Structured Review

Thermo Fisher mirnas
miR-218 inhibits CIP2A expression by specifically targeting its 3′-UTR. (A) Sequence alignment of the CIP2A WT and CIP2A MUT potential miR-218 targeting sites. (B) Luciferase reporter assay demonstrated decreased reporter activity following transfection with the CIP2A WT in <t>Caki-1</t> and 786-O cell lines overexpressing miR-218. (C) Inverse correlation between miR-218 expression level and CIP2A expression level in ccRCC tissues. (D) Alteration of the CIP2A protein expression levels in Caki-1 and 786-O cell lines transfected with miR-218 mimic or NC <t>miRNA.</t> Data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation. ***P
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1) Product Images from "MicroRNA-218 inhibits the cell proliferation and migration in clear cell renal cell carcinoma through targeting cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A"

Article Title: MicroRNA-218 inhibits the cell proliferation and migration in clear cell renal cell carcinoma through targeting cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A

Journal: Oncology Letters

doi: 10.3892/ol.2019.9986

miR-218 inhibits CIP2A expression by specifically targeting its 3′-UTR. (A) Sequence alignment of the CIP2A WT and CIP2A MUT potential miR-218 targeting sites. (B) Luciferase reporter assay demonstrated decreased reporter activity following transfection with the CIP2A WT in Caki-1 and 786-O cell lines overexpressing miR-218. (C) Inverse correlation between miR-218 expression level and CIP2A expression level in ccRCC tissues. (D) Alteration of the CIP2A protein expression levels in Caki-1 and 786-O cell lines transfected with miR-218 mimic or NC miRNA. Data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation. ***P
Figure Legend Snippet: miR-218 inhibits CIP2A expression by specifically targeting its 3′-UTR. (A) Sequence alignment of the CIP2A WT and CIP2A MUT potential miR-218 targeting sites. (B) Luciferase reporter assay demonstrated decreased reporter activity following transfection with the CIP2A WT in Caki-1 and 786-O cell lines overexpressing miR-218. (C) Inverse correlation between miR-218 expression level and CIP2A expression level in ccRCC tissues. (D) Alteration of the CIP2A protein expression levels in Caki-1 and 786-O cell lines transfected with miR-218 mimic or NC miRNA. Data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation. ***P

Techniques Used: Expressing, Sequencing, Luciferase, Reporter Assay, Activity Assay, Transfection, Standard Deviation

Influence of miR-218 on tumor cell proliferation and migration. (A) Alteration of the miR-218 expression levels in Caki-1 and 786-O cell lines by transfection with miR-218 mimic, miR-218 inhibitor or NC miRNA. ***P
Figure Legend Snippet: Influence of miR-218 on tumor cell proliferation and migration. (A) Alteration of the miR-218 expression levels in Caki-1 and 786-O cell lines by transfection with miR-218 mimic, miR-218 inhibitor or NC miRNA. ***P

Techniques Used: Migration, Expressing, Transfection

2) Product Images from "Bioinformatic analysis of next-generation sequencing data to identify dysregulated genes in fibroblasts of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis"

Article Title: Bioinformatic analysis of next-generation sequencing data to identify dysregulated genes in fibroblasts of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Journal: International Journal of Molecular Medicine

doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2019.4086

Schematic illustration of the study design. Following culture of the IPF fibroblasts and healthy lung fibroblasts, the total RNA were extracted and deep sequenced using a next-generation sequencing platform. The differentially expressed genes ( > 2 fold-change) were identified, and analyzed with IPA and DAVID for pathway analysis and functional interpretation. The GEO IPF databases were analyzed to confirm dysregulated genes identified in the present study. Conversely, the differentially expressed miRNAs ( > 2 fold-change) were analyzed with miRmap for target prediction. Then, genes with potential miRNA-mRNA interactions were determined by Venn diagram analysis. These miRNA-mRNA interactions were verified by a second miRNA prediction database, TargetScan. Finally, a literature search was performed and a hypothesis was generated. IPF, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; IPA, Ingenuity ® Pathway Analysis; DAVID, Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery; GEO, Gene Expression Omnibus.
Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic illustration of the study design. Following culture of the IPF fibroblasts and healthy lung fibroblasts, the total RNA were extracted and deep sequenced using a next-generation sequencing platform. The differentially expressed genes ( > 2 fold-change) were identified, and analyzed with IPA and DAVID for pathway analysis and functional interpretation. The GEO IPF databases were analyzed to confirm dysregulated genes identified in the present study. Conversely, the differentially expressed miRNAs ( > 2 fold-change) were analyzed with miRmap for target prediction. Then, genes with potential miRNA-mRNA interactions were determined by Venn diagram analysis. These miRNA-mRNA interactions were verified by a second miRNA prediction database, TargetScan. Finally, a literature search was performed and a hypothesis was generated. IPF, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; IPA, Ingenuity ® Pathway Analysis; DAVID, Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery; GEO, Gene Expression Omnibus.

Techniques Used: Next-Generation Sequencing, Indirect Immunoperoxidase Assay, Functional Assay, Generated, Expressing

3) Product Images from "RSK1 Activation Promotes Invasion in Nodular Melanoma"

Article Title: RSK1 Activation Promotes Invasion in Nodular Melanoma

Journal: The American Journal of Pathology

doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2014.11.021

Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of protein S6 kinase, 90 kDa, polypeptide 1 (RSK1) inhibits nodular melanoma (NM) but not superficial spreading melanoma (SSM) cell proliferation. A: Western blot analysis showing RSK1 levels after transfection with nontargeting (N.T.), RSK1-targeting, or RSK2-targeting siRNA in WM 1552 melanoma cells (SSM). B: Crystal violet proliferation assay of SSM cells 48 hours after transient transfection with RSK1 or RSK2 siRNA or 72 hours after treatment with escalating doses of the RSK inhibitor BI-D1870. Data were normalized by setting N.T. siRNA-transfected or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)–treated cells to 100%. C: Same as in A but using WM 3248 melanoma cells (NM). D: Same as in B but using NM cell lines. Data are given as means ± SEM. ∗∗ P
Figure Legend Snippet: Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of protein S6 kinase, 90 kDa, polypeptide 1 (RSK1) inhibits nodular melanoma (NM) but not superficial spreading melanoma (SSM) cell proliferation. A: Western blot analysis showing RSK1 levels after transfection with nontargeting (N.T.), RSK1-targeting, or RSK2-targeting siRNA in WM 1552 melanoma cells (SSM). B: Crystal violet proliferation assay of SSM cells 48 hours after transient transfection with RSK1 or RSK2 siRNA or 72 hours after treatment with escalating doses of the RSK inhibitor BI-D1870. Data were normalized by setting N.T. siRNA-transfected or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)–treated cells to 100%. C: Same as in A but using WM 3248 melanoma cells (NM). D: Same as in B but using NM cell lines. Data are given as means ± SEM. ∗∗ P

Techniques Used: Inhibition, Western Blot, Transfection, Proliferation Assay

p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) inhibition decreases nodular melanoma (NM) cell migration and invasion. A: WM 278 and WM 3248 cells treated with equal amounts of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or 5 μmol/L BI-D1870 migrated through 8-μm migration chambers for 6 hours and then were fixed and stained with crystal violet. Five high-power fields from each chamber were photographed, and cells were then counted. Images shown are representative of one high-power field from each condition. B: Same as A but chamber coated with Matrigel and cells allowed to invade for 20 hours. For A and B, data were normalized by setting DMSO-treated cells to 100%. C: Same as B but using siRNA against RSK1. Data are given as means ± SEM. ∗∗∗ P
Figure Legend Snippet: p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) inhibition decreases nodular melanoma (NM) cell migration and invasion. A: WM 278 and WM 3248 cells treated with equal amounts of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or 5 μmol/L BI-D1870 migrated through 8-μm migration chambers for 6 hours and then were fixed and stained with crystal violet. Five high-power fields from each chamber were photographed, and cells were then counted. Images shown are representative of one high-power field from each condition. B: Same as A but chamber coated with Matrigel and cells allowed to invade for 20 hours. For A and B, data were normalized by setting DMSO-treated cells to 100%. C: Same as B but using siRNA against RSK1. Data are given as means ± SEM. ∗∗∗ P

Techniques Used: Inhibition, Migration, Staining

4) Product Images from "Rag GTPases mediate amino acid-dependent recruitment of TFEB and MITF to lysosomes"

Article Title: Rag GTPases mediate amino acid-dependent recruitment of TFEB and MITF to lysosomes

Journal: The Journal of Cell Biology

doi: 10.1083/jcb.201209135

The first 30 amino acids of TFEB are sufficient for binding to active Rag heterodimers. (A) ARPE-19 cells coexpressing active RagB/D heterodimer and the indicated TFEB plasmids were fixed, permeabilized with 0.2% saponin, and stained with antibodies against GST (used to detect Rag proteins). Regions within the dotted boxes are magnified in the insets. Bars, 10 µm. (B) ARPE-19 cells were cotransfected with active RagB/D heterodimers and the indicated TFEB constructs. After 18 h, cell lysates were immunoprecipitated with the anti-HA antibody (used to immunoprecipitate Rag proteins) and immunoblotted with antibodies against GFP and GST (used to detect TFEB-GFP and Rag proteins, respectively). The white line indicates that intervening lanes have been spliced out. (C) Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy showing the subcellular distribution of TFEB-(1–30)-GFP in ARPE-19 cells coexpressing active RagB/D heterodimers (antibodies against GST were used to detect Rags). Bar, 4 µm. (D) Relative RT-PCR analysis of the mRNA expression of autophagy ( ATG9B and UVRAG ) and lysosomal ( MCOLN1 ) genes in ARPE-19 cells infected with the indicated adenovirus for 48 h. The values are expressed as a ratio to RNA from cells infected with control adenovirus (Ad.-Null). Values are means ± SD of two independent experiments. ***, P
Figure Legend Snippet: The first 30 amino acids of TFEB are sufficient for binding to active Rag heterodimers. (A) ARPE-19 cells coexpressing active RagB/D heterodimer and the indicated TFEB plasmids were fixed, permeabilized with 0.2% saponin, and stained with antibodies against GST (used to detect Rag proteins). Regions within the dotted boxes are magnified in the insets. Bars, 10 µm. (B) ARPE-19 cells were cotransfected with active RagB/D heterodimers and the indicated TFEB constructs. After 18 h, cell lysates were immunoprecipitated with the anti-HA antibody (used to immunoprecipitate Rag proteins) and immunoblotted with antibodies against GFP and GST (used to detect TFEB-GFP and Rag proteins, respectively). The white line indicates that intervening lanes have been spliced out. (C) Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy showing the subcellular distribution of TFEB-(1–30)-GFP in ARPE-19 cells coexpressing active RagB/D heterodimers (antibodies against GST were used to detect Rags). Bar, 4 µm. (D) Relative RT-PCR analysis of the mRNA expression of autophagy ( ATG9B and UVRAG ) and lysosomal ( MCOLN1 ) genes in ARPE-19 cells infected with the indicated adenovirus for 48 h. The values are expressed as a ratio to RNA from cells infected with control adenovirus (Ad.-Null). Values are means ± SD of two independent experiments. ***, P

Techniques Used: Binding Assay, Staining, Construct, Immunoprecipitation, Immunofluorescence, Confocal Microscopy, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing, Infection

5) Product Images from "Next-Generation Sequencing Analysis Reveals Differential Expression Profiles of MiRNA-mRNA Target Pairs in KSHV-Infected Cells"

Article Title: Next-Generation Sequencing Analysis Reveals Differential Expression Profiles of MiRNA-mRNA Target Pairs in KSHV-Infected Cells

Journal: PLoS ONE

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0126439

Analysis of miRNA expression in latent and de novo KSHV-infected cells. A. Data represent the average log 2 -transformed fold change of expression between latently infected SLKK cells and uninfected SLK cells, measured either by small RNA sequencing (black bars) or Taqman assay (grey bars). All the changes are significant ( P≤ 0.05) except that of miR-210 as detected by miRNA-Seq. B. Effects of de novo KSHV infection on miRNAs seen down-regulated in the SLK/SLKK model. SLK cells were exposed to KSHV and after 5 days, changes in specific miRNAs were assessed by Taqman assay. The dotted line indicates the normalized level of these miRNAs in uninfected SLK cells. P-values were calculated using Student t-test. ** indicates P
Figure Legend Snippet: Analysis of miRNA expression in latent and de novo KSHV-infected cells. A. Data represent the average log 2 -transformed fold change of expression between latently infected SLKK cells and uninfected SLK cells, measured either by small RNA sequencing (black bars) or Taqman assay (grey bars). All the changes are significant ( P≤ 0.05) except that of miR-210 as detected by miRNA-Seq. B. Effects of de novo KSHV infection on miRNAs seen down-regulated in the SLK/SLKK model. SLK cells were exposed to KSHV and after 5 days, changes in specific miRNAs were assessed by Taqman assay. The dotted line indicates the normalized level of these miRNAs in uninfected SLK cells. P-values were calculated using Student t-test. ** indicates P

Techniques Used: Expressing, Infection, Transformation Assay, RNA Sequencing Assay, TaqMan Assay

6) Product Images from "MiR-153 targets the nuclear factor-1 family and protects against teratogenic effects of ethanol exposure in fetal neural stem cells"

Article Title: MiR-153 targets the nuclear factor-1 family and protects against teratogenic effects of ethanol exposure in fetal neural stem cells

Journal: Biology Open

doi: 10.1242/bio.20147765

RT-PCR validation of candidate miR-153-regulated mRNAs. Bar graphs depict the real time RT-PCR quantification of mRNAs in vector control and miR-153 over-expression conditions for candidate mRNA transcripts identified from the microarray experiment that achieved the adjusted p-value cut-off of 0.1 (a) and raw p-value of 0.05 (b), respectively. The y -axis indicates normalized mRNA expression (expressed as 1/2ΔCt relative to 18s RNA). Data were expressed as mean±SEM and quantified from 6 independent replicates (*p
Figure Legend Snippet: RT-PCR validation of candidate miR-153-regulated mRNAs. Bar graphs depict the real time RT-PCR quantification of mRNAs in vector control and miR-153 over-expression conditions for candidate mRNA transcripts identified from the microarray experiment that achieved the adjusted p-value cut-off of 0.1 (a) and raw p-value of 0.05 (b), respectively. The y -axis indicates normalized mRNA expression (expressed as 1/2ΔCt relative to 18s RNA). Data were expressed as mean±SEM and quantified from 6 independent replicates (*p

Techniques Used: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Quantitative RT-PCR, Plasmid Preparation, Over Expression, Microarray, Expressing

Identification and gene ontology classification of mRNAs that are down-regulated following miR-153 over-expression. (a) Schematic structure of the pre-miR-153/GFP-puromycin expression vector (Cell Biolabs, CA). (b) Sample flow-cytometry frequency histograms documenting transfection efficiency. The upper panel depicts mock-transfected controls, whereas the lower two panels (s1 and s2) show GFP expression following transfection. GFP-transfected cells exhibit a bi-modal distribution, with a mean transfection efficiency of 68±2%. Cells were cultured for 24 hours before labeling with anti-GFP antibody, followed by flow cytometry. (c) Bar graph shows that transfection of neurosphere-derived cells with pre-miR-153 expression vector results in a 30-fold increase in miR-153 expression compared to transfection with vector control. Data from six independent replicates (n = 6) are expressed as mean±SEM. (d) Frequency histogram of miRNA expression (ΔCT relative to U6 snRNA) in neurosphere cultures showing the relative baseline and transfection-induced expression of miR-153. Smaller ΔCT values indicate increased expression. Data show that baseline miR-153 expression is within the upper 12th percentile of all expressed miRNAs, and that over-expression results in a shift to the 1st percentile. However, another ethanol-sensitive miRNA, miR-9 (indicated with arrow), is expressed at a higher baseline level compared to miR-153 over-expression.
Figure Legend Snippet: Identification and gene ontology classification of mRNAs that are down-regulated following miR-153 over-expression. (a) Schematic structure of the pre-miR-153/GFP-puromycin expression vector (Cell Biolabs, CA). (b) Sample flow-cytometry frequency histograms documenting transfection efficiency. The upper panel depicts mock-transfected controls, whereas the lower two panels (s1 and s2) show GFP expression following transfection. GFP-transfected cells exhibit a bi-modal distribution, with a mean transfection efficiency of 68±2%. Cells were cultured for 24 hours before labeling with anti-GFP antibody, followed by flow cytometry. (c) Bar graph shows that transfection of neurosphere-derived cells with pre-miR-153 expression vector results in a 30-fold increase in miR-153 expression compared to transfection with vector control. Data from six independent replicates (n = 6) are expressed as mean±SEM. (d) Frequency histogram of miRNA expression (ΔCT relative to U6 snRNA) in neurosphere cultures showing the relative baseline and transfection-induced expression of miR-153. Smaller ΔCT values indicate increased expression. Data show that baseline miR-153 expression is within the upper 12th percentile of all expressed miRNAs, and that over-expression results in a shift to the 1st percentile. However, another ethanol-sensitive miRNA, miR-9 (indicated with arrow), is expressed at a higher baseline level compared to miR-153 over-expression.

Techniques Used: Over Expression, Expressing, Plasmid Preparation, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Transfection, Cell Culture, Labeling, Derivative Assay

MiR-153 prevents and partly reverses ethanol's effects on miR-153-regulated gene transcripts. Bar graphs represent real-time RT-PCR analysis for mRNA expression of miR-153 sensitive genes in control neurosphere cultures (untreated or transfection control), ethanol (320 mg/dl) alone, miR-153 over-expression with ethanol exposure (prevention paradigm), or miR-153 over-expression for 48 hours after 5 days of ethanol exposure (reversal paradigm) of NSCs. The y -axis indicates normalized mRNA expression (normalized to 18s) relative to control samples. Data were expressed as mean±SEM. n = 4 independent experiments. *Significant difference from control. #Significant difference from ethanol-exposed. See Results section for p-values.
Figure Legend Snippet: MiR-153 prevents and partly reverses ethanol's effects on miR-153-regulated gene transcripts. Bar graphs represent real-time RT-PCR analysis for mRNA expression of miR-153 sensitive genes in control neurosphere cultures (untreated or transfection control), ethanol (320 mg/dl) alone, miR-153 over-expression with ethanol exposure (prevention paradigm), or miR-153 over-expression for 48 hours after 5 days of ethanol exposure (reversal paradigm) of NSCs. The y -axis indicates normalized mRNA expression (normalized to 18s) relative to control samples. Data were expressed as mean±SEM. n = 4 independent experiments. *Significant difference from control. #Significant difference from ethanol-exposed. See Results section for p-values.

Techniques Used: Quantitative RT-PCR, Expressing, Transfection, Over Expression

Relationship between miR-153 over-expression and the expression of the neuronal differentiation marker DCX, and the neuronal lineage stem cell marker, CD24 and Map2A, in the cerebral cortical VZ and SVZ. In each row, panel ‘i’ depicts miR-153-GFP or control GFP expression, panel ‘ii’ depicts immunofluorescence for DCX, CD24 or Map2A, panel ‘iii’ depicts combined immunofluorescence and panel ‘iv’ depicts DAPI labeling of cell nuclei. (a,b) DCX-immunofluorescence is localized to the SVZ, but not VZ (b.ii,c.ii). Control-GFP over-expression (a.i–a.iv) does not alter DCX expression in the SVZ; however, miR-153 over-expression (b.i–b.iv, circled areas) results in loss of DCX expression in the SVZ. (c–d) CD24-immunofluorescence localizes to VZ and SVZ in GFP-control (c.i–c.iv) and following miR-153 over-expression (d.i–d.iv). miR-153 over-expression does not result in a loss of CD24 immunofluorescence (white circles). (e.i–e.iv) MiR-153 over-expression does not result in a loss of MAP2a/b expression in newly generated neurons of the VZ (white circles). VZ: ventricular zone; SVZ: subventricular zone; CP: cortical plate. Scale bars: 50 µm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Relationship between miR-153 over-expression and the expression of the neuronal differentiation marker DCX, and the neuronal lineage stem cell marker, CD24 and Map2A, in the cerebral cortical VZ and SVZ. In each row, panel ‘i’ depicts miR-153-GFP or control GFP expression, panel ‘ii’ depicts immunofluorescence for DCX, CD24 or Map2A, panel ‘iii’ depicts combined immunofluorescence and panel ‘iv’ depicts DAPI labeling of cell nuclei. (a,b) DCX-immunofluorescence is localized to the SVZ, but not VZ (b.ii,c.ii). Control-GFP over-expression (a.i–a.iv) does not alter DCX expression in the SVZ; however, miR-153 over-expression (b.i–b.iv, circled areas) results in loss of DCX expression in the SVZ. (c–d) CD24-immunofluorescence localizes to VZ and SVZ in GFP-control (c.i–c.iv) and following miR-153 over-expression (d.i–d.iv). miR-153 over-expression does not result in a loss of CD24 immunofluorescence (white circles). (e.i–e.iv) MiR-153 over-expression does not result in a loss of MAP2a/b expression in newly generated neurons of the VZ (white circles). VZ: ventricular zone; SVZ: subventricular zone; CP: cortical plate. Scale bars: 50 µm.

Techniques Used: Over Expression, Expressing, Marker, Immunofluorescence, Labeling, Generated

Effects of miR-153 over-expression on differentiation, apoptosis and cell proliferation. (a,b) Photomicrographs depicting GFP immunofluorescent cells cultured under mitogen-withdrawal-induced differentiation conditions on a laminin substrate 48 hours after transfection with GFP control vector (a.i–a.iii) or with GFP-premiR-153 (b.i–b.iv). MiR-153 over-expressing cells exhibited deficient morphological transformation compared to control cells. (c,d) Differentiating control-GFP (c.i–c.iii) and miR-153/GFP (d.i–d.iii) over-expressing cells exhibit co-localized expression of the early neuronal marker Map2a/b (white arrows). Yellow arrowheads show that the GFP label fills the cellular processes and completely overlaps the expression of Map2a/b. Map2a/b immunolabeling also shows deficient morphological transformation following miR-153/GFP over-expression. (e) Bar graph depicts Sholl analysis of neurite length expressed as number of intersections ( y -axis) as a function of distance from soma ( x -axis) per cell. MiR-153 over-expressing cells have shorter neurites compared to controls. Data based on analysis of 34 control and 26 miR-153-over-expressing cells. Photomicrographs were obtained from all four quadrants of each culture dish, and cells whose processes showed no overlap with those of an adjacent cell were selected for analysis. Asterisks, all p-values
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of miR-153 over-expression on differentiation, apoptosis and cell proliferation. (a,b) Photomicrographs depicting GFP immunofluorescent cells cultured under mitogen-withdrawal-induced differentiation conditions on a laminin substrate 48 hours after transfection with GFP control vector (a.i–a.iii) or with GFP-premiR-153 (b.i–b.iv). MiR-153 over-expressing cells exhibited deficient morphological transformation compared to control cells. (c,d) Differentiating control-GFP (c.i–c.iii) and miR-153/GFP (d.i–d.iii) over-expressing cells exhibit co-localized expression of the early neuronal marker Map2a/b (white arrows). Yellow arrowheads show that the GFP label fills the cellular processes and completely overlaps the expression of Map2a/b. Map2a/b immunolabeling also shows deficient morphological transformation following miR-153/GFP over-expression. (e) Bar graph depicts Sholl analysis of neurite length expressed as number of intersections ( y -axis) as a function of distance from soma ( x -axis) per cell. MiR-153 over-expressing cells have shorter neurites compared to controls. Data based on analysis of 34 control and 26 miR-153-over-expressing cells. Photomicrographs were obtained from all four quadrants of each culture dish, and cells whose processes showed no overlap with those of an adjacent cell were selected for analysis. Asterisks, all p-values

Techniques Used: Over Expression, Cell Culture, Transfection, Plasmid Preparation, Expressing, Transformation Assay, Marker, Immunolabeling

Matn2 and Vegfa are not direct targets of miR-153. Firefly activity relative to RLuc luciferase activity was measured in NSCs 24 hours after transfection with control or miR-153 mimetics and the luciferase construct containing 3′UTR of Matn2 or Vegfa. Bars are normalized to the relative firefly units of samples treated with the transfected control. The x -axis depicts treatment conditions (control or miR-153). The y -axis indicates normalized luciferase activity. Data were expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 5).
Figure Legend Snippet: Matn2 and Vegfa are not direct targets of miR-153. Firefly activity relative to RLuc luciferase activity was measured in NSCs 24 hours after transfection with control or miR-153 mimetics and the luciferase construct containing 3′UTR of Matn2 or Vegfa. Bars are normalized to the relative firefly units of samples treated with the transfected control. The x -axis depicts treatment conditions (control or miR-153). The y -axis indicates normalized luciferase activity. Data were expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 5).

Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Luciferase, Transfection, Construct

Model for the hypothesis that a network of miR-153 and the NF1 neurogenic transcription factor family (Nfia/b/c) mediate the effects of ethanol on NSC maturation. (a) miR-153 is a direct and negative regulator of NF1 expression. Our data on miR-153 regulation of gene expression and published data on NF-1 suggest that suppressing NF1 will in turn retard NSC maturation, and be predicted to be permissive of continued NSC renewal. (b) Ethanol suppresses miR-153, resulting in release of NF1 expression, potentially explaining findings that ethanol promotes NSC maturation. (c) Nicotinic (nAChR) activation prevents ethanol suppression of miR-153 and may serve to mitigate premature NSC differentiation. Green arrows depict positive regulation while red bars indicate negative regulation. Dashed lines indicate diminished regulation, while gray text indicates diminished expression or function.
Figure Legend Snippet: Model for the hypothesis that a network of miR-153 and the NF1 neurogenic transcription factor family (Nfia/b/c) mediate the effects of ethanol on NSC maturation. (a) miR-153 is a direct and negative regulator of NF1 expression. Our data on miR-153 regulation of gene expression and published data on NF-1 suggest that suppressing NF1 will in turn retard NSC maturation, and be predicted to be permissive of continued NSC renewal. (b) Ethanol suppresses miR-153, resulting in release of NF1 expression, potentially explaining findings that ethanol promotes NSC maturation. (c) Nicotinic (nAChR) activation prevents ethanol suppression of miR-153 and may serve to mitigate premature NSC differentiation. Green arrows depict positive regulation while red bars indicate negative regulation. Dashed lines indicate diminished regulation, while gray text indicates diminished expression or function.

Techniques Used: Expressing, Activation Assay

In silico analysis of the RNA folding structure of Nfia and Nfib. Predicted secondary structure conformation of the 3′UTR of (a) Nfia and (b) Nfib. Locations of the 5′ and 3′ends of the 3′UTR sequences are marked with blue arrows. (a) Two miR-153 binding sites, target_7285 and target_9451, validated from luciferase assay above are shown on Nfia 3′UTR. Target_7285 is located close to complex stem–loop structures, while target_9451 localizes to a linear portion, of the Nfia 3′UTR. MiR-153 sequences are shown in black while the matching binding site sequences are illustrated in blue (target_7285) and red (target_9451). (b) One miR-153 binding site, target_6559, validated from luciferase analysis is located on the linear portion of Nfib 3′UTR and is labeled in red, whereas miR-153 sequence is shown in black.
Figure Legend Snippet: In silico analysis of the RNA folding structure of Nfia and Nfib. Predicted secondary structure conformation of the 3′UTR of (a) Nfia and (b) Nfib. Locations of the 5′ and 3′ends of the 3′UTR sequences are marked with blue arrows. (a) Two miR-153 binding sites, target_7285 and target_9451, validated from luciferase assay above are shown on Nfia 3′UTR. Target_7285 is located close to complex stem–loop structures, while target_9451 localizes to a linear portion, of the Nfia 3′UTR. MiR-153 sequences are shown in black while the matching binding site sequences are illustrated in blue (target_7285) and red (target_9451). (b) One miR-153 binding site, target_6559, validated from luciferase analysis is located on the linear portion of Nfib 3′UTR and is labeled in red, whereas miR-153 sequence is shown in black.

Techniques Used: In Silico, Binding Assay, Luciferase, Labeling, Sequencing

Identification of Nfia 3′UTR as a direct target of miR-153. (a) Schematic structure of the luciferase reporter constructs containing murine Nfia 3′UTR fragments (GeneCopoeia, Rockville, MD). (b) Schematic of the full length of Nfia 3′UTR depicting the location of the three Nfia 3′UTR fragments (Nfia 3′UTR_a in blue, Nfia 3′UTR_b in orange, Nfia 3′UTR_c in pink) that were cloned into luciferase reporters for studies. Green triangles indicate the predicted miR-153 binding sites that are conserved among vertebrates, whereas the blue triangle illustrates the predicted miR-153 binding site that shares conservation between mouse and human. Purple bars represent the morpholinos used to protect the predicted miR-153 binding sites. (c) We assayed firefly activity relative to RLuc luciferase activity in NSCs 24 h after transfection with the Luc_miR153 binding site reporter construct as the positive control and transfected control or miR-153 mimetics. Bar graphs represent luciferase activity normalized to the mean activity of samples transfected with the miR-153 control vector. The x -axis depicts treatment conditions. The y -axis indicates normalized luciferase activity. (d–f) NSCs were transfected with luciferase reporter constructs containing different fragments of Nfia 3′UTR, (d) 3′UTR_a, (e) 3′UTR_b, (f) 3′UTR_c, with control or miR-153 mimetics for 24 hours. Additional control or antisense morpholinos, (e) mask_i, mask_ii, and (f) mask_iii, used to protect the miR-153 binding sites were co-transfected along with other constructs as indicated on the x -axis. Bars are normalized to the relative firefly units of samples treated with the transfected control. Data were expressed as mean±SEM (n = 5).
Figure Legend Snippet: Identification of Nfia 3′UTR as a direct target of miR-153. (a) Schematic structure of the luciferase reporter constructs containing murine Nfia 3′UTR fragments (GeneCopoeia, Rockville, MD). (b) Schematic of the full length of Nfia 3′UTR depicting the location of the three Nfia 3′UTR fragments (Nfia 3′UTR_a in blue, Nfia 3′UTR_b in orange, Nfia 3′UTR_c in pink) that were cloned into luciferase reporters for studies. Green triangles indicate the predicted miR-153 binding sites that are conserved among vertebrates, whereas the blue triangle illustrates the predicted miR-153 binding site that shares conservation between mouse and human. Purple bars represent the morpholinos used to protect the predicted miR-153 binding sites. (c) We assayed firefly activity relative to RLuc luciferase activity in NSCs 24 h after transfection with the Luc_miR153 binding site reporter construct as the positive control and transfected control or miR-153 mimetics. Bar graphs represent luciferase activity normalized to the mean activity of samples transfected with the miR-153 control vector. The x -axis depicts treatment conditions. The y -axis indicates normalized luciferase activity. (d–f) NSCs were transfected with luciferase reporter constructs containing different fragments of Nfia 3′UTR, (d) 3′UTR_a, (e) 3′UTR_b, (f) 3′UTR_c, with control or miR-153 mimetics for 24 hours. Additional control or antisense morpholinos, (e) mask_i, mask_ii, and (f) mask_iii, used to protect the miR-153 binding sites were co-transfected along with other constructs as indicated on the x -axis. Bars are normalized to the relative firefly units of samples treated with the transfected control. Data were expressed as mean±SEM (n = 5).

Techniques Used: Luciferase, Construct, Clone Assay, Binding Assay, Activity Assay, Transfection, Positive Control, Plasmid Preparation

Nfib is a direct target of miR-153. (a) Schematic shows the full length Nfib 3′UTR in relation to the three 3′UTR fragments (Nfib 3′UTR_a in blue, 3′UTR_b in green, 3′UTR_c in purple) that were cloned into luciferase constructs for studies. Green triangles indicate the predicted miR-153 binding sites that are conserved among vertebrates. Purple bars represent the morpholinos used to mask the miR-153 binding sites. (b–d) Firefly activity relative to RLuc luciferase activity is determined in NSCs 24 h after transfection with luciferase reporter constructs containing different fragments of Nfib 3′UTR, (b) 3′UTR_a, (c) 3′UTR_b, (d) 3′UTR_c, with control or miR-153 mimetics. Additional control or antisense morpholinos, (d) Nfib-mask_i, used to protect the predicted miR-153 binding sites in Nfib 3′UTR were co-transfected into same samples as indicated. Data were normalized to the samples treated with the transfected control. The x -axis depicts treatment conditions. The y -axis indicates normalized luciferase activity. Data were expressed as mean±SEM (n = 5).
Figure Legend Snippet: Nfib is a direct target of miR-153. (a) Schematic shows the full length Nfib 3′UTR in relation to the three 3′UTR fragments (Nfib 3′UTR_a in blue, 3′UTR_b in green, 3′UTR_c in purple) that were cloned into luciferase constructs for studies. Green triangles indicate the predicted miR-153 binding sites that are conserved among vertebrates. Purple bars represent the morpholinos used to mask the miR-153 binding sites. (b–d) Firefly activity relative to RLuc luciferase activity is determined in NSCs 24 h after transfection with luciferase reporter constructs containing different fragments of Nfib 3′UTR, (b) 3′UTR_a, (c) 3′UTR_b, (d) 3′UTR_c, with control or miR-153 mimetics. Additional control or antisense morpholinos, (d) Nfib-mask_i, used to protect the predicted miR-153 binding sites in Nfib 3′UTR were co-transfected into same samples as indicated. Data were normalized to the samples treated with the transfected control. The x -axis depicts treatment conditions. The y -axis indicates normalized luciferase activity. Data were expressed as mean±SEM (n = 5).

Techniques Used: Clone Assay, Luciferase, Construct, Binding Assay, Activity Assay, Transfection

Varenicline prevents and reverses the effects of ethanol on miR-153 target gene expression. Bar graph depicts real-time RT-PCR analysis of mRNA expression of miR-153-regulated genes in control neurospheres, or neurospheres treated with varenicline (1 µM) alone, varenicline in combination with ethanol (prevention paradigm), and varenicline treatment for 48 hours following 5 days of ethanol exposure (reversal paradigm). The striped bars show reference ethanol exposure data from Fig. 9 . The y -axis indicates normalized mRNA expression (normalized to 18s) relative to control samples. Data were expressed as mean±SEM. n = 4 independent replicates. *Significant difference from control. #Significant difference from ethanol-exposed. See Results section for p-values.
Figure Legend Snippet: Varenicline prevents and reverses the effects of ethanol on miR-153 target gene expression. Bar graph depicts real-time RT-PCR analysis of mRNA expression of miR-153-regulated genes in control neurospheres, or neurospheres treated with varenicline (1 µM) alone, varenicline in combination with ethanol (prevention paradigm), and varenicline treatment for 48 hours following 5 days of ethanol exposure (reversal paradigm). The striped bars show reference ethanol exposure data from Fig. 9 . The y -axis indicates normalized mRNA expression (normalized to 18s) relative to control samples. Data were expressed as mean±SEM. n = 4 independent replicates. *Significant difference from control. #Significant difference from ethanol-exposed. See Results section for p-values.

Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR

Microarray analysis of gene expression following miR-153 over-expression. (a) Volcano-plot illustrates relationship between log 2 (mRNA expression ratio) and log 2 (FDR-corrected p-value) in miR-153 over-expressing cultures compared to controls. Filled red and blue circles indicate mRNA transcripts that are suppressed or induced, respectively, by more than 1.3-fold following miR-153 over-expression, at an FDR (Benjamini and Hochberg)-adjusted p
Figure Legend Snippet: Microarray analysis of gene expression following miR-153 over-expression. (a) Volcano-plot illustrates relationship between log 2 (mRNA expression ratio) and log 2 (FDR-corrected p-value) in miR-153 over-expressing cultures compared to controls. Filled red and blue circles indicate mRNA transcripts that are suppressed or induced, respectively, by more than 1.3-fold following miR-153 over-expression, at an FDR (Benjamini and Hochberg)-adjusted p

Techniques Used: Microarray, Expressing, Over Expression

Nicotine and the nAChR partial agonist varenicline induce miR-153 expression. Bar graph depicts real-time RT-PCR expression of miR-153 in control, nicotine and varenicline-exposed neurosphere cultures. MiR-153 expression is significantly induced in nicotine and varenicline-treated groups. The y -axis indicates normalized miR-153 expression (normalized to U6) relative to control samples. Data were expressed as mean±SEM. n = 4 independent replicates. Asterisk indicates significant difference from control.
Figure Legend Snippet: Nicotine and the nAChR partial agonist varenicline induce miR-153 expression. Bar graph depicts real-time RT-PCR expression of miR-153 in control, nicotine and varenicline-exposed neurosphere cultures. MiR-153 expression is significantly induced in nicotine and varenicline-treated groups. The y -axis indicates normalized miR-153 expression (normalized to U6) relative to control samples. Data were expressed as mean±SEM. n = 4 independent replicates. Asterisk indicates significant difference from control.

Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR

MiR-153 regulates Nfia and Nfib expression in fetal brains. (a) Photo-micrograph depicts ultrasound-guided trans-uterine insertion of a micro-capillary pipette (dashed green line) into the lateral ventricle in a GD13 fetal brain. Following in utero electroporation of control-GFP or miR-153/GFP vectors, fetuses were maintained for an additional period of 48 hours, before being analyzed at GD15.5. Double immunohistochemistry of anti-GFP with anti-Nfia or anti-Nfib in control-GFP (b) or Pre-miR-153-GFP (c–h) transfected GD15.5 mouse frozen sections. (b1,b2) Photomicrograph shows (b1) control-GFP (green) localizes to the cytoplasm of nuclear Nfib-labeled (red) neurons of the cortical plate and (b2) DAPI-counterstained nuclei. (c–h) Panels c1–h1, c2–h2 and c3–h3 show low magnification images of the same sections counterstained with DAPI (c1–h1) to visualize nuclei, or immuno-fluorescently labeled for GFP (c2–h2) as a marker for miR-153 over-expression, or Nfia (c3–e3) and Nfib (f3–h3). (c4,d4,f4,g4) High magnification photomicrographs showing that GFP expression from the pre-miR-153/GFP construct does not co-localize with nuclear immuno-labeling for Nfia (c4,d4) or Nfib (f4,g4). Residual cytoplasmic labeling in GFP/miR-153 over-expressing cells, represented by yellow immunofluorescence (e.g. c4), may represent incompletely suppressed translation or residual immuno-reactivity due to products of stalled translation. Dotted circles indicate regions depicted in high magnification images. Dotted squares depict regions of cortical plate with disrupted expression of Nfib overlying strong GFP expression in the ventricular/sub-ventricular zones. Pink arrows show nuclei immuno-stained for Nfia or Nfib, while green arrows indicate strong cytoplasmic miR-153-GFP immuno-staining. VZ: ventricular zone; SVZ: subventricular zone; CP: cortical plate. Scale bars: 25 µm.
Figure Legend Snippet: MiR-153 regulates Nfia and Nfib expression in fetal brains. (a) Photo-micrograph depicts ultrasound-guided trans-uterine insertion of a micro-capillary pipette (dashed green line) into the lateral ventricle in a GD13 fetal brain. Following in utero electroporation of control-GFP or miR-153/GFP vectors, fetuses were maintained for an additional period of 48 hours, before being analyzed at GD15.5. Double immunohistochemistry of anti-GFP with anti-Nfia or anti-Nfib in control-GFP (b) or Pre-miR-153-GFP (c–h) transfected GD15.5 mouse frozen sections. (b1,b2) Photomicrograph shows (b1) control-GFP (green) localizes to the cytoplasm of nuclear Nfib-labeled (red) neurons of the cortical plate and (b2) DAPI-counterstained nuclei. (c–h) Panels c1–h1, c2–h2 and c3–h3 show low magnification images of the same sections counterstained with DAPI (c1–h1) to visualize nuclei, or immuno-fluorescently labeled for GFP (c2–h2) as a marker for miR-153 over-expression, or Nfia (c3–e3) and Nfib (f3–h3). (c4,d4,f4,g4) High magnification photomicrographs showing that GFP expression from the pre-miR-153/GFP construct does not co-localize with nuclear immuno-labeling for Nfia (c4,d4) or Nfib (f4,g4). Residual cytoplasmic labeling in GFP/miR-153 over-expressing cells, represented by yellow immunofluorescence (e.g. c4), may represent incompletely suppressed translation or residual immuno-reactivity due to products of stalled translation. Dotted circles indicate regions depicted in high magnification images. Dotted squares depict regions of cortical plate with disrupted expression of Nfib overlying strong GFP expression in the ventricular/sub-ventricular zones. Pink arrows show nuclei immuno-stained for Nfia or Nfib, while green arrows indicate strong cytoplasmic miR-153-GFP immuno-staining. VZ: ventricular zone; SVZ: subventricular zone; CP: cortical plate. Scale bars: 25 µm.

Techniques Used: Expressing, Transferring, In Utero, Electroporation, Immunohistochemistry, Transfection, Labeling, Marker, Over Expression, Construct, Immunolabeling, Immunofluorescence, Staining, Immunostaining

7) Product Images from "A screening cascade to identify ERβ ligands"

Article Title: A screening cascade to identify ERβ ligands

Journal: Nuclear Receptor Signaling

doi: 10.1621/nrs.12003

ÄKTA chromatogram and SDS-PAGE for the purification of ERβ LBD. Representative size-exclusion chromatogram from the ÄKTA purifier FPLC for the purification of ERβ LBD (A) and Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE gel after SEC of the pooled and concentrated eluted fractions at ~61 mL corresponding to ERβ LBD (B).
Figure Legend Snippet: ÄKTA chromatogram and SDS-PAGE for the purification of ERβ LBD. Representative size-exclusion chromatogram from the ÄKTA purifier FPLC for the purification of ERβ LBD (A) and Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE gel after SEC of the pooled and concentrated eluted fractions at ~61 mL corresponding to ERβ LBD (B).

Techniques Used: SDS Page, Purification, Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography, Staining, Size-exclusion Chromatography

8) Product Images from "β‐Estradiol results in a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9‐dependent increase in low‐density lipoprotein receptor levels in human hepatic HuH7 cells"

Article Title: β‐Estradiol results in a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9‐dependent increase in low‐density lipoprotein receptor levels in human hepatic HuH7 cells

Journal: The Febs Journal

doi: 10.1111/febs.13309

Assessment of sh RNA knockdown of PCSK 9 in HuH7 cells. PCSK 9 knockdown was evaluated in HuH7 cells that were transfected with nontarget scrambled sh RNA ( NT ) or with PCSK 9‐targeted sh RNA (shP). (A) The specificity and level of knockdown was assessed at the RNA level by qPCR , with primers for LDLR and PCSK 9, respectively. (B) The level of knockdown was assessed at the secreted protein level by PCSK 9 ELISA of cell‐conditioned media, relative to the nontarget conditioned media. (C) NT or shP cells were incubated in triplicate in serum‐free media for 24 h before the addition of vehicle or 10 μ m compactin for another 24 h. LDLR levels in total cell lysates were (C) evaluated by immunoblotting; the resultant densitometry results are shown relative to vehicle‐treated cells, and indicate that shP cells are as responsive to statins as their NT counterparts. n = 3 experiments. **** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Assessment of sh RNA knockdown of PCSK 9 in HuH7 cells. PCSK 9 knockdown was evaluated in HuH7 cells that were transfected with nontarget scrambled sh RNA ( NT ) or with PCSK 9‐targeted sh RNA (shP). (A) The specificity and level of knockdown was assessed at the RNA level by qPCR , with primers for LDLR and PCSK 9, respectively. (B) The level of knockdown was assessed at the secreted protein level by PCSK 9 ELISA of cell‐conditioned media, relative to the nontarget conditioned media. (C) NT or shP cells were incubated in triplicate in serum‐free media for 24 h before the addition of vehicle or 10 μ m compactin for another 24 h. LDLR levels in total cell lysates were (C) evaluated by immunoblotting; the resultant densitometry results are shown relative to vehicle‐treated cells, and indicate that shP cells are as responsive to statins as their NT counterparts. n = 3 experiments. **** P

Techniques Used: Transfection, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Incubation

9) Product Images from "Impact of Amorphous SiO2 Nanoparticles on a Living Organism: Morphological, Behavioral, and Molecular Biology Implications"

Article Title: Impact of Amorphous SiO2 Nanoparticles on a Living Organism: Morphological, Behavioral, and Molecular Biology Implications

Journal: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology

doi: 10.3389/fbioe.2014.00037

RNAseq results validation by qRT-PCR . Relative expression levels of three selected genes are reported. Data represent mean ± SD of three technical repeats from three biological replicates.
Figure Legend Snippet: RNAseq results validation by qRT-PCR . Relative expression levels of three selected genes are reported. Data represent mean ± SD of three technical repeats from three biological replicates.

Techniques Used: Quantitative RT-PCR, Expressing

10) Product Images from "Expression and Activity of a Novel Cathelicidin from Domestic Cats"

Article Title: Expression and Activity of a Novel Cathelicidin from Domestic Cats

Journal: PLoS ONE

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018756

3′ RACE Analysis and Identification of feCath. (A) Schematic of 3′ RACE strategy targeting the signal sequence region and the propeptide (cathelin) domain with sense primers and using antisense adaptor primer, AP1. Feline bone marrow RNA was reverse transcribed with oligo-dT conjugated to adaptor primer 1/2 (AP1/2). Sense primers (sequences found in Table 1 ) were used to amplify cathelicidin related sequences in the pool of bone marrow cDNA. (B) Agarose gel electrophoresis analysis of 3′ RACE PCR products from (A). HaeIII digested Phi-X174 phage DNA used as the marker.
Figure Legend Snippet: 3′ RACE Analysis and Identification of feCath. (A) Schematic of 3′ RACE strategy targeting the signal sequence region and the propeptide (cathelin) domain with sense primers and using antisense adaptor primer, AP1. Feline bone marrow RNA was reverse transcribed with oligo-dT conjugated to adaptor primer 1/2 (AP1/2). Sense primers (sequences found in Table 1 ) were used to amplify cathelicidin related sequences in the pool of bone marrow cDNA. (B) Agarose gel electrophoresis analysis of 3′ RACE PCR products from (A). HaeIII digested Phi-X174 phage DNA used as the marker.

Techniques Used: Sequencing, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Marker

11) Product Images from "A Splice Mutation in the PHKG1 Gene Causes High Glycogen Content and Low Meat Quality in Pig Skeletal Muscle"

Article Title: A Splice Mutation in the PHKG1 Gene Causes High Glycogen Content and Low Meat Quality in Pig Skeletal Muscle

Journal: PLoS Genetics

doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004710

Prioritizing candidate genes by the colocalization between pQTL and eQTL. (A) Regional association plots with residual glycogen content in longissimus muscle from the F 2 (top panel) and Sutai (bottom panel) populations. The top pSNPs ss131031160 (F 2 ) and ss131565361 (Sutai) are highlighted by blue dots. Different levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the top SNPs and surrounding SNPs are indicated by different colours. The QTL intervals indicated by blue dash lines were obtained by the 2-LOD drop method. Their overlapping region spans 180 kb and contains 7 annotated genes. (B) Manhattan plots for the genome-wide cis-eQTL analysis of three candidate genes GUSB (left), PHKG1 (middle) and SUMF2 (right) in the F 2 population. The blue diamonds represent the top cis-eSNPs, while the red dot represents the top pSNP ss131031160 in the same population. (C) Box plots showing the differences in gene expression level determined by the digital gene expression (DGE) system among three genotypes of the ss131031160 SNP. Different letters above each box plot denote significant differences ( P
Figure Legend Snippet: Prioritizing candidate genes by the colocalization between pQTL and eQTL. (A) Regional association plots with residual glycogen content in longissimus muscle from the F 2 (top panel) and Sutai (bottom panel) populations. The top pSNPs ss131031160 (F 2 ) and ss131565361 (Sutai) are highlighted by blue dots. Different levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the top SNPs and surrounding SNPs are indicated by different colours. The QTL intervals indicated by blue dash lines were obtained by the 2-LOD drop method. Their overlapping region spans 180 kb and contains 7 annotated genes. (B) Manhattan plots for the genome-wide cis-eQTL analysis of three candidate genes GUSB (left), PHKG1 (middle) and SUMF2 (right) in the F 2 population. The blue diamonds represent the top cis-eSNPs, while the red dot represents the top pSNP ss131031160 in the same population. (C) Box plots showing the differences in gene expression level determined by the digital gene expression (DGE) system among three genotypes of the ss131031160 SNP. Different letters above each box plot denote significant differences ( P

Techniques Used: Genome Wide, Expressing

GWAS results for glycolytic potential and residual glycogen contents in longissimus muscle from the F 2 and Sutai populations. In the Manhattan plots, log 10 (1/P) values of the qualified SNPs were plotted against their genomic positions. “Chromosome 0” harbors SNPs that have not yet been mapped to the Sus Scrofa 10.2 assembly. It is most likely that the significant SNPs on chromosome 0 are located on chromosome 3 and have strong linkage disequilibrium with the top SNPs ss131031160 or ss131565361. The red and green dots represent the SNPs that reached 5% genome-wide and suggestive Bonferroni-corrected significances, respectively. The most significant SNPs for residual glycogen are ss131031160 and ss131565361 on SSC3 in the F 2 and Sutai (ST) pigs respectively. GP, glycolytic potential.
Figure Legend Snippet: GWAS results for glycolytic potential and residual glycogen contents in longissimus muscle from the F 2 and Sutai populations. In the Manhattan plots, log 10 (1/P) values of the qualified SNPs were plotted against their genomic positions. “Chromosome 0” harbors SNPs that have not yet been mapped to the Sus Scrofa 10.2 assembly. It is most likely that the significant SNPs on chromosome 0 are located on chromosome 3 and have strong linkage disequilibrium with the top SNPs ss131031160 or ss131565361. The red and green dots represent the SNPs that reached 5% genome-wide and suggestive Bonferroni-corrected significances, respectively. The most significant SNPs for residual glycogen are ss131031160 and ss131565361 on SSC3 in the F 2 and Sutai (ST) pigs respectively. GP, glycolytic potential.

Techniques Used: GWAS, Genome Wide

Comparison of PhK enzyme activities in longissimus muscle of animals with different PHKG1 g.8283 A > C genotypes. Bars with different letters are significantly different. Data are means ±1 SEM (n = 6 per genotype).
Figure Legend Snippet: Comparison of PhK enzyme activities in longissimus muscle of animals with different PHKG1 g.8283 A > C genotypes. Bars with different letters are significantly different. Data are means ±1 SEM (n = 6 per genotype).

Techniques Used:

12) Product Images from "Simultaneous purification of DNA and RNA from microbiota in a single colonic mucosal biopsy"

Article Title: Simultaneous purification of DNA and RNA from microbiota in a single colonic mucosal biopsy

Journal: BMC Research Notes

doi: 10.1186/s13104-016-2110-7

Comparison on taxonomic level of DNA purification using protocol 1 and commonly used DNA purification methods. The 16S sequence comparison bar charts are made using Classifier ( http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/classifier/classifier.jsp ). The significant differences of Firmicutes between paired libraries were calculated by the Library Compare Tool using a confidence threshold of 80 % ( http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/comparison ). Protocol 1: Mechanical pre-treatment only, followed by purification with AllPrep DNA/RNA Mini Kit as described in Additional file 1 ; DNA kit 1, 2 and 3: A combination of mechanical and enzymatic pre-treatments as recommended by Qiagen for lysis of Gram-positive bacteria, followed by purificaton with AllPrep DNA/RNA Mini Kit (kit 1), QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit (kit 2) and DNeasy Blood Tissue Kit (kit 3) as described in Additional file 1 . n number of clones sequenced
Figure Legend Snippet: Comparison on taxonomic level of DNA purification using protocol 1 and commonly used DNA purification methods. The 16S sequence comparison bar charts are made using Classifier ( http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/classifier/classifier.jsp ). The significant differences of Firmicutes between paired libraries were calculated by the Library Compare Tool using a confidence threshold of 80 % ( http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/comparison ). Protocol 1: Mechanical pre-treatment only, followed by purification with AllPrep DNA/RNA Mini Kit as described in Additional file 1 ; DNA kit 1, 2 and 3: A combination of mechanical and enzymatic pre-treatments as recommended by Qiagen for lysis of Gram-positive bacteria, followed by purificaton with AllPrep DNA/RNA Mini Kit (kit 1), QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit (kit 2) and DNeasy Blood Tissue Kit (kit 3) as described in Additional file 1 . n number of clones sequenced

Techniques Used: DNA Purification, Sequencing, Purification, Lysis, Clone Assay

13) Product Images from "H+ channels in embryonic Biomphalaria glabrata cell membranes: Putative roles in snail host-schistosome interactions"

Article Title: H+ channels in embryonic Biomphalaria glabrata cell membranes: Putative roles in snail host-schistosome interactions

Journal: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005467

ROS production in Bge cells measured with DCFH-DA. Bge cells were exposed for 1 hr to CBSS only, LTP only, 1 mM ZnCl 2 only or LTP + 1 mM ZnCl 2 . A. Raw DCFH-DA fluorescence was measured at 10 min intervals for 60 min and mean values plotted. ZnCl 2 (downward triangle with dashed-dotted line) and LTP + ZnCl 2 (upward triangle with dotted line) reduced fluorescence compared to CBSS control (square with solid line). LTP (circle with dashed line) had a weak, insignificant stimulatory effect. B. Bars show mean fluorescence with treatment normalized to constitutive control (CBSS) at 60 min. Bars represent means ± SEM. N = 5.
Figure Legend Snippet: ROS production in Bge cells measured with DCFH-DA. Bge cells were exposed for 1 hr to CBSS only, LTP only, 1 mM ZnCl 2 only or LTP + 1 mM ZnCl 2 . A. Raw DCFH-DA fluorescence was measured at 10 min intervals for 60 min and mean values plotted. ZnCl 2 (downward triangle with dashed-dotted line) and LTP + ZnCl 2 (upward triangle with dotted line) reduced fluorescence compared to CBSS control (square with solid line). LTP (circle with dashed line) had a weak, insignificant stimulatory effect. B. Bars show mean fluorescence with treatment normalized to constitutive control (CBSS) at 60 min. Bars represent means ± SEM. N = 5.

Techniques Used: Fluorescence

14) Product Images from "Serum harvested from heifers one month post-zeranol implantation stimulates MCF-7 breast cancer cell growth"

Article Title: Serum harvested from heifers one month post-zeranol implantation stimulates MCF-7 breast cancer cell growth

Journal: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine

doi: 10.3892/etm.2010.155

Regulatory effect of NZS-D30 and ZS-D30 on the expression levels of cyclin D1, p53 and p21 protein in MCF-7 cells. The MCF-7 cells were treated with both NZS-D30 and ZS-D30 at 0.2, 1 and 5% in culture medium for 24 h. The protein was extracted and then
Figure Legend Snippet: Regulatory effect of NZS-D30 and ZS-D30 on the expression levels of cyclin D1, p53 and p21 protein in MCF-7 cells. The MCF-7 cells were treated with both NZS-D30 and ZS-D30 at 0.2, 1 and 5% in culture medium for 24 h. The protein was extracted and then

Techniques Used: Expressing

The effects of DCC on MCF-7 cell growth stimulated by NZS-30 and ZS-D30 treatment at 0.2–5.0% in culture medium. (A) No significant difference was noted between the growth of MCF-7 cells treated by NZS-D30 with and without DCC treatment at the
Figure Legend Snippet: The effects of DCC on MCF-7 cell growth stimulated by NZS-30 and ZS-D30 treatment at 0.2–5.0% in culture medium. (A) No significant difference was noted between the growth of MCF-7 cells treated by NZS-D30 with and without DCC treatment at the

Techniques Used: Droplet Countercurrent Chromatography

The effects of NZS-D0, NZS-D30, ZS-D0 and ZS-D30 on cell proliferation of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. (A) Comparison of the effects of NZS-D0 and NZS-D30 on MCF-7 cell growth. No statistical difference was noted between the treatments of the
Figure Legend Snippet: The effects of NZS-D0, NZS-D30, ZS-D0 and ZS-D30 on cell proliferation of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. (A) Comparison of the effects of NZS-D0 and NZS-D30 on MCF-7 cell growth. No statistical difference was noted between the treatments of the

Techniques Used:

Comparison of the effects of NZS-D30 and ZS-D30 on the regulation of the mRNA expression of cyclin D1, p53 and p21 in MCF-7 cells after 24 h of treatment. (A) The expression level of cyclin D1 mRNA in MCF-7 cells after being treated with 0.2–5%
Figure Legend Snippet: Comparison of the effects of NZS-D30 and ZS-D30 on the regulation of the mRNA expression of cyclin D1, p53 and p21 in MCF-7 cells after 24 h of treatment. (A) The expression level of cyclin D1 mRNA in MCF-7 cells after being treated with 0.2–5%

Techniques Used: Expressing

15) Product Images from "Skeletal muscle overexpression of nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase in mice coupled with voluntary exercise augments exercise endurance"

Article Title: Skeletal muscle overexpression of nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase in mice coupled with voluntary exercise augments exercise endurance

Journal: Molecular Metabolism

doi: 10.1016/j.molmet.2017.10.012

NAMPT overexpression in skeletal muscle increased NAMPT mRNA and protein content in skeletal muscle. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses of NAMPT mRNA expression in (A) mixed gastrocnemius, (B) mixed quadriceps, and (C) heart; and western blot (WB) analyses of NAMPT protein content in (D) mixed gastrocnemius, (E) mixed quadriceps, and (F) heart. WT LFD = Wild Type Low Fat Diet; NamptTg LFD = NamptTg Low Fat Diet; WT HFD = Wild Type High Fat Diet; NamptTg HFD = NamptTg High Fat Diet. Letters indicate significant differences between groups (p
Figure Legend Snippet: NAMPT overexpression in skeletal muscle increased NAMPT mRNA and protein content in skeletal muscle. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses of NAMPT mRNA expression in (A) mixed gastrocnemius, (B) mixed quadriceps, and (C) heart; and western blot (WB) analyses of NAMPT protein content in (D) mixed gastrocnemius, (E) mixed quadriceps, and (F) heart. WT LFD = Wild Type Low Fat Diet; NamptTg LFD = NamptTg Low Fat Diet; WT HFD = Wild Type High Fat Diet; NamptTg HFD = NamptTg High Fat Diet. Letters indicate significant differences between groups (p

Techniques Used: Over Expression, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Quantitative RT-PCR, Expressing, Western Blot

16) Product Images from "Development of a Nuclear Transformation System for Oleaginous Green Alga Lobosphaera (Parietochloris) incisa and Genetic Complementation of a Mutant Strain, Deficient in Arachidonic Acid Biosynthesis"

Article Title: Development of a Nuclear Transformation System for Oleaginous Green Alga Lobosphaera (Parietochloris) incisa and Genetic Complementation of a Mutant Strain, Deficient in Arachidonic Acid Biosynthesis

Journal: PLoS ONE

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105223

Molecular analyses of L. incisa clones transformed with a pRbcS450 construct. (A) PCR analysis: gDNA was amplified with BleF and BleR primers yielding a 415-bp fragment. Lanes: (M) DNA ladder; (-) no template, (Ble) ble plasmid control, (wt) negative control (non-transformed cells); five transformed clones. (B) Southern blot analysis: gDNA isolated from both transgenic and non-transgenic cells, as well as plasmid DNA (pRbcS450), were digested with KpnI restriction enzyme. The blot was hybridized with a probe derived from a 415-bp amplified fragment of the ble gene. Lanes: (M) 1 Kb ladder; (plasmid) positive control; five transformed clones; (wt) negative control (non-transformed cells).
Figure Legend Snippet: Molecular analyses of L. incisa clones transformed with a pRbcS450 construct. (A) PCR analysis: gDNA was amplified with BleF and BleR primers yielding a 415-bp fragment. Lanes: (M) DNA ladder; (-) no template, (Ble) ble plasmid control, (wt) negative control (non-transformed cells); five transformed clones. (B) Southern blot analysis: gDNA isolated from both transgenic and non-transgenic cells, as well as plasmid DNA (pRbcS450), were digested with KpnI restriction enzyme. The blot was hybridized with a probe derived from a 415-bp amplified fragment of the ble gene. Lanes: (M) 1 Kb ladder; (plasmid) positive control; five transformed clones; (wt) negative control (non-transformed cells).

Techniques Used: Clone Assay, Transformation Assay, Construct, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Plasmid Preparation, Negative Control, Southern Blot, Isolation, Transgenic Assay, Derivative Assay, Positive Control

17) Product Images from "Extracellular vesicles from human liver stem cells restore argininosuccinate synthase deficiency"

Article Title: Extracellular vesicles from human liver stem cells restore argininosuccinate synthase deficiency

Journal: Stem Cell Research & Therapy

doi: 10.1186/s13287-017-0628-9

The expression of ASS1 gene and ASS1 mRNA in HLSCs and ASS1-HLSC. a , b Representative SNaPshot sequences of ASS1 gene in normal human liver stem cells ( HLSCs ) and HLSCs from the liver of a patient suffering from citrullinemia type 1 ( ASS1-HLSCs ). a The upper electropherogram shows a normal ASS1 gene profile from HLSCs; the lower electropherogram shows the mutated gene profile from ASS1-HLSCs (c.1087C > T). b The upper electropherogram shows a normal ASS1 gene profile; the lower electropherogram shows the mutated ASS1-HLSC gene profile (c.168G > A). Data represent one of three experiments with similar results. c qRT-PCR analysis showing the expression of ASS1 isoforms 1 ( Iso1 ) and 2 ( Iso2 ) mRNA in human hepatocytes ( hH ), HLSCs, and ASS1-HLSCs. hH were used as positive control. d qRT-PCR analysis of ASS1 Iso1 mRNA in HLSCs transfected with ASS1 shRNA. Data represent the mean of two independent experiments performed in triplicate. * p
Figure Legend Snippet: The expression of ASS1 gene and ASS1 mRNA in HLSCs and ASS1-HLSC. a , b Representative SNaPshot sequences of ASS1 gene in normal human liver stem cells ( HLSCs ) and HLSCs from the liver of a patient suffering from citrullinemia type 1 ( ASS1-HLSCs ). a The upper electropherogram shows a normal ASS1 gene profile from HLSCs; the lower electropherogram shows the mutated gene profile from ASS1-HLSCs (c.1087C > T). b The upper electropherogram shows a normal ASS1 gene profile; the lower electropherogram shows the mutated ASS1-HLSC gene profile (c.168G > A). Data represent one of three experiments with similar results. c qRT-PCR analysis showing the expression of ASS1 isoforms 1 ( Iso1 ) and 2 ( Iso2 ) mRNA in human hepatocytes ( hH ), HLSCs, and ASS1-HLSCs. hH were used as positive control. d qRT-PCR analysis of ASS1 Iso1 mRNA in HLSCs transfected with ASS1 shRNA. Data represent the mean of two independent experiments performed in triplicate. * p

Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Positive Control, Transfection, shRNA

18) Product Images from "Salicylic Acid Perturbs sRNA-Gibberellin Regulatory Network in Immune Response of Potato to Potato virus Y Infection"

Article Title: Salicylic Acid Perturbs sRNA-Gibberellin Regulatory Network in Immune Response of Potato to Potato virus Y Infection

Journal: Frontiers in Plant Science

doi: 10.3389/fpls.2017.02192

sRNA regulatory network is intertwined with immunity- and gibberellin-related signaling mediating trade-offs in development and defense. Node color denotes component type/function (gray—virus-derived; yellow—RNA silencing; blue—immune response; green—plant development). Lines represent different types of interaction (solid line—protein level; dashed—transcriptional/post-transcriptional level). Normal arrow—activation, blunt-end arrow—inhibition, combination of normal arrow and blunt-end arrow—unknown mechanism of action. ?, inferred from experiments performed in other species. vRNA, viral RNA; vsiRNA, virus-derived siRNA; HcPro, helper component-proteinase; DCL, DICER-like protein; AGO1, Argonaute 1; RdRp, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase; NBS-LRR, nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat protein; LRR-RLK, leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase; Ca, calcium; MAPK, mitogen activated protein kinase; SA, salicylic acid; GAMYB, GA-induced MYB-like protein; GA, gibberellin; GA20ox, GA20-oxidase; GA3ox, GA3-oxidase.
Figure Legend Snippet: sRNA regulatory network is intertwined with immunity- and gibberellin-related signaling mediating trade-offs in development and defense. Node color denotes component type/function (gray—virus-derived; yellow—RNA silencing; blue—immune response; green—plant development). Lines represent different types of interaction (solid line—protein level; dashed—transcriptional/post-transcriptional level). Normal arrow—activation, blunt-end arrow—inhibition, combination of normal arrow and blunt-end arrow—unknown mechanism of action. ?, inferred from experiments performed in other species. vRNA, viral RNA; vsiRNA, virus-derived siRNA; HcPro, helper component-proteinase; DCL, DICER-like protein; AGO1, Argonaute 1; RdRp, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase; NBS-LRR, nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat protein; LRR-RLK, leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase; Ca, calcium; MAPK, mitogen activated protein kinase; SA, salicylic acid; GAMYB, GA-induced MYB-like protein; GA, gibberellin; GA20ox, GA20-oxidase; GA3ox, GA3-oxidase.

Techniques Used: Derivative Assay, Activation Assay, Inhibition, Binding Assay

miR393-mediated cleavage of StTIR1 leads to production of phasiTIRs that are predicted to target diverse phytohormone signaling components. Targets of phasiTIRs were predicted in silico , cleavage of two of them, StAP2 , and StOPR1 , was also confirmed by degradome sequencing (PARE). Node shapes represent classes of sRNAs (triangle—miRNA; diamond—phasiRNA) or transcripts (circle). Node colors indicate components related to different hormone signaling pathways: green—jasmonic acid (JA); blue—auxin (AUX); magenta—brassinosteroid (BR); red—ethylene (ET). Arrows connect sRNAs and targets (blunt-end arrow) or PHAS loci and producing phasiRNAs (regular arrow). Node stu-miR393 represents miR393-5p and miR393-5p.1 and node StAFB1 represents StAFB1.1, StAFB1.2, and StAFB1.3. For details of the target transcripts/genes see Table S2 . StTIR1—Transport inhibitor response 1, StLOX1—Lipoxygenase 1, StERF2a—Ethylene responsive transcription factor 2a, StSAUR45—Small auxin upregulated RNA 45, StAP2 —APETALA2, StOPR1 −12-oxophytodienoate (OPDA) reductase, StDWF4—Dwarf4, StARF1—Auxin response factor 1, StEIN4—Ethylene insensitive 4, StACD1−1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase 1, StAFB1/2/3/5—Auxin F-box 1/2/3/5.
Figure Legend Snippet: miR393-mediated cleavage of StTIR1 leads to production of phasiTIRs that are predicted to target diverse phytohormone signaling components. Targets of phasiTIRs were predicted in silico , cleavage of two of them, StAP2 , and StOPR1 , was also confirmed by degradome sequencing (PARE). Node shapes represent classes of sRNAs (triangle—miRNA; diamond—phasiRNA) or transcripts (circle). Node colors indicate components related to different hormone signaling pathways: green—jasmonic acid (JA); blue—auxin (AUX); magenta—brassinosteroid (BR); red—ethylene (ET). Arrows connect sRNAs and targets (blunt-end arrow) or PHAS loci and producing phasiRNAs (regular arrow). Node stu-miR393 represents miR393-5p and miR393-5p.1 and node StAFB1 represents StAFB1.1, StAFB1.2, and StAFB1.3. For details of the target transcripts/genes see Table S2 . StTIR1—Transport inhibitor response 1, StLOX1—Lipoxygenase 1, StERF2a—Ethylene responsive transcription factor 2a, StSAUR45—Small auxin upregulated RNA 45, StAP2 —APETALA2, StOPR1 −12-oxophytodienoate (OPDA) reductase, StDWF4—Dwarf4, StARF1—Auxin response factor 1, StEIN4—Ethylene insensitive 4, StACD1−1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase 1, StAFB1/2/3/5—Auxin F-box 1/2/3/5.

Techniques Used: In Silico, Sequencing

19) Product Images from "Upregulation of circulating microRNA-134 in adult-onset Still’s disease and its use as potential biomarker"

Article Title: Upregulation of circulating microRNA-134 in adult-onset Still’s disease and its use as potential biomarker

Journal: Scientific Reports

doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-04086-w

Increased microRNA-134 (miR-134) levels in patients with active adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD) is associated with disease activity and induced by Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) ligand stimulation. ( a ) The differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) in plasma from patients with AOSD and healthy controls (HC) identified using microarray analysis. Hierarchical clustering of miRNA profiles in AOSD patients group and HC group. Relative expression levels of miRNAs are depicted according to a color scale (red represents relative expression greater than the median expression level across all samples and green represents an expression level lower than the median). ( b ) Validation of miRNA microarray with quantitative reverse transcription PCR (QRT-PCR) for the two randomly selected differentially expressed miRNAs in AOSD patients. ( c ) A significant correlation between disease activity and miR-134 expression determined by QRT-PCR assay in AOSD patients. ( d ) Significant decreases in miR-134 expression levels paralleled the clinical remission in AOSD patients after 6 months of therapy. ( e ) Analysis of miR-134 expression in response to a panel of innate immunity Toll-like receptors (TLRs) ligands stimulation. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with AOSD were treated with the indicated stimuli for 24 h. MiR-134 expression was analyzed by QRT-PCR and normalized using Rnu6 levels. (f) Kinetics of TLR3 ligand induction of miR-134.
Figure Legend Snippet: Increased microRNA-134 (miR-134) levels in patients with active adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD) is associated with disease activity and induced by Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) ligand stimulation. ( a ) The differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) in plasma from patients with AOSD and healthy controls (HC) identified using microarray analysis. Hierarchical clustering of miRNA profiles in AOSD patients group and HC group. Relative expression levels of miRNAs are depicted according to a color scale (red represents relative expression greater than the median expression level across all samples and green represents an expression level lower than the median). ( b ) Validation of miRNA microarray with quantitative reverse transcription PCR (QRT-PCR) for the two randomly selected differentially expressed miRNAs in AOSD patients. ( c ) A significant correlation between disease activity and miR-134 expression determined by QRT-PCR assay in AOSD patients. ( d ) Significant decreases in miR-134 expression levels paralleled the clinical remission in AOSD patients after 6 months of therapy. ( e ) Analysis of miR-134 expression in response to a panel of innate immunity Toll-like receptors (TLRs) ligands stimulation. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with AOSD were treated with the indicated stimuli for 24 h. MiR-134 expression was analyzed by QRT-PCR and normalized using Rnu6 levels. (f) Kinetics of TLR3 ligand induction of miR-134.

Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Microarray, Expressing, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Quantitative RT-PCR

20) Product Images from "Overexpression of LAMC1 predicts poor prognosis and enhances tumor cell invasion and migration in hepatocellular carcinoma"

Article Title: Overexpression of LAMC1 predicts poor prognosis and enhances tumor cell invasion and migration in hepatocellular carcinoma

Journal: Journal of Cancer

doi: 10.7150/jca.21038

LAMC 1 expression in different HCC cell lines. A. LAMC 1 protein expression in different HCC cell lines, as assessed by western blotting. B. LAMC 1 mRNA levels in different HCC cell lines, as assessed by qRT-PCR.
Figure Legend Snippet: LAMC 1 expression in different HCC cell lines. A. LAMC 1 protein expression in different HCC cell lines, as assessed by western blotting. B. LAMC 1 mRNA levels in different HCC cell lines, as assessed by qRT-PCR.

Techniques Used: Expressing, Western Blot, Quantitative RT-PCR

21) Product Images from "Cigarette Smoke Induces Metabolic Reprogramming of the Tumor Stroma in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma"

Article Title: Cigarette Smoke Induces Metabolic Reprogramming of the Tumor Stroma in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Journal: Molecular cancer research : MCR

doi: 10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-18-1191

CSE-exposed fibroblasts increase features of tumor aggressiveness. A-B, CAL27 and FaDu cells were co-cultured with CTRL- or CSE-BJ1 and apoptosis and cell death rates were assessed by flow cytometry and cell migration by a transwell assay. A, Quantification of quadrants Q1-Q3 (from panel C) corresponding to apoptotic and dead CAL27 and FaDu carcinoma cells (AnnV and/or PI positive). B, Contour plots of AnnV (X-axis) and PI (Y-axis) staining in CAL27 and FaDu cells co-cultured with fibroblasts. Dead cells are found in quadrant 1 (Q1), apoptotic cells in Q2+Q3, and live cells in Q4. C, Assessment of the migratory ability of CAL27 and FaDu carcinoma cells stimulated by CTRL- or CSE-BJ1. On the left, crystal violet (CV) staining of the cells that migrated through the pores of the membrane; on the right, quantification of the percentage area of the membrane stained by CV. D-F, Assessment of the effects of CSE-fibroblasts on immune cell migration. D, Quantification of CCL2 mRNA levels in WT and MCT4-KO MEF exposed to CTRL- or CSE-media. E, Transwell migration assay with CV staining of RAW 264.7 cells that migrated through the membrane in response to WT MEFs previously exposed to CTRL- or CSE-media. F, Flow cytometry plots and quantification of MCT4 staining intensity in RAW 264.7 exposed to CTRL- or CSE-media.
Figure Legend Snippet: CSE-exposed fibroblasts increase features of tumor aggressiveness. A-B, CAL27 and FaDu cells were co-cultured with CTRL- or CSE-BJ1 and apoptosis and cell death rates were assessed by flow cytometry and cell migration by a transwell assay. A, Quantification of quadrants Q1-Q3 (from panel C) corresponding to apoptotic and dead CAL27 and FaDu carcinoma cells (AnnV and/or PI positive). B, Contour plots of AnnV (X-axis) and PI (Y-axis) staining in CAL27 and FaDu cells co-cultured with fibroblasts. Dead cells are found in quadrant 1 (Q1), apoptotic cells in Q2+Q3, and live cells in Q4. C, Assessment of the migratory ability of CAL27 and FaDu carcinoma cells stimulated by CTRL- or CSE-BJ1. On the left, crystal violet (CV) staining of the cells that migrated through the pores of the membrane; on the right, quantification of the percentage area of the membrane stained by CV. D-F, Assessment of the effects of CSE-fibroblasts on immune cell migration. D, Quantification of CCL2 mRNA levels in WT and MCT4-KO MEF exposed to CTRL- or CSE-media. E, Transwell migration assay with CV staining of RAW 264.7 cells that migrated through the membrane in response to WT MEFs previously exposed to CTRL- or CSE-media. F, Flow cytometry plots and quantification of MCT4 staining intensity in RAW 264.7 exposed to CTRL- or CSE-media.

Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Flow Cytometry, Migration, Transwell Assay, Staining, Transwell Migration Assay

MCT4 expression in fibroblasts induced by CSE drives tumor growth. MTEC carcinoma cells were co-injected with unexposed or CSE-exposed WT and MCT4-KO MEFs into the flanks of C57BL/6 mice. A, Tumor volume (top) and weight (bottom) of harvested allografts generated from the co-injection of MTEC with control MEFs. B , Tumor volumes (top) and weights (bottom) of harvested allografts generated from the co-injection of MTEC with CSE-exposed MEFs.
Figure Legend Snippet: MCT4 expression in fibroblasts induced by CSE drives tumor growth. MTEC carcinoma cells were co-injected with unexposed or CSE-exposed WT and MCT4-KO MEFs into the flanks of C57BL/6 mice. A, Tumor volume (top) and weight (bottom) of harvested allografts generated from the co-injection of MTEC with control MEFs. B , Tumor volumes (top) and weights (bottom) of harvested allografts generated from the co-injection of MTEC with CSE-exposed MEFs.

Techniques Used: Expressing, Injection, Mouse Assay, Generated

Signaling through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) modulates expression of MCT4 in fibroblasts. BJ1 fibroblasts were cultured in CTRL- and CSE-media and treated with increasing concentrations of the AhR agonist L-kynurenine (L-KYN) or the antagonist α-naphthoflavone (α-NF). A, Western blot assessment of MCT4 and NF-κB expression in CTRL-BJ1 untreated or treated with 50 and 100 μM of L-KYN. B, Immunofluorescence staining of MCT4 (red) in CTRL-BJ1 untreated or treated with 100 μM L-KYN. Merged images show GFP-expressing BJ1 in green and nuclei stained with DAPI in blue. Scale bar: 50 μm. C, Western blot assessment of MCT4 and NF-κB expression in CTRL-BJ1 treated with 5 and 10 μM of α-NF or vehicle DMSO. D, Immunofluorescence staining of MCT4 (red) in CTRL-BJ1 treated with 10 μM α-NF or vehicle DMSO. Merged images show GFP-expressing BJ1 in green and nuclei stained with DAPI in blue. Scale Bar: 50 μm. E-F, Apoptosis and cell death percentages assessment of CTRL- and CSE-BJ1 treated with L-KYN (E) or α-NF (F). Apoptosis was detected by annexin V (AnnV) staining and cell death by propidium iodide (PI) staining by flow cytometry.
Figure Legend Snippet: Signaling through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) modulates expression of MCT4 in fibroblasts. BJ1 fibroblasts were cultured in CTRL- and CSE-media and treated with increasing concentrations of the AhR agonist L-kynurenine (L-KYN) or the antagonist α-naphthoflavone (α-NF). A, Western blot assessment of MCT4 and NF-κB expression in CTRL-BJ1 untreated or treated with 50 and 100 μM of L-KYN. B, Immunofluorescence staining of MCT4 (red) in CTRL-BJ1 untreated or treated with 100 μM L-KYN. Merged images show GFP-expressing BJ1 in green and nuclei stained with DAPI in blue. Scale bar: 50 μm. C, Western blot assessment of MCT4 and NF-κB expression in CTRL-BJ1 treated with 5 and 10 μM of α-NF or vehicle DMSO. D, Immunofluorescence staining of MCT4 (red) in CTRL-BJ1 treated with 10 μM α-NF or vehicle DMSO. Merged images show GFP-expressing BJ1 in green and nuclei stained with DAPI in blue. Scale Bar: 50 μm. E-F, Apoptosis and cell death percentages assessment of CTRL- and CSE-BJ1 treated with L-KYN (E) or α-NF (F). Apoptosis was detected by annexin V (AnnV) staining and cell death by propidium iodide (PI) staining by flow cytometry.

Techniques Used: Expressing, Cell Culture, Western Blot, Immunofluorescence, Staining, Flow Cytometry

Cigarette Smoke induces senescence and a metabolic switch towards glycolysis in fibroblasts. BJ1 fibroblasts were cultured in standard or cigarette smoke extract (CSE) media (CTRL-BJ1 and CSE-BJ1, respectively) for 6 days, refreshing the media every 2 days. A, Visual assessment of fibroblast density and morphology under the miscroscope at 10X. B, Analysis of the proliferation marker p-RB by western blot. C-D, Analysis of the markers of senescence β-gal and HMGB1 by immunofluorescence (C) and western blot (D). E-F, Analysis of the marker of glycolysis MCT4 by immunofluorescence (E) and western blot (F). In all immunofluorescence staining, β-gal, HMGB1 and MCT4 are shown in red, and nuclei are shown in blue (DAPI). DAPI channel intensity was removed in HMGB1 zoom-ins to appreciate nuclear staining. Confocal microscopy images were acquired at the 40X magnification, with additional 2x zoom for HMGB1 and MCT4. Scale bar: 50 μm (β-gal) or 20 μm (HMGB1 and MCT4). G, Assessment of lactate levels in media of CTRL- and CSE-BJ1 by colorimetric assay. H, Assessment of intracellular ROS levels of CTRL- and CSE-BJ1 by flow cytometry.
Figure Legend Snippet: Cigarette Smoke induces senescence and a metabolic switch towards glycolysis in fibroblasts. BJ1 fibroblasts were cultured in standard or cigarette smoke extract (CSE) media (CTRL-BJ1 and CSE-BJ1, respectively) for 6 days, refreshing the media every 2 days. A, Visual assessment of fibroblast density and morphology under the miscroscope at 10X. B, Analysis of the proliferation marker p-RB by western blot. C-D, Analysis of the markers of senescence β-gal and HMGB1 by immunofluorescence (C) and western blot (D). E-F, Analysis of the marker of glycolysis MCT4 by immunofluorescence (E) and western blot (F). In all immunofluorescence staining, β-gal, HMGB1 and MCT4 are shown in red, and nuclei are shown in blue (DAPI). DAPI channel intensity was removed in HMGB1 zoom-ins to appreciate nuclear staining. Confocal microscopy images were acquired at the 40X magnification, with additional 2x zoom for HMGB1 and MCT4. Scale bar: 50 μm (β-gal) or 20 μm (HMGB1 and MCT4). G, Assessment of lactate levels in media of CTRL- and CSE-BJ1 by colorimetric assay. H, Assessment of intracellular ROS levels of CTRL- and CSE-BJ1 by flow cytometry.

Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Marker, Western Blot, Immunofluorescence, Staining, Confocal Microscopy, Colorimetric Assay, Flow Cytometry

CSE-fibroblasts induce markers of mitochondrial metabolism on carcinoma cells. A-D, CAL27 and FaDu cells were co-cultured with CTRL- or CSE-BJ1 and cancer cell MCT1 and TOMM20, and fibroblast MCT4 expression was assessed by flow cytometry. A, Flow cytometry plots and quantification of MCT1 (top) and TOMM20 (bottom) staining intensity in CAL27 co-cultures. B, Flow cytometry plots and quantification of percentage of cells expressing MCT1 (top) and TOMM20 (bottom) in FaDu co-cultures. C-D, MCT4 expression in CTRL- and CSE-BJ1 after 4 days in co-culture with CAL27 (C) and FaDu (D) cells. E-F, MTEC cells were co-cultured with WT MEF previously exposed to CTRL or CSE media, and cancer cell MCT1 and fibroblast MCT4 expression were assessed by flow cytometry. E, Flow cytometry plots and quantification of MCT1 staining intensity in MTEC cells. F, Flow cytometry plots and quantification of MCT4 staining intensity in WT MEFs 4 days post-CTRL or CSE treatment. For all markers, staining intensity was gated into APC- and APC+ or PE- and PE+ based on the signal into the APC and PE channels, respectively, emitted by the unstained control. Only APC+ and PE+ populations were used for quantification.
Figure Legend Snippet: CSE-fibroblasts induce markers of mitochondrial metabolism on carcinoma cells. A-D, CAL27 and FaDu cells were co-cultured with CTRL- or CSE-BJ1 and cancer cell MCT1 and TOMM20, and fibroblast MCT4 expression was assessed by flow cytometry. A, Flow cytometry plots and quantification of MCT1 (top) and TOMM20 (bottom) staining intensity in CAL27 co-cultures. B, Flow cytometry plots and quantification of percentage of cells expressing MCT1 (top) and TOMM20 (bottom) in FaDu co-cultures. C-D, MCT4 expression in CTRL- and CSE-BJ1 after 4 days in co-culture with CAL27 (C) and FaDu (D) cells. E-F, MTEC cells were co-cultured with WT MEF previously exposed to CTRL or CSE media, and cancer cell MCT1 and fibroblast MCT4 expression were assessed by flow cytometry. E, Flow cytometry plots and quantification of MCT1 staining intensity in MTEC cells. F, Flow cytometry plots and quantification of MCT4 staining intensity in WT MEFs 4 days post-CTRL or CSE treatment. For all markers, staining intensity was gated into APC- and APC+ or PE- and PE+ based on the signal into the APC and PE channels, respectively, emitted by the unstained control. Only APC+ and PE+ populations were used for quantification.

Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Expressing, Flow Cytometry, Staining, Co-Culture Assay

CSE-exposure in fibroblasts promote tumor growth and inflammation. CAL27 and FaDu cells were co-injected with CTRL- and CSE-BJ1 into the flanks of immunocompromised nude mice A , Images of harvested tumor xenografts for gross volume comparison. B-C , Volumes of harvested tumor xenografts generated from CAL27 (B) and FaDu (C) and fibroblast co-injections. D-E, Apoptosis rates were measured by staining (D) and quantification (E) of TUNEL in CAL27 and FaDu tumor xenografts. F-G , IHC assessment of the pan-lymphocyte marker, CD45, and macrophage marker, CD68, on CAL27 tumor samples. Representative areas of CD45 and CD68 infiltration (F) and quantification of percentage of stained area (G) in CAL27 xenografts.
Figure Legend Snippet: CSE-exposure in fibroblasts promote tumor growth and inflammation. CAL27 and FaDu cells were co-injected with CTRL- and CSE-BJ1 into the flanks of immunocompromised nude mice A , Images of harvested tumor xenografts for gross volume comparison. B-C , Volumes of harvested tumor xenografts generated from CAL27 (B) and FaDu (C) and fibroblast co-injections. D-E, Apoptosis rates were measured by staining (D) and quantification (E) of TUNEL in CAL27 and FaDu tumor xenografts. F-G , IHC assessment of the pan-lymphocyte marker, CD45, and macrophage marker, CD68, on CAL27 tumor samples. Representative areas of CD45 and CD68 infiltration (F) and quantification of percentage of stained area (G) in CAL27 xenografts.

Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay, Generated, Staining, TUNEL Assay, Immunohistochemistry, Marker

The antioxidant glutathione abrogates the effects of CSE. Fibroblasts were cultured in CTRL- or CSE-media and treated with 30 μg/ml of liposomal glutathione (GSH). A, Crystal violet (CV) staining of CTRL- and CSE-BJ1 untreated or treated with GSH. B-C, Assessment of intracellular ROS levels in (B), MCT4 expression (C), and secreted lactate levels (D) in BJ1 fibroblasts, by flow cytometry. E, Assessment of cell viability in WT and MCT4-KO MEF exposed to CSE in the presence or absence of GSH. Left, flow cytometry contour plots of representative samples. AnnV staining intensity is represented in the X-axis and PI staining on the Y-axis. Dead cells are found in quadrant 1 (Q1), apoptotic cells in Q2+Q3, and live cells in Q4. Right, quantification of quadrants Q1-Q3 corresponding to apoptotic and dead cells (AnnV and/or PI positive).
Figure Legend Snippet: The antioxidant glutathione abrogates the effects of CSE. Fibroblasts were cultured in CTRL- or CSE-media and treated with 30 μg/ml of liposomal glutathione (GSH). A, Crystal violet (CV) staining of CTRL- and CSE-BJ1 untreated or treated with GSH. B-C, Assessment of intracellular ROS levels in (B), MCT4 expression (C), and secreted lactate levels (D) in BJ1 fibroblasts, by flow cytometry. E, Assessment of cell viability in WT and MCT4-KO MEF exposed to CSE in the presence or absence of GSH. Left, flow cytometry contour plots of representative samples. AnnV staining intensity is represented in the X-axis and PI staining on the Y-axis. Dead cells are found in quadrant 1 (Q1), apoptotic cells in Q2+Q3, and live cells in Q4. Right, quantification of quadrants Q1-Q3 corresponding to apoptotic and dead cells (AnnV and/or PI positive).

Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Staining, Expressing, Flow Cytometry

22) Product Images from "Association of miR-196a-2 and miR-499 variants with ulcerative colitis and their correlation with expression of respective miRNAs"

Article Title: Association of miR-196a-2 and miR-499 variants with ulcerative colitis and their correlation with expression of respective miRNAs

Journal: PLoS ONE

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0173447

Comparison of hsa-miR-499 expression at genotype level between controls and patients. Total RNA was isolated from colon biopsy samples from healthy subjects and UC patients that were reverse transcribed to cDNA using specific primers. Data were derived from quantitative real-time PCR. Normalization of samples was performed with the small nuclear U6 snRNA. Sample size was 4–12 in each category. Box plots present median ± 25th and 75th percentiles (solid box) with the lowest and highest percentiles shown by whiskers outside the box. The Ct values were subtracted from 20, so that higher values represent higher mRNA expression levels. * represent p ≤ 0.05, *** represent p ≤ 0.001.
Figure Legend Snippet: Comparison of hsa-miR-499 expression at genotype level between controls and patients. Total RNA was isolated from colon biopsy samples from healthy subjects and UC patients that were reverse transcribed to cDNA using specific primers. Data were derived from quantitative real-time PCR. Normalization of samples was performed with the small nuclear U6 snRNA. Sample size was 4–12 in each category. Box plots present median ± 25th and 75th percentiles (solid box) with the lowest and highest percentiles shown by whiskers outside the box. The Ct values were subtracted from 20, so that higher values represent higher mRNA expression levels. * represent p ≤ 0.05, *** represent p ≤ 0.001.

Techniques Used: Expressing, Isolation, Derivative Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

Comparison of hsa-miR196a-2 expression at genotype level between controls and patients. Total RNA was isolated from colon biopsy samples from healthy subjects and UC patients and reverse transcribed to cDNA using specific primers. Data were derived from quantitative real-time PCR. Normalization of samples was performed with the U6 snRNA. Sample size was 8–12 samples in homozygous CC and heterozygous CT in each category. For homozygous mutant n = 4 for UC. Box plots present median ± 25th and 75th percentiles (solid box) with the lowest and highest percentiles shown by whiskers outside the box. The Ct values were subtracted from 20, so higher values represented higher mRNA expression levels. Significance values are represented as * p ≤ 0.05, *** p ≤ 0.001.
Figure Legend Snippet: Comparison of hsa-miR196a-2 expression at genotype level between controls and patients. Total RNA was isolated from colon biopsy samples from healthy subjects and UC patients and reverse transcribed to cDNA using specific primers. Data were derived from quantitative real-time PCR. Normalization of samples was performed with the U6 snRNA. Sample size was 8–12 samples in homozygous CC and heterozygous CT in each category. For homozygous mutant n = 4 for UC. Box plots present median ± 25th and 75th percentiles (solid box) with the lowest and highest percentiles shown by whiskers outside the box. The Ct values were subtracted from 20, so higher values represented higher mRNA expression levels. Significance values are represented as * p ≤ 0.05, *** p ≤ 0.001.

Techniques Used: Expressing, Isolation, Derivative Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Mutagenesis

Relative expression of miRNA in UC patients (n = 28) and control subjects (n = 19). Total RNA was isolated from colon biopsy samples from healthy subjects and UC patients and reverse transcribed to cDNA using specific primers. Data derived from quantitative real-time PCR. Normalization of samples was performed with the small nuclear U6 snRNA. Box plots present median ± 25th and 75th percentiles (solid box) with the lowest and highest percentiles shown by whiskers outside the box. The Ct values were subtracted from 20, so that higher values represented higher mRNA expression levels. * represent p ≤ 0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Relative expression of miRNA in UC patients (n = 28) and control subjects (n = 19). Total RNA was isolated from colon biopsy samples from healthy subjects and UC patients and reverse transcribed to cDNA using specific primers. Data derived from quantitative real-time PCR. Normalization of samples was performed with the small nuclear U6 snRNA. Box plots present median ± 25th and 75th percentiles (solid box) with the lowest and highest percentiles shown by whiskers outside the box. The Ct values were subtracted from 20, so that higher values represented higher mRNA expression levels. * represent p ≤ 0.05.

Techniques Used: Expressing, Isolation, Derivative Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

23) Product Images from "Two new Lophoturus species ( Diplopoda, Polyxenida, Lophoproctidae) from Queensland, Australia"

Article Title: Two new Lophoturus species ( Diplopoda, Polyxenida, Lophoproctidae) from Queensland, Australia

Journal: ZooKeys

doi: 10.3897/zookeys.741.21814

Holotype of Lophoturus molloyensis sp. n. A The arrangement of sensilla on the 7 th antennal article: A conical sensillum ( c ), a long thick sensillum located posteriorly ( Tp ) and a short thick sensillum located anteriorly ( Ta ) with a setiform sensillum ( s ) located between these sensilla B Sensilla on the 6 th antennal article: a conical sensillum ( c ), a medium length thick sensillum located posteriorly ( Tp ) and a long thick sensillum located intermediately ( Ti ) followed the short thick sensillum ( Ta ) C The left antenna with eight articles and the arrangement of sensilla on the 6 th and 7 th articles.
Figure Legend Snippet: Holotype of Lophoturus molloyensis sp. n. A The arrangement of sensilla on the 7 th antennal article: A conical sensillum ( c ), a long thick sensillum located posteriorly ( Tp ) and a short thick sensillum located anteriorly ( Ta ) with a setiform sensillum ( s ) located between these sensilla B Sensilla on the 6 th antennal article: a conical sensillum ( c ), a medium length thick sensillum located posteriorly ( Tp ) and a long thick sensillum located intermediately ( Ti ) followed the short thick sensillum ( Ta ) C The left antenna with eight articles and the arrangement of sensilla on the 6 th and 7 th articles.

Techniques Used:

Map of state of Queensland with a map of Australia, indicating type localities of Lophoturus queenslandicus Verhoeff, 1924 (⚪) and other two new Lophoturus species: L. boondallus sp. n. found in Boondall (★), Brisbane and L. molloyensis sp. n found in Mount Molloy (⬛), Cairns region, Queensland, Australia. (Not in scale)
Figure Legend Snippet: Map of state of Queensland with a map of Australia, indicating type localities of Lophoturus queenslandicus Verhoeff, 1924 (⚪) and other two new Lophoturus species: L. boondallus sp. n. found in Boondall (★), Brisbane and L. molloyensis sp. n found in Mount Molloy (⬛), Cairns region, Queensland, Australia. (Not in scale)

Techniques Used:

SEM images of Lophoturus molloyensis sp. n. A A dorsal view of whole body showing the body trichome arrangements and the caudal bundle B A ventral view of whole body showing 13 pairs of legs C A head capsule displaying two posterior vertex trichome groups ( pv ), a collum ( col ) and tergite 2 ( T2 ) D The trichobothria: a, b and c , showing different sizes in trichobothrium sockets E Antennal articles 6 and 7 with their sensilla ( Ta : thick sensillum located anteriorly, Ti : intermediate thick sensillum, Tp : posterior thick sensillum, setiform sensillum ( s ) and a conical sensillum ( c ) F Mouth parts with setose labrum ( l ) with typical two linguiform processes ( lp ) and the gnathochilarium ( g ).
Figure Legend Snippet: SEM images of Lophoturus molloyensis sp. n. A A dorsal view of whole body showing the body trichome arrangements and the caudal bundle B A ventral view of whole body showing 13 pairs of legs C A head capsule displaying two posterior vertex trichome groups ( pv ), a collum ( col ) and tergite 2 ( T2 ) D The trichobothria: a, b and c , showing different sizes in trichobothrium sockets E Antennal articles 6 and 7 with their sensilla ( Ta : thick sensillum located anteriorly, Ti : intermediate thick sensillum, Tp : posterior thick sensillum, setiform sensillum ( s ) and a conical sensillum ( c ) F Mouth parts with setose labrum ( l ) with typical two linguiform processes ( lp ) and the gnathochilarium ( g ).

Techniques Used:

Three Lophoturus species were found in state of Queensland, Australia. A L. queenslandicus Verhoeff, 1924 B L. boondallus sp. n. and C L. molloyensis sp. n. These Lophoturus species showed differences in body lengths and colour.
Figure Legend Snippet: Three Lophoturus species were found in state of Queensland, Australia. A L. queenslandicus Verhoeff, 1924 B L. boondallus sp. n. and C L. molloyensis sp. n. These Lophoturus species showed differences in body lengths and colour.

Techniques Used:

Holotype of Lophoturus molloyensis sp. n. A Head capsule, absence of ommatidia indicated, two posterior vertex trichome sockets ( pv ) and trichobothria a, b and c with the sockets only B the collum ( col ) and two lateral protuberances ( Lp ) C Tergite 2 ( t2 ) and D The last tergite 10 ( t10 ), showing the arrangement of trichome sockets F Trichobothria: a (the medium base socket located posteriorly) and b (the largest base socket located laterally) are typical thin sensory hairs, c with with a claviform funicle (the smallest base socket located anteriorly) G The male, right gnathochilarium showing numerous sensilla (ranged 56 – 58 sensilla in male) E Labrum showing a pair of linguiform processes ( lp ) and setose surface.
Figure Legend Snippet: Holotype of Lophoturus molloyensis sp. n. A Head capsule, absence of ommatidia indicated, two posterior vertex trichome sockets ( pv ) and trichobothria a, b and c with the sockets only B the collum ( col ) and two lateral protuberances ( Lp ) C Tergite 2 ( t2 ) and D The last tergite 10 ( t10 ), showing the arrangement of trichome sockets F Trichobothria: a (the medium base socket located posteriorly) and b (the largest base socket located laterally) are typical thin sensory hairs, c with with a claviform funicle (the smallest base socket located anteriorly) G The male, right gnathochilarium showing numerous sensilla (ranged 56 – 58 sensilla in male) E Labrum showing a pair of linguiform processes ( lp ) and setose surface.

Techniques Used:

Holotype of Lophoturus molloyensis sp. n. A The second right leg with a penis ( p ), seven leg segments ( c coxa, pf pre-femur, f femur, pof post-femur, ti tibia, T1 tarsus 1, T2 tarsus 2 and a spine), a claw and its chaetotaxy (setae on the leg segments) B A pubescent oval seta C A spine on tarsus 2 D A simple claw structure showing two latero-dorsal denticles ( ldd ), claw ( c ), a basal denticle ( bd ) and a small denticle ( smd ) E The ornamental trichome sockets, which located dorsally above the caudal bundle structure, with six trichomes a , one trichome b and two trichomes c ( c 1 and c 3).
Figure Legend Snippet: Holotype of Lophoturus molloyensis sp. n. A The second right leg with a penis ( p ), seven leg segments ( c coxa, pf pre-femur, f femur, pof post-femur, ti tibia, T1 tarsus 1, T2 tarsus 2 and a spine), a claw and its chaetotaxy (setae on the leg segments) B A pubescent oval seta C A spine on tarsus 2 D A simple claw structure showing two latero-dorsal denticles ( ldd ), claw ( c ), a basal denticle ( bd ) and a small denticle ( smd ) E The ornamental trichome sockets, which located dorsally above the caudal bundle structure, with six trichomes a , one trichome b and two trichomes c ( c 1 and c 3).

Techniques Used:

24) Product Images from "Adenosine Receptor Regulation of Coronary Blood Flow in Ossabaw Miniature Swine S⃞"

Article Title: Adenosine Receptor Regulation of Coronary Blood Flow in Ossabaw Miniature Swine S⃞

Journal: The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

doi: 10.1124/jpet.110.170803

AR mRNA expression in coronary microvessels in control and dyslipidemic pigs 3 weeks after stent deployment. Expression levels of A 1 , A 2A , A 2B , and A 3 mRNA in A, B, C, and D, respectively,
Figure Legend Snippet: AR mRNA expression in coronary microvessels in control and dyslipidemic pigs 3 weeks after stent deployment. Expression levels of A 1 , A 2A , A 2B , and A 3 mRNA in A, B, C, and D, respectively,

Techniques Used: Expressing

25) Product Images from "STAT3 is constitutively activated in chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection and can be a therapeutic target"

Article Title: STAT3 is constitutively activated in chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection and can be a therapeutic target

Journal: Oncotarget

doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.25780

Ruxolitinib suppresses the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in EBV-infected T- or NK-cells (A and B) EBV-infected T- or NK-cell lines were treated with ruxolitinib, as indicated, for 24 h. The RNA was extracted and subjected to quantitative PCR assays. (A) IFN-γ; (B) TNF-ɑ; (C and D) , the PBMCs from patients with CAEBV were treated with ruxolitinib, as indicated, for 24 h. The RNA was extracted and used for quantitative PCR assays. (C) IFN-γ; (D) TNF-ɑ.
Figure Legend Snippet: Ruxolitinib suppresses the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in EBV-infected T- or NK-cells (A and B) EBV-infected T- or NK-cell lines were treated with ruxolitinib, as indicated, for 24 h. The RNA was extracted and subjected to quantitative PCR assays. (A) IFN-γ; (B) TNF-ɑ; (C and D) , the PBMCs from patients with CAEBV were treated with ruxolitinib, as indicated, for 24 h. The RNA was extracted and used for quantitative PCR assays. (C) IFN-γ; (D) TNF-ɑ.

Techniques Used: Expressing, Infection, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

Ruxolitinib suppresses viable cell number of EBV-infected T or NK cells (A) EBV-infected T- or NK-cell lines were treated with ruxolitinib, as indicated, for 48 h, and the number of viable cells was estimated by an XTT assay and expressed in arbitrary units. The data are shown as mean±standard deviations (SD) of three independent experiments. (B) the PBMCs from 3 patients with CAEBV and 1 healthy donor were treated with ruxolitinib, as indicated, in the presence of IL-2 for 72 h, and the viable cell number was estimated by an XTT assay and expressed in arbitrary units. The data are presented as mean±SD of three independent experiments. (C) EBV-infected T- or NK-cell lines were treated with ruxolitinib for 48 h, as indicated, and then analyzed. Cells were stained with Annexin V and PI and subsequently analyzed by flow cytometry.
Figure Legend Snippet: Ruxolitinib suppresses viable cell number of EBV-infected T or NK cells (A) EBV-infected T- or NK-cell lines were treated with ruxolitinib, as indicated, for 48 h, and the number of viable cells was estimated by an XTT assay and expressed in arbitrary units. The data are shown as mean±standard deviations (SD) of three independent experiments. (B) the PBMCs from 3 patients with CAEBV and 1 healthy donor were treated with ruxolitinib, as indicated, in the presence of IL-2 for 72 h, and the viable cell number was estimated by an XTT assay and expressed in arbitrary units. The data are presented as mean±SD of three independent experiments. (C) EBV-infected T- or NK-cell lines were treated with ruxolitinib for 48 h, as indicated, and then analyzed. Cells were stained with Annexin V and PI and subsequently analyzed by flow cytometry.

Techniques Used: Infection, XTT Assay, Staining, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry

26) Product Images from "Enriched Bone Marrow Derived Disseminated Neuroblastoma Cells Can Be a Reliable Source for Gene Expression Studies—A Validation Study"

Article Title: Enriched Bone Marrow Derived Disseminated Neuroblastoma Cells Can Be a Reliable Source for Gene Expression Studies—A Validation Study

Journal: PLoS ONE

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0137995

Experimental design. (a) We spiked LAN-1 NB cells into fresh PB and kept the samples for 0, 24, 48 and 72h at room temperature and, for the same time periods, at 4°C prior to density gradient separation. The LAN-1 cells were enriched from the MNC fraction with magnetic beads to a 99% purity of the tumor cell fractions prior to homogenization in TRIzol. RNA was isolated from all seven samples simultaneously and used for the qPCR array. ( b) LAN-1 cells were spiked into PB and tumor-free BM, and density gradient separation was immediately performed. The MNCs were frozen in 20% DMSO for seven days at -80°C. After thawing, the LAN-1 cells were either directly enriched by magnetic bead-based separation, or an additional density gradient separation (*) was performed prior to magnetic bead-based separation. The samples were homogenized in TRIzol and the isolated RNA was used for qPCR (in case of PB) and microarrays (in case of BM). (c) LAN-1 cells were spiked into PB and density gradient separation of MNCs was performed without delay, following two enrichment steps in a row. The > 99% LAN-1 cell fractions were homogenized in TRIzol and RNA was isolated from all samples simultaneously. qPCR arrays were performed in order to analyze the effect of enrichment on selected genes.
Figure Legend Snippet: Experimental design. (a) We spiked LAN-1 NB cells into fresh PB and kept the samples for 0, 24, 48 and 72h at room temperature and, for the same time periods, at 4°C prior to density gradient separation. The LAN-1 cells were enriched from the MNC fraction with magnetic beads to a 99% purity of the tumor cell fractions prior to homogenization in TRIzol. RNA was isolated from all seven samples simultaneously and used for the qPCR array. ( b) LAN-1 cells were spiked into PB and tumor-free BM, and density gradient separation was immediately performed. The MNCs were frozen in 20% DMSO for seven days at -80°C. After thawing, the LAN-1 cells were either directly enriched by magnetic bead-based separation, or an additional density gradient separation (*) was performed prior to magnetic bead-based separation. The samples were homogenized in TRIzol and the isolated RNA was used for qPCR (in case of PB) and microarrays (in case of BM). (c) LAN-1 cells were spiked into PB and density gradient separation of MNCs was performed without delay, following two enrichment steps in a row. The > 99% LAN-1 cell fractions were homogenized in TRIzol and RNA was isolated from all samples simultaneously. qPCR arrays were performed in order to analyze the effect of enrichment on selected genes.

Techniques Used: Magnetic Beads, Homogenization, Isolation, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

27) Product Images from "MicroRNA-216b reduces growth, migration and invasion of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells by directly targeting ρ-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1"

Article Title: MicroRNA-216b reduces growth, migration and invasion of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells by directly targeting ρ-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1

Journal: Oncology Letters

doi: 10.3892/ol.2018.8109

ROCK1 was involved in miR-216b-induced functions in PDAC. (A) Western blot analysis was performed to detect the ROCK1 protein expression levels in Panc-1 and Sw1990 following transfection with ROCK1 siRNA or siRNA control. (B) Proliferation of Panc-1 and Sw1990 was significantly inhibited by ROCK1 siRNA. (C) Decreased migration and invasion abilities of Panc-1 and Sw1990 cells was observed with ROCK1 siRNA transfection (×200 magnification). *P
Figure Legend Snippet: ROCK1 was involved in miR-216b-induced functions in PDAC. (A) Western blot analysis was performed to detect the ROCK1 protein expression levels in Panc-1 and Sw1990 following transfection with ROCK1 siRNA or siRNA control. (B) Proliferation of Panc-1 and Sw1990 was significantly inhibited by ROCK1 siRNA. (C) Decreased migration and invasion abilities of Panc-1 and Sw1990 cells was observed with ROCK1 siRNA transfection (×200 magnification). *P

Techniques Used: Western Blot, Expressing, Transfection, Migration

miR-216b inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of PDAC cells. (A) miR-216b expression was evaluated in Panc-1 and Sw1990 cells following transfection with an miR-216b mimic. (B) The effect of miR-216b on the proliferation of PDAC cells was determined by a cell proliferation assay. Proliferation of Panc-1 and Sw1990 cells were significantly inhibited by transfection with an miR-216b mimic. (C) Decreased migration and invasion abilities of Panc-1 and Sw1990 cells were observed following miR-216b mimic transfection (×200 magnification). *P
Figure Legend Snippet: miR-216b inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of PDAC cells. (A) miR-216b expression was evaluated in Panc-1 and Sw1990 cells following transfection with an miR-216b mimic. (B) The effect of miR-216b on the proliferation of PDAC cells was determined by a cell proliferation assay. Proliferation of Panc-1 and Sw1990 cells were significantly inhibited by transfection with an miR-216b mimic. (C) Decreased migration and invasion abilities of Panc-1 and Sw1990 cells were observed following miR-216b mimic transfection (×200 magnification). *P

Techniques Used: Migration, Expressing, Transfection, Proliferation Assay

miR-216b directly targeted ROCK1. (A) Two predicted binding sites for miR-216b in the 3′UTR of ROCK1. (B) miR-216b significantly inhibited the pMIR-ROCK1-3′UTR site 1 Wt and site 2 Wt luciferase activity, but not the pMIR-ROCK1-3′UTR site 1 Mut and site 2 Mut luciferase activity in HEK293T cells. (C) Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the ROCK1 mRNA expression levels in Panc-1 and Sw1990 following transfection with miR-216b mimics or NC. (D) Western blot analysis was performed to detect the ROCK1 protein expression levels in Panc-1 and Sw1990 subsequent to transfection with miR-216b mimics or NC. *P
Figure Legend Snippet: miR-216b directly targeted ROCK1. (A) Two predicted binding sites for miR-216b in the 3′UTR of ROCK1. (B) miR-216b significantly inhibited the pMIR-ROCK1-3′UTR site 1 Wt and site 2 Wt luciferase activity, but not the pMIR-ROCK1-3′UTR site 1 Mut and site 2 Mut luciferase activity in HEK293T cells. (C) Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the ROCK1 mRNA expression levels in Panc-1 and Sw1990 following transfection with miR-216b mimics or NC. (D) Western blot analysis was performed to detect the ROCK1 protein expression levels in Panc-1 and Sw1990 subsequent to transfection with miR-216b mimics or NC. *P

Techniques Used: Binding Assay, Luciferase, Activity Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing, Transfection, Western Blot

28) Product Images from "Characterization of the fecal and mucosa-associated microbiota in dogs with colorectal epithelial tumors"

Article Title: Characterization of the fecal and mucosa-associated microbiota in dogs with colorectal epithelial tumors

Journal: PLoS ONE

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0198342

A scatterplot showing the ratio of live, potentially active bacteria (RNA/DNA) in tumor vs . non-tumor tissue.
Figure Legend Snippet: A scatterplot showing the ratio of live, potentially active bacteria (RNA/DNA) in tumor vs . non-tumor tissue.

Techniques Used:

29) Product Images from "MicroRNA expression profiles in human adipose-derived stem cells during chondrogenic differentiation"

Article Title: MicroRNA expression profiles in human adipose-derived stem cells during chondrogenic differentiation

Journal: International Journal of Molecular Medicine

doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2014.2051

Role of miR-490-5p in the chondrogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). (A) The expression of miR-490-5p was detected by northern blot analysis following the induction of chondrogenic differentiation on days 0, 6, 12 and 18. (B) Cell morphology was determined following transfection with miR-490-5p letivirus on days 12 and 18. (C) Comparison of the concentration of collagen, type II, alpha 1 (Col2A1), collagen, type X, alpha 1 (Col10A1) and aggrecan in hADSCs subjected to chondrogenic differentiation on days 12, 15 and 18 by ELISA.
Figure Legend Snippet: Role of miR-490-5p in the chondrogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). (A) The expression of miR-490-5p was detected by northern blot analysis following the induction of chondrogenic differentiation on days 0, 6, 12 and 18. (B) Cell morphology was determined following transfection with miR-490-5p letivirus on days 12 and 18. (C) Comparison of the concentration of collagen, type II, alpha 1 (Col2A1), collagen, type X, alpha 1 (Col10A1) and aggrecan in hADSCs subjected to chondrogenic differentiation on days 12, 15 and 18 by ELISA.

Techniques Used: Derivative Assay, Expressing, Northern Blot, Transfection, Concentration Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Functional role of bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2) in the chondrogenic differentation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). (A) hADSCs were infected with BMPR2 siRNA lentivirus and the expression of BMPR2 protein expression was detected following the induction of chondrogenic differentation on days 12, 15 and 18. (B) The expression level of collagen type II (ColII) was detected with immunohistochemical analysis on day 18 after the induction of chondrogenic differentation. (C) Cells were infected with BMPR2 siRNA lentivirus and the concentration of collagen, type II, alpha 1 (Col2A1), collagen, type X, alpha 1 (Col10A1) and aggrecan was detected following the induction of chondrogenic differentation on days 12, 15 and 18 by ELISA.
Figure Legend Snippet: Functional role of bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2) in the chondrogenic differentation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). (A) hADSCs were infected with BMPR2 siRNA lentivirus and the expression of BMPR2 protein expression was detected following the induction of chondrogenic differentation on days 12, 15 and 18. (B) The expression level of collagen type II (ColII) was detected with immunohistochemical analysis on day 18 after the induction of chondrogenic differentation. (C) Cells were infected with BMPR2 siRNA lentivirus and the concentration of collagen, type II, alpha 1 (Col2A1), collagen, type X, alpha 1 (Col10A1) and aggrecan was detected following the induction of chondrogenic differentation on days 12, 15 and 18 by ELISA.

Techniques Used: Functional Assay, Derivative Assay, Infection, Expressing, Immunohistochemistry, Concentration Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

30) Product Images from "Selection and Identification of Skeletal-Muscle-Targeted RNA Aptamers"

Article Title: Selection and Identification of Skeletal-Muscle-Targeted RNA Aptamers

Journal: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids

doi: 10.1016/j.omtn.2017.12.004

Internalization of A01B RNA Aptamer in Skeletal Muscle Cells .
Figure Legend Snippet: Internalization of A01B RNA Aptamer in Skeletal Muscle Cells .

Techniques Used:

Internalization and Subcellular Localization of A01B RNA Aptamer In Vivo (A) Representative confocal images of cross sections from the TA muscle of wild-type mice injected with A01B RNA aptamer (red), scramble A01B (red), or PBS (scale bar, 150 μm). Higher magnification imaging was captured for the areas indicated by white rectangles (scale bar, 75 μm). Nuclei were stained blue. Colocalization is indicated by white arrowheads. (B) Quantification of A01B RNA aptamer and scramble A01B levels in the skeletal muscle. Data were expressed as fold-difference in expression relative to PBS-injected samples (mean ± SD). *p
Figure Legend Snippet: Internalization and Subcellular Localization of A01B RNA Aptamer In Vivo (A) Representative confocal images of cross sections from the TA muscle of wild-type mice injected with A01B RNA aptamer (red), scramble A01B (red), or PBS (scale bar, 150 μm). Higher magnification imaging was captured for the areas indicated by white rectangles (scale bar, 75 μm). Nuclei were stained blue. Colocalization is indicated by white arrowheads. (B) Quantification of A01B RNA aptamer and scramble A01B levels in the skeletal muscle. Data were expressed as fold-difference in expression relative to PBS-injected samples (mean ± SD). *p

Techniques Used: In Vivo, Mouse Assay, Injection, Imaging, Staining, Expressing

31) Product Images from "High expression of TACC3 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma correlates with poor prognosis"

Article Title: High expression of TACC3 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma correlates with poor prognosis

Journal: Oncotarget

doi:

TACC3 expression is frequently upregulated in ESCC cell lines and esophageal tissue TACC3 protein and mRNA levels in a panel of ESCC cell lines including Eca-109, EC18, HKESC1, KYSE30, KYSE140, KYSE150, KYSE410, and KYSE510, compared as the immortalized normal human esophageal epithelial cell, NE3 (A, C) and in 28 pairs of matched ESCC and non-tumor tissues (B, D) . mRNA levels are presented as means ± SD and normalizing to the housekeeping gene β-actin in qRT-PCR. N, matched noncancerous tissue; T, tumor tissue; ESCC, esophageal squamous cell cancer.
Figure Legend Snippet: TACC3 expression is frequently upregulated in ESCC cell lines and esophageal tissue TACC3 protein and mRNA levels in a panel of ESCC cell lines including Eca-109, EC18, HKESC1, KYSE30, KYSE140, KYSE150, KYSE410, and KYSE510, compared as the immortalized normal human esophageal epithelial cell, NE3 (A, C) and in 28 pairs of matched ESCC and non-tumor tissues (B, D) . mRNA levels are presented as means ± SD and normalizing to the housekeeping gene β-actin in qRT-PCR. N, matched noncancerous tissue; T, tumor tissue; ESCC, esophageal squamous cell cancer.

Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR

32) Product Images from "Total RNA extraction from tissues for microRNA and target gene expression analysis: not all kits are created equal"

Article Title: Total RNA extraction from tissues for microRNA and target gene expression analysis: not all kits are created equal

Journal: BMC Biotechnology

doi: 10.1186/s12896-018-0421-6

Experimental design for comparing RNA isolation methods from mouse tissues. Brain, lung and liver tissues were dissected from C57BL/6 mice ( n = 3) and rapidly frozen. Tissues were homogenised and RNA extracted using five different methods and assessed for yield, purity, integrity and miRNA abundance. miRNA and target gene expression was then quantitated with qRT-PCR
Figure Legend Snippet: Experimental design for comparing RNA isolation methods from mouse tissues. Brain, lung and liver tissues were dissected from C57BL/6 mice ( n = 3) and rapidly frozen. Tissues were homogenised and RNA extracted using five different methods and assessed for yield, purity, integrity and miRNA abundance. miRNA and target gene expression was then quantitated with qRT-PCR

Techniques Used: Isolation, Mouse Assay, Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR

Quantitative real-time PCR analyses of 6 miRNAs comparing different RNA extraction methods. RNA was extracted from murine brain ( a ), liver ( b ) and lung ( c ) tissues using the five indicated methods and endogenous miRNA expression quantitated using TaqMan MicroRNA Assays via qRT-PCR. miRNA expression was normalised using sno202 as a reference gene. Values indicate the average normalised miRNA expression (technical duplicates from triplicate biological isolations) in different tissues on a Log2 scale with SEM error bars. * p
Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative real-time PCR analyses of 6 miRNAs comparing different RNA extraction methods. RNA was extracted from murine brain ( a ), liver ( b ) and lung ( c ) tissues using the five indicated methods and endogenous miRNA expression quantitated using TaqMan MicroRNA Assays via qRT-PCR. miRNA expression was normalised using sno202 as a reference gene. Values indicate the average normalised miRNA expression (technical duplicates from triplicate biological isolations) in different tissues on a Log2 scale with SEM error bars. * p

Techniques Used: Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, RNA Extraction, Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR

33) Product Images from "Low humidity environmental challenge causes barrier disruption and cornification of the mouse corneal epithelium in mice via a c-jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2) pathway"

Article Title: Low humidity environmental challenge causes barrier disruption and cornification of the mouse corneal epithelium in mice via a c-jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2) pathway

Journal: Experimental Eye Research

doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2011.11.022

Corneal epithelial permeability of the two strains of mice A. Representative digital images of corneas of C57BL/6 and JNK2KO mice, nonstressed (NS) and subjected to low humidity stress for 15 (LH15D) or 30 days (LH30D) which were used to generate Oregon green dextran-488 intensity levels shown in B .
Figure Legend Snippet: Corneal epithelial permeability of the two strains of mice A. Representative digital images of corneas of C57BL/6 and JNK2KO mice, nonstressed (NS) and subjected to low humidity stress for 15 (LH15D) or 30 days (LH30D) which were used to generate Oregon green dextran-488 intensity levels shown in B .

Techniques Used: Permeability, Mouse Assay

34) Product Images from "Functional analysis of Scr during embryonic and post-embryonic development in the cockroach, Periplaneta americana"

Article Title: Functional analysis of Scr during embryonic and post-embryonic development in the cockroach, Periplaneta americana

Journal: Developmental biology

doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2010.02.018

Adult RNAi Scr phenotypes of the prothoracic (T1) segment in Periplaneta americana . (A) Dorsal view of the prothoracic (T1) and mesothoracic (T2) segments of a wild type adult. The posterior margin of T1 has a rounded, smooth morphology while T2 exhibits
Figure Legend Snippet: Adult RNAi Scr phenotypes of the prothoracic (T1) segment in Periplaneta americana . (A) Dorsal view of the prothoracic (T1) and mesothoracic (T2) segments of a wild type adult. The posterior margin of T1 has a rounded, smooth morphology while T2 exhibits

Techniques Used:

Embryonic expression patterns of Scr in Periplaneta americana . (A) At ≈10% development, Scr mRNA is broadly expressed in the mid-posterior region with two strong bands that correspond to the future Lb/T1 region. (B) At ≈20% development,
Figure Legend Snippet: Embryonic expression patterns of Scr in Periplaneta americana . (A) At ≈10% development, Scr mRNA is broadly expressed in the mid-posterior region with two strong bands that correspond to the future Lb/T1 region. (B) At ≈20% development,

Techniques Used: Expressing

Embryonic RNAi Scr phenotypes in the labial palps and T1 legs of Periplaneta . (A–C) Wild type and RNAi Scr labial phenotypes. (A) Wild type labium of first nymph. The articulated labial palps are composed of three sub-segments: S1 (proximal), S2
Figure Legend Snippet: Embryonic RNAi Scr phenotypes in the labial palps and T1 legs of Periplaneta . (A–C) Wild type and RNAi Scr labial phenotypes. (A) Wild type labium of first nymph. The articulated labial palps are composed of three sub-segments: S1 (proximal), S2

Techniques Used:

Dorsal ridge phenotypes of RNAi Scr Periplaneta americana first nymphs. (A) Wild type first nymph showing the characteristically large pronotum that conceals most of the head. (A1) Ventral view of the head and thoracic boundary. (B) Lateral view of wild
Figure Legend Snippet: Dorsal ridge phenotypes of RNAi Scr Periplaneta americana first nymphs. (A) Wild type first nymph showing the characteristically large pronotum that conceals most of the head. (A1) Ventral view of the head and thoracic boundary. (B) Lateral view of wild

Techniques Used:

Engrailed ( en ) mRNA accumulation in wild type and RNAi Scr Periplaneta americana embryos. (A) Wild type embryo showing a combined Mx/Lb stripe of engrailed expression that circumvents the embryo. (A1) Close up of the embryo shown in (A). Green arrowhead
Figure Legend Snippet: Engrailed ( en ) mRNA accumulation in wild type and RNAi Scr Periplaneta americana embryos. (A) Wild type embryo showing a combined Mx/Lb stripe of engrailed expression that circumvents the embryo. (A1) Close up of the embryo shown in (A). Green arrowhead

Techniques Used: Expressing

Morphology of Periplaneta wild type and RNAi Scr seventh instars. (A–B2) Wild type. (C–D1) RNAi Scr . (A) Wild type seventh nymph pronotum (T1) and mesonotum (T2). Note the large wing pads (arrows) on the lateral margins of T2 making this
Figure Legend Snippet: Morphology of Periplaneta wild type and RNAi Scr seventh instars. (A–B2) Wild type. (C–D1) RNAi Scr . (A) Wild type seventh nymph pronotum (T1) and mesonotum (T2). Note the large wing pads (arrows) on the lateral margins of T2 making this

Techniques Used:

Comparison of the labial appendages and the thoracic legs of wild type and RNAi Scr Periplaneta americana adults. (A) Dissected head of a wild type adult. (B) Dissected head of an RNAi Scr adult. Note that the labial appendages are unaffected and appear
Figure Legend Snippet: Comparison of the labial appendages and the thoracic legs of wild type and RNAi Scr Periplaneta americana adults. (A) Dissected head of a wild type adult. (B) Dissected head of an RNAi Scr adult. Note that the labial appendages are unaffected and appear

Techniques Used:

35) Product Images from "Short-term single treatment of chemotherapy results in the enrichment of ovarian cancer stem cell-like cells leading to an increased tumor burden"

Article Title: Short-term single treatment of chemotherapy results in the enrichment of ovarian cancer stem cell-like cells leading to an increased tumor burden

Journal: Molecular Cancer

doi: 10.1186/1476-4598-12-24

mRNA expression of EpCAM, Nanog, CD44, CD117 and Oct4 in HEY cell line in response to chemotherapy treatments (cisplatin, paclitaxel and combination). Cells were treated with or without chemotherapy, RNA was extracted, cDNA was prepared and qPCR was performed as described in the Materials and methods section. The resultant mRNA levels were normalized to 18S mRNA. The experiments were performed using four independent HEY samples in triplicate. Significant intergroup variations are indicated by *P
Figure Legend Snippet: mRNA expression of EpCAM, Nanog, CD44, CD117 and Oct4 in HEY cell line in response to chemotherapy treatments (cisplatin, paclitaxel and combination). Cells were treated with or without chemotherapy, RNA was extracted, cDNA was prepared and qPCR was performed as described in the Materials and methods section. The resultant mRNA levels were normalized to 18S mRNA. The experiments were performed using four independent HEY samples in triplicate. Significant intergroup variations are indicated by *P

Techniques Used: Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

36) Product Images from "Decreased expression of long non-coding RNA LOC728290 in human hepatocellular carcinoma"

Article Title: Decreased expression of long non-coding RNA LOC728290 in human hepatocellular carcinoma

Journal: Oncology Letters

doi: 10.3892/ol.2017.6776

Kaplan-Meier estimator curves for recurrence-free survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma with low or high expression of LOC728290.
Figure Legend Snippet: Kaplan-Meier estimator curves for recurrence-free survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma with low or high expression of LOC728290.

Techniques Used: Expressing

Long non-coding RNA LOC728290 expression is associated with serum AFP levels and microvascular invasion. (A) Comparison of the relative levels of LOC728290 between serum AFP levels
Figure Legend Snippet: Long non-coding RNA LOC728290 expression is associated with serum AFP levels and microvascular invasion. (A) Comparison of the relative levels of LOC728290 between serum AFP levels

Techniques Used: Expressing

Relative expression of long non-coding RNA LOC728290 in patients with HCC. (A) Lower relative LOC728290 levels were exhibited in HCC tissues compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues from patients. (B) LOC728290 expression was classified into two groups: Positive values indicate higher LOC728290 expression in tumor tissue compared with non-tumor tissue; negative values indicate lower LOC728290 expression in tumor tissue. (C) The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.728, distinguishing HCC from adjacent normal tissues. *P
Figure Legend Snippet: Relative expression of long non-coding RNA LOC728290 in patients with HCC. (A) Lower relative LOC728290 levels were exhibited in HCC tissues compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues from patients. (B) LOC728290 expression was classified into two groups: Positive values indicate higher LOC728290 expression in tumor tissue compared with non-tumor tissue; negative values indicate lower LOC728290 expression in tumor tissue. (C) The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.728, distinguishing HCC from adjacent normal tissues. *P

Techniques Used: Expressing

37) Product Images from "Regulation of pancreatic stellate cell activation by Notch3"

Article Title: Regulation of pancreatic stellate cell activation by Notch3

Journal: BMC Cancer

doi: 10.1186/s12885-017-3957-2

Effect of Notch3 siRNA on migration and proliferation of mouse PaSCs. a Representative microscopic images showing the effect of Notch3 siRNA on the migration of mouse PaSCs; the semi-quantitative image analysis is also presented ( n = 4). b Cell growth curve showing that transfection of mouse PaSCs with Notch3 siRNA significantly reduced PaSC proliferation compared to negative control siRNA. Scale bars: 100 μm in ( a ). The data are presented as the mean ± SD, **P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of Notch3 siRNA on migration and proliferation of mouse PaSCs. a Representative microscopic images showing the effect of Notch3 siRNA on the migration of mouse PaSCs; the semi-quantitative image analysis is also presented ( n = 4). b Cell growth curve showing that transfection of mouse PaSCs with Notch3 siRNA significantly reduced PaSC proliferation compared to negative control siRNA. Scale bars: 100 μm in ( a ). The data are presented as the mean ± SD, **P

Techniques Used: Migration, Transfection, Negative Control

Notch3 siRNA-mediated effects of PaSCs on migration and proliferation of LTPA cells. a The number of migratory LTPA cells after incubation with conditioned medium obtained from PaSCs transfected with Notch3 siRNA was significantly reduced compared with that of the negative control cells; the semi-quantitative image analysis is also shown (n = 4). b LTPA cell growth curves after incubation with conditioned medium obtained from PaSCs transfected with Notch3 siRNA showing significantly reduced LTPA proliferation compared to that of negative control cells. Scale bars: 100 μm in ( a ). The data are presented as the mean ± SD. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Notch3 siRNA-mediated effects of PaSCs on migration and proliferation of LTPA cells. a The number of migratory LTPA cells after incubation with conditioned medium obtained from PaSCs transfected with Notch3 siRNA was significantly reduced compared with that of the negative control cells; the semi-quantitative image analysis is also shown (n = 4). b LTPA cell growth curves after incubation with conditioned medium obtained from PaSCs transfected with Notch3 siRNA showing significantly reduced LTPA proliferation compared to that of negative control cells. Scale bars: 100 μm in ( a ). The data are presented as the mean ± SD. ** P

Techniques Used: Migration, Incubation, Transfection, Negative Control

Effect of siRNA-mediated Notch3 inhibition on mouse PaSC activation. a Transfection of Notch 3 siRNA in mouse PaSCs activation after 48 h, the morphological changes in PaSCs. b Representative western blotting images showing the effect of siRNA-mediated Notch3 inhibition on PaSC activation markers, such as α-SMA, fibronectin and collagen I, and on the Notch target gene HES1; densitometry analyses of the blots are also shown. c RT-qPCR results showing the effect of siRNA-mediated Notch3 inhibition on PaSC activation markers, such as α-SMA, fibronectin and collagen I, and on the Notch target gene HES1 at the transcriptional level. Scale bars: 100 μm in ( a ). The data are presented as the mean ± SD, *P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of siRNA-mediated Notch3 inhibition on mouse PaSC activation. a Transfection of Notch 3 siRNA in mouse PaSCs activation after 48 h, the morphological changes in PaSCs. b Representative western blotting images showing the effect of siRNA-mediated Notch3 inhibition on PaSC activation markers, such as α-SMA, fibronectin and collagen I, and on the Notch target gene HES1; densitometry analyses of the blots are also shown. c RT-qPCR results showing the effect of siRNA-mediated Notch3 inhibition on PaSC activation markers, such as α-SMA, fibronectin and collagen I, and on the Notch target gene HES1 at the transcriptional level. Scale bars: 100 μm in ( a ). The data are presented as the mean ± SD, *P

Techniques Used: Inhibition, Activation Assay, Transfection, Western Blot, Quantitative RT-PCR

38) Product Images from "Expression and significance of histone H3K27 demethylases in renal cell carcinoma"

Article Title: Expression and significance of histone H3K27 demethylases in renal cell carcinoma

Journal: BMC Cancer

doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-12-470

Real-time qRT-PCR analysis of the H3K27 demethylases UTX and JMJD3 , the H3K27 methyltransferase EZH2 and the CDK4/CDK6 inhibitor p16INK4a. Relative mRNA expression levels of UTX , JMJD3 and EZH2 were higher in RCC cancer tissues than in paired adjacent normal tissues (n = 36; all P
Figure Legend Snippet: Real-time qRT-PCR analysis of the H3K27 demethylases UTX and JMJD3 , the H3K27 methyltransferase EZH2 and the CDK4/CDK6 inhibitor p16INK4a. Relative mRNA expression levels of UTX , JMJD3 and EZH2 were higher in RCC cancer tissues than in paired adjacent normal tissues (n = 36; all P

Techniques Used: Quantitative RT-PCR, Expressing

39) Product Images from "Decreased expression of serum miR-647 is associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer"

Article Title: Decreased expression of serum miR-647 is associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer

Journal: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology

doi:

A. Serum miR-647 levels in GC patients were significantly lower than those in controls. B. Serum miR-647 levels in advanced stage GC patients were significantly lower than those in early stage GC.
Figure Legend Snippet: A. Serum miR-647 levels in GC patients were significantly lower than those in controls. B. Serum miR-647 levels in advanced stage GC patients were significantly lower than those in early stage GC.

Techniques Used:

Downregulation of miR-647 suppresses the expression levels of STX6, STX7 and PRKCA in gastric cancer cell lines.
Figure Legend Snippet: Downregulation of miR-647 suppresses the expression levels of STX6, STX7 and PRKCA in gastric cancer cell lines.

Techniques Used: Expressing

Serum miR-647 levels were significantly elevated after surgical treatment.
Figure Legend Snippet: Serum miR-647 levels were significantly elevated after surgical treatment.

Techniques Used:

40) Product Images from "IL-32 promoter SNP rs4786370 predisposes to modified lipoprotein profiles in patients with rheumatoid arthritis"

Article Title: IL-32 promoter SNP rs4786370 predisposes to modified lipoprotein profiles in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

Journal: Scientific Reports

doi: 10.1038/srep41629

The IL-32 promoter SNP. ( A ) Location of the IL32 promoter SNP within the IL32 region on chromosome 16. ( B ) Genotype frequencies of the IL32 rs4786370 promoter SNP in individuals from the NN cohort (NN; CC:19.2%, CT:45.7%, TT:35%), RA patients from the Radboudumc Nijmegen (RA1; CC:16.1%, CT:51%, TT:32.9%) and RA patients from the Reade clinic Amsterdam (RA2; CC:23%, CT:47.1%, TT:29.9%). Total number of patients per cohort; NN:#234, RA1:#292, RA2:#348. Chi-square analysis (IBM SPSS Statistics v.22) showed no significant differences in genotype distribution between the cohorts.
Figure Legend Snippet: The IL-32 promoter SNP. ( A ) Location of the IL32 promoter SNP within the IL32 region on chromosome 16. ( B ) Genotype frequencies of the IL32 rs4786370 promoter SNP in individuals from the NN cohort (NN; CC:19.2%, CT:45.7%, TT:35%), RA patients from the Radboudumc Nijmegen (RA1; CC:16.1%, CT:51%, TT:32.9%) and RA patients from the Reade clinic Amsterdam (RA2; CC:23%, CT:47.1%, TT:29.9%). Total number of patients per cohort; NN:#234, RA1:#292, RA2:#348. Chi-square analysis (IBM SPSS Statistics v.22) showed no significant differences in genotype distribution between the cohorts.

Techniques Used:

Related Articles

MTT Assay:

Article Title: Low dose dimethyl sulfoxide driven gross molecular changes have the potential to interfere with various cellular processes
Article Snippet: .. MTT assay To evaluate the effect of DMSO on cell viability, Vybrant® MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) Cell Proliferation Assay (Thermo Fisher Scientific) was used according to the manufacturer’s instructions. ..

Transfection:

Article Title: 25-Hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol inhibit human rotavirus infection by sequestering viral particles into late endosomes
Article Snippet: .. Briefly, extraction of total RNA from transfected or untransfected Caco2 cells was performed 72 h after transfection using TRIzol Reagent (Applied Biosystems, Monza, Italy). .. Concentration and purity of the extracted RNA were assessed by spectrophotometry (A260/A280).

Synthesized:

Article Title: MicroRNA-204 Is Necessary for Aldosterone-Stimulated T-Type Calcium Channel Expression in Cardiomyocytes
Article Snippet: .. MicroRNAs from cardiomyocytes and isolated mice hearts were extracted using mirVana miRNA Isolation Kit (Ambion, Thermo Fisher, Waltham, MA, USA) according to the manufacturer’s indications. cDNAs were synthesized with 10 ng of total miRNAs using the Taqman miRNA reverse transcription kit (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). .. Real-time quantitative PCR was performed with synthesized cDNA (0.89 ng of total RNA contents), Taqman small RNA assay and Taqman universal PCR Master MixII (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) in a final volume of 20 µL.

Mutagenesis:

Article Title: Tomato DCL2b is required for the biosynthesis of 22-nt small RNAs, the resulting secondary siRNAs, and the host defense against ToMV
Article Snippet: .. High-throughput sequencing of RNAs and sRNAs The total RNA samples were prepared from WT and DCL2b mutant adult leaves using TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen, USA). .. Paired-end mRNA libraries were generated using NEBNext® UltraTM RNA Library Prep Kit for Illumina® (NEB, USA) according to the manufacturer’s recommendations and were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 4000 platform; 150 bp reads were generated.

Isolation:

Article Title: KDELR2 Competes with Measles Virus Envelope Proteins for Cellular Chaperones Reducing Their Chaperone-Mediated Cell Surface Transport
Article Snippet: .. Isolated RNA was reverse transcribed in cDNA using the RevertAid first strand cDNA synthesis kit (Fermentas). ..

Article Title: Complement Receptor C5aR1 Inhibition Reduces Pyroptosis in hDPP4-Transgenic Mice Infected with MERS-CoV
Article Snippet: .. Isolation of RNA and Proteins THP-1 differentiated macrophages were lysed in TRIzol™ Reagent (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA) at 24 h post-infection with MERS-CoV. .. Total RNA and proteins were isolated according to the reagent user guide.

Article Title: Osteogenic differentiation of fibroblast-like synovial cells in rheumatoid arthritis is induced by microRNA-218 through a ROBO/Slit pathway
Article Snippet: .. RNA isolation and quantitative real-time PCR analysis A mir Vana miRNA Isolation kit was used for isolation of total RNA (Ambion/Applied Biosystems). .. Specific single TaqMan miRNA assays (Ambion/Applied Biosystems) were used to measure the expression levels of selected miRNA in a model light cycler 1.5 (Roche Diagnostics).

Article Title: MicroRNA-204 Is Necessary for Aldosterone-Stimulated T-Type Calcium Channel Expression in Cardiomyocytes
Article Snippet: .. MicroRNAs from cardiomyocytes and isolated mice hearts were extracted using mirVana miRNA Isolation Kit (Ambion, Thermo Fisher, Waltham, MA, USA) according to the manufacturer’s indications. cDNAs were synthesized with 10 ng of total miRNAs using the Taqman miRNA reverse transcription kit (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). .. Real-time quantitative PCR was performed with synthesized cDNA (0.89 ng of total RNA contents), Taqman small RNA assay and Taqman universal PCR Master MixII (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) in a final volume of 20 µL.

Cell Culture:

Article Title: Exosomal miR-21-5p derived from gastric cancer promotes peritoneal metastasis via mesothelial-to-mesenchymal transition
Article Snippet: .. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) Total RNA was extracted from tissues, cultured cells and exosomes using the TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. .. Then RNA was reverse transcribed into cDNA using PrimeScript RT Reagent (TaKaRa, Japan).

Mouse Assay:

Article Title: MicroRNA-204 Is Necessary for Aldosterone-Stimulated T-Type Calcium Channel Expression in Cardiomyocytes
Article Snippet: .. MicroRNAs from cardiomyocytes and isolated mice hearts were extracted using mirVana miRNA Isolation Kit (Ambion, Thermo Fisher, Waltham, MA, USA) according to the manufacturer’s indications. cDNAs were synthesized with 10 ng of total miRNAs using the Taqman miRNA reverse transcription kit (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). .. Real-time quantitative PCR was performed with synthesized cDNA (0.89 ng of total RNA contents), Taqman small RNA assay and Taqman universal PCR Master MixII (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) in a final volume of 20 µL.

Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction:

Article Title: Osteogenic differentiation of fibroblast-like synovial cells in rheumatoid arthritis is induced by microRNA-218 through a ROBO/Slit pathway
Article Snippet: .. RNA isolation and quantitative real-time PCR analysis A mir Vana miRNA Isolation kit was used for isolation of total RNA (Ambion/Applied Biosystems). .. Specific single TaqMan miRNA assays (Ambion/Applied Biosystems) were used to measure the expression levels of selected miRNA in a model light cycler 1.5 (Roche Diagnostics).

Article Title: Exosomal miR-21-5p derived from gastric cancer promotes peritoneal metastasis via mesothelial-to-mesenchymal transition
Article Snippet: .. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) Total RNA was extracted from tissues, cultured cells and exosomes using the TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. .. Then RNA was reverse transcribed into cDNA using PrimeScript RT Reagent (TaKaRa, Japan).

High Throughput Screening Assay:

Article Title: Tomato DCL2b is required for the biosynthesis of 22-nt small RNAs, the resulting secondary siRNAs, and the host defense against ToMV
Article Snippet: .. High-throughput sequencing of RNAs and sRNAs The total RNA samples were prepared from WT and DCL2b mutant adult leaves using TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen, USA). .. Paired-end mRNA libraries were generated using NEBNext® UltraTM RNA Library Prep Kit for Illumina® (NEB, USA) according to the manufacturer’s recommendations and were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 4000 platform; 150 bp reads were generated.

Proliferation Assay:

Article Title: Low dose dimethyl sulfoxide driven gross molecular changes have the potential to interfere with various cellular processes
Article Snippet: .. MTT assay To evaluate the effect of DMSO on cell viability, Vybrant® MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) Cell Proliferation Assay (Thermo Fisher Scientific) was used according to the manufacturer’s instructions. ..

Quantitative RT-PCR:

Article Title: Exosomal miR-21-5p derived from gastric cancer promotes peritoneal metastasis via mesothelial-to-mesenchymal transition
Article Snippet: .. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) Total RNA was extracted from tissues, cultured cells and exosomes using the TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. .. Then RNA was reverse transcribed into cDNA using PrimeScript RT Reagent (TaKaRa, Japan).

Sequencing:

Article Title: Tomato DCL2b is required for the biosynthesis of 22-nt small RNAs, the resulting secondary siRNAs, and the host defense against ToMV
Article Snippet: .. High-throughput sequencing of RNAs and sRNAs The total RNA samples were prepared from WT and DCL2b mutant adult leaves using TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen, USA). .. Paired-end mRNA libraries were generated using NEBNext® UltraTM RNA Library Prep Kit for Illumina® (NEB, USA) according to the manufacturer’s recommendations and were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 4000 platform; 150 bp reads were generated.

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  • 99
    Thermo Fisher nano drop 1000 spectrophotometer
    RNA extract from different numbers of worms. Results are presented as mean ± S.D. (n = 3). There is a linear relationship (y = 20.48x − 27.88, R 2 = 0.9976) between worm numbers and the yield of RNA extract. There is a correlation between the released RNA content after worm lysis measured by Qubit kit/fluorometer and RNA yield determined by <t>Nano-drop</t> 1000 Spectrophotometer after RNA extraction (Pearson correlation test: r = 0.9989, P
    Nano Drop 1000 Spectrophotometer, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 50 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/nano drop 1000 spectrophotometer/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 99 stars, based on 50 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    nano drop 1000 spectrophotometer - by Bioz Stars, 2020-05
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    99
    Thermo Fisher nanodrop spectrophotometer nd 1000
    Scatter diagrams showing the quantity and quality of DNA in blood and milk. DNA samples were obtained from 2 BLV-negative cattle in Farm 3, 43 BLV-infected cattle without lymphoma in Farms 2–6, and 3 BLV-infected cattle with lymphoma in Farm 1. A The average quantities of genomic DNA in blood and milk samples were 7.9 µg and 6.7 µg, respectively, as determined with a <t>NanoDrop</t> spectrophotometer <t>ND-1000.</t> B The average A260/A280 ratios of genomic DNA in blood and milk were 1.88 and 1.87, respectively, as determined using a NanoDrop spectrophotometer ND-1000. C The threshold cycle values of the blood and milk samples were 22.12 and 22.37, respectively, as indicated with the red bold lines.
    Nanodrop Spectrophotometer Nd 1000, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 466 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/nanodrop spectrophotometer nd 1000/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 99 stars, based on 466 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    nanodrop spectrophotometer nd 1000 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-05
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    85
    Thermo Fisher nano drop kit
    Scatter diagrams showing the quantity and quality of DNA in blood and milk. DNA samples were obtained from 2 BLV-negative cattle in Farm 3, 43 BLV-infected cattle without lymphoma in Farms 2–6, and 3 BLV-infected cattle with lymphoma in Farm 1. A The average quantities of genomic DNA in blood and milk samples were 7.9 µg and 6.7 µg, respectively, as determined with a <t>NanoDrop</t> spectrophotometer <t>ND-1000.</t> B The average A260/A280 ratios of genomic DNA in blood and milk were 1.88 and 1.87, respectively, as determined using a NanoDrop spectrophotometer ND-1000. C The threshold cycle values of the blood and milk samples were 22.12 and 22.37, respectively, as indicated with the red bold lines.
    Nano Drop Kit, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/nano drop kit/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 85 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    nano drop kit - by Bioz Stars, 2020-05
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    RNA extract from different numbers of worms. Results are presented as mean ± S.D. (n = 3). There is a linear relationship (y = 20.48x − 27.88, R 2 = 0.9976) between worm numbers and the yield of RNA extract. There is a correlation between the released RNA content after worm lysis measured by Qubit kit/fluorometer and RNA yield determined by Nano-drop 1000 Spectrophotometer after RNA extraction (Pearson correlation test: r = 0.9989, P

    Journal: MethodsX

    Article Title: Inappropriateness of RNAlater to preserve Caenorhabditis elegans for RNA extraction

    doi: 10.1016/j.mex.2019.10.015

    Figure Lengend Snippet: RNA extract from different numbers of worms. Results are presented as mean ± S.D. (n = 3). There is a linear relationship (y = 20.48x − 27.88, R 2 = 0.9976) between worm numbers and the yield of RNA extract. There is a correlation between the released RNA content after worm lysis measured by Qubit kit/fluorometer and RNA yield determined by Nano-drop 1000 Spectrophotometer after RNA extraction (Pearson correlation test: r = 0.9989, P

    Article Snippet: The yield of total RNA was determined by Nano-drop 1000 Spectrophotometer (Thermo Scientific).

    Techniques: Lysis, Spectrophotometry, RNA Extraction

    Scatter diagrams showing the quantity and quality of DNA in blood and milk. DNA samples were obtained from 2 BLV-negative cattle in Farm 3, 43 BLV-infected cattle without lymphoma in Farms 2–6, and 3 BLV-infected cattle with lymphoma in Farm 1. A The average quantities of genomic DNA in blood and milk samples were 7.9 µg and 6.7 µg, respectively, as determined with a NanoDrop spectrophotometer ND-1000. B The average A260/A280 ratios of genomic DNA in blood and milk were 1.88 and 1.87, respectively, as determined using a NanoDrop spectrophotometer ND-1000. C The threshold cycle values of the blood and milk samples were 22.12 and 22.37, respectively, as indicated with the red bold lines.

    Journal: Veterinary Research

    Article Title: Visualizing bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected cells and measuring BLV proviral loads in the milk of BLV seropositive dams

    doi: 10.1186/s13567-019-0724-1

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Scatter diagrams showing the quantity and quality of DNA in blood and milk. DNA samples were obtained from 2 BLV-negative cattle in Farm 3, 43 BLV-infected cattle without lymphoma in Farms 2–6, and 3 BLV-infected cattle with lymphoma in Farm 1. A The average quantities of genomic DNA in blood and milk samples were 7.9 µg and 6.7 µg, respectively, as determined with a NanoDrop spectrophotometer ND-1000. B The average A260/A280 ratios of genomic DNA in blood and milk were 1.88 and 1.87, respectively, as determined using a NanoDrop spectrophotometer ND-1000. C The threshold cycle values of the blood and milk samples were 22.12 and 22.37, respectively, as indicated with the red bold lines.

    Article Snippet: The quantity and quality of DNA samples extracted from milk sample was determined based on the A260/280 ratio using a Nanodrop Spectrophotometer ND-1000 (Thermo Fisher Scientific).

    Techniques: Infection, Spectrophotometry