Structured Review

Millipore pcbs
(a) Total Q factors of the functional microsphere versus the self-assembled polymer layer thickness (t). The experimental data are shown as triangles (for <t>PAH/PB)</t> and dots (for <t>PAH/PCBS).</t> The theoretical fittings are performed using 1/ Q = 1/ Q coupling + A × t α , where Q coupling , A , and α are fitting constants. (b) The relationship between film thickness t and Q film . The fitted values are given by1/ Q film = A × t α . The experimental data are obtained using 1/ Q film = 1/ Q - 1/ Q coupling. .
Pcbs, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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94/100 stars

Images

1) Product Images from "High quality factor silica microspheres functionalized with self-assembled nanomaterials"

Article Title: High quality factor silica microspheres functionalized with self-assembled nanomaterials

Journal: Optics Express

doi: 10.1364/OE.21.020601

(a) Total Q factors of the functional microsphere versus the self-assembled polymer layer thickness (t). The experimental data are shown as triangles (for PAH/PB) and dots (for PAH/PCBS). The theoretical fittings are performed using 1/ Q = 1/ Q coupling + A × t α , where Q coupling , A , and α are fitting constants. (b) The relationship between film thickness t and Q film . The fitted values are given by1/ Q film = A × t α . The experimental data are obtained using 1/ Q film = 1/ Q - 1/ Q coupling. .
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Total Q factors of the functional microsphere versus the self-assembled polymer layer thickness (t). The experimental data are shown as triangles (for PAH/PB) and dots (for PAH/PCBS). The theoretical fittings are performed using 1/ Q = 1/ Q coupling + A × t α , where Q coupling , A , and α are fitting constants. (b) The relationship between film thickness t and Q film . The fitted values are given by1/ Q film = A × t α . The experimental data are obtained using 1/ Q film = 1/ Q - 1/ Q coupling. .

Techniques Used: Functional Assay

2) Product Images from "Toxicokinetics of Chiral PCB 136 and its Hydroxylated Metabolites in Mice with a Liver-Specific Deletion of Cytochrome P450 Reductase"

Article Title: Toxicokinetics of Chiral PCB 136 and its Hydroxylated Metabolites in Mice with a Liver-Specific Deletion of Cytochrome P450 Reductase

Journal: Chemical research in toxicology

doi: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.8b00389

The molar percentage of PCB 136 and the sum of hydroxylated metabolites, ΣHO-PCBs, changed over exposure time in whole blood from (A) male KO (M-KO), (B) male wildtype (M-WT), (C) female KO (F-KO), (D) female wildtype (F-WT) mice. The dotted lines are trendlines added to visualize the change of the molar percentage of PCB 136 vs. ΣHO-PCBs in mouse blood over time. The molar percentages of PCBs and OH-PCBs were calculated from the sum of the PCB and OH-PCB levels in the whole blood from each animal and subsequently averaged for all animals within the exposure group.
Figure Legend Snippet: The molar percentage of PCB 136 and the sum of hydroxylated metabolites, ΣHO-PCBs, changed over exposure time in whole blood from (A) male KO (M-KO), (B) male wildtype (M-WT), (C) female KO (F-KO), (D) female wildtype (F-WT) mice. The dotted lines are trendlines added to visualize the change of the molar percentage of PCB 136 vs. ΣHO-PCBs in mouse blood over time. The molar percentages of PCBs and OH-PCBs were calculated from the sum of the PCB and OH-PCB levels in the whole blood from each animal and subsequently averaged for all animals within the exposure group.

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

3) Product Images from "Analytical methods for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in environmental monitoring and surveillance: a critical appraisal"

Article Title: Analytical methods for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in environmental monitoring and surveillance: a critical appraisal

Journal: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

doi: 10.1007/s00216-006-0765-y

Illustration of the basic components of an ELISA for detection of OCPs and PCBs in environmental samples or extracts. Sample antigen (analyte) competes with antigen for binding sites on coating protein; after a wash step, detection is performed by adding substrate and chromophore
Figure Legend Snippet: Illustration of the basic components of an ELISA for detection of OCPs and PCBs in environmental samples or extracts. Sample antigen (analyte) competes with antigen for binding sites on coating protein; after a wash step, detection is performed by adding substrate and chromophore

Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Environmental Sampling, Binding Assay

4) Product Images from "Isolation and characterisation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading fungi from a historically contaminated soil"

Article Title: Isolation and characterisation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading fungi from a historically contaminated soil

Journal: Microbial Cell Factories

doi: 10.1186/1475-2859-8-5

Adsorption and biodegradation of target PCBs after 30 days of incubation . PCB removal due to biodegradation (light grey); PCB removal due to biosorption (dark grey). A.f. = Aspergillus fumigatus MUT 4026; P.c. = Penicillium chrysogenum MUT 4021; F.s. = Fusarium solani MUT 4020; P.d. = Penicillium digitatum MUT 4079; S.a.1 = Scedosporium apiospermum MUT 641; S.a.2 = Scedosporium apiospermum MUT 631. Different small letters correspond to significant differences among PCBs biodegradation percentages achieved by different fungal strains towards the same congener. Different numbers correspond to significant differences among PCBs biodegradation percentages achieved by the same fungal strain towards different congeners.
Figure Legend Snippet: Adsorption and biodegradation of target PCBs after 30 days of incubation . PCB removal due to biodegradation (light grey); PCB removal due to biosorption (dark grey). A.f. = Aspergillus fumigatus MUT 4026; P.c. = Penicillium chrysogenum MUT 4021; F.s. = Fusarium solani MUT 4020; P.d. = Penicillium digitatum MUT 4079; S.a.1 = Scedosporium apiospermum MUT 641; S.a.2 = Scedosporium apiospermum MUT 631. Different small letters correspond to significant differences among PCBs biodegradation percentages achieved by different fungal strains towards the same congener. Different numbers correspond to significant differences among PCBs biodegradation percentages achieved by the same fungal strain towards different congeners.

Techniques Used: Adsorption, Incubation

5) Product Images from "3A-Amino-3A-Deoxy-(2AS, 3AS)-β-Cyclodextrin Hydrate/Tin Disulfide Modified Screen-Printed Carbon Electrode for the Electrochemical Detection of Polychlorinated Biphenyls"

Article Title: 3A-Amino-3A-Deoxy-(2AS, 3AS)-β-Cyclodextrin Hydrate/Tin Disulfide Modified Screen-Printed Carbon Electrode for the Electrochemical Detection of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

Journal: Nanoscale Research Letters

doi: 10.1186/s11671-019-3236-z

DPV response for the comparison of 5 μM added PCBs (Aroclor 1016) in methanol with the methanol-only solution
Figure Legend Snippet: DPV response for the comparison of 5 μM added PCBs (Aroclor 1016) in methanol with the methanol-only solution

Techniques Used:

a , c Displays the reduction and oxidation peak current depends on the concentration of PCBs 1.25–10 μM dissolved in electrolyte methanol. b , d Exhibits the highest concentration addition of PCBs (Aroclor 1016) (5 to 80 μM) into the electrolyte methanol and corresponding the reduction and oxidation peak current
Figure Legend Snippet: a , c Displays the reduction and oxidation peak current depends on the concentration of PCBs 1.25–10 μM dissolved in electrolyte methanol. b , d Exhibits the highest concentration addition of PCBs (Aroclor 1016) (5 to 80 μM) into the electrolyte methanol and corresponding the reduction and oxidation peak current

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

a CV curves of the first three electrodes: bare SPCE, SnS 2 /SPCE, and β-CD/SnS 2 /SPCE in the electrolyte containing a mixture of 3 mM yellow blood salt, 3 mM red blood salt, 0.1 M KCl solution, and other β-CD/SnS 2 /SPCE in an electrolyte containing PCBs (Aroclor 1016) potential window from − 0.6 to 1.0 V with a scanning rate of 0.05 V/s. b CVs of different scan-rate analysis (0.01 V/s to 0.1 V/s) was carried out in 80 μM PCBs (Aroclor 1016) in mixed solution of 3 mM yellow blood salt, 3 mM red blood salt, and 0.1 M KCl. c The calibration plot depicts the square root of the scan rate versus current density of the anodic and cathodic peak
Figure Legend Snippet: a CV curves of the first three electrodes: bare SPCE, SnS 2 /SPCE, and β-CD/SnS 2 /SPCE in the electrolyte containing a mixture of 3 mM yellow blood salt, 3 mM red blood salt, 0.1 M KCl solution, and other β-CD/SnS 2 /SPCE in an electrolyte containing PCBs (Aroclor 1016) potential window from − 0.6 to 1.0 V with a scanning rate of 0.05 V/s. b CVs of different scan-rate analysis (0.01 V/s to 0.1 V/s) was carried out in 80 μM PCBs (Aroclor 1016) in mixed solution of 3 mM yellow blood salt, 3 mM red blood salt, and 0.1 M KCl. c The calibration plot depicts the square root of the scan rate versus current density of the anodic and cathodic peak

Techniques Used:

CVs of the β-CD/SnS 2 /SPCE at a different concentrations of added PCBs (Aroclor 1016) from 0.625 to 2.5 μM, b different concentrations of added PCBs (Aroclor 1016) from 5 μM to 80 μM. c The plot between the log concentration of PCBs (Aroclor 1016) and the anodic and cathodic peak current density
Figure Legend Snippet: CVs of the β-CD/SnS 2 /SPCE at a different concentrations of added PCBs (Aroclor 1016) from 0.625 to 2.5 μM, b different concentrations of added PCBs (Aroclor 1016) from 5 μM to 80 μM. c The plot between the log concentration of PCBs (Aroclor 1016) and the anodic and cathodic peak current density

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

a , b DPV response of the reduction peak current depends on the different concentration addition of PCBs (Aroclor 1016). The different concentration addition of PCBs (Aroclor1016) at 0.625–10 μM into the electrolyte solution ( a ). The higher concentration addition of PCBs (Aroclor 1016) (5–80 μM) ( b ). c , d The oxidation peak current depends on the different concentration addition of PCBs (Aroclor 1016). e The plot between the oxidation and reduction peak current density versus log concentration of PCBs (Aroclor 1016)
Figure Legend Snippet: a , b DPV response of the reduction peak current depends on the different concentration addition of PCBs (Aroclor 1016). The different concentration addition of PCBs (Aroclor1016) at 0.625–10 μM into the electrolyte solution ( a ). The higher concentration addition of PCBs (Aroclor 1016) (5–80 μM) ( b ). c , d The oxidation peak current depends on the different concentration addition of PCBs (Aroclor 1016). e The plot between the oxidation and reduction peak current density versus log concentration of PCBs (Aroclor 1016)

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

6) Product Images from "Isolation and characterisation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading fungi from a historically contaminated soil"

Article Title: Isolation and characterisation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading fungi from a historically contaminated soil

Journal: Microbial Cell Factories

doi: 10.1186/1475-2859-8-5

Adsorption and biodegradation of target PCBs after 30 days of incubation . PCB removal due to biodegradation (light grey); PCB removal due to biosorption (dark grey). A.f. = Aspergillus fumigatus MUT 4026; P.c. = Penicillium chrysogenum MUT 4021; F.s. = Fusarium solani MUT 4020; P.d. = Penicillium digitatum MUT 4079; S.a.1 = Scedosporium apiospermum MUT 641; S.a.2 = Scedosporium apiospermum MUT 631. Different small letters correspond to significant differences among PCBs biodegradation percentages achieved by different fungal strains towards the same congener. Different numbers correspond to significant differences among PCBs biodegradation percentages achieved by the same fungal strain towards different congeners.
Figure Legend Snippet: Adsorption and biodegradation of target PCBs after 30 days of incubation . PCB removal due to biodegradation (light grey); PCB removal due to biosorption (dark grey). A.f. = Aspergillus fumigatus MUT 4026; P.c. = Penicillium chrysogenum MUT 4021; F.s. = Fusarium solani MUT 4020; P.d. = Penicillium digitatum MUT 4079; S.a.1 = Scedosporium apiospermum MUT 641; S.a.2 = Scedosporium apiospermum MUT 631. Different small letters correspond to significant differences among PCBs biodegradation percentages achieved by different fungal strains towards the same congener. Different numbers correspond to significant differences among PCBs biodegradation percentages achieved by the same fungal strain towards different congeners.

Techniques Used: Adsorption, Incubation

7) Product Images from "Toxicokinetics of Chiral PCB 136 and its Hydroxylated Metabolites in Mice with a Liver-Specific Deletion of Cytochrome P450 Reductase"

Article Title: Toxicokinetics of Chiral PCB 136 and its Hydroxylated Metabolites in Mice with a Liver-Specific Deletion of Cytochrome P450 Reductase

Journal: Chemical research in toxicology

doi: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.8b00389

The molar percentage of PCB 136 and the sum of hydroxylated metabolites, ΣHO-PCBs, changed over exposure time in whole blood from (A) male KO (M-KO), (B) male wildtype (M-WT), (C) female KO (F-KO), (D) female wildtype (F-WT) mice. The dotted lines are trendlines added to visualize the change of the molar percentage of PCB 136 vs. ΣHO-PCBs in mouse blood over time. The molar percentages of PCBs and OH-PCBs were calculated from the sum of the PCB and OH-PCB levels in the whole blood from each animal and subsequently averaged for all animals within the exposure group.
Figure Legend Snippet: The molar percentage of PCB 136 and the sum of hydroxylated metabolites, ΣHO-PCBs, changed over exposure time in whole blood from (A) male KO (M-KO), (B) male wildtype (M-WT), (C) female KO (F-KO), (D) female wildtype (F-WT) mice. The dotted lines are trendlines added to visualize the change of the molar percentage of PCB 136 vs. ΣHO-PCBs in mouse blood over time. The molar percentages of PCBs and OH-PCBs were calculated from the sum of the PCB and OH-PCB levels in the whole blood from each animal and subsequently averaged for all animals within the exposure group.

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

8) Product Images from "Isolation and characterisation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading fungi from a historically contaminated soil"

Article Title: Isolation and characterisation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading fungi from a historically contaminated soil

Journal: Microbial Cell Factories

doi: 10.1186/1475-2859-8-5

Adsorption and biodegradation of target PCBs after 30 days of incubation . PCB removal due to biodegradation (light grey); PCB removal due to biosorption (dark grey). A.f. = Aspergillus fumigatus MUT 4026; P.c. = Penicillium chrysogenum MUT 4021; F.s. = Fusarium solani MUT 4020; P.d. = Penicillium digitatum MUT 4079; S.a.1 = Scedosporium apiospermum MUT 641; S.a.2 = Scedosporium apiospermum MUT 631. Different small letters correspond to significant differences among PCBs biodegradation percentages achieved by different fungal strains towards the same congener. Different numbers correspond to significant differences among PCBs biodegradation percentages achieved by the same fungal strain towards different congeners.
Figure Legend Snippet: Adsorption and biodegradation of target PCBs after 30 days of incubation . PCB removal due to biodegradation (light grey); PCB removal due to biosorption (dark grey). A.f. = Aspergillus fumigatus MUT 4026; P.c. = Penicillium chrysogenum MUT 4021; F.s. = Fusarium solani MUT 4020; P.d. = Penicillium digitatum MUT 4079; S.a.1 = Scedosporium apiospermum MUT 641; S.a.2 = Scedosporium apiospermum MUT 631. Different small letters correspond to significant differences among PCBs biodegradation percentages achieved by different fungal strains towards the same congener. Different numbers correspond to significant differences among PCBs biodegradation percentages achieved by the same fungal strain towards different congeners.

Techniques Used: Adsorption, Incubation

Related Articles

Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay:

Article Title: Analytical methods for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in environmental monitoring and surveillance: a critical appraisal
Article Snippet: .. Commercial ELISA kits for detection of PCBs and most OCPs are available from Millipore Corp. (Billerica, MA, USA) and Strategic Diagnostics (Newark, DE, USA). ..

Synthesized:

Article Title: Toxicokinetics of Chiral PCB 136 and its Hydroxylated Metabolites in Mice with a Liver-Specific Deletion of Cytochrome P450 Reductase
Article Snippet: .. Diazomethane for the derivatization of hydroxylated PCBs to methoxylated PCBs was synthesized from N -methyl- N -nitroso- p -tolulenesulfonamide (Diazald) using an Aldrich mini Diazald apparatus (Milwaukee, WI, USA). ..

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  • 94
    Millipore pcbs
    Illustration of the basic components of an <t>ELISA</t> for detection of OCPs and <t>PCBs</t> in environmental samples or extracts. Sample antigen (analyte) competes with antigen for binding sites on coating protein; after a wash step, detection is performed by adding substrate and chromophore
    Pcbs, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/pcbs/product/Millipore
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    pcbs - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    85
    Millipore pcb exposed
    Two methods of rescuing the PCB126 heart phenotype. (A–C) show 96 hpf wholemount, lateral views of control (A), PCB126-exposed (B) and PCB126/pifithrin-α cotreated (C) Tg( cmlc2 ::GFP) fish, incubated in DAR-4M (red) to label the bulbus <t>arteriosus.</t> Morphology and alignment of the heart structures are restored by pifithrin-α. The jaw phenotype is also rescued by pifithrin-α as seen in lateral views of Alcian blue–stained control (D), PCB126-exposed (E) and PCB126/pifithrin-α cotreated (F) fish. ep, ethmoid plate; M, Meckel's cartilage; cb, ceratobranchials. (G) Quantitative RT-PCR on whole fish lysates showing induction of cyp1a RNA in response to <t>PCB,</t> pifithrin-α, and a combination of the two. Data are represented as % increase of message over controls. Rescue by pifithrin-α appears to be due to competitive inhibition of PCB126 at AHR. (H–K) Ventral views of 72 hpf embryos treated with control morpholino (H, I) or tnnt2 morpholino (J, K) treated with DMSO (H, J) or PCB126 (I, K). The tnnt2 morphant hearts appear larger in both DMSO and PCB treatment groups. (L) Area measurements indicating that chamber size is the same or larger in tnnt2 morphants even when the embryos are exposed to PCB126 (Control-MO/DMSO, n = 7; Control-MO/PCB, n = 11; tnnt2 -MO/DMSO, n = 54; tnnt2 -MO/PCB, n = 57).
    Pcb Exposed, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/pcb exposed/product/Millipore
    Average 85 stars, based on 1 article reviews
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    94
    Millipore hl60 cells
    Venn diagram showing the number of individually labelled sites of TMPs from the <t>HL60</t> cells, separated by enzymes and their treatment time. Chy digest and Try digest: merged chymotrypsin and trypsin pre-digested samples [10–20 min and 15–25 min, respectively]. NPC and NPT: control samples for chymotrypsin and trypsin enzyme treatments, respectively.
    Hl60 Cells, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 24 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/hl60 cells/product/Millipore
    Average 94 stars, based on 24 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
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    Image Search Results


    Illustration of the basic components of an ELISA for detection of OCPs and PCBs in environmental samples or extracts. Sample antigen (analyte) competes with antigen for binding sites on coating protein; after a wash step, detection is performed by adding substrate and chromophore

    Journal: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

    Article Title: Analytical methods for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in environmental monitoring and surveillance: a critical appraisal

    doi: 10.1007/s00216-006-0765-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Illustration of the basic components of an ELISA for detection of OCPs and PCBs in environmental samples or extracts. Sample antigen (analyte) competes with antigen for binding sites on coating protein; after a wash step, detection is performed by adding substrate and chromophore

    Article Snippet: Commercial ELISA kits for detection of PCBs and most OCPs are available from Millipore Corp. (Billerica, MA, USA) and Strategic Diagnostics (Newark, DE, USA).

    Techniques: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Environmental Sampling, Binding Assay

    Two methods of rescuing the PCB126 heart phenotype. (A–C) show 96 hpf wholemount, lateral views of control (A), PCB126-exposed (B) and PCB126/pifithrin-α cotreated (C) Tg( cmlc2 ::GFP) fish, incubated in DAR-4M (red) to label the bulbus arteriosus. Morphology and alignment of the heart structures are restored by pifithrin-α. The jaw phenotype is also rescued by pifithrin-α as seen in lateral views of Alcian blue–stained control (D), PCB126-exposed (E) and PCB126/pifithrin-α cotreated (F) fish. ep, ethmoid plate; M, Meckel's cartilage; cb, ceratobranchials. (G) Quantitative RT-PCR on whole fish lysates showing induction of cyp1a RNA in response to PCB, pifithrin-α, and a combination of the two. Data are represented as % increase of message over controls. Rescue by pifithrin-α appears to be due to competitive inhibition of PCB126 at AHR. (H–K) Ventral views of 72 hpf embryos treated with control morpholino (H, I) or tnnt2 morpholino (J, K) treated with DMSO (H, J) or PCB126 (I, K). The tnnt2 morphant hearts appear larger in both DMSO and PCB treatment groups. (L) Area measurements indicating that chamber size is the same or larger in tnnt2 morphants even when the embryos are exposed to PCB126 (Control-MO/DMSO, n = 7; Control-MO/PCB, n = 11; tnnt2 -MO/DMSO, n = 54; tnnt2 -MO/PCB, n = 57).

    Journal: Toxicological Sciences

    Article Title: PCB126 Exposure Disrupts ZebraFish Ventricular and Branchial but Not Early Neural Crest Development

    doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfn154

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Two methods of rescuing the PCB126 heart phenotype. (A–C) show 96 hpf wholemount, lateral views of control (A), PCB126-exposed (B) and PCB126/pifithrin-α cotreated (C) Tg( cmlc2 ::GFP) fish, incubated in DAR-4M (red) to label the bulbus arteriosus. Morphology and alignment of the heart structures are restored by pifithrin-α. The jaw phenotype is also rescued by pifithrin-α as seen in lateral views of Alcian blue–stained control (D), PCB126-exposed (E) and PCB126/pifithrin-α cotreated (F) fish. ep, ethmoid plate; M, Meckel's cartilage; cb, ceratobranchials. (G) Quantitative RT-PCR on whole fish lysates showing induction of cyp1a RNA in response to PCB, pifithrin-α, and a combination of the two. Data are represented as % increase of message over controls. Rescue by pifithrin-α appears to be due to competitive inhibition of PCB126 at AHR. (H–K) Ventral views of 72 hpf embryos treated with control morpholino (H, I) or tnnt2 morpholino (J, K) treated with DMSO (H, J) or PCB126 (I, K). The tnnt2 morphant hearts appear larger in both DMSO and PCB treatment groups. (L) Area measurements indicating that chamber size is the same or larger in tnnt2 morphants even when the embryos are exposed to PCB126 (Control-MO/DMSO, n = 7; Control-MO/PCB, n = 11; tnnt2 -MO/DMSO, n = 54; tnnt2 -MO/PCB, n = 57).

    Article Snippet: To monitor development of the smooth muscle component of the cardiac outflow tract (the bulbus arteriosus), live control and PCB-exposed Tg( cmlc2 ::GFP) zebrafish at various stages were transferred from fish water directly into a 10μM solution of DAR-4M (Calbiochem, San Diego, CA) in fish water adjusted to pH 7.0, and incubated overnight in the dark.

    Techniques: Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization, Incubation, Staining, Quantitative RT-PCR, Inhibition

    PCB126 induces a ventricular-specific reduction in the number of myocytes. (A–F) Ventral views of whole-mount Tg( cmlc2 ::DSRed-nuc) transgenic fish, which express red fluorescent protein (RFP) in cardiomyocyte nuclei. Ventricle viewed through the pericardial sac, cranial to the right. (A–C) show normal growth of the ventricle from 48 to 96 hpf in controls. (D–F) show the reduction in size of the PCB-exposed heart over the same time period. The cells of the ventricle become small and clustered (compare panels C and F). Hearts of representative fish were excised, and the cells of the atrium and ventricle were counted. (G) Myocyte counts at 48 hpf. There is a small difference in the number of both atrial and ventricular myocytes at this stage, although the difference in ventricular myocytes is not significant at p = 0.05. (H) Myocyte counts at 72 hpf. There is no significant difference in the number of atrial myocytes between control and PCB126-exposed fish, but there is a 35% reduction in the number of ventricular myocytes in the PCB126-exposed fish at this stage ( p = 0.01). Data were analyzed using two-tailed student's t -test. Bars show mean ± SE. N = 6 for each group.

    Journal: Toxicological Sciences

    Article Title: PCB126 Exposure Disrupts ZebraFish Ventricular and Branchial but Not Early Neural Crest Development

    doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfn154

    Figure Lengend Snippet: PCB126 induces a ventricular-specific reduction in the number of myocytes. (A–F) Ventral views of whole-mount Tg( cmlc2 ::DSRed-nuc) transgenic fish, which express red fluorescent protein (RFP) in cardiomyocyte nuclei. Ventricle viewed through the pericardial sac, cranial to the right. (A–C) show normal growth of the ventricle from 48 to 96 hpf in controls. (D–F) show the reduction in size of the PCB-exposed heart over the same time period. The cells of the ventricle become small and clustered (compare panels C and F). Hearts of representative fish were excised, and the cells of the atrium and ventricle were counted. (G) Myocyte counts at 48 hpf. There is a small difference in the number of both atrial and ventricular myocytes at this stage, although the difference in ventricular myocytes is not significant at p = 0.05. (H) Myocyte counts at 72 hpf. There is no significant difference in the number of atrial myocytes between control and PCB126-exposed fish, but there is a 35% reduction in the number of ventricular myocytes in the PCB126-exposed fish at this stage ( p = 0.01). Data were analyzed using two-tailed student's t -test. Bars show mean ± SE. N = 6 for each group.

    Article Snippet: To monitor development of the smooth muscle component of the cardiac outflow tract (the bulbus arteriosus), live control and PCB-exposed Tg( cmlc2 ::GFP) zebrafish at various stages were transferred from fish water directly into a 10μM solution of DAR-4M (Calbiochem, San Diego, CA) in fish water adjusted to pH 7.0, and incubated overnight in the dark.

    Techniques: Transgenic Assay, Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization, Two Tailed Test

    Ventricular myocytes are reduced in size after PCB exposure. Control (A, C) and PCB exposed (B, D) Tg( cmlc2 ::DsRed-nuc) zebrafish hearts. Nuclei express red fluorescent protein, secondarily detected by anti-DsRed antibody. Myocyte boundaries are labeled with Zn5 antibody (green). Cranial (outflow) to the left of all images. (A, B) Ventral views showing the rightward looping of the heart; (C, D) lateral views. The atrium of the control fish lies dorsal to the ventricle while in the PCB-exposed fish it remains in a more caudal position. White arrowheads in (D) show cardiomyocytes that lack Zn5 boundary marker. Note that Zn5 labeling in the atrium is generally fainter than in the ventricle. However, the perceived stronger labeling in the atrium of PCB-exposed hearts is an artifact of the stretching of the chamber and the signal being amplified by a narrower depth of field in the confocal scanning process (i.e., more scans per cell). IC, inner curvature; OC, outer curvature.

    Journal: Toxicological Sciences

    Article Title: PCB126 Exposure Disrupts ZebraFish Ventricular and Branchial but Not Early Neural Crest Development

    doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfn154

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Ventricular myocytes are reduced in size after PCB exposure. Control (A, C) and PCB exposed (B, D) Tg( cmlc2 ::DsRed-nuc) zebrafish hearts. Nuclei express red fluorescent protein, secondarily detected by anti-DsRed antibody. Myocyte boundaries are labeled with Zn5 antibody (green). Cranial (outflow) to the left of all images. (A, B) Ventral views showing the rightward looping of the heart; (C, D) lateral views. The atrium of the control fish lies dorsal to the ventricle while in the PCB-exposed fish it remains in a more caudal position. White arrowheads in (D) show cardiomyocytes that lack Zn5 boundary marker. Note that Zn5 labeling in the atrium is generally fainter than in the ventricle. However, the perceived stronger labeling in the atrium of PCB-exposed hearts is an artifact of the stretching of the chamber and the signal being amplified by a narrower depth of field in the confocal scanning process (i.e., more scans per cell). IC, inner curvature; OC, outer curvature.

    Article Snippet: To monitor development of the smooth muscle component of the cardiac outflow tract (the bulbus arteriosus), live control and PCB-exposed Tg( cmlc2 ::GFP) zebrafish at various stages were transferred from fish water directly into a 10μM solution of DAR-4M (Calbiochem, San Diego, CA) in fish water adjusted to pH 7.0, and incubated overnight in the dark.

    Techniques: Labeling, Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization, Marker, Amplification

    PCB126 disrupts endocardial development and valvulogenesis. Control and PCB126-exposed Tg( Flk1 ::GFP) s843 transgenic zebrafish labeled with MF20 (red). Endothelial/endocardial GFP is secondarily detected with anti-GFP antibody. Cranial to the right, dorsal to the top. (A, B) Composite images generated from confocal z-stacks. (A) At 48 hpf, the endocardium of the control fish is physically continuous with the vascular endothelium (white arrow). (B) Outflow tract endocardium is disrupted in the PCB-exposed fish, and there is no ventricular vascular outlet channel (white arrowhead). (C) 96 hpf control. Confocal sagittal section through the midline of the heart. A continuous endocardium can be seen (green) in close association with the myocardium. AV valve leaflets are well developed, and the outflow cushions show strong GFP expression. (D) PCB-exposed fish with disrupted endocardium in the outflow tract (arrowhead). The lumen is narrow. The AV canal is open, but there is no evidence of valve formation. (E) PCB-exposed fish lacking endocardium in the outflow tract (arrowhead). The ventricle is extremely hypoplastic. The AV canal is open, but narrow.

    Journal: Toxicological Sciences

    Article Title: PCB126 Exposure Disrupts ZebraFish Ventricular and Branchial but Not Early Neural Crest Development

    doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfn154

    Figure Lengend Snippet: PCB126 disrupts endocardial development and valvulogenesis. Control and PCB126-exposed Tg( Flk1 ::GFP) s843 transgenic zebrafish labeled with MF20 (red). Endothelial/endocardial GFP is secondarily detected with anti-GFP antibody. Cranial to the right, dorsal to the top. (A, B) Composite images generated from confocal z-stacks. (A) At 48 hpf, the endocardium of the control fish is physically continuous with the vascular endothelium (white arrow). (B) Outflow tract endocardium is disrupted in the PCB-exposed fish, and there is no ventricular vascular outlet channel (white arrowhead). (C) 96 hpf control. Confocal sagittal section through the midline of the heart. A continuous endocardium can be seen (green) in close association with the myocardium. AV valve leaflets are well developed, and the outflow cushions show strong GFP expression. (D) PCB-exposed fish with disrupted endocardium in the outflow tract (arrowhead). The lumen is narrow. The AV canal is open, but there is no evidence of valve formation. (E) PCB-exposed fish lacking endocardium in the outflow tract (arrowhead). The ventricle is extremely hypoplastic. The AV canal is open, but narrow.

    Article Snippet: To monitor development of the smooth muscle component of the cardiac outflow tract (the bulbus arteriosus), live control and PCB-exposed Tg( cmlc2 ::GFP) zebrafish at various stages were transferred from fish water directly into a 10μM solution of DAR-4M (Calbiochem, San Diego, CA) in fish water adjusted to pH 7.0, and incubated overnight in the dark.

    Techniques: Transgenic Assay, Labeling, Generated, Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization, Expressing

    Jaw and heart phenotype after PCB126 exposure. (A–G) and (J–K) are 96 hpf embryos. (A) Vehicle control (DMSO). (B) PCB126-exposed embryo, showing truncation of the jaw and obvious pericardial effusion. (C) Detail of the heart, lateral view, cranial to the left, showing the absence of a bulbus arteriosus, a stenotic outflow, and a dysmorphic heart tube. (D–G) Alcian blue staining of the jaw and branchial cartilages. Lateral (D, F) and ventral (E, G) views. (D, E) Vehicle control (DMSO). (F, G) PCB126 exposed. The jaw and branchial cartilages in the PCB126-exposed embryos are present and patterned correctly but are diminished in size and underdeveloped. Note the incomplete fusion of the ethmoid plate (ep) and the almost dorsoventral orientation of the ceratohyal (ch) and Meckel's cartilage (M); cb, ceratobranchials. (H–K) are histological sagittal sections through the heart immunolabeled with S46 (atrium, green or yellow) and MF20 (ventricle, red). (H, I) are 46 hpf and (J, K) are 96 hpf. Both the DMSO-treated controls (H, J) and the PCB126-treated embryos (I, K) show atrial (a) and ventricular (v) chamber specification. The atrium cannot be seen in the normal embryo at 96 hpf shown in (J) because it is out of the plane of section as the heart has looped properly. The atrium can be seen in the PCB-treated embryo (K) because the heart has not looped. The AVC has formed as indicated by the constriction between the atrial and ventricular chambers.

    Journal: Toxicological Sciences

    Article Title: PCB126 Exposure Disrupts ZebraFish Ventricular and Branchial but Not Early Neural Crest Development

    doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfn154

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Jaw and heart phenotype after PCB126 exposure. (A–G) and (J–K) are 96 hpf embryos. (A) Vehicle control (DMSO). (B) PCB126-exposed embryo, showing truncation of the jaw and obvious pericardial effusion. (C) Detail of the heart, lateral view, cranial to the left, showing the absence of a bulbus arteriosus, a stenotic outflow, and a dysmorphic heart tube. (D–G) Alcian blue staining of the jaw and branchial cartilages. Lateral (D, F) and ventral (E, G) views. (D, E) Vehicle control (DMSO). (F, G) PCB126 exposed. The jaw and branchial cartilages in the PCB126-exposed embryos are present and patterned correctly but are diminished in size and underdeveloped. Note the incomplete fusion of the ethmoid plate (ep) and the almost dorsoventral orientation of the ceratohyal (ch) and Meckel's cartilage (M); cb, ceratobranchials. (H–K) are histological sagittal sections through the heart immunolabeled with S46 (atrium, green or yellow) and MF20 (ventricle, red). (H, I) are 46 hpf and (J, K) are 96 hpf. Both the DMSO-treated controls (H, J) and the PCB126-treated embryos (I, K) show atrial (a) and ventricular (v) chamber specification. The atrium cannot be seen in the normal embryo at 96 hpf shown in (J) because it is out of the plane of section as the heart has looped properly. The atrium can be seen in the PCB-treated embryo (K) because the heart has not looped. The AVC has formed as indicated by the constriction between the atrial and ventricular chambers.

    Article Snippet: To monitor development of the smooth muscle component of the cardiac outflow tract (the bulbus arteriosus), live control and PCB-exposed Tg( cmlc2 ::GFP) zebrafish at various stages were transferred from fish water directly into a 10μM solution of DAR-4M (Calbiochem, San Diego, CA) in fish water adjusted to pH 7.0, and incubated overnight in the dark.

    Techniques: Staining, Immunolabeling

    Venn diagram showing the number of individually labelled sites of TMPs from the HL60 cells, separated by enzymes and their treatment time. Chy digest and Try digest: merged chymotrypsin and trypsin pre-digested samples [10–20 min and 15–25 min, respectively]. NPC and NPT: control samples for chymotrypsin and trypsin enzyme treatments, respectively.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Partial proteolysis improves the identification of the extracellular segments of transmembrane proteins by surface biotinylation

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-65831-2

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Venn diagram showing the number of individually labelled sites of TMPs from the HL60 cells, separated by enzymes and their treatment time. Chy digest and Try digest: merged chymotrypsin and trypsin pre-digested samples [10–20 min and 15–25 min, respectively]. NPC and NPT: control samples for chymotrypsin and trypsin enzyme treatments, respectively.

    Article Snippet: Depending on the size of the cultured cells, 3–4*10^7 HL60 cells were used for each proteomic assay.

    Techniques: