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Neuroscience Information Framework nifedipine
Intracellular Ca 2+ signaling was reduced by L-803,087 in ganglion cells in retinal flat mount. A : applications of 52 mM K + solution for 30 s depolarized ganglion cells and produced transient increases in intracellular Ca 2+ concentration, measured with the dye fura-2. Traces ( left ) show that, in the absence of drug, the second of paired K + applications produced a smaller peak Ca 2+ signal. On the right , the paired K + pulses, with L-803,087 (100 nM) applied 30 s prior to the second K + application, show greater reduction of the Ca 2+ signal compared with control. Far right panel shows a fluorescent image (stimulated at 380 nm) of a fura-2-containing ganglion cell in the flat-mount retina. B : mean data show amplitudes of the second high K + response expressed as a percentage of first peak in control, L-803,087 (L-803, 100 nM), <t>nifedipine</t> (NIF, 10 μM), and nifedipine plus L-803,087. The mean Ca 2+ transient amplitudes of all 3 drug treatment groups (L-803, NIF, L-803 + NIF) were significantly smaller than those of the control group, but they did not differ among themselves ( n = 21–89 cells/group; * P
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1) Product Images from "Modulation of Voltage-Gated Ion Channels in Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells Mediated by Somatostatin Receptor Subtype 4"

Article Title: Modulation of Voltage-Gated Ion Channels in Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells Mediated by Somatostatin Receptor Subtype 4

Journal: Journal of Neurophysiology

doi: 10.1152/jn.00098.2010

Intracellular Ca 2+ signaling was reduced by L-803,087 in ganglion cells in retinal flat mount. A : applications of 52 mM K + solution for 30 s depolarized ganglion cells and produced transient increases in intracellular Ca 2+ concentration, measured with the dye fura-2. Traces ( left ) show that, in the absence of drug, the second of paired K + applications produced a smaller peak Ca 2+ signal. On the right , the paired K + pulses, with L-803,087 (100 nM) applied 30 s prior to the second K + application, show greater reduction of the Ca 2+ signal compared with control. Far right panel shows a fluorescent image (stimulated at 380 nm) of a fura-2-containing ganglion cell in the flat-mount retina. B : mean data show amplitudes of the second high K + response expressed as a percentage of first peak in control, L-803,087 (L-803, 100 nM), nifedipine (NIF, 10 μM), and nifedipine plus L-803,087. The mean Ca 2+ transient amplitudes of all 3 drug treatment groups (L-803, NIF, L-803 + NIF) were significantly smaller than those of the control group, but they did not differ among themselves ( n = 21–89 cells/group; * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Intracellular Ca 2+ signaling was reduced by L-803,087 in ganglion cells in retinal flat mount. A : applications of 52 mM K + solution for 30 s depolarized ganglion cells and produced transient increases in intracellular Ca 2+ concentration, measured with the dye fura-2. Traces ( left ) show that, in the absence of drug, the second of paired K + applications produced a smaller peak Ca 2+ signal. On the right , the paired K + pulses, with L-803,087 (100 nM) applied 30 s prior to the second K + application, show greater reduction of the Ca 2+ signal compared with control. Far right panel shows a fluorescent image (stimulated at 380 nm) of a fura-2-containing ganglion cell in the flat-mount retina. B : mean data show amplitudes of the second high K + response expressed as a percentage of first peak in control, L-803,087 (L-803, 100 nM), nifedipine (NIF, 10 μM), and nifedipine plus L-803,087. The mean Ca 2+ transient amplitudes of all 3 drug treatment groups (L-803, NIF, L-803 + NIF) were significantly smaller than those of the control group, but they did not differ among themselves ( n = 21–89 cells/group; * P

Techniques Used: Produced, Concentration Assay

2) Product Images from "Chemical composition and vasorelaxant effect induced by the essential oil of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown. (Verbenaceae) in rat mesenteric artery"

Article Title: Chemical composition and vasorelaxant effect induced by the essential oil of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown. (Verbenaceae) in rat mesenteric artery

Journal: Indian Journal of Pharmacology

doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.89828

Vasorelaxant effect of nifedipine (NIF: 10 μM), EOLA (300 μg/mL) and EOLA (300 μg/mL) after the maximum relaxation of NIF (10 μM) in rings of rat mesenteric artery without endothelium precontracted with Phe (1 μM). Values are expressed as mean ± SEM of 6 experiments. The data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post-test.
Figure Legend Snippet: Vasorelaxant effect of nifedipine (NIF: 10 μM), EOLA (300 μg/mL) and EOLA (300 μg/mL) after the maximum relaxation of NIF (10 μM) in rings of rat mesenteric artery without endothelium precontracted with Phe (1 μM). Values are expressed as mean ± SEM of 6 experiments. The data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post-test.

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3) Product Images from "Modulation of Voltage-Gated Ion Channels in Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells Mediated by Somatostatin Receptor Subtype 4"

Article Title: Modulation of Voltage-Gated Ion Channels in Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells Mediated by Somatostatin Receptor Subtype 4

Journal: Journal of Neurophysiology

doi: 10.1152/jn.00098.2010

Intracellular Ca 2+ signaling was reduced by L-803,087 in ganglion cells in retinal flat mount. A : applications of 52 mM K + solution for 30 s depolarized ganglion cells and produced transient increases in intracellular Ca 2+ concentration, measured with the dye fura-2. Traces ( left ) show that, in the absence of drug, the second of paired K + applications produced a smaller peak Ca 2+ signal. On the right , the paired K + pulses, with L-803,087 (100 nM) applied 30 s prior to the second K + application, show greater reduction of the Ca 2+ signal compared with control. Far right panel shows a fluorescent image (stimulated at 380 nm) of a fura-2-containing ganglion cell in the flat-mount retina. B : mean data show amplitudes of the second high K + response expressed as a percentage of first peak in control, L-803,087 (L-803, 100 nM), nifedipine (NIF, 10 μM), and nifedipine plus L-803,087. The mean Ca 2+ transient amplitudes of all 3 drug treatment groups (L-803, NIF, L-803 + NIF) were significantly smaller than those of the control group, but they did not differ among themselves ( n = 21–89 cells/group; * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Intracellular Ca 2+ signaling was reduced by L-803,087 in ganglion cells in retinal flat mount. A : applications of 52 mM K + solution for 30 s depolarized ganglion cells and produced transient increases in intracellular Ca 2+ concentration, measured with the dye fura-2. Traces ( left ) show that, in the absence of drug, the second of paired K + applications produced a smaller peak Ca 2+ signal. On the right , the paired K + pulses, with L-803,087 (100 nM) applied 30 s prior to the second K + application, show greater reduction of the Ca 2+ signal compared with control. Far right panel shows a fluorescent image (stimulated at 380 nm) of a fura-2-containing ganglion cell in the flat-mount retina. B : mean data show amplitudes of the second high K + response expressed as a percentage of first peak in control, L-803,087 (L-803, 100 nM), nifedipine (NIF, 10 μM), and nifedipine plus L-803,087. The mean Ca 2+ transient amplitudes of all 3 drug treatment groups (L-803, NIF, L-803 + NIF) were significantly smaller than those of the control group, but they did not differ among themselves ( n = 21–89 cells/group; * P

Techniques Used: Produced, Concentration Assay

4) Product Images from "Urocortin-2 Prevents Dysregulation of Ca2+ Homeostasis and Improves Early Cardiac Remodeling After Ischemia and Reperfusion"

Article Title: Urocortin-2 Prevents Dysregulation of Ca2+ Homeostasis and Improves Early Cardiac Remodeling After Ischemia and Reperfusion

Journal: Frontiers in Physiology

doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00813

Urocortin-2 inhibits I/R-induced exacerbated SOCE in NRVMs. (A) Experimental protocol of cultured NRVMs subjected to I/R and Ucn-2 (10 nM). (B) Representative traces (left) showing the changes in [Ca 2+ ] i in Fura-2 loaded NRVMs, presented as ratio (F 340 /F 380 ). In right, bar graph illustrating data summary of experiments as in left. (C) Representative traces (left) and data summary (right) of Mn 2+ influx-induced Fura-2 quenching expressed in percent change of F 360 fluorescence after the administration of Mn 2+ (500 μM). Thapsigargin (TG, 2 μM) and nifedipine (NIF, 10 μM) were applied 4 min in the absence of extracellular Ca 2+ and then Ca 2+ (1.8 mM) was added as indicated. “Control” indicates responses of NRVMs to TG, “ I/R ” is for NRVMs under protocol of I/R, “ I/R+Ucn-2 ” is NRVMs treated with Ucn-2 during I/R, “ I/R+Ucn-2+Ast ” indicates NRVMs pre-incubated with astressin (0.5 μM) before Ucn-2 addition in I/R, “ I/R+SKF ” indicates NRVMs pre-incubated with SKF-96365 (40 μM), and “ I/R + GSK ” indicates NRVMs pre-incubated with GSK-7975A (10 μM). n = 100–250 cells from 5–10 cultures. Data are mean ± SEM. ∗ , ∗∗ , ∗∗∗ indicate significance at p
Figure Legend Snippet: Urocortin-2 inhibits I/R-induced exacerbated SOCE in NRVMs. (A) Experimental protocol of cultured NRVMs subjected to I/R and Ucn-2 (10 nM). (B) Representative traces (left) showing the changes in [Ca 2+ ] i in Fura-2 loaded NRVMs, presented as ratio (F 340 /F 380 ). In right, bar graph illustrating data summary of experiments as in left. (C) Representative traces (left) and data summary (right) of Mn 2+ influx-induced Fura-2 quenching expressed in percent change of F 360 fluorescence after the administration of Mn 2+ (500 μM). Thapsigargin (TG, 2 μM) and nifedipine (NIF, 10 μM) were applied 4 min in the absence of extracellular Ca 2+ and then Ca 2+ (1.8 mM) was added as indicated. “Control” indicates responses of NRVMs to TG, “ I/R ” is for NRVMs under protocol of I/R, “ I/R+Ucn-2 ” is NRVMs treated with Ucn-2 during I/R, “ I/R+Ucn-2+Ast ” indicates NRVMs pre-incubated with astressin (0.5 μM) before Ucn-2 addition in I/R, “ I/R+SKF ” indicates NRVMs pre-incubated with SKF-96365 (40 μM), and “ I/R + GSK ” indicates NRVMs pre-incubated with GSK-7975A (10 μM). n = 100–250 cells from 5–10 cultures. Data are mean ± SEM. ∗ , ∗∗ , ∗∗∗ indicate significance at p

Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Fluorescence, AST Assay, Incubation

5) Product Images from "Voltage-activated Ca2+ channels and their role in the endocrine function of the pituitary gland in newborn and adult mice"

Article Title: Voltage-activated Ca2+ channels and their role in the endocrine function of the pituitary gland in newborn and adult mice

Journal: The Journal of Physiology

doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2003.058271

The separation of different VACCs in Ba 2+ and Ca 2+ A , separated Ba 2+ current densities through L-, N- and P/Q-type VACCs and toxin-resistant channels in newborn (left panel) and adult melanotrophs (right panel). Note the first peak in the nifedipine-sensitive current in adults is the LVA component and second peak the HVA component (red trace). B , the contribution of different VACC types to the peak HVA Ba 2+ current: adult, filled bars; newborn, open bars. C , contribution of different VACC types to the peak HVA Ca 2+ current: adult, filled bars; newborn, open bars. The toxin-resistant current was negligible in adult melanotrophs and was therefore not tested for statistical significance.
Figure Legend Snippet: The separation of different VACCs in Ba 2+ and Ca 2+ A , separated Ba 2+ current densities through L-, N- and P/Q-type VACCs and toxin-resistant channels in newborn (left panel) and adult melanotrophs (right panel). Note the first peak in the nifedipine-sensitive current in adults is the LVA component and second peak the HVA component (red trace). B , the contribution of different VACC types to the peak HVA Ba 2+ current: adult, filled bars; newborn, open bars. C , contribution of different VACC types to the peak HVA Ca 2+ current: adult, filled bars; newborn, open bars. The toxin-resistant current was negligible in adult melanotrophs and was therefore not tested for statistical significance.

Techniques Used:

The effects of nifedipine, ω-conotoxin GVIA, ω-conotoxin MVIIC with ω-agatoxin TK and CdCl 2 on Ba 2+ currents In panels A , B , C and D left plots present data from the newborn and right plots from the adult animals. A , Ba 2+ currents were evoked during 30 ms voltage steps from −80 mV to +60 mV. All recordings were obtained after preincubation (2 min) with different VACC blockers as indicated. B , current densities from the same cells were plotted to obtain the Ba 2+ current I–V relationship. C , the effect of VACC blockers on the Ba 2+ current I–V relationship obtained from 300 ms voltage ramps. D , the time course of the effect of nifedipine (1), GVIA (2), MVIIC/TK (3) and CdCl 2 (4) on Ba 2+ currents. LVA currents in adults are shown as red triangles and the HVA are shown as black triangles. Note that current values were normalized to the peak amplitude of both VACC components. Nifedipine blocked about 50% of the LVA component; however, other toxins than Cd 2+ did not affect the LVA component.
Figure Legend Snippet: The effects of nifedipine, ω-conotoxin GVIA, ω-conotoxin MVIIC with ω-agatoxin TK and CdCl 2 on Ba 2+ currents In panels A , B , C and D left plots present data from the newborn and right plots from the adult animals. A , Ba 2+ currents were evoked during 30 ms voltage steps from −80 mV to +60 mV. All recordings were obtained after preincubation (2 min) with different VACC blockers as indicated. B , current densities from the same cells were plotted to obtain the Ba 2+ current I–V relationship. C , the effect of VACC blockers on the Ba 2+ current I–V relationship obtained from 300 ms voltage ramps. D , the time course of the effect of nifedipine (1), GVIA (2), MVIIC/TK (3) and CdCl 2 (4) on Ba 2+ currents. LVA currents in adults are shown as red triangles and the HVA are shown as black triangles. Note that current values were normalized to the peak amplitude of both VACC components. Nifedipine blocked about 50% of the LVA component; however, other toxins than Cd 2+ did not affect the LVA component.

Techniques Used: Mass Spectrometry

6) Product Images from "β1-adrenoceptor stimulation promotes LPS-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis through activating PKA and enhancing CaMKII and IκBα phosphorylation"

Article Title: β1-adrenoceptor stimulation promotes LPS-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis through activating PKA and enhancing CaMKII and IκBα phosphorylation

Journal: Critical Care

doi: 10.1186/s13054-015-0820-1

Effects of dobutamine (DOB), lipolysachharide (LPS) and nifedipine (NIF) on cytosolic Ca 2+ , calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and caspase activation in cardiomyocytes. Adult mouse ventricular myocytes were pretreated with NIF (1 μM) , a calcium channel blocker, or vehicle for 1 hour, and then exposed to DOB (0.02 μM), LPS (10 ng/mL), their combination or vehicle for 3, 12 or 24 hours. (A,B) DOB enhanced LPS-induced cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration elevation (mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM); n = 8) and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) phosphorylation (mean ± SEM; n = 4) 3 hours and 12 hours after LPS treatment, respectively, both of which were blocked by NIF pretreatment. (C,D) NIF partly abolished the enhancement effects of DOB on LPS-stimulated caspase-9 (12 hours after DOB and LPS treatment) and caspase 3/7 (24 hours after DOB and LPS treatment) activation in cardiomyocytes (mean ± SEM; n = 8). * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of dobutamine (DOB), lipolysachharide (LPS) and nifedipine (NIF) on cytosolic Ca 2+ , calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and caspase activation in cardiomyocytes. Adult mouse ventricular myocytes were pretreated with NIF (1 μM) , a calcium channel blocker, or vehicle for 1 hour, and then exposed to DOB (0.02 μM), LPS (10 ng/mL), their combination or vehicle for 3, 12 or 24 hours. (A,B) DOB enhanced LPS-induced cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration elevation (mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM); n = 8) and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) phosphorylation (mean ± SEM; n = 4) 3 hours and 12 hours after LPS treatment, respectively, both of which were blocked by NIF pretreatment. (C,D) NIF partly abolished the enhancement effects of DOB on LPS-stimulated caspase-9 (12 hours after DOB and LPS treatment) and caspase 3/7 (24 hours after DOB and LPS treatment) activation in cardiomyocytes (mean ± SEM; n = 8). * P

Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Concentration Assay

7) Product Images from "Attenuation of the Pressor Response to Tracheal Intubation in Severe Preeclampsia: Relative Efficacies of Nitroglycerine Infusion, Sublingual Nifedipine, and Intravenous Hydralazine"

Article Title: Attenuation of the Pressor Response to Tracheal Intubation in Severe Preeclampsia: Relative Efficacies of Nitroglycerine Infusion, Sublingual Nifedipine, and Intravenous Hydralazine

Journal: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

doi: 10.5812/kowsar.22287523.1782

Systolic Arterial Blood Pressure Changes After Different Time Intervals Following Intubation Data are presented as Mean ± SD. T0, baseline; TBI, just before intubation; ET1, 10 min after intubation. Group H, Hydralazine-treated group; Group NTG, Nitroglycerine-treated group; Group NIF, Nifedipine-treated group. *P
Figure Legend Snippet: Systolic Arterial Blood Pressure Changes After Different Time Intervals Following Intubation Data are presented as Mean ± SD. T0, baseline; TBI, just before intubation; ET1, 10 min after intubation. Group H, Hydralazine-treated group; Group NTG, Nitroglycerine-treated group; Group NIF, Nifedipine-treated group. *P

Techniques Used:

Heart Rate Changes After Different Time Intervals Following Intubation Data are presented as Mean ± SD. T0, baseline; TBI, just before intubation; ET1, 10 min after intubation. Group H, Hydralazine-treated group; Group NTG, Nitroglycerine-treated group; Group NIF, Nifedipine-treated group. *P
Figure Legend Snippet: Heart Rate Changes After Different Time Intervals Following Intubation Data are presented as Mean ± SD. T0, baseline; TBI, just before intubation; ET1, 10 min after intubation. Group H, Hydralazine-treated group; Group NTG, Nitroglycerine-treated group; Group NIF, Nifedipine-treated group. *P

Techniques Used:

Mean Arterial Blood Pressure Changes After Different Time Intervals Following Intubation Data are presented as Mean ± SD. T0, baseline; TBI, just before intubation; ET1, 10 min after intubation. Group H, Hydralazine-treated group; Group NTG, Nitroglycerine-treated group; Group NIF, Nifedipine-treated group. **P
Figure Legend Snippet: Mean Arterial Blood Pressure Changes After Different Time Intervals Following Intubation Data are presented as Mean ± SD. T0, baseline; TBI, just before intubation; ET1, 10 min after intubation. Group H, Hydralazine-treated group; Group NTG, Nitroglycerine-treated group; Group NIF, Nifedipine-treated group. **P

Techniques Used:

Diastolic Arterial Blood Pressure Changes After Different Time Intervals Following Intubation Data are presented as Mean ± SD. T0, baseline; TBI, just before intubation; ET1, 10 min after intubation. Group H, Hydralazine-treated group; Group NTG, Nitroglycerine-treated group; Group NIF, Nifedipine-treated group. **P
Figure Legend Snippet: Diastolic Arterial Blood Pressure Changes After Different Time Intervals Following Intubation Data are presented as Mean ± SD. T0, baseline; TBI, just before intubation; ET1, 10 min after intubation. Group H, Hydralazine-treated group; Group NTG, Nitroglycerine-treated group; Group NIF, Nifedipine-treated group. **P

Techniques Used:

8) Product Images from "Large-Scale Transcriptional Profiling of Molecular Perturbations Reveals Cell Type Specific Responses and Implications for Environmental Screening"

Article Title: Large-Scale Transcriptional Profiling of Molecular Perturbations Reveals Cell Type Specific Responses and Implications for Environmental Screening

Journal: bioRxiv

doi: 10.1101/2020.08.26.268458

Sensitivity and heterogeneity analysis among cells for calcium channel blockers, nifedipine (NIF) and nimodipine (NIM). (A) Differences in the numbers of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). (B) Differences in the average expression levels. (C) Clustering map represents the differences in pathways. (D) Limited shared DEGs among cell lines. (E) Limited shared pathways (among top 5) among cell lines.
Figure Legend Snippet: Sensitivity and heterogeneity analysis among cells for calcium channel blockers, nifedipine (NIF) and nimodipine (NIM). (A) Differences in the numbers of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). (B) Differences in the average expression levels. (C) Clustering map represents the differences in pathways. (D) Limited shared DEGs among cell lines. (E) Limited shared pathways (among top 5) among cell lines.

Techniques Used: Expressing

9) Product Images from "Co-Amorphous Simvastatin-Nifedipine with Enhanced Solubility for Possible Use in Combination Therapy of Hypertension and Hypercholesterolemia"

Article Title: Co-Amorphous Simvastatin-Nifedipine with Enhanced Solubility for Possible Use in Combination Therapy of Hypertension and Hypercholesterolemia

Journal: Molecules : A Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry

doi: 10.3390/molecules23092161

Chemical structures of active pharmaceutical ingredients ( a ) Simvastatin SIM (cholesterol lowering agent) and ( b ) Nifedipine NIF (calcium channel blocker used to treat hypertension).
Figure Legend Snippet: Chemical structures of active pharmaceutical ingredients ( a ) Simvastatin SIM (cholesterol lowering agent) and ( b ) Nifedipine NIF (calcium channel blocker used to treat hypertension).

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10) Product Images from "Inhibition of human CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 enzymes by gomisin C and gomisin G, two lignan analogs derived from Schisandra chinensis"

Article Title: Inhibition of human CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 enzymes by gomisin C and gomisin G, two lignan analogs derived from Schisandra chinensis

Journal: Fitoterapia

doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2017.03.010

The selective inhibitory effects of GC on the metabolism of midazolam (a), nifedipine (b) and testosterone (c) in rhCYP3A4 and rhCYP3A5 systems. Data are shown as mean ± S.D. from three experiments carried out in duplicate.
Figure Legend Snippet: The selective inhibitory effects of GC on the metabolism of midazolam (a), nifedipine (b) and testosterone (c) in rhCYP3A4 and rhCYP3A5 systems. Data are shown as mean ± S.D. from three experiments carried out in duplicate.

Techniques Used:

11) Product Images from "The Tau/A152T mutation, a risk factor for frontotemporal‐spectrum disorders, leads to NR2B receptor‐mediated excitotoxicity"

Article Title: The Tau/A152T mutation, a risk factor for frontotemporal‐spectrum disorders, leads to NR2B receptor‐mediated excitotoxicity

Journal: EMBO Reports

doi: 10.15252/embr.201541439

hTau AT causes elevation of Ca 2+ levels in CA3 hippocampal neurons at resting state and after membrane depolarization through extrasynaptic NMDA receptors Slices (DIV 15) from control mice were loaded with the Ca 2+ ‐sensitive dye Fura‐2AM. Ratiometric images are presented at baseline and after application of high potassium. Note the increase in intracellular Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] i ) after KCl application. Slices (DIV 15) from hTau AT mice were loaded with the Ca 2+ ‐sensitive dye Fura‐2AM. Ratiometric images at baseline and after application of high potassium chloride in area CA3 are depicted. Note the increase in [Ca 2+ ] i (false color legend) under both conditions in hTau AT slices compared to controls. Electrophysiological example traces (control, black; hTau AT , red) of excitatory postsynaptic field potentials (fEPSP) depict examples of depolarizations that are induced by a single high potassium chloride application in stratum pyramidale (s.p.) of area CA3 in slices in which calcium imaging experiments were conducted. The example depolarization evokes averaged calcium influxes into neurons depicted in the calcium imaging graph. The graph shows the mean of [Ca 2+ ] i changes in response to high KCl in stratum radiatum and stratum pyramidale of area CA3 in Fura‐2AM‐loaded hippocampal slices. After depolarization, [Ca 2+ ] i rises up to ˜600 nM in hTau AT slices (red trace, n = 6 slices, prepared from at least three animals), compared to ˜300 nM in control slices (black trace, n = 6 slices; prepared from at least three animals). Note that even under resting conditions, [Ca 2+ ] i is elevated to ˜120 nM due to hTau AT expression. Quantification of the [Ca 2+ ] i from ratiometric images as depicted in (A) and (B) after background subtraction and selection of regions of interest (10 circles of fixed diameter) in stratum radiatum border to stratum pyramidale of area CA3. Under resting conditions, [Ca 2+ ] i was elevated in transgenic slice cultures (˜120 nM, n = 11) compared to controls (˜80 nM, n = 8). Slices were incubated with one of the following channel blockers: nifedipine (NIF, VGCC; Ctrl n = 8; A152T: n = 7), APV (NMDAR; Ctrl n = 7; A152T n = 8), ifenprodil (IFEN, NMDAR; Ctrl n = 8; A152T n = 7), memantine (MEM, NMDAR; Ctrl/A152T n = 6), 6‐cyano‐7‐nitroquinoxaline‐2,3‐dione (CNQX; AMPAR; Ctrl n = 8; A152T n = 7)), tetrodotoxin (TTX, VGNaC; Ctrl n = 4; A152T n = 5), tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT, neurotransmitter release; A152T n = 6) or in Ca 2+ ‐free buffer (Ctrl n = 10; A152T n = 7). For each experiment, slice preparations from at least three different mice were used. One‐way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test; Ctrl: F (7/51) = 3,533; P = 0.0036; A152T: F (8/55) = 5,230; P . Quantification of the maximum peak increase in intracellular calcium after high KCl stimulation. One‐way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test Ctrl: F (7/45) = 4,080; P = 0.0015; A152T: F (8/53) = 7,580; P
Figure Legend Snippet: hTau AT causes elevation of Ca 2+ levels in CA3 hippocampal neurons at resting state and after membrane depolarization through extrasynaptic NMDA receptors Slices (DIV 15) from control mice were loaded with the Ca 2+ ‐sensitive dye Fura‐2AM. Ratiometric images are presented at baseline and after application of high potassium. Note the increase in intracellular Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] i ) after KCl application. Slices (DIV 15) from hTau AT mice were loaded with the Ca 2+ ‐sensitive dye Fura‐2AM. Ratiometric images at baseline and after application of high potassium chloride in area CA3 are depicted. Note the increase in [Ca 2+ ] i (false color legend) under both conditions in hTau AT slices compared to controls. Electrophysiological example traces (control, black; hTau AT , red) of excitatory postsynaptic field potentials (fEPSP) depict examples of depolarizations that are induced by a single high potassium chloride application in stratum pyramidale (s.p.) of area CA3 in slices in which calcium imaging experiments were conducted. The example depolarization evokes averaged calcium influxes into neurons depicted in the calcium imaging graph. The graph shows the mean of [Ca 2+ ] i changes in response to high KCl in stratum radiatum and stratum pyramidale of area CA3 in Fura‐2AM‐loaded hippocampal slices. After depolarization, [Ca 2+ ] i rises up to ˜600 nM in hTau AT slices (red trace, n = 6 slices, prepared from at least three animals), compared to ˜300 nM in control slices (black trace, n = 6 slices; prepared from at least three animals). Note that even under resting conditions, [Ca 2+ ] i is elevated to ˜120 nM due to hTau AT expression. Quantification of the [Ca 2+ ] i from ratiometric images as depicted in (A) and (B) after background subtraction and selection of regions of interest (10 circles of fixed diameter) in stratum radiatum border to stratum pyramidale of area CA3. Under resting conditions, [Ca 2+ ] i was elevated in transgenic slice cultures (˜120 nM, n = 11) compared to controls (˜80 nM, n = 8). Slices were incubated with one of the following channel blockers: nifedipine (NIF, VGCC; Ctrl n = 8; A152T: n = 7), APV (NMDAR; Ctrl n = 7; A152T n = 8), ifenprodil (IFEN, NMDAR; Ctrl n = 8; A152T n = 7), memantine (MEM, NMDAR; Ctrl/A152T n = 6), 6‐cyano‐7‐nitroquinoxaline‐2,3‐dione (CNQX; AMPAR; Ctrl n = 8; A152T n = 7)), tetrodotoxin (TTX, VGNaC; Ctrl n = 4; A152T n = 5), tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT, neurotransmitter release; A152T n = 6) or in Ca 2+ ‐free buffer (Ctrl n = 10; A152T n = 7). For each experiment, slice preparations from at least three different mice were used. One‐way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test; Ctrl: F (7/51) = 3,533; P = 0.0036; A152T: F (8/55) = 5,230; P . Quantification of the maximum peak increase in intracellular calcium after high KCl stimulation. One‐way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test Ctrl: F (7/45) = 4,080; P = 0.0015; A152T: F (8/53) = 7,580; P

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Imaging, Expressing, Selection, Transgenic Assay, Incubation

12) Product Images from "Impact of the haplotypes of the human pregnane X receptor gene on the basal and St John's wort-induced activity of cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme"

Article Title: Impact of the haplotypes of the human pregnane X receptor gene on the basal and St John's wort-induced activity of cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme

Journal: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2008.03344.x

The plasma concentration–time profiles of nifedipine (NIF) (A,B) and dehydronifedipine (DNIF) (C,D) before (A,C) and after (B,D) administration of St John's wort (SJW) for 2 weeks in three different groups of PXR haplotype. Subjects were grouped
Figure Legend Snippet: The plasma concentration–time profiles of nifedipine (NIF) (A,B) and dehydronifedipine (DNIF) (C,D) before (A,C) and after (B,D) administration of St John's wort (SJW) for 2 weeks in three different groups of PXR haplotype. Subjects were grouped

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

13) Product Images from "Synergistic Effect of Fluconazole and Calcium Channel Blockers against Resistant Candida albicans"

Article Title: Synergistic Effect of Fluconazole and Calcium Channel Blockers against Resistant Candida albicans

Journal: PLoS ONE

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0150859

The influence of tested calcium channel blockers on fluconazole efflux. (A). Relative expression of CDR1 , CDR1 and MDR1 following treatment with fluconazole (FLC) and amlodipine (AML) alone or in combination in CA10. Cells were treated with fluconazole at 1 μg ml -1 , amlodipine at 16 μg ml -1 alone or in combination. Total RNA was extracted and reversely transcribed to cDNA. cDNA was then used for real-time quantitative PCR to detect expression levels of CDR1 , CDR1 and MDR1 . Values represent the means ± standard deviation of three replicates. (B). The influence of amlodipine, nifedipine, benifdipine and flunarizine on efflux of fluconazole was tested by rhodamine 6G assay. There was almost no difference in fluorescence intensity with or without the tested calcium channel blocker. Values represent the means ± standard deviation of three replicates. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: The influence of tested calcium channel blockers on fluconazole efflux. (A). Relative expression of CDR1 , CDR1 and MDR1 following treatment with fluconazole (FLC) and amlodipine (AML) alone or in combination in CA10. Cells were treated with fluconazole at 1 μg ml -1 , amlodipine at 16 μg ml -1 alone or in combination. Total RNA was extracted and reversely transcribed to cDNA. cDNA was then used for real-time quantitative PCR to detect expression levels of CDR1 , CDR1 and MDR1 . Values represent the means ± standard deviation of three replicates. (B). The influence of amlodipine, nifedipine, benifdipine and flunarizine on efflux of fluconazole was tested by rhodamine 6G assay. There was almost no difference in fluorescence intensity with or without the tested calcium channel blocker. Values represent the means ± standard deviation of three replicates. * P

Techniques Used: Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Standard Deviation, Fluorescence

14) Product Images from "Study of local intracellular signals regulating axonal morphogenesis using a microfluidic device"

Article Title: Study of local intracellular signals regulating axonal morphogenesis using a microfluidic device

Journal: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials

doi: 10.1080/14686996.2016.1241131

Use of microfluidic device to investigate the role of local Ca 2+ entry in axonal branching. (a–c) CGNs (3 DIV) that were maintained in media containing 30 mM KCl for two days. Neurons were simultaneously treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (a), nifedipine (NIF) (b), or tetrodotoxin (TTX) (c), Arrowheads indicate axonal branches. Scale bar: 100 μm. (d), Measurement of axonal branch length. Nifedipine treatment inhibited depolarization-induced growth of axonal branches. Data in each condition were obtained from at least 36 neurons from three independent experiments. (e), Phenol red was added in the one side of chamber that has smaller volume of liquid. After 24 h, phenol red in the device was detected via UV-light absorption. Arrowheads indicate the position of microchannels. Scale bar: 100 μm. (f–i), Cerebellar granule neurons that had been maintained in a microfluidic device in the presence of 30 mM KCl were treated with nifedipine or DMSO. Reagents were applied to the somatic and/or axonal chamber as indicated. CGNs were fixed at 6 DIV and subjected to immunocytochemistry using anti-tubulin antibody. Scale bar: 50 μm. (j), Measurement of branch density along axons. Local application of nifedipine significantly inhibited axonal branching. Data in each condition were obtained from at least 49 axons from three independent experiments (*** p
Figure Legend Snippet: Use of microfluidic device to investigate the role of local Ca 2+ entry in axonal branching. (a–c) CGNs (3 DIV) that were maintained in media containing 30 mM KCl for two days. Neurons were simultaneously treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (a), nifedipine (NIF) (b), or tetrodotoxin (TTX) (c), Arrowheads indicate axonal branches. Scale bar: 100 μm. (d), Measurement of axonal branch length. Nifedipine treatment inhibited depolarization-induced growth of axonal branches. Data in each condition were obtained from at least 36 neurons from three independent experiments. (e), Phenol red was added in the one side of chamber that has smaller volume of liquid. After 24 h, phenol red in the device was detected via UV-light absorption. Arrowheads indicate the position of microchannels. Scale bar: 100 μm. (f–i), Cerebellar granule neurons that had been maintained in a microfluidic device in the presence of 30 mM KCl were treated with nifedipine or DMSO. Reagents were applied to the somatic and/or axonal chamber as indicated. CGNs were fixed at 6 DIV and subjected to immunocytochemistry using anti-tubulin antibody. Scale bar: 50 μm. (j), Measurement of branch density along axons. Local application of nifedipine significantly inhibited axonal branching. Data in each condition were obtained from at least 49 axons from three independent experiments (*** p

Techniques Used: Immunocytochemistry

15) Product Images from "Cocaine-induced ischemia in prefrontal cortex is associated with escalation of cocaine intake in rodents"

Article Title: Cocaine-induced ischemia in prefrontal cortex is associated with escalation of cocaine intake in rodents

Journal: Molecular psychiatry

doi: 10.1038/s41380-018-0261-8

Treatment with calcium antagonist during self-administration reduces drug taking and prevents reduction in CBFv. A) shows a representative image of laser speckle (830nm) used to calculate CBFv. B) shows a representative Ca 2+ fluorescence image. C) shows a cross-sectional representation of fluorescence. D) time course of calcium change following a cocaine (1mg/kg) injection at time 0, in animals with either history of cocaine or saline SA. E) shows the timeline for the nifedipine (NIF) SA experiment. F) Total cocaine intake by LgA and LgA+NIF rats over 14 days of self-administration; 20mg/kg NIF (i.p.) reduced cocaine intake supporting the hypothesis that reduction in CBFv contributes to escalation of intake. G) mean cocaine intake across sessions. H) peak fluorescence amplitude. LgA causes increased response to cocaine challenge which was blocked by nifedipine treatment. I) CBFv in rats with a history of saline, LgA or LgA+NIF; treatment with NIF blocked the reduction of CBFv caused by cocaine self-administration. J) test of reinstatement (n=8) last day of self-administration (SA), extinction (EXT), reinstatement following vehicle (RI+V), following 20 mg/kg nifedipine (RI+N). * indicates a significant difference (p
Figure Legend Snippet: Treatment with calcium antagonist during self-administration reduces drug taking and prevents reduction in CBFv. A) shows a representative image of laser speckle (830nm) used to calculate CBFv. B) shows a representative Ca 2+ fluorescence image. C) shows a cross-sectional representation of fluorescence. D) time course of calcium change following a cocaine (1mg/kg) injection at time 0, in animals with either history of cocaine or saline SA. E) shows the timeline for the nifedipine (NIF) SA experiment. F) Total cocaine intake by LgA and LgA+NIF rats over 14 days of self-administration; 20mg/kg NIF (i.p.) reduced cocaine intake supporting the hypothesis that reduction in CBFv contributes to escalation of intake. G) mean cocaine intake across sessions. H) peak fluorescence amplitude. LgA causes increased response to cocaine challenge which was blocked by nifedipine treatment. I) CBFv in rats with a history of saline, LgA or LgA+NIF; treatment with NIF blocked the reduction of CBFv caused by cocaine self-administration. J) test of reinstatement (n=8) last day of self-administration (SA), extinction (EXT), reinstatement following vehicle (RI+V), following 20 mg/kg nifedipine (RI+N). * indicates a significant difference (p

Techniques Used: Fluorescence, Injection

16) Product Images from "Modulation of Voltage-Gated Ion Channels in Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells Mediated by Somatostatin Receptor Subtype 4"

Article Title: Modulation of Voltage-Gated Ion Channels in Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells Mediated by Somatostatin Receptor Subtype 4

Journal: Journal of Neurophysiology

doi: 10.1152/jn.00098.2010

Intracellular Ca 2+ signaling was reduced by L-803,087 in ganglion cells in retinal flat mount. A : applications of 52 mM K + solution for 30 s depolarized ganglion cells and produced transient increases in intracellular Ca 2+ concentration, measured with the dye fura-2. Traces ( left ) show that, in the absence of drug, the second of paired K + applications produced a smaller peak Ca 2+ signal. On the right , the paired K + pulses, with L-803,087 (100 nM) applied 30 s prior to the second K + application, show greater reduction of the Ca 2+ signal compared with control. Far right panel shows a fluorescent image (stimulated at 380 nm) of a fura-2-containing ganglion cell in the flat-mount retina. B : mean data show amplitudes of the second high K + response expressed as a percentage of first peak in control, L-803,087 (L-803, 100 nM), nifedipine (NIF, 10 μM), and nifedipine plus L-803,087. The mean Ca 2+ transient amplitudes of all 3 drug treatment groups (L-803, NIF, L-803 + NIF) were significantly smaller than those of the control group, but they did not differ among themselves ( n = 21–89 cells/group; * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Intracellular Ca 2+ signaling was reduced by L-803,087 in ganglion cells in retinal flat mount. A : applications of 52 mM K + solution for 30 s depolarized ganglion cells and produced transient increases in intracellular Ca 2+ concentration, measured with the dye fura-2. Traces ( left ) show that, in the absence of drug, the second of paired K + applications produced a smaller peak Ca 2+ signal. On the right , the paired K + pulses, with L-803,087 (100 nM) applied 30 s prior to the second K + application, show greater reduction of the Ca 2+ signal compared with control. Far right panel shows a fluorescent image (stimulated at 380 nm) of a fura-2-containing ganglion cell in the flat-mount retina. B : mean data show amplitudes of the second high K + response expressed as a percentage of first peak in control, L-803,087 (L-803, 100 nM), nifedipine (NIF, 10 μM), and nifedipine plus L-803,087. The mean Ca 2+ transient amplitudes of all 3 drug treatment groups (L-803, NIF, L-803 + NIF) were significantly smaller than those of the control group, but they did not differ among themselves ( n = 21–89 cells/group; * P

Techniques Used: Produced, Concentration Assay

17) Product Images from "Investigation of the in vitro performance difference of drug-Soluplus® and drug-PEG 6000 dispersions when prepared using spray drying or lyophilization"

Article Title: Investigation of the in vitro performance difference of drug-Soluplus® and drug-PEG 6000 dispersions when prepared using spray drying or lyophilization

Journal: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal : SPJ

doi: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.09.013

DSC thermograms for nifedipine:PEG 6000 spray dried mixtures at mass ratios of 1:5, and 1:9.
Figure Legend Snippet: DSC thermograms for nifedipine:PEG 6000 spray dried mixtures at mass ratios of 1:5, and 1:9.

Techniques Used:

Chemical structures of a. nifedipine, b. sulfamethoxazole, c. polyethylene glycol, and d. Soluplus®.
Figure Legend Snippet: Chemical structures of a. nifedipine, b. sulfamethoxazole, c. polyethylene glycol, and d. Soluplus®.

Techniques Used:

Nifedipine and lyophilized NIF with Soluplus® or PEG 6000 in SGF ( n = 3). Error bars represent standard deviation.
Figure Legend Snippet: Nifedipine and lyophilized NIF with Soluplus® or PEG 6000 in SGF ( n = 3). Error bars represent standard deviation.

Techniques Used: Standard Deviation

DSC thermograms for the nifedipine:Soluplus® lyophilized mixtures at mass ratios of 1:1, 1:5, and 1:9.
Figure Legend Snippet: DSC thermograms for the nifedipine:Soluplus® lyophilized mixtures at mass ratios of 1:1, 1:5, and 1:9.

Techniques Used:

Nifedipine and spray dried NIF with Soluplus® or PEG 6000 in SIF ( n = 3). NIF alone in deionized water was added for comparison. Error bars represent standard deviation.
Figure Legend Snippet: Nifedipine and spray dried NIF with Soluplus® or PEG 6000 in SIF ( n = 3). NIF alone in deionized water was added for comparison. Error bars represent standard deviation.

Techniques Used: Standard Deviation

DSC thermograms for nifedipine:PEG 6000 lyophilized mixtures at mass ratios of 1:1, 1:5, and 1:9.
Figure Legend Snippet: DSC thermograms for nifedipine:PEG 6000 lyophilized mixtures at mass ratios of 1:1, 1:5, and 1:9.

Techniques Used:

Nifedipine and lyophilized NIF with Soluplus® or PEG 6000 in SIF ( n = 3). Error bars represent standard deviation.
Figure Legend Snippet: Nifedipine and lyophilized NIF with Soluplus® or PEG 6000 in SIF ( n = 3). Error bars represent standard deviation.

Techniques Used: Standard Deviation

DSC thermograms for (top to bottom) sulfamethoxazole, PEG 6000, Soluplus®, and nifedipine.
Figure Legend Snippet: DSC thermograms for (top to bottom) sulfamethoxazole, PEG 6000, Soluplus®, and nifedipine.

Techniques Used:

Nifedipine and spray dried NIF with Soluplus® or PEG 6000 in SGF ( n = 3). Error bars represent standard deviation.
Figure Legend Snippet: Nifedipine and spray dried NIF with Soluplus® or PEG 6000 in SGF ( n = 3). Error bars represent standard deviation.

Techniques Used: Standard Deviation

DSC thermograms of nifedipine:Soluplus® spray dried mixtures at mass ratios of 1:1, 1:5, and 1:9.
Figure Legend Snippet: DSC thermograms of nifedipine:Soluplus® spray dried mixtures at mass ratios of 1:1, 1:5, and 1:9.

Techniques Used:

18) Product Images from "Repurposing drugs to fast-track therapeutic agents for the treatment of cryptococcosis"

Article Title: Repurposing drugs to fast-track therapeutic agents for the treatment of cryptococcosis

Journal: PeerJ

doi: 10.7717/peerj.4761

Chemical structures of 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers: nisoldipine, nifedipine, felodipine, niguldipine and lacidipine. The core structure shared by members of the 1,4-dihydropyridine class is shaded in blue. Large side groups are shaded in pink. Chemical structures were drawn with BIOVIA Draw 2017 R2 (Version 17.2; Dassault Systèmes, San Diego, CA, USA).
Figure Legend Snippet: Chemical structures of 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers: nisoldipine, nifedipine, felodipine, niguldipine and lacidipine. The core structure shared by members of the 1,4-dihydropyridine class is shaded in blue. Large side groups are shaded in pink. Chemical structures were drawn with BIOVIA Draw 2017 R2 (Version 17.2; Dassault Systèmes, San Diego, CA, USA).

Techniques Used:

19) Product Images from "Nitro-oleic acid targets transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in capsaicin sensitive afferent nerves of rat urinary bladder"

Article Title: Nitro-oleic acid targets transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in capsaicin sensitive afferent nerves of rat urinary bladder

Journal: Experimental Neurology

doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2011.08.007

Effect of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and nifedipine (NIF) on the response to OA-NO 2 . A. TTX (1μM), which did not alter basal contractions or baseline tone of a bladder strip (top trace), reduced the response to a subsequent application of OA-NO 2 (15μM) applied 15 min later (bottom trace). B. Nifedipine (NIF, 10 μM), which completely suppressed phasic contractions and reduced baseline tone of bladder strip (top trace), completely blocked the effect of a subsequent application of OA-NO 2 (15μM) applied 15 min later (bottom trace). Summary data showing the effect of OA-NO 2 on contraction amplitude (C) and baseline tone (D) in control strips and in strips pretreated for 15 min with TTX (1μM) or NIF (10μM) **p
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and nifedipine (NIF) on the response to OA-NO 2 . A. TTX (1μM), which did not alter basal contractions or baseline tone of a bladder strip (top trace), reduced the response to a subsequent application of OA-NO 2 (15μM) applied 15 min later (bottom trace). B. Nifedipine (NIF, 10 μM), which completely suppressed phasic contractions and reduced baseline tone of bladder strip (top trace), completely blocked the effect of a subsequent application of OA-NO 2 (15μM) applied 15 min later (bottom trace). Summary data showing the effect of OA-NO 2 on contraction amplitude (C) and baseline tone (D) in control strips and in strips pretreated for 15 min with TTX (1μM) or NIF (10μM) **p

Techniques Used: Stripping Membranes

20) Product Images from "Testosterone and Cholesterol Vasodilation of Rat Aorta Involves L-Type Calcium Channel Inhibition"

Article Title: Testosterone and Cholesterol Vasodilation of Rat Aorta Involves L-Type Calcium Channel Inhibition

Journal: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences (Online)

doi: 10.1155/2010/534184

Effect of nifedipine and BAY on I Ca,L amplitude in A7r5 cells. Original records of I Ca,L measured in Patch-clamp experiments showing that: BAY (10 nM) stimulates I Ca,L and nifedipine (NIF; 1 μ M) inhibits the BAY stimulation (a); Nifedipine(1 μ M) directly inhibits the basal I Ca,L (b).
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of nifedipine and BAY on I Ca,L amplitude in A7r5 cells. Original records of I Ca,L measured in Patch-clamp experiments showing that: BAY (10 nM) stimulates I Ca,L and nifedipine (NIF; 1 μ M) inhibits the BAY stimulation (a); Nifedipine(1 μ M) directly inhibits the basal I Ca,L (b).

Techniques Used: Patch Clamp

21) Product Images from "In-situ freeze-drying - forming amorphous solids directly within capsules: An investigation of dissolution enhancement for a poorly soluble drug"

Article Title: In-situ freeze-drying - forming amorphous solids directly within capsules: An investigation of dissolution enhancement for a poorly soluble drug

Journal: Scientific Reports

doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-02676-2

( A ) Clear gelatin capsules filled with 0.5 mL of liquid TBA (40 ± 0.5 °C). ( B ) SEM of in-situ red capsule freeze-dried formulation. The capsule bottom part was involved in the freeze-drying process, while the top part (left of the image) was not. The structure of both looks identical under SEM. ( C ) In-situ capsule freeze-dried samples of nifedpine in PVP. Left to right showing low to high w/w % of NIF in PVP. All formulations were designed to contain 10 mg of nifedipine whatever the amount of PVP present.
Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) Clear gelatin capsules filled with 0.5 mL of liquid TBA (40 ± 0.5 °C). ( B ) SEM of in-situ red capsule freeze-dried formulation. The capsule bottom part was involved in the freeze-drying process, while the top part (left of the image) was not. The structure of both looks identical under SEM. ( C ) In-situ capsule freeze-dried samples of nifedpine in PVP. Left to right showing low to high w/w % of NIF in PVP. All formulations were designed to contain 10 mg of nifedipine whatever the amount of PVP present.

Techniques Used: In Situ

Comparing ( A ) dissolution profile ( B ) rate constant of nifedipine in different dosage types. The dissolution medium is 0.1 M HCl unless otherwise stated. Temperature of dissolution medium is 37.0 ± 0.5 °C and dissolution volume 900 mL. Test was performed following USP paddle apparatus 2. Error bars represent standard error of n = 3. Comparing ( C ) dissolution profile ( D ) rate constant of In situ FD nifedipine capsules with varying NIF:PVP ratios The dissolution medium is 0.1 M HCL unless otherwise stated. Temperature of dissolution medium is 37.0 ± 0.5 °C and dissolution volume 900 mL. Test was performed following USP paddle apparatus 2. Error bars represent standard error of n = 3.
Figure Legend Snippet: Comparing ( A ) dissolution profile ( B ) rate constant of nifedipine in different dosage types. The dissolution medium is 0.1 M HCl unless otherwise stated. Temperature of dissolution medium is 37.0 ± 0.5 °C and dissolution volume 900 mL. Test was performed following USP paddle apparatus 2. Error bars represent standard error of n = 3. Comparing ( C ) dissolution profile ( D ) rate constant of In situ FD nifedipine capsules with varying NIF:PVP ratios The dissolution medium is 0.1 M HCL unless otherwise stated. Temperature of dissolution medium is 37.0 ± 0.5 °C and dissolution volume 900 mL. Test was performed following USP paddle apparatus 2. Error bars represent standard error of n = 3.

Techniques Used: In Situ

( A ) FT-IR spectra of crystalline nifedipine as received, amorphous nifedipine (produced by heat melt), PVP as received, 50% w/w crystalline NIF in PVP as physical-mix (NIF in PVP PM) and Freeze-dried 50% w/w NIF in PVP (NIF in PVP FD). FT-IR measurements were repeated to ensure data reproducibility (n = 3). ( B ) N-H (3288–3330 cm −1 ), Carbonyl (1660–1680 cm −1 ) and out of plane δ(C-H) vibration of the ring (800–700 cm −1 ) regions of the FT-IR spectrum for the full range of freeze-dried NIF in PVP formulations compared to the 90% w/w NIF in PVP physical-mix of crystalline NIF in PVP. All percentages listed are of NIF in PVP. FT-IR measurements were repeated to ensure data reproducibility (n = 3). ( C ) FT-IR spectra (800–700 cm −1 only) of freeze-dried formulations 20–100% w/w NIF in PVP. Peak symmetry change at 754 cm −1 (peak distinctive of amorphous nifedipine) was examined. 90% w/w NIF shows a clear left shoulder. FT-IR measurements were repeated to ensure data reproducibility (n = 3). Spectra presented in ( A ), ( B ) and ( C ) where corrected for baseline using the software PerkinElmer spectrum 10. Additionally spectra presented in ( B ) ( C ) had a PVP spectrum subtraction. ( D ) Monitoring NIF crystallinity in freeze-dried formulations using FT-IR peak symmetry at 755 cm −1 . A change in peak symmetry is indicative of a change in physical state, as amorphous NIF presents a single broad and asymmetric peak at 754 cm −1 and crystalline NIF presents 2 separate peaks at 762 cm –1 and 744 cm −1 , the gradual change from the broad amorphous peak to the double crystalline peaks can be quantitatively measured through peak symmetry measurements. Error bars represent standard error of n = 3.
Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) FT-IR spectra of crystalline nifedipine as received, amorphous nifedipine (produced by heat melt), PVP as received, 50% w/w crystalline NIF in PVP as physical-mix (NIF in PVP PM) and Freeze-dried 50% w/w NIF in PVP (NIF in PVP FD). FT-IR measurements were repeated to ensure data reproducibility (n = 3). ( B ) N-H (3288–3330 cm −1 ), Carbonyl (1660–1680 cm −1 ) and out of plane δ(C-H) vibration of the ring (800–700 cm −1 ) regions of the FT-IR spectrum for the full range of freeze-dried NIF in PVP formulations compared to the 90% w/w NIF in PVP physical-mix of crystalline NIF in PVP. All percentages listed are of NIF in PVP. FT-IR measurements were repeated to ensure data reproducibility (n = 3). ( C ) FT-IR spectra (800–700 cm −1 only) of freeze-dried formulations 20–100% w/w NIF in PVP. Peak symmetry change at 754 cm −1 (peak distinctive of amorphous nifedipine) was examined. 90% w/w NIF shows a clear left shoulder. FT-IR measurements were repeated to ensure data reproducibility (n = 3). Spectra presented in ( A ), ( B ) and ( C ) where corrected for baseline using the software PerkinElmer spectrum 10. Additionally spectra presented in ( B ) ( C ) had a PVP spectrum subtraction. ( D ) Monitoring NIF crystallinity in freeze-dried formulations using FT-IR peak symmetry at 755 cm −1 . A change in peak symmetry is indicative of a change in physical state, as amorphous NIF presents a single broad and asymmetric peak at 754 cm −1 and crystalline NIF presents 2 separate peaks at 762 cm –1 and 744 cm −1 , the gradual change from the broad amorphous peak to the double crystalline peaks can be quantitatively measured through peak symmetry measurements. Error bars represent standard error of n = 3.

Techniques Used: Produced, Software

( A ) FT-IR results show the N-H peak in pure amorphous nifedipine 3342 cm −1 shifts to 3288 cm −1 in FD formulations of nifedipine in PVP; thus indicating strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the N-H group of nifedipine and the carbonyl group in PVP 37 , 49 . (B) Showing the (C = O) carbonyl group of PVP maintained at 1654 cm −1 in pure PVP and FD formulations: indicating that the C = O peak of PVP was not greatly influenced by the hydrogen bonding between NIF and PVP 37 , 49 . FT-IR spectra presented in (A) and (B) were corrected for baseline using the software PerkinElmer spectrum 10. (C) A proposed model for the intermolecular hydrogen bonding between nifedipine and PVP based on the IR spectra. Hydrogen bonds are presented in red. This figure was constructed using ACD/ChemSketch. (D) Average T g of heat cycled samples of nifedipine in PVP. The data was fitted to Gordon Taylor equation, using OriginPro, where x is the weight fraction of nifedipine. Error bars represent standard error of n = 3.
Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) FT-IR results show the N-H peak in pure amorphous nifedipine 3342 cm −1 shifts to 3288 cm −1 in FD formulations of nifedipine in PVP; thus indicating strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the N-H group of nifedipine and the carbonyl group in PVP 37 , 49 . (B) Showing the (C = O) carbonyl group of PVP maintained at 1654 cm −1 in pure PVP and FD formulations: indicating that the C = O peak of PVP was not greatly influenced by the hydrogen bonding between NIF and PVP 37 , 49 . FT-IR spectra presented in (A) and (B) were corrected for baseline using the software PerkinElmer spectrum 10. (C) A proposed model for the intermolecular hydrogen bonding between nifedipine and PVP based on the IR spectra. Hydrogen bonds are presented in red. This figure was constructed using ACD/ChemSketch. (D) Average T g of heat cycled samples of nifedipine in PVP. The data was fitted to Gordon Taylor equation, using OriginPro, where x is the weight fraction of nifedipine. Error bars represent standard error of n = 3.

Techniques Used: Software, Construct

22) Product Images from "Urocortin-2 Prevents Dysregulation of Ca2+ Homeostasis and Improves Early Cardiac Remodeling After Ischemia and Reperfusion"

Article Title: Urocortin-2 Prevents Dysregulation of Ca2+ Homeostasis and Improves Early Cardiac Remodeling After Ischemia and Reperfusion

Journal: Frontiers in Physiology

doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00813

Urocortin-2 inhibits I/R-induced exacerbated SOCE in NRVMs. (A) Experimental protocol of cultured NRVMs subjected to I/R and Ucn-2 (10 nM). (B) Representative traces (left) showing the changes in [Ca 2+ ] i in Fura-2 loaded NRVMs, presented as ratio (F 340 /F 380 ). In right, bar graph illustrating data summary of experiments as in left. (C) Representative traces (left) and data summary (right) of Mn 2+ influx-induced Fura-2 quenching expressed in percent change of F 360 fluorescence after the administration of Mn 2+ (500 μM). Thapsigargin (TG, 2 μM) and nifedipine (NIF, 10 μM) were applied 4 min in the absence of extracellular Ca 2+ and then Ca 2+ (1.8 mM) was added as indicated. “Control” indicates responses of NRVMs to TG, “ I/R ” is for NRVMs under protocol of I/R, “ I/R+Ucn-2 ” is NRVMs treated with Ucn-2 during I/R, “ I/R+Ucn-2+Ast ” indicates NRVMs pre-incubated with astressin (0.5 μM) before Ucn-2 addition in I/R, “ I/R+SKF ” indicates NRVMs pre-incubated with SKF-96365 (40 μM), and “ I/R + GSK ” indicates NRVMs pre-incubated with GSK-7975A (10 μM). n = 100–250 cells from 5–10 cultures. Data are mean ± SEM. ∗ , ∗∗ , ∗∗∗ indicate significance at p
Figure Legend Snippet: Urocortin-2 inhibits I/R-induced exacerbated SOCE in NRVMs. (A) Experimental protocol of cultured NRVMs subjected to I/R and Ucn-2 (10 nM). (B) Representative traces (left) showing the changes in [Ca 2+ ] i in Fura-2 loaded NRVMs, presented as ratio (F 340 /F 380 ). In right, bar graph illustrating data summary of experiments as in left. (C) Representative traces (left) and data summary (right) of Mn 2+ influx-induced Fura-2 quenching expressed in percent change of F 360 fluorescence after the administration of Mn 2+ (500 μM). Thapsigargin (TG, 2 μM) and nifedipine (NIF, 10 μM) were applied 4 min in the absence of extracellular Ca 2+ and then Ca 2+ (1.8 mM) was added as indicated. “Control” indicates responses of NRVMs to TG, “ I/R ” is for NRVMs under protocol of I/R, “ I/R+Ucn-2 ” is NRVMs treated with Ucn-2 during I/R, “ I/R+Ucn-2+Ast ” indicates NRVMs pre-incubated with astressin (0.5 μM) before Ucn-2 addition in I/R, “ I/R+SKF ” indicates NRVMs pre-incubated with SKF-96365 (40 μM), and “ I/R + GSK ” indicates NRVMs pre-incubated with GSK-7975A (10 μM). n = 100–250 cells from 5–10 cultures. Data are mean ± SEM. ∗ , ∗∗ , ∗∗∗ indicate significance at p

Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Fluorescence, AST Assay, Incubation

23) Product Images from "Nitro-oleic acid targets transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in capsaicin sensitive afferent nerves of rat urinary bladder"

Article Title: Nitro-oleic acid targets transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in capsaicin sensitive afferent nerves of rat urinary bladder

Journal: Experimental Neurology

doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2011.08.007

Effect of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and nifedipine (NIF) on the response to OA-NO 2 . A. TTX (1μM), which did not alter basal contractions or baseline tone of a bladder strip (top trace), reduced the response to a subsequent application of OA-NO 2 (15μM) applied 15 min later (bottom trace). B. Nifedipine (NIF, 10 μM), which completely suppressed phasic contractions and reduced baseline tone of bladder strip (top trace), completely blocked the effect of a subsequent application of OA-NO 2 (15μM) applied 15 min later (bottom trace). Summary data showing the effect of OA-NO 2 on contraction amplitude (C) and baseline tone (D) in control strips and in strips pretreated for 15 min with TTX (1μM) or NIF (10μM) **p
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and nifedipine (NIF) on the response to OA-NO 2 . A. TTX (1μM), which did not alter basal contractions or baseline tone of a bladder strip (top trace), reduced the response to a subsequent application of OA-NO 2 (15μM) applied 15 min later (bottom trace). B. Nifedipine (NIF, 10 μM), which completely suppressed phasic contractions and reduced baseline tone of bladder strip (top trace), completely blocked the effect of a subsequent application of OA-NO 2 (15μM) applied 15 min later (bottom trace). Summary data showing the effect of OA-NO 2 on contraction amplitude (C) and baseline tone (D) in control strips and in strips pretreated for 15 min with TTX (1μM) or NIF (10μM) **p

Techniques Used: Stripping Membranes

24) Product Images from "Co-Amorphous Simvastatin-Nifedipine with Enhanced Solubility for Possible Use in Combination Therapy of Hypertension and Hypercholesterolemia"

Article Title: Co-Amorphous Simvastatin-Nifedipine with Enhanced Solubility for Possible Use in Combination Therapy of Hypertension and Hypercholesterolemia

Journal: Molecules : A Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry

doi: 10.3390/molecules23092161

Chemical structures of active pharmaceutical ingredients ( a ) Simvastatin SIM (cholesterol lowering agent) and ( b ) Nifedipine NIF (calcium channel blocker used to treat hypertension).
Figure Legend Snippet: Chemical structures of active pharmaceutical ingredients ( a ) Simvastatin SIM (cholesterol lowering agent) and ( b ) Nifedipine NIF (calcium channel blocker used to treat hypertension).

Techniques Used:

25) Product Images from "Determination of Stable Co-Amorphous Drug–Drug Ratios from the Eutectic Behavior of Crystalline Physical Mixtures"

Article Title: Determination of Stable Co-Amorphous Drug–Drug Ratios from the Eutectic Behavior of Crystalline Physical Mixtures

Journal: Pharmaceutics

doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics11120628

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms of the crystalline physical mixtures of ( a ) indomethacin–naproxen (IND−NAP), ( b ) nifedipine–paracetamol (NIF−PAR), and ( c ) paracetamol–celecoxib (PAR−CCX). The black arrows indicate the liquidus temperatures.
Figure Legend Snippet: Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms of the crystalline physical mixtures of ( a ) indomethacin–naproxen (IND−NAP), ( b ) nifedipine–paracetamol (NIF−PAR), and ( c ) paracetamol–celecoxib (PAR−CCX). The black arrows indicate the liquidus temperatures.

Techniques Used:

26) Product Images from "Repurposing drugs to fast-track therapeutic agents for the treatment of cryptococcosis"

Article Title: Repurposing drugs to fast-track therapeutic agents for the treatment of cryptococcosis

Journal: PeerJ

doi: 10.7717/peerj.4761

Chemical structures of 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers: nisoldipine, nifedipine, felodipine, niguldipine and lacidipine. The core structure shared by members of the 1,4-dihydropyridine class is shaded in blue. Large side groups are shaded in pink. Chemical structures were drawn with BIOVIA Draw 2017 R2 (Version 17.2; Dassault Systèmes, San Diego, CA, USA).
Figure Legend Snippet: Chemical structures of 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers: nisoldipine, nifedipine, felodipine, niguldipine and lacidipine. The core structure shared by members of the 1,4-dihydropyridine class is shaded in blue. Large side groups are shaded in pink. Chemical structures were drawn with BIOVIA Draw 2017 R2 (Version 17.2; Dassault Systèmes, San Diego, CA, USA).

Techniques Used:

27) Product Images from "Chemical composition and vasorelaxant effect induced by the essential oil of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown. (Verbenaceae) in rat mesenteric artery"

Article Title: Chemical composition and vasorelaxant effect induced by the essential oil of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown. (Verbenaceae) in rat mesenteric artery

Journal: Indian Journal of Pharmacology

doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.89828

Vasorelaxant effect of nifedipine (NIF: 10 μM), EOLA (300 μg/mL) and EOLA (300 μg/mL) after the maximum relaxation of NIF (10 μM) in rings of rat mesenteric artery without endothelium precontracted with Phe (1 μM). Values are expressed as mean ± SEM of 6 experiments. The data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post-test.
Figure Legend Snippet: Vasorelaxant effect of nifedipine (NIF: 10 μM), EOLA (300 μg/mL) and EOLA (300 μg/mL) after the maximum relaxation of NIF (10 μM) in rings of rat mesenteric artery without endothelium precontracted with Phe (1 μM). Values are expressed as mean ± SEM of 6 experiments. The data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post-test.

Techniques Used:

28) Product Images from "Molecular Dynamics and Physical Stability of Ibuprofen in Binary Mixtures with an Acetylated Derivative of Maltose"

Article Title: Molecular Dynamics and Physical Stability of Ibuprofen in Binary Mixtures with an Acetylated Derivative of Maltose

Journal: Molecular Pharmaceutics

doi: 10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.0c00517

Reduced crystallization temperature T red as a function of acMAL concentration in binary mixtures with different drugs: ibuprofen (black stars), celecoxib (red points), and nifedipine (blue points are calculated on the basis of data from ref ( 21 )).
Figure Legend Snippet: Reduced crystallization temperature T red as a function of acMAL concentration in binary mixtures with different drugs: ibuprofen (black stars), celecoxib (red points), and nifedipine (blue points are calculated on the basis of data from ref ( 21 )).

Techniques Used: Crystallization Assay, Concentration Assay

Dependences of acMAL mole fraction on different molecular factors for binary mixtures (drug+acMAL): (a) isobaric fragilities (data for binary mixtures indomethacin (IND), nifedipine (NIF), and celecoxib (CEL) with acMAL were taken from refs ( 22 ), ( 21 ), and ( 10 ), respectively), (b) activation energy E a of dielectric α-relaxation at T g of the binary systems (the inset shows glass transition temperatures for IBU+acMAL and CEL+acMAL as a function of weight concentration of acMAL), (c) numbers of dynamically correlated molecules N α at T g evaluated from Donth model ( eq 8 ) based on temperature dependences of the heat capacity C p of investigated systems showed in the inset, (d) the change in the heat capacity Δ C p at T g of investigated systems of IBU+acMAL derived from data showed in the inset of panel c.
Figure Legend Snippet: Dependences of acMAL mole fraction on different molecular factors for binary mixtures (drug+acMAL): (a) isobaric fragilities (data for binary mixtures indomethacin (IND), nifedipine (NIF), and celecoxib (CEL) with acMAL were taken from refs ( 22 ), ( 21 ), and ( 10 ), respectively), (b) activation energy E a of dielectric α-relaxation at T g of the binary systems (the inset shows glass transition temperatures for IBU+acMAL and CEL+acMAL as a function of weight concentration of acMAL), (c) numbers of dynamically correlated molecules N α at T g evaluated from Donth model ( eq 8 ) based on temperature dependences of the heat capacity C p of investigated systems showed in the inset, (d) the change in the heat capacity Δ C p at T g of investigated systems of IBU+acMAL derived from data showed in the inset of panel c.

Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Concentration Assay, Derivative Assay

29) Product Images from "In-situ freeze-drying - forming amorphous solids directly within capsules: An investigation of dissolution enhancement for a poorly soluble drug"

Article Title: In-situ freeze-drying - forming amorphous solids directly within capsules: An investigation of dissolution enhancement for a poorly soluble drug

Journal: Scientific Reports

doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-02676-2

( A ) Clear gelatin capsules filled with 0.5 mL of liquid TBA (40 ± 0.5 °C). ( B ) SEM of in-situ red capsule freeze-dried formulation. The capsule bottom part was involved in the freeze-drying process, while the top part (left of the image) was not. The structure of both looks identical under SEM. ( C ) In-situ capsule freeze-dried samples of nifedpine in PVP. Left to right showing low to high w/w % of NIF in PVP. All formulations were designed to contain 10 mg of nifedipine whatever the amount of PVP present.
Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) Clear gelatin capsules filled with 0.5 mL of liquid TBA (40 ± 0.5 °C). ( B ) SEM of in-situ red capsule freeze-dried formulation. The capsule bottom part was involved in the freeze-drying process, while the top part (left of the image) was not. The structure of both looks identical under SEM. ( C ) In-situ capsule freeze-dried samples of nifedpine in PVP. Left to right showing low to high w/w % of NIF in PVP. All formulations were designed to contain 10 mg of nifedipine whatever the amount of PVP present.

Techniques Used: In Situ

Comparing ( A ) dissolution profile ( B ) rate constant of nifedipine in different dosage types. The dissolution medium is 0.1 M HCl unless otherwise stated. Temperature of dissolution medium is 37.0 ± 0.5 °C and dissolution volume 900 mL. Test was performed following USP paddle apparatus 2. Error bars represent standard error of n = 3. Comparing ( C ) dissolution profile ( D ) rate constant of In situ FD nifedipine capsules with varying NIF:PVP ratios The dissolution medium is 0.1 M HCL unless otherwise stated. Temperature of dissolution medium is 37.0 ± 0.5 °C and dissolution volume 900 mL. Test was performed following USP paddle apparatus 2. Error bars represent standard error of n = 3.
Figure Legend Snippet: Comparing ( A ) dissolution profile ( B ) rate constant of nifedipine in different dosage types. The dissolution medium is 0.1 M HCl unless otherwise stated. Temperature of dissolution medium is 37.0 ± 0.5 °C and dissolution volume 900 mL. Test was performed following USP paddle apparatus 2. Error bars represent standard error of n = 3. Comparing ( C ) dissolution profile ( D ) rate constant of In situ FD nifedipine capsules with varying NIF:PVP ratios The dissolution medium is 0.1 M HCL unless otherwise stated. Temperature of dissolution medium is 37.0 ± 0.5 °C and dissolution volume 900 mL. Test was performed following USP paddle apparatus 2. Error bars represent standard error of n = 3.

Techniques Used: In Situ

( A ) FT-IR spectra of crystalline nifedipine as received, amorphous nifedipine (produced by heat melt), PVP as received, 50% w/w crystalline NIF in PVP as physical-mix (NIF in PVP PM) and Freeze-dried 50% w/w NIF in PVP (NIF in PVP FD). FT-IR measurements were repeated to ensure data reproducibility (n = 3). ( B ) N-H (3288–3330 cm −1 ), Carbonyl (1660–1680 cm −1 ) and out of plane δ(C-H) vibration of the ring (800–700 cm −1 ) regions of the FT-IR spectrum for the full range of freeze-dried NIF in PVP formulations compared to the 90% w/w NIF in PVP physical-mix of crystalline NIF in PVP. All percentages listed are of NIF in PVP. FT-IR measurements were repeated to ensure data reproducibility (n = 3). ( C ) FT-IR spectra (800–700 cm −1 only) of freeze-dried formulations 20–100% w/w NIF in PVP. Peak symmetry change at 754 cm −1 (peak distinctive of amorphous nifedipine) was examined. 90% w/w NIF shows a clear left shoulder. FT-IR measurements were repeated to ensure data reproducibility (n = 3). Spectra presented in ( A ), ( B ) and ( C ) where corrected for baseline using the software PerkinElmer spectrum 10. Additionally spectra presented in ( B ) ( C ) had a PVP spectrum subtraction. ( D ) Monitoring NIF crystallinity in freeze-dried formulations using FT-IR peak symmetry at 755 cm −1 . A change in peak symmetry is indicative of a change in physical state, as amorphous NIF presents a single broad and asymmetric peak at 754 cm −1 and crystalline NIF presents 2 separate peaks at 762 cm –1 and 744 cm −1 , the gradual change from the broad amorphous peak to the double crystalline peaks can be quantitatively measured through peak symmetry measurements. Error bars represent standard error of n = 3.
Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) FT-IR spectra of crystalline nifedipine as received, amorphous nifedipine (produced by heat melt), PVP as received, 50% w/w crystalline NIF in PVP as physical-mix (NIF in PVP PM) and Freeze-dried 50% w/w NIF in PVP (NIF in PVP FD). FT-IR measurements were repeated to ensure data reproducibility (n = 3). ( B ) N-H (3288–3330 cm −1 ), Carbonyl (1660–1680 cm −1 ) and out of plane δ(C-H) vibration of the ring (800–700 cm −1 ) regions of the FT-IR spectrum for the full range of freeze-dried NIF in PVP formulations compared to the 90% w/w NIF in PVP physical-mix of crystalline NIF in PVP. All percentages listed are of NIF in PVP. FT-IR measurements were repeated to ensure data reproducibility (n = 3). ( C ) FT-IR spectra (800–700 cm −1 only) of freeze-dried formulations 20–100% w/w NIF in PVP. Peak symmetry change at 754 cm −1 (peak distinctive of amorphous nifedipine) was examined. 90% w/w NIF shows a clear left shoulder. FT-IR measurements were repeated to ensure data reproducibility (n = 3). Spectra presented in ( A ), ( B ) and ( C ) where corrected for baseline using the software PerkinElmer spectrum 10. Additionally spectra presented in ( B ) ( C ) had a PVP spectrum subtraction. ( D ) Monitoring NIF crystallinity in freeze-dried formulations using FT-IR peak symmetry at 755 cm −1 . A change in peak symmetry is indicative of a change in physical state, as amorphous NIF presents a single broad and asymmetric peak at 754 cm −1 and crystalline NIF presents 2 separate peaks at 762 cm –1 and 744 cm −1 , the gradual change from the broad amorphous peak to the double crystalline peaks can be quantitatively measured through peak symmetry measurements. Error bars represent standard error of n = 3.

Techniques Used: Produced, Software

( A ) FT-IR results show the N-H peak in pure amorphous nifedipine 3342 cm −1 shifts to 3288 cm −1 in FD formulations of nifedipine in PVP; thus indicating strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the N-H group of nifedipine and the carbonyl group in PVP 37 , 49 . (B) Showing the (C = O) carbonyl group of PVP maintained at 1654 cm −1 in pure PVP and FD formulations: indicating that the C = O peak of PVP was not greatly influenced by the hydrogen bonding between NIF and PVP 37 , 49 . FT-IR spectra presented in (A) and (B) were corrected for baseline using the software PerkinElmer spectrum 10. (C) A proposed model for the intermolecular hydrogen bonding between nifedipine and PVP based on the IR spectra. Hydrogen bonds are presented in red. This figure was constructed using ACD/ChemSketch. (D) Average T g of heat cycled samples of nifedipine in PVP. The data was fitted to Gordon Taylor equation, using OriginPro, where x is the weight fraction of nifedipine. Error bars represent standard error of n = 3.
Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) FT-IR results show the N-H peak in pure amorphous nifedipine 3342 cm −1 shifts to 3288 cm −1 in FD formulations of nifedipine in PVP; thus indicating strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the N-H group of nifedipine and the carbonyl group in PVP 37 , 49 . (B) Showing the (C = O) carbonyl group of PVP maintained at 1654 cm −1 in pure PVP and FD formulations: indicating that the C = O peak of PVP was not greatly influenced by the hydrogen bonding between NIF and PVP 37 , 49 . FT-IR spectra presented in (A) and (B) were corrected for baseline using the software PerkinElmer spectrum 10. (C) A proposed model for the intermolecular hydrogen bonding between nifedipine and PVP based on the IR spectra. Hydrogen bonds are presented in red. This figure was constructed using ACD/ChemSketch. (D) Average T g of heat cycled samples of nifedipine in PVP. The data was fitted to Gordon Taylor equation, using OriginPro, where x is the weight fraction of nifedipine. Error bars represent standard error of n = 3.

Techniques Used: Software, Construct

30) Product Images from "Long-term high-altitude hypoxia influences pulmonary arterial L-type calcium channel-mediated Ca2+ signals and contraction in fetal and adult sheep"

Article Title: Long-term high-altitude hypoxia influences pulmonary arterial L-type calcium channel-mediated Ca2+ signals and contraction in fetal and adult sheep

Journal: American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology

doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00154.2017

Pulmonary arterial contraction to BAY K8644 (BAYK) and FPL 64176 (FPL) are kinetically distinct. A and B : average isometric contractility response of pulmonary arterial rings exposed to 1 µM BAYK (open circles) and 1 µM FPL (closed squares) isolated from adult and fetal sheep under normoxic conditions. C – F : representative time series traces of the force developed for FPL in the presence of nifedipine (NIF; black) or vehicle (DMSO; gray) for pulmonary arteries from adult ( C and D ) and fetus ( E and F ). Values are means ± SE. Data were analyzed with a two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni posttest analysis. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Pulmonary arterial contraction to BAY K8644 (BAYK) and FPL 64176 (FPL) are kinetically distinct. A and B : average isometric contractility response of pulmonary arterial rings exposed to 1 µM BAYK (open circles) and 1 µM FPL (closed squares) isolated from adult and fetal sheep under normoxic conditions. C – F : representative time series traces of the force developed for FPL in the presence of nifedipine (NIF; black) or vehicle (DMSO; gray) for pulmonary arteries from adult ( C and D ) and fetus ( E and F ). Values are means ± SE. Data were analyzed with a two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni posttest analysis. ** P

Techniques Used: Isolation

Medium-duration Ca 2+ oscillation activity is selectively reduced by FPL 64176 (FPL) in pulmonary arterial myocytes of adults. A – E: area under the curve, amplitude of the fractional fluorescence, duration, rate of rise, and decay of medium-duration Ca 2+ oscillations exposed to DMSO (control, closed circles), 1 µM FPL (open circles), or 1 µM FPL with 10 µM nifedipine (NIF) (diamonds) for adult and fetal pulmonary arterial myocytes from sheep under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Values are means ± 95% CI. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA with Dunn's multiple comparison test. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Medium-duration Ca 2+ oscillation activity is selectively reduced by FPL 64176 (FPL) in pulmonary arterial myocytes of adults. A – E: area under the curve, amplitude of the fractional fluorescence, duration, rate of rise, and decay of medium-duration Ca 2+ oscillations exposed to DMSO (control, closed circles), 1 µM FPL (open circles), or 1 µM FPL with 10 µM nifedipine (NIF) (diamonds) for adult and fetal pulmonary arterial myocytes from sheep under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Values are means ± 95% CI. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA with Dunn's multiple comparison test. ** P

Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Fluorescence

Magnitude and kinetics of Ca 2+ sparks were modestly affected by FPL 64176 (FPL) or nifedipine (NIF) application. A – D : amplitude, tau, full width at half-maximum, and full duration at half-maximum exposed to DMSO (control, closed circles), 1 µM FPL (open circles), or 1 µM FPL with 10 µM NIF (diamonds) for Ca 2+ spark events of arterial myocytes from adult and fetal sheep under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Values are means ± 95% CI. Data were analyzed by a Kruskal-Wallis one-way way ANOVA with Dunn's multiple comparison test. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Magnitude and kinetics of Ca 2+ sparks were modestly affected by FPL 64176 (FPL) or nifedipine (NIF) application. A – D : amplitude, tau, full width at half-maximum, and full duration at half-maximum exposed to DMSO (control, closed circles), 1 µM FPL (open circles), or 1 µM FPL with 10 µM NIF (diamonds) for Ca 2+ spark events of arterial myocytes from adult and fetal sheep under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Values are means ± 95% CI. Data were analyzed by a Kruskal-Wallis one-way way ANOVA with Dunn's multiple comparison test. * P

Techniques Used:

L-type Ca 2+ channel (Ca L ) inhibition reduces BAY K8644 (BAYK) and FPL 64176 (FPL)-induced pulmonary arterial contraction. A : average tension due to high K + (closed circles), 1 µM FPL (open circles), and 1 µM BAYK (diamond). B–E : average peak, DMSO-, or NIF nifedipine (NIF)-treated FPL (open circles) or BAYK (diamonds) induced contraction normalized to high K + . Values are means ± 95% confidence interval (CI). Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA with Dunn's multiple comparison test. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: L-type Ca 2+ channel (Ca L ) inhibition reduces BAY K8644 (BAYK) and FPL 64176 (FPL)-induced pulmonary arterial contraction. A : average tension due to high K + (closed circles), 1 µM FPL (open circles), and 1 µM BAYK (diamond). B–E : average peak, DMSO-, or NIF nifedipine (NIF)-treated FPL (open circles) or BAYK (diamonds) induced contraction normalized to high K + . Values are means ± 95% confidence interval (CI). Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA with Dunn's multiple comparison test. * P

Techniques Used: Inhibition

Long-duration Ca 2+ oscillations are mildly affected by modifiers of L-type Ca 2+ channel (Ca L ) activity. A – E: area under the curve, amplitude of the fractional fluorescence, duration, rate of rise, and decay of long-duration calcium oscillations exposed to DMSO (control, closed circles), 1 µM FPL 64176 (FPL) (open circles), or 1 µM FPL with 10 µM nifedipine (NIF) (diamonds) for pulmonary arterial myocytes of adult and fetal sheep recorded under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Values are means ± 95% CI. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA with Dunn's multiple comparison test. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Long-duration Ca 2+ oscillations are mildly affected by modifiers of L-type Ca 2+ channel (Ca L ) activity. A – E: area under the curve, amplitude of the fractional fluorescence, duration, rate of rise, and decay of long-duration calcium oscillations exposed to DMSO (control, closed circles), 1 µM FPL 64176 (FPL) (open circles), or 1 µM FPL with 10 µM nifedipine (NIF) (diamonds) for pulmonary arterial myocytes of adult and fetal sheep recorded under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Values are means ± 95% CI. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA with Dunn's multiple comparison test. * P

Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Fluorescence

FPL 64176 (FPL) alone failed to substantially modify Ca 2+ spark activity. A: percentage of cells with Ca 2+ sparks. B: Ca 2+ spark firing frequency when exposed to DMSO (control, closed bars and circles), 1 µM FPL (open bars and circles), or 1 µM FPL with 10 µM nifedipine (NIF) (gray bar, diamonds) for arterial myocytes from adult and fetal sheep under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Values are means ± 95% CI. Data in A were analyzed by a χ 2 test. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: FPL 64176 (FPL) alone failed to substantially modify Ca 2+ spark activity. A: percentage of cells with Ca 2+ sparks. B: Ca 2+ spark firing frequency when exposed to DMSO (control, closed bars and circles), 1 µM FPL (open bars and circles), or 1 µM FPL with 10 µM nifedipine (NIF) (gray bar, diamonds) for arterial myocytes from adult and fetal sheep under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Values are means ± 95% CI. Data in A were analyzed by a χ 2 test. ** P

Techniques Used: Activity Assay

FPL 64176 (FPL) decreased the correlation among regions of interest (ROIs) with Ca 2+ oscillatory events. A–D : arteries from each group were recorded en face and treated with DMSO (control, closed circles), 1 µM FPL (open circles), or 1 µM FPL with 10 µM nifedipine (NIF) (diamonds). They were analyzed for number of correlated ROIs, distance between correlated ROIs, percentage of nearby ROIs that were correlated, and percentage of correlated ROIs that were in nearby cells. Values are means ± 95% CI based on the number of ROIs ( A and B ) or number of animals ( C and D ). Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA with Dunn's multiple comparison test. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: FPL 64176 (FPL) decreased the correlation among regions of interest (ROIs) with Ca 2+ oscillatory events. A–D : arteries from each group were recorded en face and treated with DMSO (control, closed circles), 1 µM FPL (open circles), or 1 µM FPL with 10 µM nifedipine (NIF) (diamonds). They were analyzed for number of correlated ROIs, distance between correlated ROIs, percentage of nearby ROIs that were correlated, and percentage of correlated ROIs that were in nearby cells. Values are means ± 95% CI based on the number of ROIs ( A and B ) or number of animals ( C and D ). Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA with Dunn's multiple comparison test. * P

Techniques Used:

31) Product Images from "Long-term high-altitude hypoxia influences pulmonary arterial L-type calcium channel-mediated Ca2+ signals and contraction in fetal and adult sheep"

Article Title: Long-term high-altitude hypoxia influences pulmonary arterial L-type calcium channel-mediated Ca2+ signals and contraction in fetal and adult sheep

Journal: American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology

doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00154.2017

Pulmonary arterial contraction to BAY K8644 (BAYK) and FPL 64176 (FPL) are kinetically distinct. A and B : average isometric contractility response of pulmonary arterial rings exposed to 1 µM BAYK (open circles) and 1 µM FPL (closed squares) isolated from adult and fetal sheep under normoxic conditions. C – F : representative time series traces of the force developed for FPL in the presence of nifedipine (NIF; black) or vehicle (DMSO; gray) for pulmonary arteries from adult ( C and D ) and fetus ( E and F ). Values are means ± SE. Data were analyzed with a two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni posttest analysis. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Pulmonary arterial contraction to BAY K8644 (BAYK) and FPL 64176 (FPL) are kinetically distinct. A and B : average isometric contractility response of pulmonary arterial rings exposed to 1 µM BAYK (open circles) and 1 µM FPL (closed squares) isolated from adult and fetal sheep under normoxic conditions. C – F : representative time series traces of the force developed for FPL in the presence of nifedipine (NIF; black) or vehicle (DMSO; gray) for pulmonary arteries from adult ( C and D ) and fetus ( E and F ). Values are means ± SE. Data were analyzed with a two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni posttest analysis. ** P

Techniques Used: Isolation

Medium-duration Ca 2+ oscillation activity is selectively reduced by FPL 64176 (FPL) in pulmonary arterial myocytes of adults. A – E: area under the curve, amplitude of the fractional fluorescence, duration, rate of rise, and decay of medium-duration Ca 2+ oscillations exposed to DMSO (control, closed circles), 1 µM FPL (open circles), or 1 µM FPL with 10 µM nifedipine (NIF) (diamonds) for adult and fetal pulmonary arterial myocytes from sheep under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Values are means ± 95% CI. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA with Dunn's multiple comparison test. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Medium-duration Ca 2+ oscillation activity is selectively reduced by FPL 64176 (FPL) in pulmonary arterial myocytes of adults. A – E: area under the curve, amplitude of the fractional fluorescence, duration, rate of rise, and decay of medium-duration Ca 2+ oscillations exposed to DMSO (control, closed circles), 1 µM FPL (open circles), or 1 µM FPL with 10 µM nifedipine (NIF) (diamonds) for adult and fetal pulmonary arterial myocytes from sheep under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Values are means ± 95% CI. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA with Dunn's multiple comparison test. ** P

Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Fluorescence

Magnitude and kinetics of Ca 2+ sparks were modestly affected by FPL 64176 (FPL) or nifedipine (NIF) application. A – D : amplitude, tau, full width at half-maximum, and full duration at half-maximum exposed to DMSO (control, closed circles), 1 µM FPL (open circles), or 1 µM FPL with 10 µM NIF (diamonds) for Ca 2+ spark events of arterial myocytes from adult and fetal sheep under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Values are means ± 95% CI. Data were analyzed by a Kruskal-Wallis one-way way ANOVA with Dunn's multiple comparison test. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Magnitude and kinetics of Ca 2+ sparks were modestly affected by FPL 64176 (FPL) or nifedipine (NIF) application. A – D : amplitude, tau, full width at half-maximum, and full duration at half-maximum exposed to DMSO (control, closed circles), 1 µM FPL (open circles), or 1 µM FPL with 10 µM NIF (diamonds) for Ca 2+ spark events of arterial myocytes from adult and fetal sheep under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Values are means ± 95% CI. Data were analyzed by a Kruskal-Wallis one-way way ANOVA with Dunn's multiple comparison test. * P

Techniques Used:

L-type Ca 2+ channel (Ca L ) inhibition reduces BAY K8644 (BAYK) and FPL 64176 (FPL)-induced pulmonary arterial contraction. A : average tension due to high K + (closed circles), 1 µM FPL (open circles), and 1 µM BAYK (diamond). B–E : average peak, DMSO-, or NIF nifedipine (NIF)-treated FPL (open circles) or BAYK (diamonds) induced contraction normalized to high K + . Values are means ± 95% confidence interval (CI). Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA with Dunn's multiple comparison test. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: L-type Ca 2+ channel (Ca L ) inhibition reduces BAY K8644 (BAYK) and FPL 64176 (FPL)-induced pulmonary arterial contraction. A : average tension due to high K + (closed circles), 1 µM FPL (open circles), and 1 µM BAYK (diamond). B–E : average peak, DMSO-, or NIF nifedipine (NIF)-treated FPL (open circles) or BAYK (diamonds) induced contraction normalized to high K + . Values are means ± 95% confidence interval (CI). Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA with Dunn's multiple comparison test. * P

Techniques Used: Inhibition

Long-duration Ca 2+ oscillations are mildly affected by modifiers of L-type Ca 2+ channel (Ca L ) activity. A – E: area under the curve, amplitude of the fractional fluorescence, duration, rate of rise, and decay of long-duration calcium oscillations exposed to DMSO (control, closed circles), 1 µM FPL 64176 (FPL) (open circles), or 1 µM FPL with 10 µM nifedipine (NIF) (diamonds) for pulmonary arterial myocytes of adult and fetal sheep recorded under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Values are means ± 95% CI. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA with Dunn's multiple comparison test. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Long-duration Ca 2+ oscillations are mildly affected by modifiers of L-type Ca 2+ channel (Ca L ) activity. A – E: area under the curve, amplitude of the fractional fluorescence, duration, rate of rise, and decay of long-duration calcium oscillations exposed to DMSO (control, closed circles), 1 µM FPL 64176 (FPL) (open circles), or 1 µM FPL with 10 µM nifedipine (NIF) (diamonds) for pulmonary arterial myocytes of adult and fetal sheep recorded under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Values are means ± 95% CI. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA with Dunn's multiple comparison test. * P

Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Fluorescence

FPL 64176 (FPL) alone failed to substantially modify Ca 2+ spark activity. A: percentage of cells with Ca 2+ sparks. B: Ca 2+ spark firing frequency when exposed to DMSO (control, closed bars and circles), 1 µM FPL (open bars and circles), or 1 µM FPL with 10 µM nifedipine (NIF) (gray bar, diamonds) for arterial myocytes from adult and fetal sheep under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Values are means ± 95% CI. Data in A were analyzed by a χ 2 test. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: FPL 64176 (FPL) alone failed to substantially modify Ca 2+ spark activity. A: percentage of cells with Ca 2+ sparks. B: Ca 2+ spark firing frequency when exposed to DMSO (control, closed bars and circles), 1 µM FPL (open bars and circles), or 1 µM FPL with 10 µM nifedipine (NIF) (gray bar, diamonds) for arterial myocytes from adult and fetal sheep under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Values are means ± 95% CI. Data in A were analyzed by a χ 2 test. ** P

Techniques Used: Activity Assay

FPL 64176 (FPL) decreased the correlation among regions of interest (ROIs) with Ca 2+ oscillatory events. A–D : arteries from each group were recorded en face and treated with DMSO (control, closed circles), 1 µM FPL (open circles), or 1 µM FPL with 10 µM nifedipine (NIF) (diamonds). They were analyzed for number of correlated ROIs, distance between correlated ROIs, percentage of nearby ROIs that were correlated, and percentage of correlated ROIs that were in nearby cells. Values are means ± 95% CI based on the number of ROIs ( A and B ) or number of animals ( C and D ). Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA with Dunn's multiple comparison test. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: FPL 64176 (FPL) decreased the correlation among regions of interest (ROIs) with Ca 2+ oscillatory events. A–D : arteries from each group were recorded en face and treated with DMSO (control, closed circles), 1 µM FPL (open circles), or 1 µM FPL with 10 µM nifedipine (NIF) (diamonds). They were analyzed for number of correlated ROIs, distance between correlated ROIs, percentage of nearby ROIs that were correlated, and percentage of correlated ROIs that were in nearby cells. Values are means ± 95% CI based on the number of ROIs ( A and B ) or number of animals ( C and D ). Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA with Dunn's multiple comparison test. * P

Techniques Used:

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Article Title: Modulation of Voltage-Gated Ion Channels in Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells Mediated by Somatostatin Receptor Subtype 4
Article Snippet: L-803,087 (0.001%) and nifedipine (NIF, 0.1%) were prepared as DMSO stock solutions, frozen at −20°C, and thawed immediately before experiments (numbers in parentheses indicate percentage of DMSO in the final working solution).

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    Neuroscience Information Framework nifedipine
    Intracellular Ca 2+ signaling was reduced by L-803,087 in ganglion cells in retinal flat mount. A : applications of 52 mM K + solution for 30 s depolarized ganglion cells and produced transient increases in intracellular Ca 2+ concentration, measured with the dye fura-2. Traces ( left ) show that, in the absence of drug, the second of paired K + applications produced a smaller peak Ca 2+ signal. On the right , the paired K + pulses, with L-803,087 (100 nM) applied 30 s prior to the second K + application, show greater reduction of the Ca 2+ signal compared with control. Far right panel shows a fluorescent image (stimulated at 380 nm) of a fura-2-containing ganglion cell in the flat-mount retina. B : mean data show amplitudes of the second high K + response expressed as a percentage of first peak in control, L-803,087 (L-803, 100 nM), <t>nifedipine</t> (NIF, 10 μM), and nifedipine plus L-803,087. The mean Ca 2+ transient amplitudes of all 3 drug treatment groups (L-803, NIF, L-803 + NIF) were significantly smaller than those of the control group, but they did not differ among themselves ( n = 21–89 cells/group; * P
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    Intracellular Ca 2+ signaling was reduced by L-803,087 in ganglion cells in retinal flat mount. A : applications of 52 mM K + solution for 30 s depolarized ganglion cells and produced transient increases in intracellular Ca 2+ concentration, measured with the dye fura-2. Traces ( left ) show that, in the absence of drug, the second of paired K + applications produced a smaller peak Ca 2+ signal. On the right , the paired K + pulses, with L-803,087 (100 nM) applied 30 s prior to the second K + application, show greater reduction of the Ca 2+ signal compared with control. Far right panel shows a fluorescent image (stimulated at 380 nm) of a fura-2-containing ganglion cell in the flat-mount retina. B : mean data show amplitudes of the second high K + response expressed as a percentage of first peak in control, L-803,087 (L-803, 100 nM), nifedipine (NIF, 10 μM), and nifedipine plus L-803,087. The mean Ca 2+ transient amplitudes of all 3 drug treatment groups (L-803, NIF, L-803 + NIF) were significantly smaller than those of the control group, but they did not differ among themselves ( n = 21–89 cells/group; * P

    Journal: Journal of Neurophysiology

    Article Title: Modulation of Voltage-Gated Ion Channels in Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells Mediated by Somatostatin Receptor Subtype 4

    doi: 10.1152/jn.00098.2010

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Intracellular Ca 2+ signaling was reduced by L-803,087 in ganglion cells in retinal flat mount. A : applications of 52 mM K + solution for 30 s depolarized ganglion cells and produced transient increases in intracellular Ca 2+ concentration, measured with the dye fura-2. Traces ( left ) show that, in the absence of drug, the second of paired K + applications produced a smaller peak Ca 2+ signal. On the right , the paired K + pulses, with L-803,087 (100 nM) applied 30 s prior to the second K + application, show greater reduction of the Ca 2+ signal compared with control. Far right panel shows a fluorescent image (stimulated at 380 nm) of a fura-2-containing ganglion cell in the flat-mount retina. B : mean data show amplitudes of the second high K + response expressed as a percentage of first peak in control, L-803,087 (L-803, 100 nM), nifedipine (NIF, 10 μM), and nifedipine plus L-803,087. The mean Ca 2+ transient amplitudes of all 3 drug treatment groups (L-803, NIF, L-803 + NIF) were significantly smaller than those of the control group, but they did not differ among themselves ( n = 21–89 cells/group; * P

    Article Snippet: L-803,087 (0.001%) and nifedipine (NIF, 0.1%) were prepared as DMSO stock solutions, frozen at −20°C, and thawed immediately before experiments (numbers in parentheses indicate percentage of DMSO in the final working solution).

    Techniques: Produced, Concentration Assay

    Vasorelaxant effect of nifedipine (NIF: 10 μM), EOLA (300 μg/mL) and EOLA (300 μg/mL) after the maximum relaxation of NIF (10 μM) in rings of rat mesenteric artery without endothelium precontracted with Phe (1 μM). Values are expressed as mean ± SEM of 6 experiments. The data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post-test.

    Journal: Indian Journal of Pharmacology

    Article Title: Chemical composition and vasorelaxant effect induced by the essential oil of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown. (Verbenaceae) in rat mesenteric artery

    doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.89828

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Vasorelaxant effect of nifedipine (NIF: 10 μM), EOLA (300 μg/mL) and EOLA (300 μg/mL) after the maximum relaxation of NIF (10 μM) in rings of rat mesenteric artery without endothelium precontracted with Phe (1 μM). Values are expressed as mean ± SEM of 6 experiments. The data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post-test.

    Article Snippet: Drugs and Solutions The drugs used were: acetylcholine (ACh), L-phenylephrine (Phe), tetraethylammonium (TEA), cremophor (all from SIGMA), and nifedipine (NIF) (from RBI).

    Techniques:

    Urocortin-2 inhibits I/R-induced exacerbated SOCE in NRVMs. (A) Experimental protocol of cultured NRVMs subjected to I/R and Ucn-2 (10 nM). (B) Representative traces (left) showing the changes in [Ca 2+ ] i in Fura-2 loaded NRVMs, presented as ratio (F 340 /F 380 ). In right, bar graph illustrating data summary of experiments as in left. (C) Representative traces (left) and data summary (right) of Mn 2+ influx-induced Fura-2 quenching expressed in percent change of F 360 fluorescence after the administration of Mn 2+ (500 μM). Thapsigargin (TG, 2 μM) and nifedipine (NIF, 10 μM) were applied 4 min in the absence of extracellular Ca 2+ and then Ca 2+ (1.8 mM) was added as indicated. “Control” indicates responses of NRVMs to TG, “ I/R ” is for NRVMs under protocol of I/R, “ I/R+Ucn-2 ” is NRVMs treated with Ucn-2 during I/R, “ I/R+Ucn-2+Ast ” indicates NRVMs pre-incubated with astressin (0.5 μM) before Ucn-2 addition in I/R, “ I/R+SKF ” indicates NRVMs pre-incubated with SKF-96365 (40 μM), and “ I/R + GSK ” indicates NRVMs pre-incubated with GSK-7975A (10 μM). n = 100–250 cells from 5–10 cultures. Data are mean ± SEM. ∗ , ∗∗ , ∗∗∗ indicate significance at p

    Journal: Frontiers in Physiology

    Article Title: Urocortin-2 Prevents Dysregulation of Ca2+ Homeostasis and Improves Early Cardiac Remodeling After Ischemia and Reperfusion

    doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00813

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Urocortin-2 inhibits I/R-induced exacerbated SOCE in NRVMs. (A) Experimental protocol of cultured NRVMs subjected to I/R and Ucn-2 (10 nM). (B) Representative traces (left) showing the changes in [Ca 2+ ] i in Fura-2 loaded NRVMs, presented as ratio (F 340 /F 380 ). In right, bar graph illustrating data summary of experiments as in left. (C) Representative traces (left) and data summary (right) of Mn 2+ influx-induced Fura-2 quenching expressed in percent change of F 360 fluorescence after the administration of Mn 2+ (500 μM). Thapsigargin (TG, 2 μM) and nifedipine (NIF, 10 μM) were applied 4 min in the absence of extracellular Ca 2+ and then Ca 2+ (1.8 mM) was added as indicated. “Control” indicates responses of NRVMs to TG, “ I/R ” is for NRVMs under protocol of I/R, “ I/R+Ucn-2 ” is NRVMs treated with Ucn-2 during I/R, “ I/R+Ucn-2+Ast ” indicates NRVMs pre-incubated with astressin (0.5 μM) before Ucn-2 addition in I/R, “ I/R+SKF ” indicates NRVMs pre-incubated with SKF-96365 (40 μM), and “ I/R + GSK ” indicates NRVMs pre-incubated with GSK-7975A (10 μM). n = 100–250 cells from 5–10 cultures. Data are mean ± SEM. ∗ , ∗∗ , ∗∗∗ indicate significance at p

    Article Snippet: Figure shows that the addition of thapsigargin (TG, 2 μM), in presence of nifedipine (NIF, 10 μM), to control NRVMs evoked significant increase in the [Ca2+ ]i after Ca2+ restoration.

    Techniques: Cell Culture, Fluorescence, AST Assay, Incubation