early passage human primary dermal fibroblasts  (ATCC)


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    ATCC early passage human primary dermal fibroblasts
    Early Passage Human Primary Dermal Fibroblasts, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    primary normal human dermal fibroblast fibh cells  (ATCC)


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    ATCC primary normal human dermal fibroblast fibh cells
    Primary Normal Human Dermal Fibroblast Fibh Cells, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    normal primary human dermal fibroblasts  (ATCC)


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    ATCC normal primary human dermal fibroblasts
    αSMA gene expression and protein levels are reduced in TGFβ1-activated <t>fibroblasts</t> following ketotifen treatment. ( A , B ) HDFa and ( C , D ) WS1 fibroblasts were treated for 48 h with DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS as mock, 10 μM or 25 μM ketotifen, 10 ng/mL TGFβ1, or 10 ng/mL TGFβ1 with ketotifen added during the final 24 h. Gene expression of αSMA ( ACTA2 ) was measured using RT-qPCR and normalized to housekeeping gene HPRT . HDFa cells were treated for 48 h under the same conditions and probed for αSMA protein by western blot. ( E ) A representative image of the blots is shown (left) and semi-quantitative assessments plotted (right) using GAPDH as loading control. Full-length blots are available in Supplementary Fig. . ( F ) COL1A1 was measured in HDFa cells treated with conditions using 25 μM ketotifen. Protein levels of pro-collagen 1α1 ( G ) and fibronectin ( H ) were determined by ELISA staining kits. Data shown as mean ± SEM. n = 3–6 per treatment condition. * p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001; **** p < 0.0001. αSMA alpha-smooth muscle actin, GAPDH glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, HDFa human dermal fibroblasts (adult), SEM standard error of the mean, TGFβ1 transforming growth factor-beta.
    Normal Primary Human Dermal Fibroblasts, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    1) Product Images from "Ketotifen directly modifies the fibrotic response of human skin fibroblasts"

    Article Title: Ketotifen directly modifies the fibrotic response of human skin fibroblasts

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-024-57776-7

    αSMA gene expression and protein levels are reduced in TGFβ1-activated fibroblasts following ketotifen treatment. ( A , B ) HDFa and ( C , D ) WS1 fibroblasts were treated for 48 h with DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS as mock, 10 μM or 25 μM ketotifen, 10 ng/mL TGFβ1, or 10 ng/mL TGFβ1 with ketotifen added during the final 24 h. Gene expression of αSMA ( ACTA2 ) was measured using RT-qPCR and normalized to housekeeping gene HPRT . HDFa cells were treated for 48 h under the same conditions and probed for αSMA protein by western blot. ( E ) A representative image of the blots is shown (left) and semi-quantitative assessments plotted (right) using GAPDH as loading control. Full-length blots are available in Supplementary Fig. . ( F ) COL1A1 was measured in HDFa cells treated with conditions using 25 μM ketotifen. Protein levels of pro-collagen 1α1 ( G ) and fibronectin ( H ) were determined by ELISA staining kits. Data shown as mean ± SEM. n = 3–6 per treatment condition. * p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001; **** p < 0.0001. αSMA alpha-smooth muscle actin, GAPDH glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, HDFa human dermal fibroblasts (adult), SEM standard error of the mean, TGFβ1 transforming growth factor-beta.
    Figure Legend Snippet: αSMA gene expression and protein levels are reduced in TGFβ1-activated fibroblasts following ketotifen treatment. ( A , B ) HDFa and ( C , D ) WS1 fibroblasts were treated for 48 h with DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS as mock, 10 μM or 25 μM ketotifen, 10 ng/mL TGFβ1, or 10 ng/mL TGFβ1 with ketotifen added during the final 24 h. Gene expression of αSMA ( ACTA2 ) was measured using RT-qPCR and normalized to housekeeping gene HPRT . HDFa cells were treated for 48 h under the same conditions and probed for αSMA protein by western blot. ( E ) A representative image of the blots is shown (left) and semi-quantitative assessments plotted (right) using GAPDH as loading control. Full-length blots are available in Supplementary Fig. . ( F ) COL1A1 was measured in HDFa cells treated with conditions using 25 μM ketotifen. Protein levels of pro-collagen 1α1 ( G ) and fibronectin ( H ) were determined by ELISA staining kits. Data shown as mean ± SEM. n = 3–6 per treatment condition. * p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001; **** p < 0.0001. αSMA alpha-smooth muscle actin, GAPDH glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, HDFa human dermal fibroblasts (adult), SEM standard error of the mean, TGFβ1 transforming growth factor-beta.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Western Blot, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Staining

    Ketotifen treatment reduced αSMA fibres in TGFβ1-activated fibroblasts. HDFa cells were cultured on poly- d -lysine-coated coverslips and treated for 48 h with media, 10 μM or 25 μM ketotifen, 10 ng/mL TGFβ1, or 10 ng/mL TGFβ1 with ketotifen added during the final 24 h. ( A ) Representative images of immunofluorescence staining (200X total magnification) probing for αSMA and DAPI are shown on the different groups of HDFa cells. ( B ) Quantification of αSMA+ staining (green) was plotted per DAPI+ cell (blue). Measurements for each biological replicate were averaged from five microscopic fields of view. Data shown as mean ± SEM. n = 3 per treatment condition. ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001; **** p < 0.0001. αSMA, alpha-smooth muscle actin, DAPI, 4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, HDFa human dermal fibroblasts (adult), SEM standard error of the mean, TGFβ1 transforming growth factor-beta 1.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ketotifen treatment reduced αSMA fibres in TGFβ1-activated fibroblasts. HDFa cells were cultured on poly- d -lysine-coated coverslips and treated for 48 h with media, 10 μM or 25 μM ketotifen, 10 ng/mL TGFβ1, or 10 ng/mL TGFβ1 with ketotifen added during the final 24 h. ( A ) Representative images of immunofluorescence staining (200X total magnification) probing for αSMA and DAPI are shown on the different groups of HDFa cells. ( B ) Quantification of αSMA+ staining (green) was plotted per DAPI+ cell (blue). Measurements for each biological replicate were averaged from five microscopic fields of view. Data shown as mean ± SEM. n = 3 per treatment condition. ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001; **** p < 0.0001. αSMA, alpha-smooth muscle actin, DAPI, 4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, HDFa human dermal fibroblasts (adult), SEM standard error of the mean, TGFβ1 transforming growth factor-beta 1.

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Immunofluorescence, Staining

    Cytoskeletal-associated genes CNN1 and TAGLN are reduced with ketotifen treatment. HDFa and WS1 fibroblasts cells were treated for 48 h with DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS as mock, 10 μM or 25 μM ketotifen, 10 ng/mL TGFβ1, or 10 ng/mL TGFβ1 with ketotifen added during the final 24 h. CNN1 and TAGLN expression were assessed under 10 μM ketotifen (HDFa: A , B ; WS1: E , F ) and 25 μM ketotifen (HDFa: C , D ; WS1: G , H ) conditions. Data shown as mean ± SEM. n = 3–6 per treatment condition. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001; **** p < 0.0001. CNN1 calponin 1, HDFa human dermal fibroblasts (adult), SEM standard error of the mean, TAGLN transgelin, TGFβ1 transforming growth factor-beta 1.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytoskeletal-associated genes CNN1 and TAGLN are reduced with ketotifen treatment. HDFa and WS1 fibroblasts cells were treated for 48 h with DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS as mock, 10 μM or 25 μM ketotifen, 10 ng/mL TGFβ1, or 10 ng/mL TGFβ1 with ketotifen added during the final 24 h. CNN1 and TAGLN expression were assessed under 10 μM ketotifen (HDFa: A , B ; WS1: E , F ) and 25 μM ketotifen (HDFa: C , D ; WS1: G , H ) conditions. Data shown as mean ± SEM. n = 3–6 per treatment condition. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001; **** p < 0.0001. CNN1 calponin 1, HDFa human dermal fibroblasts (adult), SEM standard error of the mean, TAGLN transgelin, TGFβ1 transforming growth factor-beta 1.

    Techniques Used: Expressing

    Ketotifen treatment increased phosphorylation of YAP, decreased TAZ protein levels, and inhibited AKT phosphorylation. HDFa cells were treated for 48 h with DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS as mock, 10 μM or 25 μM ketotifen, 10 ng/mL TGFβ1, or 10 ng/mL TGFβ1 with ketotifen added during the final 24 h. ( A , B ) Gene expression of YAP ( YAP1 ) and TAZ ( WWTR1 ) were assessed using RT-qPCR and normalized to housekeeping gene HPRT . ( C ) Phosphorylated YAP at serine residue 127 and total YAP protein were measured using western blot and semi-quantitative assessments made by normalization to GAPDH. ( D ) TAZ protein was measured and plotted in the same manner. ( E ) Representative images of the blots are shown. ( F ) Phosphorylated AKT at serine residue 473 was measured in TGFβ1-treated fibroblasts, in the presence of ketotifen or AKT inhibitor, MK2206 (left). Representative blot images of phosphorylated AKT are on the right. Full-length blots are available in Supplementary Fig. . Data shown as mean ± SEM. n = 3 per treatment condition. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001. αSMA alpha-smooth muscle actin, AKT protein kinase B, GAPDH glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, HDFa human dermal fibroblasts (adult), SEM standard error of the mean, TAZ transcriptional coactivator with PDZ binding motif, TGFβ1 transforming growth factor-beta 1, YAP Yes-associated protein.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ketotifen treatment increased phosphorylation of YAP, decreased TAZ protein levels, and inhibited AKT phosphorylation. HDFa cells were treated for 48 h with DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS as mock, 10 μM or 25 μM ketotifen, 10 ng/mL TGFβ1, or 10 ng/mL TGFβ1 with ketotifen added during the final 24 h. ( A , B ) Gene expression of YAP ( YAP1 ) and TAZ ( WWTR1 ) were assessed using RT-qPCR and normalized to housekeeping gene HPRT . ( C ) Phosphorylated YAP at serine residue 127 and total YAP protein were measured using western blot and semi-quantitative assessments made by normalization to GAPDH. ( D ) TAZ protein was measured and plotted in the same manner. ( E ) Representative images of the blots are shown. ( F ) Phosphorylated AKT at serine residue 473 was measured in TGFβ1-treated fibroblasts, in the presence of ketotifen or AKT inhibitor, MK2206 (left). Representative blot images of phosphorylated AKT are on the right. Full-length blots are available in Supplementary Fig. . Data shown as mean ± SEM. n = 3 per treatment condition. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001. αSMA alpha-smooth muscle actin, AKT protein kinase B, GAPDH glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, HDFa human dermal fibroblasts (adult), SEM standard error of the mean, TAZ transcriptional coactivator with PDZ binding motif, TGFβ1 transforming growth factor-beta 1, YAP Yes-associated protein.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Residue, Western Blot, Binding Assay

    Ketotifen fumarate treatment impaired TGFβ1-stimulated fibroblast contraction in an in vitro model of fibroblast-populated gel contraction. ( A ) Representative images of fibroblast-populated collagen gels in DF10 (DMEM, with 10% FBS) culture media with or without ketotifen fumarate at 0- and 4 h post-treatment. ( B ) Contracture of activated fibroblast-populated collagen gels was determined and plotted over the course of 24 h as mean gel area in normal or ketotifen-supplemented media. ( C ) TGFβ1 or TGFβ1 and ketotifen fumarate-treated fibroblasts were seeded into collagen gels and contracture measured in normal culture media. ( D ) ACTA2 is significantly reduced in ketotifen-treated TGFβ1-activated fibroblasts compared to TGFβ1 treatment at 4 h. Gene expression data is normalized to housekeeping gene HPRT . Data shown as mean ± SEM. n = 3 per treatment condition. * p < 0.05; *** p < 0.001; **** p < 0.0001. DF10 10% FBS-DMEM, DF10-K 10% FBS-DMEM with ketotifen fumarate, TGFβ1 transforming growth factor-beta 1, TK25 transforming growth factor-beta 1 with 25 μM ketotifen.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ketotifen fumarate treatment impaired TGFβ1-stimulated fibroblast contraction in an in vitro model of fibroblast-populated gel contraction. ( A ) Representative images of fibroblast-populated collagen gels in DF10 (DMEM, with 10% FBS) culture media with or without ketotifen fumarate at 0- and 4 h post-treatment. ( B ) Contracture of activated fibroblast-populated collagen gels was determined and plotted over the course of 24 h as mean gel area in normal or ketotifen-supplemented media. ( C ) TGFβ1 or TGFβ1 and ketotifen fumarate-treated fibroblasts were seeded into collagen gels and contracture measured in normal culture media. ( D ) ACTA2 is significantly reduced in ketotifen-treated TGFβ1-activated fibroblasts compared to TGFβ1 treatment at 4 h. Gene expression data is normalized to housekeeping gene HPRT . Data shown as mean ± SEM. n = 3 per treatment condition. * p < 0.05; *** p < 0.001; **** p < 0.0001. DF10 10% FBS-DMEM, DF10-K 10% FBS-DMEM with ketotifen fumarate, TGFβ1 transforming growth factor-beta 1, TK25 transforming growth factor-beta 1 with 25 μM ketotifen.

    Techniques Used: In Vitro, Expressing

    Schematic of the effects of ketotifen fumarate on fibroblast phenotype and associated cellular mechanisms. ( A ) Ketotifen fumarate inhibits the effects of TGFβ1 on fibroblasts, decreasing αSMA gene and protein levels, cytoskeletal-associated genes, and contractility. ( B ) Ketotifen fumarate treatment reduces ACTA2 , CNN1 , and TAGLN , and decreases TAZ gene and protein levels. Increased phosphorylation of YAP at serine residue 127 is also seen, promoting cytosolic localization. Ketotifen also affects the PI3K-AKT pathway by reducing phosphorylation of AKT at serine residue 473. AKT protein kinase B, αSMA alpha-smooth muscle actin, CNN1 calponin 1, PI3K phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, TAGLN transgelin, TAZ transcriptional coactivator with PDZ binding motif, TGFβ1 transforming growth factor-beta 1, YAP Yes-associated protein.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic of the effects of ketotifen fumarate on fibroblast phenotype and associated cellular mechanisms. ( A ) Ketotifen fumarate inhibits the effects of TGFβ1 on fibroblasts, decreasing αSMA gene and protein levels, cytoskeletal-associated genes, and contractility. ( B ) Ketotifen fumarate treatment reduces ACTA2 , CNN1 , and TAGLN , and decreases TAZ gene and protein levels. Increased phosphorylation of YAP at serine residue 127 is also seen, promoting cytosolic localization. Ketotifen also affects the PI3K-AKT pathway by reducing phosphorylation of AKT at serine residue 473. AKT protein kinase B, αSMA alpha-smooth muscle actin, CNN1 calponin 1, PI3K phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, TAGLN transgelin, TAZ transcriptional coactivator with PDZ binding motif, TGFβ1 transforming growth factor-beta 1, YAP Yes-associated protein.

    Techniques Used: Residue, Binding Assay

    normal adult human primary dermal fibroblasts  (ATCC)


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    ATCC normal adult human primary dermal fibroblasts
    Normal Adult Human Primary Dermal Fibroblasts, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    normal adult human primary dermal fibroblasts  (ATCC)


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    ATCC normal adult human primary dermal fibroblasts
    This Figure Showed ICC of TLR4 Protein Expression in Human <t>Fibroblast</t> Cells (A) and human adenocarcinoma cells (B) (in vitro study) with the quantitative analytical data (C). There was a significant increase expression of TLR4 protein in Caco3 cell line (19.9±3.49, p value <0.001) compared to fibroblast cell line (5.13±1.45, p value <0.001)
    Normal Adult Human Primary Dermal Fibroblasts, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    1) Product Images from "TLR4, IgA and EpCAM Expression in Colorectal Cancer and Their Possible Association with Microbiota as a Pathogenic Factor; An Immunohistochemical and Genetic Study"

    Article Title: TLR4, IgA and EpCAM Expression in Colorectal Cancer and Their Possible Association with Microbiota as a Pathogenic Factor; An Immunohistochemical and Genetic Study

    Journal: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention : APJCP

    doi: 10.31557/APJCP.2024.25.2.627

    This Figure Showed ICC of TLR4 Protein Expression in Human Fibroblast Cells (A) and human adenocarcinoma cells (B) (in vitro study) with the quantitative analytical data (C). There was a significant increase expression of TLR4 protein in Caco3 cell line (19.9±3.49, p value <0.001) compared to fibroblast cell line (5.13±1.45, p value <0.001)
    Figure Legend Snippet: This Figure Showed ICC of TLR4 Protein Expression in Human Fibroblast Cells (A) and human adenocarcinoma cells (B) (in vitro study) with the quantitative analytical data (C). There was a significant increase expression of TLR4 protein in Caco3 cell line (19.9±3.49, p value <0.001) compared to fibroblast cell line (5.13±1.45, p value <0.001)

    Techniques Used: Expressing, In Vitro

    dmem atcc adherent normal human normal adult human primary dmem atcc dermal fibroblasts dermal fibroblasts nhdf  (ATCC)


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    ATCC dmem atcc adherent normal human normal adult human primary dmem atcc dermal fibroblasts dermal fibroblasts nhdf
    Dmem Atcc Adherent Normal Human Normal Adult Human Primary Dmem Atcc Dermal Fibroblasts Dermal Fibroblasts Nhdf, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    primary normal human dermal fibroblasts  (ATCC)


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    ATCC primary normal human dermal fibroblasts
    Primary Normal Human Dermal Fibroblasts, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    normal human adult primary dermal fibroblasts hdfs  (ATCC)


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    ATCC normal human adult primary dermal fibroblasts hdfs
    Normal Human Adult Primary Dermal Fibroblasts Hdfs, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    normal human adult primary dermal fibroblasts hdfs  (ATCC)


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    ATCC normal human adult primary dermal fibroblasts hdfs
    Timeline of in vitro wound healing model. The culture-insert is first attached to a well plate. The supporting cells, human <t>dermal</t> <t>fibroblasts</t> <t>(HDFs)</t> and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), are cultured inside for 9 days in either the MSC-HDF or HDF-HDF configuration. In MSC-HDF, the supporting cells alternate between MSCs and HDFs, whereas HDF-HDF only contain HDFs. Subsequently, lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are seeded on top for 10 h of vessel assembly, or lymphangiogenesis, before culture-insert removal. Three inserts were used for each configuration at each imaging timepoint.
    Normal Human Adult Primary Dermal Fibroblasts Hdfs, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    1) Product Images from "Fibroblast-Generated Extracellular Matrix Guides Anastomosis during Wound Healing in an Engineered Lymphatic Skin Flap"

    Article Title: Fibroblast-Generated Extracellular Matrix Guides Anastomosis during Wound Healing in an Engineered Lymphatic Skin Flap

    Journal: Bioengineering

    doi: 10.3390/bioengineering10020149

    Timeline of in vitro wound healing model. The culture-insert is first attached to a well plate. The supporting cells, human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), are cultured inside for 9 days in either the MSC-HDF or HDF-HDF configuration. In MSC-HDF, the supporting cells alternate between MSCs and HDFs, whereas HDF-HDF only contain HDFs. Subsequently, lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are seeded on top for 10 h of vessel assembly, or lymphangiogenesis, before culture-insert removal. Three inserts were used for each configuration at each imaging timepoint.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Timeline of in vitro wound healing model. The culture-insert is first attached to a well plate. The supporting cells, human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), are cultured inside for 9 days in either the MSC-HDF or HDF-HDF configuration. In MSC-HDF, the supporting cells alternate between MSCs and HDFs, whereas HDF-HDF only contain HDFs. Subsequently, lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are seeded on top for 10 h of vessel assembly, or lymphangiogenesis, before culture-insert removal. Three inserts were used for each configuration at each imaging timepoint.

    Techniques Used: In Vitro, Cell Culture, Imaging

    early passage human primary dermal fibroblasts  (ATCC)


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    ATCC early passage human primary dermal fibroblasts
    Early Passage Human Primary Dermal Fibroblasts, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    human dermal fibroblasts hdfs  (ATCC)


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    ATCC human dermal fibroblasts hdfs
    Human Dermal Fibroblasts Hdfs, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    86
    ATCC normal primary human dermal fibroblasts
    αSMA gene expression and protein levels are reduced in TGFβ1-activated <t>fibroblasts</t> following ketotifen treatment. ( A , B ) HDFa and ( C , D ) WS1 fibroblasts were treated for 48 h with DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS as mock, 10 μM or 25 μM ketotifen, 10 ng/mL TGFβ1, or 10 ng/mL TGFβ1 with ketotifen added during the final 24 h. Gene expression of αSMA ( ACTA2 ) was measured using RT-qPCR and normalized to housekeeping gene HPRT . HDFa cells were treated for 48 h under the same conditions and probed for αSMA protein by western blot. ( E ) A representative image of the blots is shown (left) and semi-quantitative assessments plotted (right) using GAPDH as loading control. Full-length blots are available in Supplementary Fig. . ( F ) COL1A1 was measured in HDFa cells treated with conditions using 25 μM ketotifen. Protein levels of pro-collagen 1α1 ( G ) and fibronectin ( H ) were determined by ELISA staining kits. Data shown as mean ± SEM. n = 3–6 per treatment condition. * p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001; **** p < 0.0001. αSMA alpha-smooth muscle actin, GAPDH glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, HDFa human dermal fibroblasts (adult), SEM standard error of the mean, TGFβ1 transforming growth factor-beta.
    Normal Primary Human Dermal Fibroblasts, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    86
    ATCC normal adult human primary dermal fibroblasts
    αSMA gene expression and protein levels are reduced in TGFβ1-activated <t>fibroblasts</t> following ketotifen treatment. ( A , B ) HDFa and ( C , D ) WS1 fibroblasts were treated for 48 h with DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS as mock, 10 μM or 25 μM ketotifen, 10 ng/mL TGFβ1, or 10 ng/mL TGFβ1 with ketotifen added during the final 24 h. Gene expression of αSMA ( ACTA2 ) was measured using RT-qPCR and normalized to housekeeping gene HPRT . HDFa cells were treated for 48 h under the same conditions and probed for αSMA protein by western blot. ( E ) A representative image of the blots is shown (left) and semi-quantitative assessments plotted (right) using GAPDH as loading control. Full-length blots are available in Supplementary Fig. . ( F ) COL1A1 was measured in HDFa cells treated with conditions using 25 μM ketotifen. Protein levels of pro-collagen 1α1 ( G ) and fibronectin ( H ) were determined by ELISA staining kits. Data shown as mean ± SEM. n = 3–6 per treatment condition. * p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001; **** p < 0.0001. αSMA alpha-smooth muscle actin, GAPDH glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, HDFa human dermal fibroblasts (adult), SEM standard error of the mean, TGFβ1 transforming growth factor-beta.
    Normal Adult Human Primary Dermal Fibroblasts, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/normal adult human primary dermal fibroblasts/product/ATCC
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    86
    ATCC dmem atcc adherent normal human normal adult human primary dmem atcc dermal fibroblasts dermal fibroblasts nhdf
    αSMA gene expression and protein levels are reduced in TGFβ1-activated <t>fibroblasts</t> following ketotifen treatment. ( A , B ) HDFa and ( C , D ) WS1 fibroblasts were treated for 48 h with DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS as mock, 10 μM or 25 μM ketotifen, 10 ng/mL TGFβ1, or 10 ng/mL TGFβ1 with ketotifen added during the final 24 h. Gene expression of αSMA ( ACTA2 ) was measured using RT-qPCR and normalized to housekeeping gene HPRT . HDFa cells were treated for 48 h under the same conditions and probed for αSMA protein by western blot. ( E ) A representative image of the blots is shown (left) and semi-quantitative assessments plotted (right) using GAPDH as loading control. Full-length blots are available in Supplementary Fig. . ( F ) COL1A1 was measured in HDFa cells treated with conditions using 25 μM ketotifen. Protein levels of pro-collagen 1α1 ( G ) and fibronectin ( H ) were determined by ELISA staining kits. Data shown as mean ± SEM. n = 3–6 per treatment condition. * p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001; **** p < 0.0001. αSMA alpha-smooth muscle actin, GAPDH glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, HDFa human dermal fibroblasts (adult), SEM standard error of the mean, TGFβ1 transforming growth factor-beta.
    Dmem Atcc Adherent Normal Human Normal Adult Human Primary Dmem Atcc Dermal Fibroblasts Dermal Fibroblasts Nhdf, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    86
    ATCC primary normal human dermal fibroblasts
    αSMA gene expression and protein levels are reduced in TGFβ1-activated <t>fibroblasts</t> following ketotifen treatment. ( A , B ) HDFa and ( C , D ) WS1 fibroblasts were treated for 48 h with DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS as mock, 10 μM or 25 μM ketotifen, 10 ng/mL TGFβ1, or 10 ng/mL TGFβ1 with ketotifen added during the final 24 h. Gene expression of αSMA ( ACTA2 ) was measured using RT-qPCR and normalized to housekeeping gene HPRT . HDFa cells were treated for 48 h under the same conditions and probed for αSMA protein by western blot. ( E ) A representative image of the blots is shown (left) and semi-quantitative assessments plotted (right) using GAPDH as loading control. Full-length blots are available in Supplementary Fig. . ( F ) COL1A1 was measured in HDFa cells treated with conditions using 25 μM ketotifen. Protein levels of pro-collagen 1α1 ( G ) and fibronectin ( H ) were determined by ELISA staining kits. Data shown as mean ± SEM. n = 3–6 per treatment condition. * p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001; **** p < 0.0001. αSMA alpha-smooth muscle actin, GAPDH glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, HDFa human dermal fibroblasts (adult), SEM standard error of the mean, TGFβ1 transforming growth factor-beta.
    Primary Normal Human Dermal Fibroblasts, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC normal human adult primary dermal fibroblasts hdfs
    αSMA gene expression and protein levels are reduced in TGFβ1-activated <t>fibroblasts</t> following ketotifen treatment. ( A , B ) HDFa and ( C , D ) WS1 fibroblasts were treated for 48 h with DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS as mock, 10 μM or 25 μM ketotifen, 10 ng/mL TGFβ1, or 10 ng/mL TGFβ1 with ketotifen added during the final 24 h. Gene expression of αSMA ( ACTA2 ) was measured using RT-qPCR and normalized to housekeeping gene HPRT . HDFa cells were treated for 48 h under the same conditions and probed for αSMA protein by western blot. ( E ) A representative image of the blots is shown (left) and semi-quantitative assessments plotted (right) using GAPDH as loading control. Full-length blots are available in Supplementary Fig. . ( F ) COL1A1 was measured in HDFa cells treated with conditions using 25 μM ketotifen. Protein levels of pro-collagen 1α1 ( G ) and fibronectin ( H ) were determined by ELISA staining kits. Data shown as mean ± SEM. n = 3–6 per treatment condition. * p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001; **** p < 0.0001. αSMA alpha-smooth muscle actin, GAPDH glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, HDFa human dermal fibroblasts (adult), SEM standard error of the mean, TGFβ1 transforming growth factor-beta.
    Normal Human Adult Primary Dermal Fibroblasts Hdfs, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC human dermal fibroblasts hdfs
    αSMA gene expression and protein levels are reduced in TGFβ1-activated <t>fibroblasts</t> following ketotifen treatment. ( A , B ) HDFa and ( C , D ) WS1 fibroblasts were treated for 48 h with DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS as mock, 10 μM or 25 μM ketotifen, 10 ng/mL TGFβ1, or 10 ng/mL TGFβ1 with ketotifen added during the final 24 h. Gene expression of αSMA ( ACTA2 ) was measured using RT-qPCR and normalized to housekeeping gene HPRT . HDFa cells were treated for 48 h under the same conditions and probed for αSMA protein by western blot. ( E ) A representative image of the blots is shown (left) and semi-quantitative assessments plotted (right) using GAPDH as loading control. Full-length blots are available in Supplementary Fig. . ( F ) COL1A1 was measured in HDFa cells treated with conditions using 25 μM ketotifen. Protein levels of pro-collagen 1α1 ( G ) and fibronectin ( H ) were determined by ELISA staining kits. Data shown as mean ± SEM. n = 3–6 per treatment condition. * p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001; **** p < 0.0001. αSMA alpha-smooth muscle actin, GAPDH glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, HDFa human dermal fibroblasts (adult), SEM standard error of the mean, TGFβ1 transforming growth factor-beta.
    Human Dermal Fibroblasts Hdfs, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    αSMA gene expression and protein levels are reduced in TGFβ1-activated fibroblasts following ketotifen treatment. ( A , B ) HDFa and ( C , D ) WS1 fibroblasts were treated for 48 h with DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS as mock, 10 μM or 25 μM ketotifen, 10 ng/mL TGFβ1, or 10 ng/mL TGFβ1 with ketotifen added during the final 24 h. Gene expression of αSMA ( ACTA2 ) was measured using RT-qPCR and normalized to housekeeping gene HPRT . HDFa cells were treated for 48 h under the same conditions and probed for αSMA protein by western blot. ( E ) A representative image of the blots is shown (left) and semi-quantitative assessments plotted (right) using GAPDH as loading control. Full-length blots are available in Supplementary Fig. . ( F ) COL1A1 was measured in HDFa cells treated with conditions using 25 μM ketotifen. Protein levels of pro-collagen 1α1 ( G ) and fibronectin ( H ) were determined by ELISA staining kits. Data shown as mean ± SEM. n = 3–6 per treatment condition. * p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001; **** p < 0.0001. αSMA alpha-smooth muscle actin, GAPDH glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, HDFa human dermal fibroblasts (adult), SEM standard error of the mean, TGFβ1 transforming growth factor-beta.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Ketotifen directly modifies the fibrotic response of human skin fibroblasts

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-024-57776-7

    Figure Lengend Snippet: αSMA gene expression and protein levels are reduced in TGFβ1-activated fibroblasts following ketotifen treatment. ( A , B ) HDFa and ( C , D ) WS1 fibroblasts were treated for 48 h with DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS as mock, 10 μM or 25 μM ketotifen, 10 ng/mL TGFβ1, or 10 ng/mL TGFβ1 with ketotifen added during the final 24 h. Gene expression of αSMA ( ACTA2 ) was measured using RT-qPCR and normalized to housekeeping gene HPRT . HDFa cells were treated for 48 h under the same conditions and probed for αSMA protein by western blot. ( E ) A representative image of the blots is shown (left) and semi-quantitative assessments plotted (right) using GAPDH as loading control. Full-length blots are available in Supplementary Fig. . ( F ) COL1A1 was measured in HDFa cells treated with conditions using 25 μM ketotifen. Protein levels of pro-collagen 1α1 ( G ) and fibronectin ( H ) were determined by ELISA staining kits. Data shown as mean ± SEM. n = 3–6 per treatment condition. * p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001; **** p < 0.0001. αSMA alpha-smooth muscle actin, GAPDH glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, HDFa human dermal fibroblasts (adult), SEM standard error of the mean, TGFβ1 transforming growth factor-beta.

    Article Snippet: Normal primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDFa, PCS-201-012, ATCC, Manassas, VA; isolated from skin of a 27-year-old Asian male) and normal human WS1 dermal fibroblasts (CRL-1502, ATCC; isolated from skin of a Black female at 12-weeks of gestation) were used for in vitro experiments.

    Techniques: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Western Blot, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Staining

    Ketotifen treatment reduced αSMA fibres in TGFβ1-activated fibroblasts. HDFa cells were cultured on poly- d -lysine-coated coverslips and treated for 48 h with media, 10 μM or 25 μM ketotifen, 10 ng/mL TGFβ1, or 10 ng/mL TGFβ1 with ketotifen added during the final 24 h. ( A ) Representative images of immunofluorescence staining (200X total magnification) probing for αSMA and DAPI are shown on the different groups of HDFa cells. ( B ) Quantification of αSMA+ staining (green) was plotted per DAPI+ cell (blue). Measurements for each biological replicate were averaged from five microscopic fields of view. Data shown as mean ± SEM. n = 3 per treatment condition. ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001; **** p < 0.0001. αSMA, alpha-smooth muscle actin, DAPI, 4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, HDFa human dermal fibroblasts (adult), SEM standard error of the mean, TGFβ1 transforming growth factor-beta 1.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Ketotifen directly modifies the fibrotic response of human skin fibroblasts

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-024-57776-7

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Ketotifen treatment reduced αSMA fibres in TGFβ1-activated fibroblasts. HDFa cells were cultured on poly- d -lysine-coated coverslips and treated for 48 h with media, 10 μM or 25 μM ketotifen, 10 ng/mL TGFβ1, or 10 ng/mL TGFβ1 with ketotifen added during the final 24 h. ( A ) Representative images of immunofluorescence staining (200X total magnification) probing for αSMA and DAPI are shown on the different groups of HDFa cells. ( B ) Quantification of αSMA+ staining (green) was plotted per DAPI+ cell (blue). Measurements for each biological replicate were averaged from five microscopic fields of view. Data shown as mean ± SEM. n = 3 per treatment condition. ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001; **** p < 0.0001. αSMA, alpha-smooth muscle actin, DAPI, 4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, HDFa human dermal fibroblasts (adult), SEM standard error of the mean, TGFβ1 transforming growth factor-beta 1.

    Article Snippet: Normal primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDFa, PCS-201-012, ATCC, Manassas, VA; isolated from skin of a 27-year-old Asian male) and normal human WS1 dermal fibroblasts (CRL-1502, ATCC; isolated from skin of a Black female at 12-weeks of gestation) were used for in vitro experiments.

    Techniques: Cell Culture, Immunofluorescence, Staining

    Cytoskeletal-associated genes CNN1 and TAGLN are reduced with ketotifen treatment. HDFa and WS1 fibroblasts cells were treated for 48 h with DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS as mock, 10 μM or 25 μM ketotifen, 10 ng/mL TGFβ1, or 10 ng/mL TGFβ1 with ketotifen added during the final 24 h. CNN1 and TAGLN expression were assessed under 10 μM ketotifen (HDFa: A , B ; WS1: E , F ) and 25 μM ketotifen (HDFa: C , D ; WS1: G , H ) conditions. Data shown as mean ± SEM. n = 3–6 per treatment condition. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001; **** p < 0.0001. CNN1 calponin 1, HDFa human dermal fibroblasts (adult), SEM standard error of the mean, TAGLN transgelin, TGFβ1 transforming growth factor-beta 1.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Ketotifen directly modifies the fibrotic response of human skin fibroblasts

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-024-57776-7

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Cytoskeletal-associated genes CNN1 and TAGLN are reduced with ketotifen treatment. HDFa and WS1 fibroblasts cells were treated for 48 h with DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS as mock, 10 μM or 25 μM ketotifen, 10 ng/mL TGFβ1, or 10 ng/mL TGFβ1 with ketotifen added during the final 24 h. CNN1 and TAGLN expression were assessed under 10 μM ketotifen (HDFa: A , B ; WS1: E , F ) and 25 μM ketotifen (HDFa: C , D ; WS1: G , H ) conditions. Data shown as mean ± SEM. n = 3–6 per treatment condition. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001; **** p < 0.0001. CNN1 calponin 1, HDFa human dermal fibroblasts (adult), SEM standard error of the mean, TAGLN transgelin, TGFβ1 transforming growth factor-beta 1.

    Article Snippet: Normal primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDFa, PCS-201-012, ATCC, Manassas, VA; isolated from skin of a 27-year-old Asian male) and normal human WS1 dermal fibroblasts (CRL-1502, ATCC; isolated from skin of a Black female at 12-weeks of gestation) were used for in vitro experiments.

    Techniques: Expressing

    Ketotifen treatment increased phosphorylation of YAP, decreased TAZ protein levels, and inhibited AKT phosphorylation. HDFa cells were treated for 48 h with DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS as mock, 10 μM or 25 μM ketotifen, 10 ng/mL TGFβ1, or 10 ng/mL TGFβ1 with ketotifen added during the final 24 h. ( A , B ) Gene expression of YAP ( YAP1 ) and TAZ ( WWTR1 ) were assessed using RT-qPCR and normalized to housekeeping gene HPRT . ( C ) Phosphorylated YAP at serine residue 127 and total YAP protein were measured using western blot and semi-quantitative assessments made by normalization to GAPDH. ( D ) TAZ protein was measured and plotted in the same manner. ( E ) Representative images of the blots are shown. ( F ) Phosphorylated AKT at serine residue 473 was measured in TGFβ1-treated fibroblasts, in the presence of ketotifen or AKT inhibitor, MK2206 (left). Representative blot images of phosphorylated AKT are on the right. Full-length blots are available in Supplementary Fig. . Data shown as mean ± SEM. n = 3 per treatment condition. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001. αSMA alpha-smooth muscle actin, AKT protein kinase B, GAPDH glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, HDFa human dermal fibroblasts (adult), SEM standard error of the mean, TAZ transcriptional coactivator with PDZ binding motif, TGFβ1 transforming growth factor-beta 1, YAP Yes-associated protein.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Ketotifen directly modifies the fibrotic response of human skin fibroblasts

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-024-57776-7

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Ketotifen treatment increased phosphorylation of YAP, decreased TAZ protein levels, and inhibited AKT phosphorylation. HDFa cells were treated for 48 h with DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS as mock, 10 μM or 25 μM ketotifen, 10 ng/mL TGFβ1, or 10 ng/mL TGFβ1 with ketotifen added during the final 24 h. ( A , B ) Gene expression of YAP ( YAP1 ) and TAZ ( WWTR1 ) were assessed using RT-qPCR and normalized to housekeeping gene HPRT . ( C ) Phosphorylated YAP at serine residue 127 and total YAP protein were measured using western blot and semi-quantitative assessments made by normalization to GAPDH. ( D ) TAZ protein was measured and plotted in the same manner. ( E ) Representative images of the blots are shown. ( F ) Phosphorylated AKT at serine residue 473 was measured in TGFβ1-treated fibroblasts, in the presence of ketotifen or AKT inhibitor, MK2206 (left). Representative blot images of phosphorylated AKT are on the right. Full-length blots are available in Supplementary Fig. . Data shown as mean ± SEM. n = 3 per treatment condition. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001. αSMA alpha-smooth muscle actin, AKT protein kinase B, GAPDH glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, HDFa human dermal fibroblasts (adult), SEM standard error of the mean, TAZ transcriptional coactivator with PDZ binding motif, TGFβ1 transforming growth factor-beta 1, YAP Yes-associated protein.

    Article Snippet: Normal primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDFa, PCS-201-012, ATCC, Manassas, VA; isolated from skin of a 27-year-old Asian male) and normal human WS1 dermal fibroblasts (CRL-1502, ATCC; isolated from skin of a Black female at 12-weeks of gestation) were used for in vitro experiments.

    Techniques: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Residue, Western Blot, Binding Assay

    Ketotifen fumarate treatment impaired TGFβ1-stimulated fibroblast contraction in an in vitro model of fibroblast-populated gel contraction. ( A ) Representative images of fibroblast-populated collagen gels in DF10 (DMEM, with 10% FBS) culture media with or without ketotifen fumarate at 0- and 4 h post-treatment. ( B ) Contracture of activated fibroblast-populated collagen gels was determined and plotted over the course of 24 h as mean gel area in normal or ketotifen-supplemented media. ( C ) TGFβ1 or TGFβ1 and ketotifen fumarate-treated fibroblasts were seeded into collagen gels and contracture measured in normal culture media. ( D ) ACTA2 is significantly reduced in ketotifen-treated TGFβ1-activated fibroblasts compared to TGFβ1 treatment at 4 h. Gene expression data is normalized to housekeeping gene HPRT . Data shown as mean ± SEM. n = 3 per treatment condition. * p < 0.05; *** p < 0.001; **** p < 0.0001. DF10 10% FBS-DMEM, DF10-K 10% FBS-DMEM with ketotifen fumarate, TGFβ1 transforming growth factor-beta 1, TK25 transforming growth factor-beta 1 with 25 μM ketotifen.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Ketotifen directly modifies the fibrotic response of human skin fibroblasts

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-024-57776-7

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Ketotifen fumarate treatment impaired TGFβ1-stimulated fibroblast contraction in an in vitro model of fibroblast-populated gel contraction. ( A ) Representative images of fibroblast-populated collagen gels in DF10 (DMEM, with 10% FBS) culture media with or without ketotifen fumarate at 0- and 4 h post-treatment. ( B ) Contracture of activated fibroblast-populated collagen gels was determined and plotted over the course of 24 h as mean gel area in normal or ketotifen-supplemented media. ( C ) TGFβ1 or TGFβ1 and ketotifen fumarate-treated fibroblasts were seeded into collagen gels and contracture measured in normal culture media. ( D ) ACTA2 is significantly reduced in ketotifen-treated TGFβ1-activated fibroblasts compared to TGFβ1 treatment at 4 h. Gene expression data is normalized to housekeeping gene HPRT . Data shown as mean ± SEM. n = 3 per treatment condition. * p < 0.05; *** p < 0.001; **** p < 0.0001. DF10 10% FBS-DMEM, DF10-K 10% FBS-DMEM with ketotifen fumarate, TGFβ1 transforming growth factor-beta 1, TK25 transforming growth factor-beta 1 with 25 μM ketotifen.

    Article Snippet: Normal primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDFa, PCS-201-012, ATCC, Manassas, VA; isolated from skin of a 27-year-old Asian male) and normal human WS1 dermal fibroblasts (CRL-1502, ATCC; isolated from skin of a Black female at 12-weeks of gestation) were used for in vitro experiments.

    Techniques: In Vitro, Expressing

    Schematic of the effects of ketotifen fumarate on fibroblast phenotype and associated cellular mechanisms. ( A ) Ketotifen fumarate inhibits the effects of TGFβ1 on fibroblasts, decreasing αSMA gene and protein levels, cytoskeletal-associated genes, and contractility. ( B ) Ketotifen fumarate treatment reduces ACTA2 , CNN1 , and TAGLN , and decreases TAZ gene and protein levels. Increased phosphorylation of YAP at serine residue 127 is also seen, promoting cytosolic localization. Ketotifen also affects the PI3K-AKT pathway by reducing phosphorylation of AKT at serine residue 473. AKT protein kinase B, αSMA alpha-smooth muscle actin, CNN1 calponin 1, PI3K phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, TAGLN transgelin, TAZ transcriptional coactivator with PDZ binding motif, TGFβ1 transforming growth factor-beta 1, YAP Yes-associated protein.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Ketotifen directly modifies the fibrotic response of human skin fibroblasts

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-024-57776-7

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Schematic of the effects of ketotifen fumarate on fibroblast phenotype and associated cellular mechanisms. ( A ) Ketotifen fumarate inhibits the effects of TGFβ1 on fibroblasts, decreasing αSMA gene and protein levels, cytoskeletal-associated genes, and contractility. ( B ) Ketotifen fumarate treatment reduces ACTA2 , CNN1 , and TAGLN , and decreases TAZ gene and protein levels. Increased phosphorylation of YAP at serine residue 127 is also seen, promoting cytosolic localization. Ketotifen also affects the PI3K-AKT pathway by reducing phosphorylation of AKT at serine residue 473. AKT protein kinase B, αSMA alpha-smooth muscle actin, CNN1 calponin 1, PI3K phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, TAGLN transgelin, TAZ transcriptional coactivator with PDZ binding motif, TGFβ1 transforming growth factor-beta 1, YAP Yes-associated protein.

    Article Snippet: Normal primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDFa, PCS-201-012, ATCC, Manassas, VA; isolated from skin of a 27-year-old Asian male) and normal human WS1 dermal fibroblasts (CRL-1502, ATCC; isolated from skin of a Black female at 12-weeks of gestation) were used for in vitro experiments.

    Techniques: Residue, Binding Assay