 1-μm-thick sections. Fifteen sections were dyed to reveal the bacteria and plant cell structures, photographed, and reassembled into a three-dimensional volume. (A) Projection of all 15 sections onto a single plane. The nuclei in each section are outlined in red, and the infection threads are filled in with green. The infection thread network appears to be polarized and growing toward the meristem, which is in the left side of the image. (B) Three-dimensional reconstruction of the nuclei and infection threads, showing a volume from the central part of the data set shown in panel A.

Techniques Used: Infection

5) Product Images from "Symbiotic Rhizobia Bacteria Trigger a Change in Localization and Dynamics of the Medicago truncatula Receptor Kinase LYK3 [W] Receptor Kinase LYK3 [W] [OA]"

Article Title: Symbiotic Rhizobia Bacteria Trigger a Change in Localization and Dynamics of the Medicago truncatula Receptor Kinase LYK3 [W] Receptor Kinase LYK3 [W] [OA]

Journal: The Plant Cell

doi: 10.1105/tpc.111.086389

LYK3:GFP Puncta Show a NF-Dependent Shift in Mobility upon Bacterial Inoculation. Localization and time-lapse images of LYK3:GFP mobility 24 HAI with buffer, wild-type S. meliloti Rm1021, Rm1021 unable to make the NF backbone ( ΔnodD1ABC ), purified Rm1021 NF, or strains that lack NF sulfation ( nodH :Tn 5 ) or lack acetylation and have an altered fatty acid chain (Rm1021 ΔnodF , nodL :Tn 5 ). Time-lapse images, taken at 2-s increments, are single optical sections taken at the plane of the membrane from the boxed region in the top panel. Buffer-treated root hairs maintain the punctate appearance of LYK3:GFP (three-frame average) but are mobile as indicated by the loss of punctate appearance in a 90-frame average. Kymographs show the signal intensity over position (selection marked by arrows in three-frame average images). The unstructured appearance in the buffer-treated root hair kymograph shows that on average, LYK3:GFP puncta are not stable over time. Treatment with wild-type Rm1021 bacteria causes a mobility shift represented by the increase in punctate appearance in the 90-frame average and the structured pattern shown in the kymograph. Bacteria unable to make the NF backbone do not trigger the shift in LYK3:GFP mobility. NF alone was not sufficient to trigger the shift in LYK3:GFP mobility nor was a nodH :Tn 5 mutant. A ΔnodF , nodL :Tn 5 mutant caused a shift in LYK3:GFP mobility in some root hairs. A count of root hairs with immobile spots, per total number of root hairs observed, is indicated for each treatment. Root hairs were observed for at least five independent plants per treatment; images were taken at 2-s increments. Scale bars (3 μm) on far right panels apply to all images in the row.
Figure Legend Snippet: LYK3:GFP Puncta Show a NF-Dependent Shift in Mobility upon Bacterial Inoculation. Localization and time-lapse images of LYK3:GFP mobility 24 HAI with buffer, wild-type S. meliloti Rm1021, Rm1021 unable to make the NF backbone ( ΔnodD1ABC ), purified Rm1021 NF, or strains that lack NF sulfation ( nodH :Tn 5 ) or lack acetylation and have an altered fatty acid chain (Rm1021 ΔnodF , nodL :Tn 5 ). Time-lapse images, taken at 2-s increments, are single optical sections taken at the plane of the membrane from the boxed region in the top panel. Buffer-treated root hairs maintain the punctate appearance of LYK3:GFP (three-frame average) but are mobile as indicated by the loss of punctate appearance in a 90-frame average. Kymographs show the signal intensity over position (selection marked by arrows in three-frame average images). The unstructured appearance in the buffer-treated root hair kymograph shows that on average, LYK3:GFP puncta are not stable over time. Treatment with wild-type Rm1021 bacteria causes a mobility shift represented by the increase in punctate appearance in the 90-frame average and the structured pattern shown in the kymograph. Bacteria unable to make the NF backbone do not trigger the shift in LYK3:GFP mobility. NF alone was not sufficient to trigger the shift in LYK3:GFP mobility nor was a nodH :Tn 5 mutant. A ΔnodF , nodL :Tn 5 mutant caused a shift in LYK3:GFP mobility in some root hairs. A count of root hairs with immobile spots, per total number of root hairs observed, is indicated for each treatment. Root hairs were observed for at least five independent plants per treatment; images were taken at 2-s increments. Scale bars (3 μm) on far right panels apply to all images in the row.

Techniques Used: Purification, Selection, Mobility Shift, Mutagenesis

6) Product Images from "Expression of an Exogenous 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Deaminase Gene in Sinorhizobium meliloti Increases Its Ability To Nodulate Alfalfa"

Article Title: Expression of an Exogenous 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Deaminase Gene in Sinorhizobium meliloti Increases Its Ability To Nodulate Alfalfa

Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

doi: 10.1128/AEM.70.10.5891-5897.2004

ACC deaminase activities of the S. meliloti strains induced by 5 mM ACC. R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53K, which is the source of the lrpL and acdS genes, was used as a positive control. Rm1021 and Rm5356 are wild-type strains that were used as negative controls. Rm1021 containing the vector pSP329 was also used as a negative control for Rm1021(pWM2). N/D, no activity detected. The error bars represent the standard error of the mean of two independent assays.
Figure Legend Snippet: ACC deaminase activities of the S. meliloti strains induced by 5 mM ACC. R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53K, which is the source of the lrpL and acdS genes, was used as a positive control. Rm1021 and Rm5356 are wild-type strains that were used as negative controls. Rm1021 containing the vector pSP329 was also used as a negative control for Rm1021(pWM2). N/D, no activity detected. The error bars represent the standard error of the mean of two independent assays.

Techniques Used: Positive Control, Plasmid Preparation, Negative Control, Activity Assay

Construction of S. meliloti Rm11466 by transposon replacement. A 4-kb DNA fragment containing the lrpL and acdS genes from R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53K was inserted into the BamHI site of transposon Tn 5 in pGS220 to construct pWM3. pWM3 is suicidal after being introduced into S. meliloti Rm5356. After double crossover between the IS 50 regions of the two transposons, Tn 5 -233 and Tn 5 -acd, the neomycin resistance gene, leucine-responsive regulatory-like gene ( lrpL ), and the ACC deaminase structural gene ( acdS ) were inserted into megaplasmid pRmeSU47b in S. meliloti Rm5356. The resulting variant was named Rm11466. Restriction sites: B, BamHI; E, EcoRI; H, HindIII. There are multiple HindIII sites in Tn 5 -233 and Tn 5 -acd, but only the locations of the sites inside the IS 50 regions are shown on the restriction map.
Figure Legend Snippet: Construction of S. meliloti Rm11466 by transposon replacement. A 4-kb DNA fragment containing the lrpL and acdS genes from R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53K was inserted into the BamHI site of transposon Tn 5 in pGS220 to construct pWM3. pWM3 is suicidal after being introduced into S. meliloti Rm5356. After double crossover between the IS 50 regions of the two transposons, Tn 5 -233 and Tn 5 -acd, the neomycin resistance gene, leucine-responsive regulatory-like gene ( lrpL ), and the ACC deaminase structural gene ( acdS ) were inserted into megaplasmid pRmeSU47b in S. meliloti Rm5356. The resulting variant was named Rm11466. Restriction sites: B, BamHI; E, EcoRI; H, HindIII. There are multiple HindIII sites in Tn 5 -233 and Tn 5 -acd, but only the locations of the sites inside the IS 50 regions are shown on the restriction map.

Techniques Used: Construct, Variant Assay

7) Product Images from "Silencing the Flavonoid Pathway in Medicago truncatula Inhibits Root Nodule Formation and Prevents Auxin Transport Regulation by Rhizobia [W]"

Article Title: Silencing the Flavonoid Pathway in Medicago truncatula Inhibits Root Nodule Formation and Prevents Auxin Transport Regulation by Rhizobia [W]

Journal: The Plant Cell

doi: 10.1105/tpc.105.038232

Acropetal Auxin Transport Measurements in Hairy Roots. (A) Effect of 24 h treatment with NPA on auxin transport in control seedling roots. The asterisk indicates a significant difference at the 0.01 level in the NPA treatment compared with control (Student's t test; n = 10). (B) Comparison of auxin transport in untreated control and CHS-silenced hairy roots. The asterisk indicates a significant difference at the 0.05 level in the CHS-silenced roots compared with control roots (Student's t test; n = 19 to 20). (C) Effect of S. meliloti and NPA on auxin transport in control and CHS-silenced hairy roots. Any two pairwise comparisons of treatments labeled with different letters are significantly different from each other at the 0.05 level (one way analysis of variance; n = 10 to 24). All error bars indicate standard errors of the mean. For the experimental setup, see Supplemental Figure 4 online.
Figure Legend Snippet: Acropetal Auxin Transport Measurements in Hairy Roots. (A) Effect of 24 h treatment with NPA on auxin transport in control seedling roots. The asterisk indicates a significant difference at the 0.01 level in the NPA treatment compared with control (Student's t test; n = 10). (B) Comparison of auxin transport in untreated control and CHS-silenced hairy roots. The asterisk indicates a significant difference at the 0.05 level in the CHS-silenced roots compared with control roots (Student's t test; n = 19 to 20). (C) Effect of S. meliloti and NPA on auxin transport in control and CHS-silenced hairy roots. Any two pairwise comparisons of treatments labeled with different letters are significantly different from each other at the 0.05 level (one way analysis of variance; n = 10 to 24). All error bars indicate standard errors of the mean. For the experimental setup, see Supplemental Figure 4 online.

Techniques Used: Labeling

8) Product Images from "HPrK Regulates Succinate-Mediated Catabolite Repression in the Gram-Negative Symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti ▿"

Article Title: HPrK Regulates Succinate-Mediated Catabolite Repression in the Gram-Negative Symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti ▿

Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

doi: 10.1128/JB.01115-08

Genes encoding HPrK-like proteins in S. meliloti and other alphaproteobacteria. (A) Maps of chromosomal regions containing PTS-like genes from various sequenced alphaproteobacteria. (B) CLUSTALX alignment of HprK from B. subtilis and S. meliloti . Important
Figure Legend Snippet: Genes encoding HPrK-like proteins in S. meliloti and other alphaproteobacteria. (A) Maps of chromosomal regions containing PTS-like genes from various sequenced alphaproteobacteria. (B) CLUSTALX alignment of HprK from B. subtilis and S. meliloti . Important

Techniques Used:

Nodulation phenotype of Δ hprK mutants. Average number of nodules per plant (A), shoot weight (B), and number of pink nodules per plant (C) on alfalfa plants inoculated with S. meliloti wild-type strain Rm1021, strain CAP14(Δ hprK ), and
Figure Legend Snippet: Nodulation phenotype of Δ hprK mutants. Average number of nodules per plant (A), shoot weight (B), and number of pink nodules per plant (C) on alfalfa plants inoculated with S. meliloti wild-type strain Rm1021, strain CAP14(Δ hprK ), and

Techniques Used:

Internal structure of nodules induced by wild-type strain and Δ hprK mutant. Images of S. meliloti strain Rm1021 (A and C, gray nodules) or strain CAP14(Δ hprK ) (B and D, white nodules) are shown. Panels A and B show the meristematic (M)
Figure Legend Snippet: Internal structure of nodules induced by wild-type strain and Δ hprK mutant. Images of S. meliloti strain Rm1021 (A and C, gray nodules) or strain CAP14(Δ hprK ) (B and D, white nodules) are shown. Panels A and B show the meristematic (M)

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis

Proposed model for the effects of HPrK on SMCR in S. meliloti . Phosphate groups enter the PTS by transfer from PEP to the histidine-22 residue of HPr. Phosphatase activity or low kinase activity of HPrK in the presence of succinate allows for accumulation
Figure Legend Snippet: Proposed model for the effects of HPrK on SMCR in S. meliloti . Phosphate groups enter the PTS by transfer from PEP to the histidine-22 residue of HPr. Phosphatase activity or low kinase activity of HPrK in the presence of succinate allows for accumulation

Techniques Used: Activity Assay

Colony morphology of S. meliloti containing altered HprK and HPr proteins. (A) Colonies of wild-type strain Rm1021. (B) Colonies of strain CAP14(Δ hprK ) (arrows) and Δ hprK suppressor strains (arrowheads). (C) Colonies of control strain
Figure Legend Snippet: Colony morphology of S. meliloti containing altered HprK and HPr proteins. (A) Colonies of wild-type strain Rm1021. (B) Colonies of strain CAP14(Δ hprK ) (arrows) and Δ hprK suppressor strains (arrowheads). (C) Colonies of control strain

Techniques Used:

Colony phenotype of S. meliloti containing altered HPrK and HPr proteins on SLX plates. Colonies of the indicated strains were grown for 7 days on succinate (0.1%) plus lactose (0.05%) M9 plates with indicator X-Gal before being photographed.
Figure Legend Snippet: Colony phenotype of S. meliloti containing altered HPrK and HPr proteins on SLX plates. Colonies of the indicated strains were grown for 7 days on succinate (0.1%) plus lactose (0.05%) M9 plates with indicator X-Gal before being photographed.

Techniques Used:

9) Product Images from "Exopolysaccharides from Sinorhizobium meliloti Can Protect against H2O2-Dependent Damage"

Article Title: Exopolysaccharides from Sinorhizobium meliloti Can Protect against H2O2-Dependent Damage

Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

doi: 10.1128/JB.00681-13

Effects of coculture on the survival of S. meliloti strains expressing different levels of EPS-I and EPS-II. The exoY Sp or exoY exopolysaccharide-deficient strain, cocultured with a strain overproducing EPS-I (A) or with a strain expressing EPS-II (B),
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of coculture on the survival of S. meliloti strains expressing different levels of EPS-I and EPS-II. The exoY Sp or exoY exopolysaccharide-deficient strain, cocultured with a strain overproducing EPS-I (A) or with a strain expressing EPS-II (B),

Techniques Used: Expressing

Effects of H 2 O 2 on the survival of S. meliloti strains. (A) S. meliloti strains were tested for survival in 1 mM H 2 O 2 at various time points. The arrow indicates the 30-min time point chosen for subsequent assays. (B) Survival of several S. meliloti strains
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of H 2 O 2 on the survival of S. meliloti strains. (A) S. meliloti strains were tested for survival in 1 mM H 2 O 2 at various time points. The arrow indicates the 30-min time point chosen for subsequent assays. (B) Survival of several S. meliloti strains

Techniques Used:

Chelation of iron with dipyridyl enhances the survival of S. meliloti in H 2 O 2 . (A) Survival of S. meliloti strains in 1 mM H 2 O 2 without (dark shaded bars) or with (light shaded bars) the addition of the iron chelator dipyridyl. Survival is normalized
Figure Legend Snippet: Chelation of iron with dipyridyl enhances the survival of S. meliloti in H 2 O 2 . (A) Survival of S. meliloti strains in 1 mM H 2 O 2 without (dark shaded bars) or with (light shaded bars) the addition of the iron chelator dipyridyl. Survival is normalized

Techniques Used:

10) Product Images from "A LuxR Homolog Controls Production of Symbiotically Active Extracellular Polysaccharide II by Sinorhizobium meliloti"

Article Title: A LuxR Homolog Controls Production of Symbiotically Active Extracellular Polysaccharide II by Sinorhizobium meliloti

Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

doi: 10.1128/JB.184.18.5067-5076.2002

Reverse-phase HPLC fractionation of AHLs present in the ethyl acetate culture filtrate extracts of S. meliloti strain Rm1021. One-minute fractions from a C 18 HPLC column were collected, and serial dilutions were assayed with the AHL reporters as described in Materials and Methods. Luminescence was measured with a Wallac Victor-2 microtiter plate reader. The acetonitrile concentration in the elution gradient was 50 to 100%. The retention time of a synthetic 3-oxo-C 12 -HSL standard is indicated. Similar AHL activity profiles were obtained with culture filtrate extracts of an expR + strain (Rm8530).
Figure Legend Snippet: Reverse-phase HPLC fractionation of AHLs present in the ethyl acetate culture filtrate extracts of S. meliloti strain Rm1021. One-minute fractions from a C 18 HPLC column were collected, and serial dilutions were assayed with the AHL reporters as described in Materials and Methods. Luminescence was measured with a Wallac Victor-2 microtiter plate reader. The acetonitrile concentration in the elution gradient was 50 to 100%. The retention time of a synthetic 3-oxo-C 12 -HSL standard is indicated. Similar AHL activity profiles were obtained with culture filtrate extracts of an expR + strain (Rm8530).

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Fractionation, Concentration Assay, Activity Assay

The expR ORF in S. meliloti strain Rm1021 is disrupted by a 1,319-bp IS element. (A) A 0.8% agarose gel showing the expR region PCR products from Rm1021 (2.2 kb) and from Rm8530 (Rm1021 expR + [formerly expR101 ]) (0.9 kb). The marker (M) lane contains the Gibco BRL 1-kb ladder. (B) Schematic representation of the expR ORFs from Rm1021 and Rm8530. The scale bars represent the diagnostic PCR products produced from each strain. (C and D) Autoradiographs of Southern blots of S. meliloti DNA probed with a sequence specific for IS Rm 2011-1. (C) IS Rm 2011-1 fingerprint of Eco RI-restricted genomic DNA from Rm1021 and Rm8530 (Rm1021 expR + [formerly expR101 ]). (D) IS Rm 2011-1 fingerprint of Eco RV-restricted genomic DNA from Rm1021 and Rm8530 (Rm1021 expR + [formerly expR101 ]). The arrows indicate the IS Rm 2011-1-hybridizing bands present in Rm1021 that are missing in Rm8530.
Figure Legend Snippet: The expR ORF in S. meliloti strain Rm1021 is disrupted by a 1,319-bp IS element. (A) A 0.8% agarose gel showing the expR region PCR products from Rm1021 (2.2 kb) and from Rm8530 (Rm1021 expR + [formerly expR101 ]) (0.9 kb). The marker (M) lane contains the Gibco BRL 1-kb ladder. (B) Schematic representation of the expR ORFs from Rm1021 and Rm8530. The scale bars represent the diagnostic PCR products produced from each strain. (C and D) Autoradiographs of Southern blots of S. meliloti DNA probed with a sequence specific for IS Rm 2011-1. (C) IS Rm 2011-1 fingerprint of Eco RI-restricted genomic DNA from Rm1021 and Rm8530 (Rm1021 expR + [formerly expR101 ]). (D) IS Rm 2011-1 fingerprint of Eco RV-restricted genomic DNA from Rm1021 and Rm8530 (Rm1021 expR + [formerly expR101 ]). The arrows indicate the IS Rm 2011-1-hybridizing bands present in Rm1021 that are missing in Rm8530.

Techniques Used: Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Marker, Diagnostic Assay, Produced, Sequencing

The expR101 mutation in S. meliloti strain Rm1021 results in a mucoid colony morphology. Colonies formed by wild-type strain Rm1021 (A), which does not produce EPS II, are dry, whereas colonies formed by Rm9000 (Rm1021 expR + [formerly expR101 ] exoY210 :: Tn 5 ) (B), which produces EPS II, are mucoid. The colonies pictured were grown on LBMC agar.
Figure Legend Snippet: The expR101 mutation in S. meliloti strain Rm1021 results in a mucoid colony morphology. Colonies formed by wild-type strain Rm1021 (A), which does not produce EPS II, are dry, whereas colonies formed by Rm9000 (Rm1021 expR + [formerly expR101 ] exoY210 :: Tn 5 ) (B), which produces EPS II, are mucoid. The colonies pictured were grown on LBMC agar.

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis

11) Product Images from "Sinorhizobium fredii and Sinorhizobium meliloti Produce Structurally Conserved Lipopolysaccharides and Strain-Specific K Antigens"

Article Title: Sinorhizobium fredii and Sinorhizobium meliloti Produce Structurally Conserved Lipopolysaccharides and Strain-Specific K Antigens

Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

doi:

PAGE analysis of the K antigens. The gels were prestained with alcian blue, a cationic dye that binds the acidic polysaccharides, prior to silver staining. (A) Lanes: 1, S. fredii USDA205; 2, S. fredii USDA257; 3, S. fredii USDA201; 4, S. fredii USDA208; 5, Sinorhizobium sp. strain NGR234; 6, S. fredii HH103; 7, S. fredii HH303; 8, S. fredii USDA192; 9, S. fredii USDA191; 10, S. meliloti AK631. (B) Lanes: 1, S. meliloti NRG133; 2, S. meliloti NRG23; 3, S. meliloti NRG185; 4, S. meliloti NRG247; 5, S. meliloti NRG286; 6, S. meliloti NRG53; 7, S. meliloti AK631.
Figure Legend Snippet: PAGE analysis of the K antigens. The gels were prestained with alcian blue, a cationic dye that binds the acidic polysaccharides, prior to silver staining. (A) Lanes: 1, S. fredii USDA205; 2, S. fredii USDA257; 3, S. fredii USDA201; 4, S. fredii USDA208; 5, Sinorhizobium sp. strain NGR234; 6, S. fredii HH103; 7, S. fredii HH303; 8, S. fredii USDA192; 9, S. fredii USDA191; 10, S. meliloti AK631. (B) Lanes: 1, S. meliloti NRG133; 2, S. meliloti NRG23; 3, S. meliloti NRG185; 4, S. meliloti NRG247; 5, S. meliloti NRG286; 6, S. meliloti NRG53; 7, S. meliloti AK631.

Techniques Used: Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Silver Staining

1 H NMR spectra of the K antigens from S. meliloti NRG247 (A), S. meliloti NRG185 (B), S. fredii USDA208 (C), S. fredii USDA201 (D), Sinorhizobium sp. strain NGR234 (E), and S. fredii HH303 (F). The chemical shift of the 2 HOH resonance (4.55 or 4.75 ppm) is temperature dependent. See the text for detailed descriptions.
Figure Legend Snippet: 1 H NMR spectra of the K antigens from S. meliloti NRG247 (A), S. meliloti NRG185 (B), S. fredii USDA208 (C), S. fredii USDA201 (D), Sinorhizobium sp. strain NGR234 (E), and S. fredii HH303 (F). The chemical shift of the 2 HOH resonance (4.55 or 4.75 ppm) is temperature dependent. See the text for detailed descriptions.

Techniques Used: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

12) Product Images from "Characterization of a Two-Component Regulatory System That Regulates Succinate-Mediated Catabolite Repression in Sinorhizobium meliloti ▿ ▿ †"

Article Title: Characterization of a Two-Component Regulatory System That Regulates Succinate-Mediated Catabolite Repression in Sinorhizobium meliloti ▿ ▿ †

Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

doi: 10.1128/JB.00629-10

PHB and mRNA levels in select isogenic strains of S. meliloti . (A) PHB levels during growth in M9 succinate. Levels have been normalized to that found in strain PG105 (wild type). The mean and standard deviation from four independent experiments are shown. Asterisks indicate levels that are significantly different from those found in strain PG105 at a P value of
Figure Legend Snippet: PHB and mRNA levels in select isogenic strains of S. meliloti . (A) PHB levels during growth in M9 succinate. Levels have been normalized to that found in strain PG105 (wild type). The mean and standard deviation from four independent experiments are shown. Asterisks indicate levels that are significantly different from those found in strain PG105 at a P value of

Techniques Used: Standard Deviation

13) Product Images from "The Novel Genes emmABC Are Associated with Exopolysaccharide Production, Motility, Stress Adaptation, and Symbiosis in Sinorhizobium meliloti "

Article Title: The Novel Genes emmABC Are Associated with Exopolysaccharide Production, Motility, Stress Adaptation, and Symbiosis in Sinorhizobium meliloti

Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

doi: 10.1128/JB.00760-09

(A) Alignment showing the conservation of the region containing the emm locus (gray arrows). Orthologs of the following organisms are included: S. meliloti , Sinorhizobium medicae , Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain 3841, Mesorhizobium loti , and Rhizobium etli CFN42. (B) Percentages of identity and similarity (in parentheses) for S. meliloti EmmA, EmmB, and EmmC homologs.
Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Alignment showing the conservation of the region containing the emm locus (gray arrows). Orthologs of the following organisms are included: S. meliloti , Sinorhizobium medicae , Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain 3841, Mesorhizobium loti , and Rhizobium etli CFN42. (B) Percentages of identity and similarity (in parentheses) for S. meliloti EmmA, EmmB, and EmmC homologs.

Techniques Used:

Mutations in the emm locus affect the ability of S. meliloti to form an optimal symbiosis with alfalfa. Seedlings were inoculated with wild-type, exoY , emmA , exoY emmA , emmC , and exoY emmC strains. The total numbers of pink and white nodules were determined after 4 weeks. The data are the averages of three experiments, and 35 plants were scored in each experiment. Both the total number of nodules and the number of nitrogen-fixing pink nodules were reduced in the plants inoculated with the exoY emmA and exoY emmC mutants compared to the results for the wild type.
Figure Legend Snippet: Mutations in the emm locus affect the ability of S. meliloti to form an optimal symbiosis with alfalfa. Seedlings were inoculated with wild-type, exoY , emmA , exoY emmA , emmC , and exoY emmC strains. The total numbers of pink and white nodules were determined after 4 weeks. The data are the averages of three experiments, and 35 plants were scored in each experiment. Both the total number of nodules and the number of nitrogen-fixing pink nodules were reduced in the plants inoculated with the exoY emmA and exoY emmC mutants compared to the results for the wild type.

Techniques Used:

14) Product Images from "PCR Use of Highly Conserved DNA Regions for Identification of Sinorhizobium meliloti"

Article Title: PCR Use of Highly Conserved DNA Regions for Identification of Sinorhizobium meliloti

Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

doi:

PCR amplification of genomic DNA from different soil bacteria when primers nodbox1, nodbox3, mucRf, and mucRr were used simultaneously. The arrows indicate the positions of the 431-bp mucR amplicon and the 646-bp nodbox4 amplicon. Lane 1, S. meliloti EFB1; lane 2, S. meliloti 2011; lane 3, S. meliloti GR4; lane 4, Rhizobium etli CE3; lane 5, Rhizobium leguminosarum 3841; lane 6, R. leguminosarum STR6; lane 7, Sinorhizobium fredii HH103; lane 8, Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234; lane 9, Pseudomonas fluorescens F113; lane 10, negative control without DNA; lane 11, molecular weight markers.
Figure Legend Snippet: PCR amplification of genomic DNA from different soil bacteria when primers nodbox1, nodbox3, mucRf, and mucRr were used simultaneously. The arrows indicate the positions of the 431-bp mucR amplicon and the 646-bp nodbox4 amplicon. Lane 1, S. meliloti EFB1; lane 2, S. meliloti 2011; lane 3, S. meliloti GR4; lane 4, Rhizobium etli CE3; lane 5, Rhizobium leguminosarum 3841; lane 6, R. leguminosarum STR6; lane 7, Sinorhizobium fredii HH103; lane 8, Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234; lane 9, Pseudomonas fluorescens F113; lane 10, negative control without DNA; lane 11, molecular weight markers.

Techniques Used: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Negative Control, Molecular Weight

15) Product Images from "Sinorhizobium meliloti ExoR Is the Target of Periplasmic Proteolysis"

Article Title: Sinorhizobium meliloti ExoR Is the Target of Periplasmic Proteolysis

Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

doi: 10.1128/JB.00313-12

Western blot showing ExoR protein profiles of the S. meliloti wild-type Rm1021, the exoR95 mutant, the exoR108-chvI109 double mutant, and the exoR108-chvI109 (pHC510) double mutant, which is labeled as a p exoR mutant expressing the wild-type exoR gene.
Figure Legend Snippet: Western blot showing ExoR protein profiles of the S. meliloti wild-type Rm1021, the exoR95 mutant, the exoR108-chvI109 double mutant, and the exoR108-chvI109 (pHC510) double mutant, which is labeled as a p exoR mutant expressing the wild-type exoR gene.

Techniques Used: Western Blot, Mutagenesis, Labeling, Expressing

Cellular location of ExoR protein and site of proteolysis. (A and B) Schematic representation of three different ExoR-PhoA fusions (A) and their corresponding phosphatase activities in the S. meliloti Rm8002 background (B). The vertically hatched boxes
Figure Legend Snippet: Cellular location of ExoR protein and site of proteolysis. (A and B) Schematic representation of three different ExoR-PhoA fusions (A) and their corresponding phosphatase activities in the S. meliloti Rm8002 background (B). The vertically hatched boxes

Techniques Used:

Amino acid sequence alignment of ExoR proteolysis regions from 16 ExoR orthologs. Conserved amino acids are shaded. The overall amino acid identities between S. meliloti ExoR and its orthologs are listed. The positions of the amino acids and the site
Figure Legend Snippet: Amino acid sequence alignment of ExoR proteolysis regions from 16 ExoR orthologs. Conserved amino acids are shaded. The overall amino acid identities between S. meliloti ExoR and its orthologs are listed. The positions of the amino acids and the site

Techniques Used: Sequencing

16) Product Images from "Cyclic Di-GMP Regulates Multiple Cellular Functions in the Symbiotic Alphaproteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti"

Article Title: Cyclic Di-GMP Regulates Multiple Cellular Functions in the Symbiotic Alphaproteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti

Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

doi: 10.1128/JB.00795-15

Overview of S. meliloti Rm2011 cdG-related genes. Green, GGDEF domain; red, EAL domain; blue, PilZ domain. Differences from consensus sequence motifs are labeled in red. Domain architectures are drawn to scale. Black bars, predicted transmembrane helices;
Figure Legend Snippet: Overview of S. meliloti Rm2011 cdG-related genes. Green, GGDEF domain; red, EAL domain; blue, PilZ domain. Differences from consensus sequence motifs are labeled in red. Domain architectures are drawn to scale. Black bars, predicted transmembrane helices;

Techniques Used: Sequencing, Labeling

Summary of cdG-mediated regulation in S. meliloti ). Biosynthesis of QS signals is negatively regulated
Figure Legend Snippet: Summary of cdG-mediated regulation in S. meliloti ). Biosynthesis of QS signals is negatively regulated

Techniques Used:

Elevated cdG content negatively affects AHL production at the level of sinI transcription. (A) Semiquantitative detection of AHLs in S. meliloti stationary-phase culture supernatants by A. tumefaciens NTL4(pZLR4). (B) sinI promoter activity determined
Figure Legend Snippet: Elevated cdG content negatively affects AHL production at the level of sinI transcription. (A) Semiquantitative detection of AHLs in S. meliloti stationary-phase culture supernatants by A. tumefaciens NTL4(pZLR4). (B) sinI promoter activity determined

Techniques Used: Activity Assay

17) Product Images from "Succinoglycan Production by Rhizobium meliloti Is Regulated through the ExoS-ChvI Two-Component Regulatory System"

Article Title: Succinoglycan Production by Rhizobium meliloti Is Regulated through the ExoS-ChvI Two-Component Regulatory System

Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

doi:

Alignment of the putative amino acid sequences of the R. meliloti ExoS and A. tumefaciens ChvG proteins. The two proteins have an overall identity of 68% and a similarity of 78%. Identical residues are shaded. A possible reason for the sharp drop in homology between residues 135 and 206 is discussed in the text. The putative N terminus of ExoS96 is indicated by an arrow. The four boxes highlight the four most important regions, the H, N, D/F, and G boxes, within the histidine kinase domains of sensor proteins in two-component regulatory systems. The site of phosphorylation is indicated by a triangle. The hatched bars indicate predicted transmembrane domains for ExoS (above the sequence) and ChvG (below the sequence).
Figure Legend Snippet: Alignment of the putative amino acid sequences of the R. meliloti ExoS and A. tumefaciens ChvG proteins. The two proteins have an overall identity of 68% and a similarity of 78%. Identical residues are shaded. A possible reason for the sharp drop in homology between residues 135 and 206 is discussed in the text. The putative N terminus of ExoS96 is indicated by an arrow. The four boxes highlight the four most important regions, the H, N, D/F, and G boxes, within the histidine kinase domains of sensor proteins in two-component regulatory systems. The site of phosphorylation is indicated by a triangle. The hatched bars indicate predicted transmembrane domains for ExoS (above the sequence) and ChvG (below the sequence).

Techniques Used: Sequencing

Schematic representation of the organization of the R. meliloti ExoS-ChvI and A. tumefaciens ChvG-ChvI two-component regulatory systems showing the similarity between the two systems. The predicted transmembrane domains and kinase domains are indicated, as are the two cytoplasmic domains of ExoS (ExoS cyto67 and ExoS cyto72 ) that were used in the study. The lengths of the two arrows indicate the sizes of the cytoplasmic domains. The sites of Tn phoA insertions in the chvG open reading frame and Tn 5 insertion in the exoS96 mutant are indicated.
Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic representation of the organization of the R. meliloti ExoS-ChvI and A. tumefaciens ChvG-ChvI two-component regulatory systems showing the similarity between the two systems. The predicted transmembrane domains and kinase domains are indicated, as are the two cytoplasmic domains of ExoS (ExoS cyto67 and ExoS cyto72 ) that were used in the study. The lengths of the two arrows indicate the sizes of the cytoplasmic domains. The sites of Tn phoA insertions in the chvG open reading frame and Tn 5 insertion in the exoS96 mutant are indicated.

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis

18) Product Images from "Succinoglycan Is Required for Initiation and Elongation of Infection Threads during Nodulation of Alfalfa by Rhizobium meliloti"

Article Title: Succinoglycan Is Required for Initiation and Elongation of Infection Threads during Nodulation of Alfalfa by Rhizobium meliloti

Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

doi:

Schematic representation of invading R. meliloti bacterial cells that were blocked at different stages of infection thread formation, showing a curled root hair (Shepherd’s crook), a colonized curled root hair, a colonized curled root hair with an initiated infection thread, and a colonized curled root hair with an infection thread extending to the base of the root hair.
Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic representation of invading R. meliloti bacterial cells that were blocked at different stages of infection thread formation, showing a curled root hair (Shepherd’s crook), a colonized curled root hair, a colonized curled root hair with an initiated infection thread, and a colonized curled root hair with an infection thread extending to the base of the root hair.

Techniques Used: Infection

Fluorescence microscopy analyses of nodule invasion by GFP-expressing cells of the wild-type R. meliloti strain Rm1021 and its succinoglycan ( exo ) mutants. (A) Composite image of a colonized curled root hair (red) with an extended infection thread filled with the wild-type bacterial cells (green). The infection thread started from the Shepherd’s crook of the curled root hair and has reached the base of the root hair. (B, C, and F) Images of a curled root hair that has been colonized by the exoY210 mutant showing a composite image of a curled root hair with a fluorescent bacterial colony (green) in the Shepherd’s crook (B), the Shepherd’s crook of the curled root hair (C), and the composite phase-contrast and fluorescence image, which demonstrated that there is no infection thread inside the root hair (F). (D) Composite image of a root hair colonized by the exoZ341 mutant, which had developed an aborted infection thread. The infection thread started from a very small colony inside the curled root hair and aborted in the middle of the root hair with a swollen end. (E) Composite image of a curled root hair colonized by the exoZ341 mutant showing a large fluorescent bacterial colony in the middle of a curled root hair. No infection thread can be seen. (G) Fluorescence image of a nodule from a plant inoculated with GFP-expressing wild-type strain Rm1021 showing the outline of the nodule and individual nodule epidermal cells. (H) Fluorescence image of a nodule from a plant inoculated with GFP-expressing cells of the exoY mutant showing patches of bacterial cells on the surface of the nodule and bright bacterial colonies within the nodule epidermis. Images of root hairs (A to E) were photographed with a magnification of ×400. Images of root nodules (G and H) were photographed with a magnification of ×100.
Figure Legend Snippet: Fluorescence microscopy analyses of nodule invasion by GFP-expressing cells of the wild-type R. meliloti strain Rm1021 and its succinoglycan ( exo ) mutants. (A) Composite image of a colonized curled root hair (red) with an extended infection thread filled with the wild-type bacterial cells (green). The infection thread started from the Shepherd’s crook of the curled root hair and has reached the base of the root hair. (B, C, and F) Images of a curled root hair that has been colonized by the exoY210 mutant showing a composite image of a curled root hair with a fluorescent bacterial colony (green) in the Shepherd’s crook (B), the Shepherd’s crook of the curled root hair (C), and the composite phase-contrast and fluorescence image, which demonstrated that there is no infection thread inside the root hair (F). (D) Composite image of a root hair colonized by the exoZ341 mutant, which had developed an aborted infection thread. The infection thread started from a very small colony inside the curled root hair and aborted in the middle of the root hair with a swollen end. (E) Composite image of a curled root hair colonized by the exoZ341 mutant showing a large fluorescent bacterial colony in the middle of a curled root hair. No infection thread can be seen. (G) Fluorescence image of a nodule from a plant inoculated with GFP-expressing wild-type strain Rm1021 showing the outline of the nodule and individual nodule epidermal cells. (H) Fluorescence image of a nodule from a plant inoculated with GFP-expressing cells of the exoY mutant showing patches of bacterial cells on the surface of the nodule and bright bacterial colonies within the nodule epidermis. Images of root hairs (A to E) were photographed with a magnification of ×400. Images of root nodules (G and H) were photographed with a magnification of ×100.

Techniques Used: Fluorescence, Microscopy, Expressing, Infection, Mutagenesis

19) Product Images from "A Sinorhizobium meliloti Lipopolysaccharide Mutant Altered in Cell Surface Sulfation"

Article Title: A Sinorhizobium meliloti Lipopolysaccharide Mutant Altered in Cell Surface Sulfation

Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

doi: 10.1128/JB.184.23.6681-6689.2002

Symbiotic assay of Rm1021 (wild type) and DKR1 mutant on alfalfa hosts. (A) Nodulation kinetics of Rm1021 (wild type), DKR1 ( lps-212) , and JT210 (nodH ::Tn 5 ). Plants were grown on agar slants in the absence of added nitrogen and inoculated with bacterial strains, and the number of nodules was quantitated and plotted as a function of time as described in Materials and Methods. Error bars denote standard error in nodule number. (B) Nitrogen fixation assay of alfalfa nodules produced by wild-type and mutant S. meliloti . Plants were inoculated with S. meliloti and assayed for nitrogen fixation 21 days after inoculation as described in Materials and Methods. Lane 1, mock inoculation; lane 2, Rm1021 (wild-type [WT]); lane 3, DKR58 ( lps-212 pVector); lane 4, DKR59 ( lps-212 p lpsL ); lane 5, DKR60 ( lps-212 p lpsL212 ); lane 6, DKR62 ( lpsL ::pVO155). Error bars denote standard error.
Figure Legend Snippet: Symbiotic assay of Rm1021 (wild type) and DKR1 mutant on alfalfa hosts. (A) Nodulation kinetics of Rm1021 (wild type), DKR1 ( lps-212) , and JT210 (nodH ::Tn 5 ). Plants were grown on agar slants in the absence of added nitrogen and inoculated with bacterial strains, and the number of nodules was quantitated and plotted as a function of time as described in Materials and Methods. Error bars denote standard error in nodule number. (B) Nitrogen fixation assay of alfalfa nodules produced by wild-type and mutant S. meliloti . Plants were inoculated with S. meliloti and assayed for nitrogen fixation 21 days after inoculation as described in Materials and Methods. Lane 1, mock inoculation; lane 2, Rm1021 (wild-type [WT]); lane 3, DKR58 ( lps-212 pVector); lane 4, DKR59 ( lps-212 p lpsL ); lane 5, DKR60 ( lps-212 p lpsL212 ); lane 6, DKR62 ( lpsL ::pVO155). Error bars denote standard error.

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Produced

In vitro LPS sulfation of wild-type S. meliloti and lps-212 mutants. (A) In vitro sulfation activity of wild-type and mutant extracts. Extracts were prepared and assayed for in vitro polysaccharide sulfotransferase activity as described in Materials and Methods. Lane 1, strain Rm1021 (wild type [WT]); lane 2, JSS12 ( nodP 1 Q 1 ::Tn 5-233 lps-212 ); lane 3, JSS12Tr ( nodP 1 Q 1 ::Tn 5-233) ; lane 4, JSS14 ( nodP 2 Q 2 ::Tn 5) ; lane 5, DKR1 ( lps-212) ; lane 6, DKR58 ( lps-212 pVector); lane 7, DKR59 ( lps-212 p lpsL ); lane 8, DKR60 ( lps-212 p lpsL212 ). (B) In vitro sulfation of mutants lacking either rkpK or lpsL . Lane 1, Rm1021 (wild type [WT]); lane 2, DKR62 ( lpsL ::pVO155); lane 3, DKR63 ( rkpK ::pVO155).
Figure Legend Snippet: In vitro LPS sulfation of wild-type S. meliloti and lps-212 mutants. (A) In vitro sulfation activity of wild-type and mutant extracts. Extracts were prepared and assayed for in vitro polysaccharide sulfotransferase activity as described in Materials and Methods. Lane 1, strain Rm1021 (wild type [WT]); lane 2, JSS12 ( nodP 1 Q 1 ::Tn 5-233 lps-212 ); lane 3, JSS12Tr ( nodP 1 Q 1 ::Tn 5-233) ; lane 4, JSS14 ( nodP 2 Q 2 ::Tn 5) ; lane 5, DKR1 ( lps-212) ; lane 6, DKR58 ( lps-212 pVector); lane 7, DKR59 ( lps-212 p lpsL ); lane 8, DKR60 ( lps-212 p lpsL212 ). (B) In vitro sulfation of mutants lacking either rkpK or lpsL . Lane 1, Rm1021 (wild type [WT]); lane 2, DKR62 ( lpsL ::pVO155); lane 3, DKR63 ( rkpK ::pVO155).

Techniques Used: In Vitro, Activity Assay, Mutagenesis

Analysis of LPS from wild-type and mutant strains. (A) Silver-stained deoxycholate-PAGE gel of purified LPS core from S. meliloti . Lane 1, strain Rm1021 (wild type [WT]); lane 2, strain JSS12 ( nodP 1 Q 1 ::Tn 5-233 lps-212 ); lane 3, JSS12Tr ( nodP 1 Q 1 ::Tn 5-233) ; lane 4, JSS14 ( nodP 2 Q 2 ::Tn 5) ; lane 5, DKR1 ( lps-212) ; lane 6, DKR58 ( lps-212 pVector); lane 7, DKR59 ( lps-212 p lpsL ); lane 8, DKR60 ( lps-212 p lpsL212 ). (B) In vivo sulfate labeling of S. meliloti LPS core. Wild-type and lps-212 strains were cultured in the presence of 10 μCi of Na 2 35 SO 4 ; the LPS was extracted, fractionated by deoxycholate-PAGE, and analyzed by phosphorimaging as described in Materials and Methods. Lane 1, Rm1021 (wild type [WT]); lane 2, DKR1 ( lps-212 ); lane 3, DKR58 ( lps-212 pVector); lane 4, DKR59 ( lps-212 p lpsL ); lane 5, DKR60 ( lps-212 p lpsL212 ).
Figure Legend Snippet: Analysis of LPS from wild-type and mutant strains. (A) Silver-stained deoxycholate-PAGE gel of purified LPS core from S. meliloti . Lane 1, strain Rm1021 (wild type [WT]); lane 2, strain JSS12 ( nodP 1 Q 1 ::Tn 5-233 lps-212 ); lane 3, JSS12Tr ( nodP 1 Q 1 ::Tn 5-233) ; lane 4, JSS14 ( nodP 2 Q 2 ::Tn 5) ; lane 5, DKR1 ( lps-212) ; lane 6, DKR58 ( lps-212 pVector); lane 7, DKR59 ( lps-212 p lpsL ); lane 8, DKR60 ( lps-212 p lpsL212 ). (B) In vivo sulfate labeling of S. meliloti LPS core. Wild-type and lps-212 strains were cultured in the presence of 10 μCi of Na 2 35 SO 4 ; the LPS was extracted, fractionated by deoxycholate-PAGE, and analyzed by phosphorimaging as described in Materials and Methods. Lane 1, Rm1021 (wild type [WT]); lane 2, DKR1 ( lps-212 ); lane 3, DKR58 ( lps-212 pVector); lane 4, DKR59 ( lps-212 p lpsL ); lane 5, DKR60 ( lps-212 p lpsL212 ).

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Staining, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Purification, In Vivo, Labeling, Cell Culture

S. meliloti genomic region containing lpsL and rkpK . The site of the frameshift mutation is denoted with an asterisk. The unshaded region corresponds to the part of LpsL truncated as the result of the premature termination resulting from the frameshift mutation. The numbers correspond to the amino acid positions of the open reading frame. The lines placed below the open reading frame depiction correspond to the regions of lpsL and rkpK carried on the plasmids used for complementation and gene inactivation.
Figure Legend Snippet: S. meliloti genomic region containing lpsL and rkpK . The site of the frameshift mutation is denoted with an asterisk. The unshaded region corresponds to the part of LpsL truncated as the result of the premature termination resulting from the frameshift mutation. The numbers correspond to the amino acid positions of the open reading frame. The lines placed below the open reading frame depiction correspond to the regions of lpsL and rkpK carried on the plasmids used for complementation and gene inactivation.

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis

20) Product Images from "Environmental Regulation of Exopolysaccharide Production in Sinorhizobium meliloti"

Article Title: Environmental Regulation of Exopolysaccharide Production in Sinorhizobium meliloti

Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

doi:

Exopolysaccharide production by S. meliloti on plates with different phosphate concentrations. Plates with 0.1 mM (1 and 3) or 100 mM (2 and 4) K 2 HPO 4 were prepared as indicated in Materials and Methods. Plates 1 and 2: A, Rm1021; B, expA ; C, exoY ; and D, exoY expA . Plates 3 and 4: E, expR101 ; F, expR101 expA ; and G, expR101 exoY .
Figure Legend Snippet: Exopolysaccharide production by S. meliloti on plates with different phosphate concentrations. Plates with 0.1 mM (1 and 3) or 100 mM (2 and 4) K 2 HPO 4 were prepared as indicated in Materials and Methods. Plates 1 and 2: A, Rm1021; B, expA ; C, exoY ; and D, exoY expA . Plates 3 and 4: E, expR101 ; F, expR101 expA ; and G, expR101 exoY .

Techniques Used:

21) Product Images from "Genetic Diversity and Dynamics of Sinorhizobium meliloti Populations Nodulating Different Alfalfa Cultivars in Italian Soils"

Article Title: Genetic Diversity and Dynamics of Sinorhizobium meliloti Populations Nodulating Different Alfalfa Cultivars in Italian Soils

Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

doi:

Unweighted pair group with mathematical average dendrograms of S. meliloti strains isolated from clay soil in 1994 (A) and 1997 (B). L, cultivar Lodi; O, cultivar Oneida. Each letter indicates a different isolate.
Figure Legend Snippet: Unweighted pair group with mathematical average dendrograms of S. meliloti strains isolated from clay soil in 1994 (A) and 1997 (B). L, cultivar Lodi; O, cultivar Oneida. Each letter indicates a different isolate.

Techniques Used: Isolation

22) Product Images from "The Sinorhizobium meliloti Nutrient-Deprivation-Induced Tyrosine Degradation Gene hmgA Is Controlled by a Novel Member of the arsR Family of Regulatory Genes"

Article Title: The Sinorhizobium meliloti Nutrient-Deprivation-Induced Tyrosine Degradation Gene hmgA Is Controlled by a Novel Member of the arsR Family of Regulatory Genes

Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

doi: 10.1128/AEM.67.6.2641-2648.2001

Alignment of the deduced S. meliloti NitR protein sequence with the deduced amino acid sequences of the S. coelicolor ORFJ12 and B. subtilis yceK and yczG genes. Identical amino acids are indicated by black boxes; similar amino acids are indicated by white boxes. The predicted ArsR helix-turn-helix motif is indicated by lines over the sequences (1: motif 1; 2: motif 3; PR00778: PRINTS accession number).
Figure Legend Snippet: Alignment of the deduced S. meliloti NitR protein sequence with the deduced amino acid sequences of the S. coelicolor ORFJ12 and B. subtilis yceK and yczG genes. Identical amino acids are indicated by black boxes; similar amino acids are indicated by white boxes. The predicted ArsR helix-turn-helix motif is indicated by lines over the sequences (1: motif 1; 2: motif 3; PR00778: PRINTS accession number).

Techniques Used: Sequencing

23) Product Images from "Bacterial persistence and bet hedging in Sinorhizobium meliloti"

Article Title: Bacterial persistence and bet hedging in Sinorhizobium meliloti

Journal: Communicative & Integrative Biology

doi: 10.4161/cib.4.1.14161

High-PHB old-pole cells enter a persistent state. (A) Populations of Sinorhizobium meliloti that varied in the percentage of high vs. low-PH B cells were generated via density gradient centrifugation or by starving rhizobia at varying densities. These
Figure Legend Snippet: High-PHB old-pole cells enter a persistent state. (A) Populations of Sinorhizobium meliloti that varied in the percentage of high vs. low-PH B cells were generated via density gradient centrifugation or by starving rhizobia at varying densities. These

Techniques Used: Generated, Gradient Centrifugation

24) Product Images from "Rhizobial galactoglucan determines the predatory pattern of Myxococcus xanthus and protects Sinorhizobium meliloti from predation"

Article Title: Rhizobial galactoglucan determines the predatory pattern of Myxococcus xanthus and protects Sinorhizobium meliloti from predation

Journal: Environmental microbiology

doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.12477

M. xanthus exhibits two predatory patterns on S. meliloti
Figure Legend Snippet: M. xanthus exhibits two predatory patterns on S. meliloti

Techniques Used:

Predatory patterns of M. xanthus on S. meliloti . The non-mucoid reference laboratory strain (ls) GR4b and the mucoid S. meliloti field isolate (fi) AK21 were exposed to the M. xanthus ( Mx ) WT strain DK1622 (A) or mutants (B) impaired in rippling ( csgA
Figure Legend Snippet: Predatory patterns of M. xanthus on S. meliloti . The non-mucoid reference laboratory strain (ls) GR4b and the mucoid S. meliloti field isolate (fi) AK21 were exposed to the M. xanthus ( Mx ) WT strain DK1622 (A) or mutants (B) impaired in rippling ( csgA

Techniques Used:

The wolfpack-like attack of M. xanthus DK1622 on S. meliloti requires a functional rhizobial expR gene. Diagrams of the spontaneous mutations of expR in the S. meliloti laboratory strains Rm1021 and Rm2011 (insertion of IS Rm1 ), GR4b (frameshift deletion)
Figure Legend Snippet: The wolfpack-like attack of M. xanthus DK1622 on S. meliloti requires a functional rhizobial expR gene. Diagrams of the spontaneous mutations of expR in the S. meliloti laboratory strains Rm1021 and Rm2011 (insertion of IS Rm1 ), GR4b (frameshift deletion)

Techniques Used: Functional Assay

Survival of S. meliloti Rm1021 (A) or its expR + derivative 1021R (B) upon coculture with WT M. xanthus strain DK1622. M. xanthus WT or different mutant strains () were spotted on top of rhizobial colonies previously grown on membrane filters. As
Figure Legend Snippet: Survival of S. meliloti Rm1021 (A) or its expR + derivative 1021R (B) upon coculture with WT M. xanthus strain DK1622. M. xanthus WT or different mutant strains () were spotted on top of rhizobial colonies previously grown on membrane filters. As

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis

The rhizobial galactoglucan determines the predatory pattern of M. xanthus on S. meliloti . Simplified outline of the rhizobial functions influenced by the ExpR/Sin quorum sensing system. S. meliloti Rm8530 ( expR + ) and derivative strains harboring mutations
Figure Legend Snippet: The rhizobial galactoglucan determines the predatory pattern of M. xanthus on S. meliloti . Simplified outline of the rhizobial functions influenced by the ExpR/Sin quorum sensing system. S. meliloti Rm8530 ( expR + ) and derivative strains harboring mutations

Techniques Used:

EPS II induces rippling. Crude EPS extracts obtained from S. meliloti 8530 (which synthesizes EPS II) and 8530W (impaired in EPS II production), or TM buffer were spotted next to M. xanthus DK1622 on CTT agar plates. Pictures were taken under a dissecting
Figure Legend Snippet: EPS II induces rippling. Crude EPS extracts obtained from S. meliloti 8530 (which synthesizes EPS II) and 8530W (impaired in EPS II production), or TM buffer were spotted next to M. xanthus DK1622 on CTT agar plates. Pictures were taken under a dissecting

Techniques Used:

25) Product Images from "Genetic Characterization of a Sinorhizobium meliloti Chromosomal Region Involved in Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis"

Article Title: Genetic Characterization of a Sinorhizobium meliloti Chromosomal Region Involved in Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis

Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

doi: 10.1128/JB.183.4.1248-1258.2001

PCR-hybridization analysis of lpsB -homologous sequences in various bacteria. (A) A PCR assay was carried out with primers LPSB2F and LPSB2R, designed according to the sequence conservation between S. meliloti lpsB and the homologous lpcC of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae. PCR products were separated on 2% (wt/vol) agarose gels containing 0.5 to 1 μg of ethidium bromide per ml and photographed with a Kodak DC120 digital camera under UV illumination. Strains are indicated above the lanes. MWM, molecular weight marker (lambda phage DNA digested with Hin dIII). (B) The PCR products from panel A were analyzed by Southern blot hybridization using a 532-bp digoxigenin-labeled DNA probe which is internal to lpsB and contains the amplified region.
Figure Legend Snippet: PCR-hybridization analysis of lpsB -homologous sequences in various bacteria. (A) A PCR assay was carried out with primers LPSB2F and LPSB2R, designed according to the sequence conservation between S. meliloti lpsB and the homologous lpcC of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae. PCR products were separated on 2% (wt/vol) agarose gels containing 0.5 to 1 μg of ethidium bromide per ml and photographed with a Kodak DC120 digital camera under UV illumination. Strains are indicated above the lanes. MWM, molecular weight marker (lambda phage DNA digested with Hin dIII). (B) The PCR products from panel A were analyzed by Southern blot hybridization using a 532-bp digoxigenin-labeled DNA probe which is internal to lpsB and contains the amplified region.

Techniques Used: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Hybridization, Sequencing, Molecular Weight, Marker, Southern Blot, Labeling, Amplification

26) Product Images from "Infection and Invasion of Roots by Symbiotic, Nitrogen-Fixing Rhizobia during Nodulation of Temperate Legumes"

Article Title: Infection and Invasion of Roots by Symbiotic, Nitrogen-Fixing Rhizobia during Nodulation of Temperate Legumes

Journal: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews

doi: 10.1128/MMBR.68.2.280-300.2004

Examples of mixed infection threads following coinoculation of alfalfa with red- and green-fluorescent bacteria. (A) Infection threads containing only gfp -expressing or DsRed -expressing S. meliloti . (B) A sectored infection thread in which the mixed population gave rise to a series of sectors which increase in length along the thread. The tipmost sector advanced into the epidermal cell body, branched (top arrow), and penetrated the underlying cell (bottom arrow), leaving the distal sectors behind. (C) A root hair infected with dual infection threads. Each thread contains sectors of gfp -expressing and DsRed -expressing bacteria. (D) A jumbled type of mixed infection thread. gfp -expressing and DsRed .)
Figure Legend Snippet: Examples of mixed infection threads following coinoculation of alfalfa with red- and green-fluorescent bacteria. (A) Infection threads containing only gfp -expressing or DsRed -expressing S. meliloti . (B) A sectored infection thread in which the mixed population gave rise to a series of sectors which increase in length along the thread. The tipmost sector advanced into the epidermal cell body, branched (top arrow), and penetrated the underlying cell (bottom arrow), leaving the distal sectors behind. (C) A root hair infected with dual infection threads. Each thread contains sectors of gfp -expressing and DsRed -expressing bacteria. (D) A jumbled type of mixed infection thread. gfp -expressing and DsRed .)

Techniques Used: Infection, Expressing

Root hair morphology on uninoculated and inoculated roots. (A to C) Typical root hairs from zones I, II, and III, respectively, of an uninoculated alfalfa plant. (D) Diagram of an alfalfa seedling, showing the locations of root hair zones I, II, and III. (E to G) Photographs showing how root hair responses to S. meliloti can vary along the length of a single root. The three images were taken from a single inoculated seedling at the locations indicated on the central diagram.
Figure Legend Snippet: Root hair morphology on uninoculated and inoculated roots. (A to C) Typical root hairs from zones I, II, and III, respectively, of an uninoculated alfalfa plant. (D) Diagram of an alfalfa seedling, showing the locations of root hair zones I, II, and III. (E to G) Photographs showing how root hair responses to S. meliloti can vary along the length of a single root. The three images were taken from a single inoculated seedling at the locations indicated on the central diagram.

Techniques Used:

Overview of the nodulation process in plants that form indeterminate nodules. (A) One form of Nod factor synthesized by S. meliloti . The upper arrow indicates the acetyl group added by NodL, and the lower arrow indicates the lipid moiety, the length and degree of saturation of which is modified by NodF and NodE. (B) Diagrammatic cross section of a root, showing gradients of an activating factor at protoxylem poles (blue) and an inhibitor at protophloem poles (red). Together such gradients may determine which root cells can become activated in response to infecting rhizobia. Nodules are typically formed next to the protoxylem poles, which are at the ends of the Y-shaped structure depicted in the center the diagram, rather than above the protophloem poles, which are depicted as ovals. (C) An epidermal cell and two underlying outer cortical cells. The epidermal cell has a nucleus positioned across from the place where a new root hair will form. (D) Root hair initiation in the epidermal cell. (E) Binding of a rhizobial cell to a type I root hair and activation of the underlying cortical cells in response to Nod factor. (F) Continued growth of the root hair, shown as stage II. (G) Curling of the stage II root hair under the influence of Nod factor and growth of a rhizobial microcolony in the curl. The underlying cortical cells have become polarized, and cytoplasmic bridges (PITs) have formed and are shown in grey. (H) Infection thread initiation. (I) Growth of the infection thread down the root hair. The nucleus moves down the root hair in front of the thread. (J) Fusion of the infection thread with the epidermal cell wall and growth of rhizobia into the intracellular space between the epidermal cell and the underlying cortical cell. (K) Growth of the infection thread through PITs in the outer cortical cells. (L) Enlarged view of the root hair shown in panel I. The curl has been unrolled to show that topologically, the bacteria in the infection thread are still outside the root hair. The plant cell wall and plant cell membrane are shown as black and dashed lines, respectively. Microtubules are located between the nucleus and the infection thread tip (blue). Actin cables are depicted as orange strands. These are likely to be found where indicated in the diagram because cytoplasmic streaming is seen in these areas during the progression of infection threads down root hairs. Bacteria are topologically outside the root until they later bud from the tip of the thread and enter nodule cells as membrane-enclosed bacteria. (M) Diagram showing root tissues and a young nodule not yet emerged from the root. The derivation of nodule tissues from root tissues is indicated. (N) A longitudinal section of 10-day-old alfalfa nodule. The nodule was infected with GFP-expressing S. meliloti , and the infection thread network can be seen behind the meristem region of the nodule. The initial infection site that gave rise to the bacteria in the nodule can be seen on the nodule periphery at the left. Propidium iodide (red) was used to counterstain the plant tissue. The root from which the nodule emerged is seen in cross-section at the right.
Figure Legend Snippet: Overview of the nodulation process in plants that form indeterminate nodules. (A) One form of Nod factor synthesized by S. meliloti . The upper arrow indicates the acetyl group added by NodL, and the lower arrow indicates the lipid moiety, the length and degree of saturation of which is modified by NodF and NodE. (B) Diagrammatic cross section of a root, showing gradients of an activating factor at protoxylem poles (blue) and an inhibitor at protophloem poles (red). Together such gradients may determine which root cells can become activated in response to infecting rhizobia. Nodules are typically formed next to the protoxylem poles, which are at the ends of the Y-shaped structure depicted in the center the diagram, rather than above the protophloem poles, which are depicted as ovals. (C) An epidermal cell and two underlying outer cortical cells. The epidermal cell has a nucleus positioned across from the place where a new root hair will form. (D) Root hair initiation in the epidermal cell. (E) Binding of a rhizobial cell to a type I root hair and activation of the underlying cortical cells in response to Nod factor. (F) Continued growth of the root hair, shown as stage II. (G) Curling of the stage II root hair under the influence of Nod factor and growth of a rhizobial microcolony in the curl. The underlying cortical cells have become polarized, and cytoplasmic bridges (PITs) have formed and are shown in grey. (H) Infection thread initiation. (I) Growth of the infection thread down the root hair. The nucleus moves down the root hair in front of the thread. (J) Fusion of the infection thread with the epidermal cell wall and growth of rhizobia into the intracellular space between the epidermal cell and the underlying cortical cell. (K) Growth of the infection thread through PITs in the outer cortical cells. (L) Enlarged view of the root hair shown in panel I. The curl has been unrolled to show that topologically, the bacteria in the infection thread are still outside the root hair. The plant cell wall and plant cell membrane are shown as black and dashed lines, respectively. Microtubules are located between the nucleus and the infection thread tip (blue). Actin cables are depicted as orange strands. These are likely to be found where indicated in the diagram because cytoplasmic streaming is seen in these areas during the progression of infection threads down root hairs. Bacteria are topologically outside the root until they later bud from the tip of the thread and enter nodule cells as membrane-enclosed bacteria. (M) Diagram showing root tissues and a young nodule not yet emerged from the root. The derivation of nodule tissues from root tissues is indicated. (N) A longitudinal section of 10-day-old alfalfa nodule. The nodule was infected with GFP-expressing S. meliloti , and the infection thread network can be seen behind the meristem region of the nodule. The initial infection site that gave rise to the bacteria in the nodule can be seen on the nodule periphery at the left. Propidium iodide (red) was used to counterstain the plant tissue. The root from which the nodule emerged is seen in cross-section at the right.

Techniques Used: Synthesized, Modification, Binding Assay, Activation Assay, Infection, Expressing

Architecture of the infection thread network inside a 10-day-old alfalfa nodule. An alfalfa nodule, induced by wild-type S. meliloti strain Rm1021, was fixed, embedded, and sliced into 1-μm-thick sections. Fifteen sections were dyed to reveal the bacteria and plant cell structures, photographed, and reassembled into a three-dimensional volume. (A) Projection of all 15 sections onto a single plane. The nuclei in each section are outlined in red, and the infection threads are filled in with green. The infection thread network appears to be polarized and growing toward the meristem, which is in the left side of the image. (B) Three-dimensional reconstruction of the nuclei and infection threads, showing a volume from the central part of the data set shown in panel A.
Figure Legend Snippet: Architecture of the infection thread network inside a 10-day-old alfalfa nodule. An alfalfa nodule, induced by wild-type S. meliloti strain Rm1021, was fixed, embedded, and sliced into 1-μm-thick sections. Fifteen sections were dyed to reveal the bacteria and plant cell structures, photographed, and reassembled into a three-dimensional volume. (A) Projection of all 15 sections onto a single plane. The nuclei in each section are outlined in red, and the infection threads are filled in with green. The infection thread network appears to be polarized and growing toward the meristem, which is in the left side of the image. (B) Three-dimensional reconstruction of the nuclei and infection threads, showing a volume from the central part of the data set shown in panel A.

Techniques Used: Infection

27) Product Images from "Structural Analysis of Succinoglycan Oligosaccharides from Sinorhizobium meliloti Strains with Different Host Compatibility Phenotypes"

Article Title: Structural Analysis of Succinoglycan Oligosaccharides from Sinorhizobium meliloti Strains with Different Host Compatibility Phenotypes

Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

doi: 10.1128/JB.00009-13

Chromatographic analysis of succinoglycans from S. meliloti NRG247 and S. meliloti NRG185. (A) Analysis of overall succinoglycan production by S. meliloti NRG247 with size exclusion chromatography (SEC) using a Superose 12 column. (B) Analysis of overall
Figure Legend Snippet: Chromatographic analysis of succinoglycans from S. meliloti NRG247 and S. meliloti NRG185. (A) Analysis of overall succinoglycan production by S. meliloti NRG247 with size exclusion chromatography (SEC) using a Superose 12 column. (B) Analysis of overall

Techniques Used: Size-exclusion Chromatography

Analysis of succinoglycan trimeric oligosaccharides produced by S. meliloti NRG247 using MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy. STOs were collected from a DEAE Sephadex A-25 column. Each of the fractions is labeled above the spectrum. Other ions in each spectrum
Figure Legend Snippet: Analysis of succinoglycan trimeric oligosaccharides produced by S. meliloti NRG247 using MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy. STOs were collected from a DEAE Sephadex A-25 column. Each of the fractions is labeled above the spectrum. Other ions in each spectrum

Techniques Used: Produced, Mass Spectrometry, Labeling

Analysis of the low-molecular-weight fraction of S. meliloti NRG185 succinoglycan from Superose 12 size exclusion chromatography column by MALDI-TOF MS.
Figure Legend Snippet: Analysis of the low-molecular-weight fraction of S. meliloti NRG185 succinoglycan from Superose 12 size exclusion chromatography column by MALDI-TOF MS.

Techniques Used: Molecular Weight, Size-exclusion Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry

FAB-MS analysis of succinoglycan monomeric oligosaccharides (SMO) from S. meliloti NRG247 (top) and S. meliloti NRG185 (bottom). All mass ions are mass + Na − 1. Additional salt adducts are also present (e.g., 1671 in the bottom panel). Ions were
Figure Legend Snippet: FAB-MS analysis of succinoglycan monomeric oligosaccharides (SMO) from S. meliloti NRG247 (top) and S. meliloti NRG185 (bottom). All mass ions are mass + Na − 1. Additional salt adducts are also present (e.g., 1671 in the bottom panel). Ions were

Techniques Used: Mass Spectrometry

28) Product Images from "Sinorhizobium meliloti ExoR Is the Target of Periplasmic Proteolysis"

Article Title: Sinorhizobium meliloti ExoR Is the Target of Periplasmic Proteolysis

Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

doi: 10.1128/JB.00313-12

Western blot showing ExoR protein profiles of the S. meliloti wild-type Rm1021, the exoR95 mutant, the exoR108-chvI109 double mutant, and the exoR108-chvI109 (pHC510) double mutant, which is labeled as a p exoR mutant expressing the wild-type exoR gene.
Figure Legend Snippet: Western blot showing ExoR protein profiles of the S. meliloti wild-type Rm1021, the exoR95 mutant, the exoR108-chvI109 double mutant, and the exoR108-chvI109 (pHC510) double mutant, which is labeled as a p exoR mutant expressing the wild-type exoR gene.

Techniques Used: Western Blot, Mutagenesis, Labeling, Expressing

Cellular location of ExoR protein and site of proteolysis. (A and B) Schematic representation of three different ExoR-PhoA fusions (A) and their corresponding phosphatase activities in the S. meliloti Rm8002 background (B). The vertically hatched boxes
Figure Legend Snippet: Cellular location of ExoR protein and site of proteolysis. (A and B) Schematic representation of three different ExoR-PhoA fusions (A) and their corresponding phosphatase activities in the S. meliloti Rm8002 background (B). The vertically hatched boxes

Techniques Used:

Amino acid sequence alignment of ExoR proteolysis regions from 16 ExoR orthologs. Conserved amino acids are shaded. The overall amino acid identities between S. meliloti ExoR and its orthologs are listed. The positions of the amino acids and the site
Figure Legend Snippet: Amino acid sequence alignment of ExoR proteolysis regions from 16 ExoR orthologs. Conserved amino acids are shaded. The overall amino acid identities between S. meliloti ExoR and its orthologs are listed. The positions of the amino acids and the site

Techniques Used: Sequencing

29) Product Images from "Complex Regulation of Symbiotic Functions Is Coordinated by MucR and Quorum Sensing in Sinorhizobium meliloti ▿ ▿ †"

Article Title: Complex Regulation of Symbiotic Functions Is Coordinated by MucR and Quorum Sensing in Sinorhizobium meliloti ▿ ▿ †

Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

doi: 10.1128/JB.01129-10

The presence of an intact mucR provides an advantage for nodule induction in M. sativa . (A) The ability of wild-type and mutant strains of S. meliloti to develop nodules was examined daily after inoculation of bacteria onto seedlings. Disruption of mucR
Figure Legend Snippet: The presence of an intact mucR provides an advantage for nodule induction in M. sativa . (A) The ability of wild-type and mutant strains of S. meliloti to develop nodules was examined daily after inoculation of bacteria onto seedlings. Disruption of mucR

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis

Expression of expC is critical for the wild-type (WT) mucoid phenotype. Mutant strains of S. meliloti streaked on LB-MC agar plates produced phenotypes correlating with gene expression of the exp gene family measured by real-time PCR analysis. Disruption
Figure Legend Snippet: Expression of expC is critical for the wild-type (WT) mucoid phenotype. Mutant strains of S. meliloti streaked on LB-MC agar plates produced phenotypes correlating with gene expression of the exp gene family measured by real-time PCR analysis. Disruption

Techniques Used: Expressing, Mutagenesis, Produced, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

Expression of expC is not restored by disruption of mucR . Extracted RNA from various strains of S. meliloti grown in MGM low-phosphate medium to an OD 600 of 1.2 was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and compared to expression observed in a sinI quorum-sensing-deficient
Figure Legend Snippet: Expression of expC is not restored by disruption of mucR . Extracted RNA from various strains of S. meliloti grown in MGM low-phosphate medium to an OD 600 of 1.2 was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and compared to expression observed in a sinI quorum-sensing-deficient

Techniques Used: Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

MucR represses the exp gene family prior to quorum. (A) Wild-type S. meliloti was grown in MGM low-phosphate medium to OD 600 of 0.02, 0.1, and 1.2. Analysis by real-time PCR and comparison to the sinI mutant indicated that expression levels of the exp
Figure Legend Snippet: MucR represses the exp gene family prior to quorum. (A) Wild-type S. meliloti was grown in MGM low-phosphate medium to OD 600 of 0.02, 0.1, and 1.2. Analysis by real-time PCR and comparison to the sinI mutant indicated that expression levels of the exp

Techniques Used: Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Mutagenesis, Expressing

30) Product Images from "Analysis of Infection Thread Development Using Gfp- and DsRed-Expressing Sinorhizobium meliloti"

Article Title: Analysis of Infection Thread Development Using Gfp- and DsRed-Expressing Sinorhizobium meliloti

Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

doi: 10.1128/JB.184.24.7042-7046.2002

Examples of mixed infection threads following coinoculation of alfalfa with red and green fluorescent bacteria. (A) Infection threads containing only Gfp-expressing or DsRed-expressing S. meliloti . (B) Sectored infection thread in which the mixed population gave rise to a series of sectors which increase in length along the thread. The tipmost sector advanced into the epidermal cell body, branched (top arrow), and penetrated the underlying cell (bottom arrow), leaving the other sectors behind. (C) Jumbled type of mixed infection thread. Gfp-expressing and DsRed-expressing cells appear randomly mixed throughout the infection thread. (D) Dual-type mixed infection thread. The infected root hair contained two infection threads, one filled with Gfp-expressing bacteria and the other filled with DsRed-expressing bacteria (top arrow and left inset). These two infection threads fused together at the base of the root hair (yellow sphere), and new infection threads grew from the fusion point. These new threads contained green and red bacteria mixed together in a jumbled fashion (bottom arrow and right inset). (E) Dual infection threads inside a root hair. The threads began as jumbled-type threads but later gave rise to green sectors at their tips (arrows show the extent of the sectors in each thread). (F) Root hair infected with dual infection threads. Each thread contains sectors of Gfp-expressing and DsRed-expressing bacteria. (G) Curled root hair with red and green microcolonies of S. meliloti in the interior bend of the curl. The red microcolony has given rise to an infection thread containing only DsRed-expressing bacteria.
Figure Legend Snippet: Examples of mixed infection threads following coinoculation of alfalfa with red and green fluorescent bacteria. (A) Infection threads containing only Gfp-expressing or DsRed-expressing S. meliloti . (B) Sectored infection thread in which the mixed population gave rise to a series of sectors which increase in length along the thread. The tipmost sector advanced into the epidermal cell body, branched (top arrow), and penetrated the underlying cell (bottom arrow), leaving the other sectors behind. (C) Jumbled type of mixed infection thread. Gfp-expressing and DsRed-expressing cells appear randomly mixed throughout the infection thread. (D) Dual-type mixed infection thread. The infected root hair contained two infection threads, one filled with Gfp-expressing bacteria and the other filled with DsRed-expressing bacteria (top arrow and left inset). These two infection threads fused together at the base of the root hair (yellow sphere), and new infection threads grew from the fusion point. These new threads contained green and red bacteria mixed together in a jumbled fashion (bottom arrow and right inset). (E) Dual infection threads inside a root hair. The threads began as jumbled-type threads but later gave rise to green sectors at their tips (arrows show the extent of the sectors in each thread). (F) Root hair infected with dual infection threads. Each thread contains sectors of Gfp-expressing and DsRed-expressing bacteria. (G) Curled root hair with red and green microcolonies of S. meliloti in the interior bend of the curl. The red microcolony has given rise to an infection thread containing only DsRed-expressing bacteria.

Techniques Used: Infection, Expressing

31) Product Images from "Further Studies of the Role of Cyclic ?-Glucans in Symbiosis. An ndvC Mutant of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Synthesizes Cyclodecakis-(1- > 3)-?-Glucosyl 1"

Article Title: Further Studies of the Role of Cyclic ?-Glucans in Symbiosis. An ndvC Mutant of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Synthesizes Cyclodecakis-(1- > 3)-?-Glucosyl 1

Journal: Plant Physiology

doi:

13 C-NMR spectra (100 MHz) of glucans from B. japonicum ndvC strain AB-1 and from S. meliloti TY7 ( ndvB ) carrying the glucan locus from B. japonicum on cosmid clone p5D3. The assignment of each carbon resonance is indicated.
Figure Legend Snippet: 13 C-NMR spectra (100 MHz) of glucans from B. japonicum ndvC strain AB-1 and from S. meliloti TY7 ( ndvB ) carrying the glucan locus from B. japonicum on cosmid clone p5D3. The assignment of each carbon resonance is indicated.

Techniques Used: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

32) Product Images from "A Homolog of the CtrA Cell Cycle Regulator Is Present and Essential in Sinorhizobium meliloti"

Article Title: A Homolog of the CtrA Cell Cycle Regulator Is Present and Essential in Sinorhizobium meliloti

Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

doi: 10.1128/JB.183.10.3204-3210.2001

ctrA is present in several members of the α-proteobacteria. The Southern blot shows hybridization of the C. crescentus ctrA probe to chromosomal DNA from C. crescentus (Cc), S. meliloti (Sm), B. abortus (Ba), and A. tumifaciens (At). Restriction enzymes used are Bam HI (B), Eco RI (E), Hin dIII (H), Not I (N), Pst I (P), Sal I (S), and Xho I (X).
Figure Legend Snippet: ctrA is present in several members of the α-proteobacteria. The Southern blot shows hybridization of the C. crescentus ctrA probe to chromosomal DNA from C. crescentus (Cc), S. meliloti (Sm), B. abortus (Ba), and A. tumifaciens (At). Restriction enzymes used are Bam HI (B), Eco RI (E), Hin dIII (H), Not I (N), Pst I (P), Sal I (S), and Xho I (X).

Techniques Used: Southern Blot, Hybridization

P CtrA∼P binds to five sites in the ctrA promoter. (A) Diagram of the ctrA promoter regions in C. crescentus (top) and S. meliloti . Locations of the ctrA P1 and P2 transcription start sites are marked by arrows, and the regions protected from DNase I digestion by CtrA∼P are shown as gray boxes (labeled a to e to match the footprinted regions in panel B). (B) DNase I protection of the ctrA P1 and P2 promoters. CtrA purified from C. crescentus was phosphorylated with MBP-EnvZ and used in the footprinting reactions (0.5 to 1.7 μM). CtrA-P was omitted from the reactions in the lanes marked with a minus sign. The vertical lines labeled a to e mark the protected regions.
Figure Legend Snippet: P CtrA∼P binds to five sites in the ctrA promoter. (A) Diagram of the ctrA promoter regions in C. crescentus (top) and S. meliloti . Locations of the ctrA P1 and P2 transcription start sites are marked by arrows, and the regions protected from DNase I digestion by CtrA∼P are shown as gray boxes (labeled a to e to match the footprinted regions in panel B). (B) DNase I protection of the ctrA P1 and P2 promoters. CtrA purified from C. crescentus was phosphorylated with MBP-EnvZ and used in the footprinting reactions (0.5 to 1.7 μM). CtrA-P was omitted from the reactions in the lanes marked with a minus sign. The vertical lines labeled a to e mark the protected regions.

Techniques Used: Labeling, Purification, Footprinting

33) Product Images from "Extracellular Glycanases of Rhizobium leguminosarum Are Activated on the Cell Surface by an Exopolysaccharide-Related Component"

Article Title: Extracellular Glycanases of Rhizobium leguminosarum Are Activated on the Cell Surface by an Exopolysaccharide-Related Component

Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

doi:

CMC degradation by various rhizobia. CMC degradation was assayed using CMC-agar (a), CMC-agar seeded with a lawn of the protein secretion mutant A412 (b), or CMC-agar seeded with a lawn of R. meliloti 1021 (c). The strains used are R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 8401/pRL1JI, R. etli CE3, R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii RCR5 and ANU843, R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 3855 and VF39, R. tropici CIAT899, S. fredii USDA193, R. meliloti 1021, Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234, and R. loti NZP2213.
Figure Legend Snippet: CMC degradation by various rhizobia. CMC degradation was assayed using CMC-agar (a), CMC-agar seeded with a lawn of the protein secretion mutant A412 (b), or CMC-agar seeded with a lawn of R. meliloti 1021 (c). The strains used are R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 8401/pRL1JI, R. etli CE3, R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii RCR5 and ANU843, R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 3855 and VF39, R. tropici CIAT899, S. fredii USDA193, R. meliloti 1021, Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234, and R. loti NZP2213.

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis

34) Product Images from "Entropy-driven motility of Sinorhizobium meliloti on a semi-solid surface"

Article Title: Entropy-driven motility of Sinorhizobium meliloti on a semi-solid surface

Journal: Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

doi: 10.1098/rspb.2013.2575

Spreading of S. meliloti Rm8530 on 0.4% (w/v) agar/5% (w/v) TY: ( a ) GFP fluorescence images (false colour) from a time-lapse study (see also the electronic supplementary material, movie SM1). The spreading colony deposits aggregates of cells onto the
Figure Legend Snippet: Spreading of S. meliloti Rm8530 on 0.4% (w/v) agar/5% (w/v) TY: ( a ) GFP fluorescence images (false colour) from a time-lapse study (see also the electronic supplementary material, movie SM1). The spreading colony deposits aggregates of cells onto the

Techniques Used: Fluorescence

35) Product Images from "Characterization of Novel Plant Symbiosis Mutants Using a New Multiple Gene-Expression Reporter Sinorhizobium meliloti Strain"

Article Title: Characterization of Novel Plant Symbiosis Mutants Using a New Multiple Gene-Expression Reporter Sinorhizobium meliloti Strain

Journal: Frontiers in Plant Science

doi: 10.3389/fpls.2018.00076

Fluorescence micrographs of Sinorhizobium meliloti CL304 cells purified from root nodules. Bacteria were purified from 17 dpi wild type M. truncatula A17 nodules and assayed for the expression of P bacA - mCherry (magenta) and P nifH - uidA (green). Bacteria were imaged either after staining for uidA activity with ImaGene Green (A) or without staining (B) . White cell outlines were added based on differential interference contrast imaging to indicate the position of weakly fluorescent bacteria in the unstained image. Scale bars: 5 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Fluorescence micrographs of Sinorhizobium meliloti CL304 cells purified from root nodules. Bacteria were purified from 17 dpi wild type M. truncatula A17 nodules and assayed for the expression of P bacA - mCherry (magenta) and P nifH - uidA (green). Bacteria were imaged either after staining for uidA activity with ImaGene Green (A) or without staining (B) . White cell outlines were added based on differential interference contrast imaging to indicate the position of weakly fluorescent bacteria in the unstained image. Scale bars: 5 μm.

Techniques Used: Fluorescence, Purification, Expressing, Staining, Activity Assay, Imaging

36) Product Images from "Quorum Sensing in Nitrogen-Fixing Rhizobia"

Article Title: Quorum Sensing in Nitrogen-Fixing Rhizobia

Journal: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews

doi: 10.1128/MMBR.67.4.574-592.2003

S. meliloti quorum-sensing systems. S. meliloti strain Rm41 harbors three quorum-sensing systems, while strain Rm1021 carries only two systems. The tra system, which is carried on pRme41a and is present only in strain Rm41, produces several short-chain AHLs, including 3-oxo-C 8 -HSL, and controls the conjugal transfer of pRme41a. The sinRI system resides on the chromosome and is present in both strains. SinI produces several long-chain AHLs, and at least one of them (C 16:1 -HSL), along with ExpR, is required for the production of a symbiotically important exopolysaccharide, EPS II. The mel system, also present in both strains, produces several short-chain AHLs, but the corresponding genes remain to be identified.
Figure Legend Snippet: S. meliloti quorum-sensing systems. S. meliloti strain Rm41 harbors three quorum-sensing systems, while strain Rm1021 carries only two systems. The tra system, which is carried on pRme41a and is present only in strain Rm41, produces several short-chain AHLs, including 3-oxo-C 8 -HSL, and controls the conjugal transfer of pRme41a. The sinRI system resides on the chromosome and is present in both strains. SinI produces several long-chain AHLs, and at least one of them (C 16:1 -HSL), along with ExpR, is required for the production of a symbiotically important exopolysaccharide, EPS II. The mel system, also present in both strains, produces several short-chain AHLs, but the corresponding genes remain to be identified.

Techniques Used:

37) Product Images from "Expression of an Exogenous 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Deaminase Gene in Sinorhizobium meliloti Increases Its Ability To Nodulate Alfalfa"

Article Title: Expression of an Exogenous 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Deaminase Gene in Sinorhizobium meliloti Increases Its Ability To Nodulate Alfalfa

Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

doi: 10.1128/AEM.70.10.5891-5897.2004

ACC deaminase activities of the S. meliloti strains induced by 5 mM ACC. R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53K, which is the source of the lrpL and acdS genes, was used as a positive control. Rm1021 and Rm5356 are wild-type strains that were used as negative controls. Rm1021 containing the vector pSP329 was also used as a negative control for Rm1021(pWM2). N/D, no activity detected. The error bars represent the standard error of the mean of two independent assays.
Figure Legend Snippet: ACC deaminase activities of the S. meliloti strains induced by 5 mM ACC. R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53K, which is the source of the lrpL and acdS genes, was used as a positive control. Rm1021 and Rm5356 are wild-type strains that were used as negative controls. Rm1021 containing the vector pSP329 was also used as a negative control for Rm1021(pWM2). N/D, no activity detected. The error bars represent the standard error of the mean of two independent assays.

Techniques Used: Positive Control, Plasmid Preparation, Negative Control, Activity Assay

Construction of S. meliloti Rm11466 by transposon replacement. A 4-kb DNA fragment containing the lrpL and acdS genes from R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53K was inserted into the BamHI site of transposon Tn 5 in pGS220 to construct pWM3. pWM3 is suicidal after being introduced into S. meliloti Rm5356. After double crossover between the IS 50 regions of the two transposons, Tn 5 -233 and Tn 5 -acd, the neomycin resistance gene, leucine-responsive regulatory-like gene ( lrpL ), and the ACC deaminase structural gene ( acdS ) were inserted into megaplasmid pRmeSU47b in S. meliloti Rm5356. The resulting variant was named Rm11466. Restriction sites: B, BamHI; E, EcoRI; H, HindIII. There are multiple HindIII sites in Tn 5 -233 and Tn 5 -acd, but only the locations of the sites inside the IS 50 regions are shown on the restriction map.
Figure Legend Snippet: Construction of S. meliloti Rm11466 by transposon replacement. A 4-kb DNA fragment containing the lrpL and acdS genes from R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53K was inserted into the BamHI site of transposon Tn 5 in pGS220 to construct pWM3. pWM3 is suicidal after being introduced into S. meliloti Rm5356. After double crossover between the IS 50 regions of the two transposons, Tn 5 -233 and Tn 5 -acd, the neomycin resistance gene, leucine-responsive regulatory-like gene ( lrpL ), and the ACC deaminase structural gene ( acdS ) were inserted into megaplasmid pRmeSU47b in S. meliloti Rm5356. The resulting variant was named Rm11466. Restriction sites: B, BamHI; E, EcoRI; H, HindIII. There are multiple HindIII sites in Tn 5 -233 and Tn 5 -acd, but only the locations of the sites inside the IS 50 regions are shown on the restriction map.

Techniques Used: Construct, Variant Assay

38) Product Images from "Sinorhizobium meliloti ExoR Is the Target of Periplasmic Proteolysis"

Article Title: Sinorhizobium meliloti ExoR Is the Target of Periplasmic Proteolysis

Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

doi: 10.1128/JB.00313-12

Western blot showing ExoR protein profiles of the S. meliloti wild-type Rm1021, the exoR95 mutant, the exoR108-chvI109 double mutant, and the exoR108-chvI109 (pHC510) double mutant, which is labeled as a p exoR mutant expressing the wild-type exoR gene.
Figure Legend Snippet: Western blot showing ExoR protein profiles of the S. meliloti wild-type Rm1021, the exoR95 mutant, the exoR108-chvI109 double mutant, and the exoR108-chvI109 (pHC510) double mutant, which is labeled as a p exoR mutant expressing the wild-type exoR gene.

Techniques Used: Western Blot, Mutagenesis, Labeling, Expressing

Cellular location of ExoR protein and site of proteolysis. (A and B) Schematic representation of three different ExoR-PhoA fusions (A) and their corresponding phosphatase activities in the S. meliloti Rm8002 background (B). The vertically hatched boxes
Figure Legend Snippet: Cellular location of ExoR protein and site of proteolysis. (A and B) Schematic representation of three different ExoR-PhoA fusions (A) and their corresponding phosphatase activities in the S. meliloti Rm8002 background (B). The vertically hatched boxes

Techniques Used:

Amino acid sequence alignment of ExoR proteolysis regions from 16 ExoR orthologs. Conserved amino acids are shaded. The overall amino acid identities between S. meliloti ExoR and its orthologs are listed. The positions of the amino acids and the site
Figure Legend Snippet: Amino acid sequence alignment of ExoR proteolysis regions from 16 ExoR orthologs. Conserved amino acids are shaded. The overall amino acid identities between S. meliloti ExoR and its orthologs are listed. The positions of the amino acids and the site

Techniques Used: Sequencing

39) Product Images from "Sinorhizobium meliloti ExoR Is the Target of Periplasmic Proteolysis"

Article Title: Sinorhizobium meliloti ExoR Is the Target of Periplasmic Proteolysis

Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

doi: 10.1128/JB.00313-12

Western blot showing ExoR protein profiles of the S. meliloti wild-type Rm1021, the exoR95 mutant, the exoR108-chvI109 double mutant, and the exoR108-chvI109 (pHC510) double mutant, which is labeled as a p exoR mutant expressing the wild-type exoR gene.
Figure Legend Snippet: Western blot showing ExoR protein profiles of the S. meliloti wild-type Rm1021, the exoR95 mutant, the exoR108-chvI109 double mutant, and the exoR108-chvI109 (pHC510) double mutant, which is labeled as a p exoR mutant expressing the wild-type exoR gene.

Techniques Used: Western Blot, Mutagenesis, Labeling, Expressing

Cellular location of ExoR protein and site of proteolysis. (A and B) Schematic representation of three different ExoR-PhoA fusions (A) and their corresponding phosphatase activities in the S. meliloti Rm8002 background (B). The vertically hatched boxes
Figure Legend Snippet: Cellular location of ExoR protein and site of proteolysis. (A and B) Schematic representation of three different ExoR-PhoA fusions (A) and their corresponding phosphatase activities in the S. meliloti Rm8002 background (B). The vertically hatched boxes

Techniques Used:

Amino acid sequence alignment of ExoR proteolysis regions from 16 ExoR orthologs. Conserved amino acids are shaded. The overall amino acid identities between S. meliloti ExoR and its orthologs are listed. The positions of the amino acids and the site
Figure Legend Snippet: Amino acid sequence alignment of ExoR proteolysis regions from 16 ExoR orthologs. Conserved amino acids are shaded. The overall amino acid identities between S. meliloti ExoR and its orthologs are listed. The positions of the amino acids and the site

Techniques Used: Sequencing

40) Product Images from "Succinoglycan Is Required for Initiation and Elongation of Infection Threads during Nodulation of Alfalfa by Rhizobium meliloti"

Article Title: Succinoglycan Is Required for Initiation and Elongation of Infection Threads during Nodulation of Alfalfa by Rhizobium meliloti

Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

doi:

Schematic representation of invading R. meliloti bacterial cells that were blocked at different stages of infection thread formation, showing a curled root hair (Shepherd’s crook), a colonized curled root hair, a colonized curled root hair with an initiated infection thread, and a colonized curled root hair with an infection thread extending to the base of the root hair.
Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic representation of invading R. meliloti bacterial cells that were blocked at different stages of infection thread formation, showing a curled root hair (Shepherd’s crook), a colonized curled root hair, a colonized curled root hair with an initiated infection thread, and a colonized curled root hair with an infection thread extending to the base of the root hair.

Techniques Used: Infection

Fluorescence microscopy analyses of nodule invasion by GFP-expressing cells of the wild-type R. meliloti strain Rm1021 and its succinoglycan ( exo ) mutants. (A) Composite image of a colonized curled root hair (red) with an extended infection thread filled with the wild-type bacterial cells (green). The infection thread started from the Shepherd’s crook of the curled root hair and has reached the base of the root hair. (B, C, and F) Images of a curled root hair that has been colonized by the exoY210 mutant showing a composite image of a curled root hair with a fluorescent bacterial colony (green) in the Shepherd’s crook (B), the Shepherd’s crook of the curled root hair (C), and the composite phase-contrast and fluorescence image, which demonstrated that there is no infection thread inside the root hair (F). (D) Composite image of a root hair colonized by the exoZ341 mutant, which had developed an aborted infection thread. The infection thread started from a very small colony inside the curled root hair and aborted in the middle of the root hair with a swollen end. (E) Composite image of a curled root hair colonized by the exoZ341 mutant showing a large fluorescent bacterial colony in the middle of a curled root hair. No infection thread can be seen. (G) Fluorescence image of a nodule from a plant inoculated with GFP-expressing wild-type strain Rm1021 showing the outline of the nodule and individual nodule epidermal cells. (H) Fluorescence image of a nodule from a plant inoculated with GFP-expressing cells of the exoY mutant showing patches of bacterial cells on the surface of the nodule and bright bacterial colonies within the nodule epidermis. Images of root hairs (A to E) were photographed with a magnification of ×400. Images of root nodules (G and H) were photographed with a magnification of ×100.
Figure Legend Snippet: Fluorescence microscopy analyses of nodule invasion by GFP-expressing cells of the wild-type R. meliloti strain Rm1021 and its succinoglycan ( exo ) mutants. (A) Composite image of a colonized curled root hair (red) with an extended infection thread filled with the wild-type bacterial cells (green). The infection thread started from the Shepherd’s crook of the curled root hair and has reached the base of the root hair. (B, C, and F) Images of a curled root hair that has been colonized by the exoY210 mutant showing a composite image of a curled root hair with a fluorescent bacterial colony (green) in the Shepherd’s crook (B), the Shepherd’s crook of the curled root hair (C), and the composite phase-contrast and fluorescence image, which demonstrated that there is no infection thread inside the root hair (F). (D) Composite image of a root hair colonized by the exoZ341 mutant, which had developed an aborted infection thread. The infection thread started from a very small colony inside the curled root hair and aborted in the middle of the root hair with a swollen end. (E) Composite image of a curled root hair colonized by the exoZ341 mutant showing a large fluorescent bacterial colony in the middle of a curled root hair. No infection thread can be seen. (G) Fluorescence image of a nodule from a plant inoculated with GFP-expressing wild-type strain Rm1021 showing the outline of the nodule and individual nodule epidermal cells. (H) Fluorescence image of a nodule from a plant inoculated with GFP-expressing cells of the exoY mutant showing patches of bacterial cells on the surface of the nodule and bright bacterial colonies within the nodule epidermis. Images of root hairs (A to E) were photographed with a magnification of ×400. Images of root nodules (G and H) were photographed with a magnification of ×100.

Techniques Used: Fluorescence, Microscopy, Expressing, Infection, Mutagenesis

Related Articles

Mutagenesis:

Article Title: Expression of an Exogenous 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Deaminase Gene in Sinorhizobium meliloti Increases Its Ability To Nodulate Alfalfa
Article Snippet: .. Physical and genetic characterization of symbiotic and auxotrophic mutants of Rhizobium meliloti induced by transposon mutagenesis. ..

other:

Article Title: Characterization of Novel Plant Symbiosis Mutants Using a New Multiple Gene-Expression Reporter Sinorhizobium meliloti Strain
Article Snippet: Plasmids that insert into the rhamnose utilization locus, rha: a versatile tool for genetic studies in Sinorhizobium meliloti .

Article Title: Nodulation by Sinorhizobium meliloti originated from a mining soil alleviates Cd toxicity and increases Cd-phytoextraction in Medicago sativa L.
Article Snippet: The aim of this work was to explore the usefulness of Sinorhizobium meliloti originated from a mining site for Cd phytoextraction by Medicago sativa .

Article Title: Most Sinorhizobium meliloti Extracytoplasmic Function Sigma Factors Control Accessory Functions
Article Snippet: Novel genes and regulators that influence production of cell surface exopolysaccharides in Sinorhizobium meliloti .

Molecular Weight:

Article Title: The rkp-1 Cluster Is Required for Secretion of Kdo Homopolymeric Capsular Polysaccharide in Sinorhizobium meliloti Strain Rm1021 ▿ Strain Rm1021 ▿ †
Article Snippet: .. Low molecular weight EPS II of Rhizobium meliloti allows nodule invasion in Medicago sativa . ..

Article Title: Infection and Invasion of Roots by Symbiotic, Nitrogen-Fixing Rhizobia during Nodulation of Temperate Legumes
Article Snippet: .. Low molecular weight EPS II of Rhizobium meliloti allows nodule invasion in Medicago sativa . ..

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    Medicago s meliloti ak21 sinorhizobium meliloti ak21
    Genomic clusters missing from S. <t>meliloti</t> <t>AK21,</t> identified by comparative genome hybridization. Labeled total DNA from S. meliloti AK21 was competitively hybridized with labeled DNA isolated from S. meliloti 1021 on an Sm14kOligo microarray. Statistically significant signals ( p value
    S Meliloti Ak21 Sinorhizobium Meliloti Ak21, supplied by Medicago, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 9 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    89
    Medicago truncatula sinorhizobium meliloti symbiosis
    Identification of additional dnf7 alleles. ( A − C ) The symbiotic phenotype of additional dnf7 alleles compared with WT M. <t>truncatula</t> at 4 wpi with S. <t>meliloti</t> ABS7. Medicago truncatula cv. Jemalong A17 WT plants developed elongated pink nodules
    Truncatula Sinorhizobium Meliloti Symbiosis, supplied by Medicago, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 9 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Medicago sinorhizobium meliloti medicago laciniata symbiosis
    (A) Groups within the population snapshot of the pSymB and pSMED1 extrachromosomal replicons in <t>Medicago</t> -nodulating rhizobia. Founding genotypes that were identified were ST-25, ST-54, ST-83, ST-100, ST-129, and ST-144. Cofounders were ST-26 and ST-104. Singletons are not shown. The size of each circle is associated with the number of strains having the specific pSymB ST. (B) Neighbor-joining tree showing all of the STs of pSymB and pSMED1 within the genomes of 229 strains of <t>Sinorhizobium</t> <t>meliloti</t> and S. medicae . Letters assigned to the groups in panel A are shown in panel B to indicate the approximate placement of the STs on the neighbor-joining tree.
    Sinorhizobium Meliloti Medicago Laciniata Symbiosis, supplied by Medicago, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Genomic clusters missing from S. meliloti AK21, identified by comparative genome hybridization. Labeled total DNA from S. meliloti AK21 was competitively hybridized with labeled DNA isolated from S. meliloti 1021 on an Sm14kOligo microarray. Statistically significant signals ( p value

    Journal: SpringerPlus

    Article Title: Genomic characterization of Sinorhizobium meliloti AK21, a wild isolate from the Aral Sea Region

    doi: 10.1186/s40064-015-1062-z

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Genomic clusters missing from S. meliloti AK21, identified by comparative genome hybridization. Labeled total DNA from S. meliloti AK21 was competitively hybridized with labeled DNA isolated from S. meliloti 1021 on an Sm14kOligo microarray. Statistically significant signals ( p value

    Article Snippet: Gene expression profile of S. meliloti AK21 Sinorhizobium meliloti AK21 was isolated from nodules of Medicago sativa L. subsp. ambigua growing in contaminated and saline soil (0.15 dS/m, about 0.8% NaCl).

    Techniques: Hybridization, Labeling, Isolation, Microarray

    Distribution of genes differentially regulated in S. meliloti AK21 respect to the reference Rm1021. a Differences in color intensities are used to indicate the three replicons: chromosome ( darkest ), pSymA ( medium intensity ) and pSymB ( lightest ). b Functional distribution of the S. meliloti AK21 differentially expressed genes according to the KEGG and S. meliloti databases functional categories. Up-reg up-regulated genes, Down-reg down-regulated genes.

    Journal: SpringerPlus

    Article Title: Genomic characterization of Sinorhizobium meliloti AK21, a wild isolate from the Aral Sea Region

    doi: 10.1186/s40064-015-1062-z

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Distribution of genes differentially regulated in S. meliloti AK21 respect to the reference Rm1021. a Differences in color intensities are used to indicate the three replicons: chromosome ( darkest ), pSymA ( medium intensity ) and pSymB ( lightest ). b Functional distribution of the S. meliloti AK21 differentially expressed genes according to the KEGG and S. meliloti databases functional categories. Up-reg up-regulated genes, Down-reg down-regulated genes.

    Article Snippet: Gene expression profile of S. meliloti AK21 Sinorhizobium meliloti AK21 was isolated from nodules of Medicago sativa L. subsp. ambigua growing in contaminated and saline soil (0.15 dS/m, about 0.8% NaCl).

    Techniques: Functional Assay

    Identification of additional dnf7 alleles. ( A − C ) The symbiotic phenotype of additional dnf7 alleles compared with WT M. truncatula at 4 wpi with S. meliloti ABS7. Medicago truncatula cv. Jemalong A17 WT plants developed elongated pink nodules

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Loss of the nodule-specific cysteine rich peptide, NCR169, abolishes symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the Medicago truncatula dnf7 mutant

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1500777112

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Identification of additional dnf7 alleles. ( A − C ) The symbiotic phenotype of additional dnf7 alleles compared with WT M. truncatula at 4 wpi with S. meliloti ABS7. Medicago truncatula cv. Jemalong A17 WT plants developed elongated pink nodules

    Article Snippet: Mitra RM, Long SR. Plant and bacterial symbiotic mutants define three transcriptionally distinct stages in the development of the Medicago truncatula / Sinorhizobium meliloti symbiosis.

    Techniques:

    Evaluation of GS nitration in effective and ineffective root nodules of M. truncatula . A, Total soluble proteins were extracted from root nodules formed by the wild type (Wt) and fix J (Fix − ) mutant strains of S. meliloti . GS activity was measured

    Journal: Plant Physiology

    Article Title: Glutamine Synthetase Is a Molecular Target of Nitric Oxide in Root Nodules of Medicago truncatula and Is Regulated by Tyrosine Nitration 1 and Is Regulated by Tyrosine Nitration 1 [W] and Is Regulated by Tyrosine Nitration 1 [W] [OA]

    doi: 10.1104/pp.111.186056

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Evaluation of GS nitration in effective and ineffective root nodules of M. truncatula . A, Total soluble proteins were extracted from root nodules formed by the wild type (Wt) and fix J (Fix − ) mutant strains of S. meliloti . GS activity was measured

    Article Snippet: Planta 150 : 392–396 [ ] Del Giudice J, Cam Y, Damiani I, Fung-Chat F, Meilhoc E, Bruand C, Brouquisse R, Puppo A, Boscari A. (2011) Nitric oxide is required for an optimal establishment of the Medicago truncatula-Sinorhizobium meliloti symbiosis .

    Techniques: Nitration, Mutagenesis, Activity Assay

    (A) Groups within the population snapshot of the pSymB and pSMED1 extrachromosomal replicons in Medicago -nodulating rhizobia. Founding genotypes that were identified were ST-25, ST-54, ST-83, ST-100, ST-129, and ST-144. Cofounders were ST-26 and ST-104. Singletons are not shown. The size of each circle is associated with the number of strains having the specific pSymB ST. (B) Neighbor-joining tree showing all of the STs of pSymB and pSMED1 within the genomes of 229 strains of Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. medicae . Letters assigned to the groups in panel A are shown in panel B to indicate the approximate placement of the STs on the neighbor-joining tree.

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Application of Multilocus Sequence Typing To Study the Genetic Structure of Megaplasmids in Medicago-Nodulating Rhizobia ▿-Nodulating Rhizobia ▿ †

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.00251-10

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A) Groups within the population snapshot of the pSymB and pSMED1 extrachromosomal replicons in Medicago -nodulating rhizobia. Founding genotypes that were identified were ST-25, ST-54, ST-83, ST-100, ST-129, and ST-144. Cofounders were ST-26 and ST-104. Singletons are not shown. The size of each circle is associated with the number of strains having the specific pSymB ST. (B) Neighbor-joining tree showing all of the STs of pSymB and pSMED1 within the genomes of 229 strains of Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. medicae . Letters assigned to the groups in panel A are shown in panel B to indicate the approximate placement of the STs on the neighbor-joining tree.

    Article Snippet: Identification and cloning of the bacterial nodulation specificity gene in the Sinorhizobium meliloti - Medicago laciniata symbiosis.

    Techniques:

    Neighbornet of the evolutionary relationships of nifD alleles present in Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. medicae . The nifD alleles within rectangles were present in an S. medicae chromosomal background. The NGR234 sequence NGR_a01120 or nifD2 was used as the outgroup. Bootstrap values of more than 99 are indicated and were derived from an analysis with 1,000 permutations of the data. The nifD alleles present in strains forming an ineffective or effective symbiosis with Medicago sativa are indicated by * or **, respectively.

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Application of Multilocus Sequence Typing To Study the Genetic Structure of Megaplasmids in Medicago-Nodulating Rhizobia ▿-Nodulating Rhizobia ▿ †

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.00251-10

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Neighbornet of the evolutionary relationships of nifD alleles present in Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. medicae . The nifD alleles within rectangles were present in an S. medicae chromosomal background. The NGR234 sequence NGR_a01120 or nifD2 was used as the outgroup. Bootstrap values of more than 99 are indicated and were derived from an analysis with 1,000 permutations of the data. The nifD alleles present in strains forming an ineffective or effective symbiosis with Medicago sativa are indicated by * or **, respectively.

    Article Snippet: Identification and cloning of the bacterial nodulation specificity gene in the Sinorhizobium meliloti - Medicago laciniata symbiosis.

    Techniques: Sequencing, Derivative Assay