murine tnf α  (Thermo Fisher)


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    Structured Review

    Thermo Fisher murine tnf α
    Inhibitory capacity of branched <t>anti-TNF-</t> α siRNAs. The inhibitory capacity of the siRNA duplexes are expressed as double strand concentration for comparative purposes. A 100-nM double strand concentration is equivalent to a concentration of 100 nM of unmodified siRNA duplex, 50 nM of siRNA 1 , and 2 and 25 nM of siRNA 3 . Transfection of siRNAs was carried out using oligofectamine. Values are represented as the average ±ES, n = 3 and are compared to a scrambled sequence. *** P
    Murine Tnf α, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    murine tnf α - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
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    Images

    1) Product Images from "Branched RNA: A New Architecture for RNA Interference"

    Article Title: Branched RNA: A New Architecture for RNA Interference

    Journal: Journal of Nucleic Acids

    doi: 10.4061/2011/586935

    Inhibitory capacity of branched anti-TNF- α siRNAs. The inhibitory capacity of the siRNA duplexes are expressed as double strand concentration for comparative purposes. A 100-nM double strand concentration is equivalent to a concentration of 100 nM of unmodified siRNA duplex, 50 nM of siRNA 1 , and 2 and 25 nM of siRNA 3 . Transfection of siRNAs was carried out using oligofectamine. Values are represented as the average ±ES, n = 3 and are compared to a scrambled sequence. *** P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibitory capacity of branched anti-TNF- α siRNAs. The inhibitory capacity of the siRNA duplexes are expressed as double strand concentration for comparative purposes. A 100-nM double strand concentration is equivalent to a concentration of 100 nM of unmodified siRNA duplex, 50 nM of siRNA 1 , and 2 and 25 nM of siRNA 3 . Transfection of siRNAs was carried out using oligofectamine. Values are represented as the average ±ES, n = 3 and are compared to a scrambled sequence. *** P

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Transfection, Sequencing

    2) Product Images from "Sodium Thiosulfate Prevents Chondrocyte Mineralization and Reduces the Severity of Murine Osteoarthritis"

    Article Title: Sodium Thiosulfate Prevents Chondrocyte Mineralization and Reduces the Severity of Murine Osteoarthritis

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0158196

    STS inhibits HA-induced cytokine and chemokine selectively in chondrocytes. ( a ) IL-6 and MCP-1 secretion by primed murine joint chondrocytes and ( b ) IL-6, MCP-1, IL-1β and TNF-α secretion by primed murine BMDM, stimulated or not with HA crystals (500ug/ml) and treated or not with 25mM STS 25mM for 2, 6 and 24hrs. Values represent means±SD of triplicates from one representative experiment of three independent experiments. ( c ) IL-6 secretion by human cartilage explants was measured by ELISA. Explants were stimulated with 500μg/ml of HA crystals in presence or absence of STS 25Mm for 24 h. Matched-halves of cartilage explants are connected by a line (5 explants for patients 1, 3 for patient 2, 4 for patient 3). Values represent means±SD of triplicate samples. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: STS inhibits HA-induced cytokine and chemokine selectively in chondrocytes. ( a ) IL-6 and MCP-1 secretion by primed murine joint chondrocytes and ( b ) IL-6, MCP-1, IL-1β and TNF-α secretion by primed murine BMDM, stimulated or not with HA crystals (500ug/ml) and treated or not with 25mM STS 25mM for 2, 6 and 24hrs. Values represent means±SD of triplicates from one representative experiment of three independent experiments. ( c ) IL-6 secretion by human cartilage explants was measured by ELISA. Explants were stimulated with 500μg/ml of HA crystals in presence or absence of STS 25Mm for 24 h. Matched-halves of cartilage explants are connected by a line (5 explants for patients 1, 3 for patient 2, 4 for patient 3). Values represent means±SD of triplicate samples. * p

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    3) Product Images from "Inhibitory effect of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on titanium particle-induced TNF-? release and in vivo osteolysis"

    Article Title: Inhibitory effect of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on titanium particle-induced TNF-? release and in vivo osteolysis

    Journal: Experimental & Molecular Medicine

    doi: 10.3858/emm.2011.43.7.045

    Representative photographs of TRAP and TNF-α staining. Mouse calvarial sections prepared as in were stained with TRAP (A). TRAP-positive osteoclasts were counted using IMT i-Solution (B). Mouse calvarial sections were immunostained with
    Figure Legend Snippet: Representative photographs of TRAP and TNF-α staining. Mouse calvarial sections prepared as in were stained with TRAP (A). TRAP-positive osteoclasts were counted using IMT i-Solution (B). Mouse calvarial sections were immunostained with

    Techniques Used: Staining

    Inhibitory effect of EGCG on Ti particle-induced TNF-α release. RAW264.7 and J774 cells were pretreated with or without the indicated amount of EGCG for 30 min and then stimulated with 0.02% Ti for 24 h. TNF-α release was analyzed by ELISA.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibitory effect of EGCG on Ti particle-induced TNF-α release. RAW264.7 and J774 cells were pretreated with or without the indicated amount of EGCG for 30 min and then stimulated with 0.02% Ti for 24 h. TNF-α release was analyzed by ELISA.

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    4) Product Images from "The Uremic Toxin Indoxyl Sulphate Enhances Macrophage Response to LPS"

    Article Title: The Uremic Toxin Indoxyl Sulphate Enhances Macrophage Response to LPS

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076778

    Effect of IS on LPS –induced IL-6 and TNF-α production in J774A.1 macrophages. IL-6 (panel A) and TNF-α (panel B) production was measured in the supernatants of J774A.1 cells treated with IS (1000–62.5 µM) and LPS (1 µg/ml) for 18 h by an ELISA kit. Results are expressed as mean±s.e.m. from three independent experiments. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test, and multiple comparison were made by Bonferroni's test. °°° denotes P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of IS on LPS –induced IL-6 and TNF-α production in J774A.1 macrophages. IL-6 (panel A) and TNF-α (panel B) production was measured in the supernatants of J774A.1 cells treated with IS (1000–62.5 µM) and LPS (1 µg/ml) for 18 h by an ELISA kit. Results are expressed as mean±s.e.m. from three independent experiments. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test, and multiple comparison were made by Bonferroni's test. °°° denotes P

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    5) Product Images from "PD-1 blunts the function of ovarian tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells by inactivating NF-κB"

    Article Title: PD-1 blunts the function of ovarian tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells by inactivating NF-κB

    Journal: Cancer research

    doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-15-0748

    PD-1 suppresses cytokine production and co-stimulatory molecules expression on human TIDCs Panels A–B show mean levels (±s.e.m., n=4) of TNF-α and IL-6, respectively, in the culture media following treatment of human ovarian TIDCs with anti-PD1 antibody (αPD-1) or isotype control antibody (ISO). Panels C-D shown mean (± s.e.m., N=4–6) levels, measured as mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) of CD80 and CD40, respectively, on CD1c + CD19 − cells derived from the peripheral blood on healthy volunteers (HV), ovarian cancer ascites and tumor samples, after in vitro treatment with isotype control antibody (ISO), or anti-PD1 antibody (αPD-1). Representative histograms also accompany each of Panels C and D. P values were calculated with a Student’s T test.
    Figure Legend Snippet: PD-1 suppresses cytokine production and co-stimulatory molecules expression on human TIDCs Panels A–B show mean levels (±s.e.m., n=4) of TNF-α and IL-6, respectively, in the culture media following treatment of human ovarian TIDCs with anti-PD1 antibody (αPD-1) or isotype control antibody (ISO). Panels C-D shown mean (± s.e.m., N=4–6) levels, measured as mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) of CD80 and CD40, respectively, on CD1c + CD19 − cells derived from the peripheral blood on healthy volunteers (HV), ovarian cancer ascites and tumor samples, after in vitro treatment with isotype control antibody (ISO), or anti-PD1 antibody (αPD-1). Representative histograms also accompany each of Panels C and D. P values were calculated with a Student’s T test.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Derivative Assay, In Vitro

    PD1 may regulate mouse TIDCs function through the classical NFkB pathway Panel A shows a representative blot of IkBα levels in ID8 derived TIDCs treated for 30 minutes with control vehicle, anti PD-1 antibody, isotype control antibody or LPS. Panels B–E shows the mean (± s.e.m., N=2–3 replicates levels of TNF-α, IL-6, G-CSF and IL-10, respectively, in the culture media following treatment of ID8 derived TIDCs with anti-PD-1, isotype antibody and LPS with or without IKK inhibitor. Representative of 2 experiments yielding similar results. Panels F–H show mean (±s.e.m., N=2 replicates) CD40 (Panel F), CD80 (Panel G) and CD86 (Panel H) expression on ID8 tumor derived DC treated in vitro with anti-PD1 blocking or isotype antibody in the presence or absence of IKK inhibitor. Representative histograms also accompany each of Panels F–H. Panel I . Blockade of PD-1: PD-L1 signaling axis enhances TNF-α production by TIDCs. Panel J shows the mean (± s.e.m., N=3) pg/mL values of TNF-α in culture supernatants released by TIDCs from the ascites which were cultured for 24 hrs in the presence of 10μg/mL of anti-PD-1 antibody (α-PD1), 10μg/mL of anti-PD-L1 (α-PDL1) antibody, or media alone (Control).
    Figure Legend Snippet: PD1 may regulate mouse TIDCs function through the classical NFkB pathway Panel A shows a representative blot of IkBα levels in ID8 derived TIDCs treated for 30 minutes with control vehicle, anti PD-1 antibody, isotype control antibody or LPS. Panels B–E shows the mean (± s.e.m., N=2–3 replicates levels of TNF-α, IL-6, G-CSF and IL-10, respectively, in the culture media following treatment of ID8 derived TIDCs with anti-PD-1, isotype antibody and LPS with or without IKK inhibitor. Representative of 2 experiments yielding similar results. Panels F–H show mean (±s.e.m., N=2 replicates) CD40 (Panel F), CD80 (Panel G) and CD86 (Panel H) expression on ID8 tumor derived DC treated in vitro with anti-PD1 blocking or isotype antibody in the presence or absence of IKK inhibitor. Representative histograms also accompany each of Panels F–H. Panel I . Blockade of PD-1: PD-L1 signaling axis enhances TNF-α production by TIDCs. Panel J shows the mean (± s.e.m., N=3) pg/mL values of TNF-α in culture supernatants released by TIDCs from the ascites which were cultured for 24 hrs in the presence of 10μg/mL of anti-PD-1 antibody (α-PD1), 10μg/mL of anti-PD-L1 (α-PDL1) antibody, or media alone (Control).

    Techniques Used: Derivative Assay, Expressing, In Vitro, Blocking Assay, Cell Culture

    PD1 on mouse TIDCs is associated with SHP-2 and PD1-regulated mouse ovarian TIDCs function is dependent on (NFkB activation, cytokine production) and independent (co-stimulatory molecules expression, antigen presentation) of SHP-2 Panel A shows photos of ascites TIDCs demonstrating co-expression of PD-1 and SHP-2. Left panel shows PD-1 expression (red signal), middle panel shows SHP-2 expression and right panel shows SHP-2 interaction with PD-1 (combined signal seen in purple). Panel B shows immunoblots of PD-1 + TIDCs derived from ascites showing the association between PD-1 and SHP-2. Cell lysate obtained from ascites-derived TIDCs was immunoprecipitated with anti-SHP2 antibody (lane 1), rabbit antibody (lane 2) and the immunoblot was probed with anti-PD1 antibody. Lanes 3 and 4 represent no protein and whole cell lysate controls, respectively. Shown is the immunoblot which is representative of one of three experiments with similar results. Panel C shows the mean (± s.e.m. N=6) phosphorylated p65 levels (measured in absorbance units, Abs) in TIDCs treated with anti-PD-1 antibody, isotype antibody and LPS with or without SHP-2 inhibitor. Panel D shows the mean (± s.e.m. N=3) levels of TNF-α in the culture media of TIDCs treated identically to that in Panel C. Panels E–G show mean (±s.e.m., N=2 replicates) CD40 (Panel E), CD80 (Panel F) and CD86 (Panel G) expression on TIDCs treated identically to that in panel C. Panels H–I show mean (±s.e.m., N=3–4 replicates) Class I (H2-K b ):SIINFEKL complex (Panel H) or Class I (H2-K b ) expression (Panel I) on TIDCs treated identically to that in Panel C. P values were calculated using Student’s T test. NS=not significant.
    Figure Legend Snippet: PD1 on mouse TIDCs is associated with SHP-2 and PD1-regulated mouse ovarian TIDCs function is dependent on (NFkB activation, cytokine production) and independent (co-stimulatory molecules expression, antigen presentation) of SHP-2 Panel A shows photos of ascites TIDCs demonstrating co-expression of PD-1 and SHP-2. Left panel shows PD-1 expression (red signal), middle panel shows SHP-2 expression and right panel shows SHP-2 interaction with PD-1 (combined signal seen in purple). Panel B shows immunoblots of PD-1 + TIDCs derived from ascites showing the association between PD-1 and SHP-2. Cell lysate obtained from ascites-derived TIDCs was immunoprecipitated with anti-SHP2 antibody (lane 1), rabbit antibody (lane 2) and the immunoblot was probed with anti-PD1 antibody. Lanes 3 and 4 represent no protein and whole cell lysate controls, respectively. Shown is the immunoblot which is representative of one of three experiments with similar results. Panel C shows the mean (± s.e.m. N=6) phosphorylated p65 levels (measured in absorbance units, Abs) in TIDCs treated with anti-PD-1 antibody, isotype antibody and LPS with or without SHP-2 inhibitor. Panel D shows the mean (± s.e.m. N=3) levels of TNF-α in the culture media of TIDCs treated identically to that in Panel C. Panels E–G show mean (±s.e.m., N=2 replicates) CD40 (Panel E), CD80 (Panel F) and CD86 (Panel G) expression on TIDCs treated identically to that in panel C. Panels H–I show mean (±s.e.m., N=3–4 replicates) Class I (H2-K b ):SIINFEKL complex (Panel H) or Class I (H2-K b ) expression (Panel I) on TIDCs treated identically to that in Panel C. P values were calculated using Student’s T test. NS=not significant.

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Expressing, Western Blot, Derivative Assay, Immunoprecipitation

    6) Product Images from "Polyphenolic Extract from Tarocco (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) Clone “Lempso” Exerts Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects via NF-kB and Nrf-2 Activation in Murine Macrophages"

    Article Title: Polyphenolic Extract from Tarocco (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) Clone “Lempso” Exerts Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects via NF-kB and Nrf-2 Activation in Murine Macrophages

    Journal: Nutrients

    doi: 10.3390/nu10121961

    Effect of LFE (10–50 μg mL −1 ) on LPS –induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (Panel A) and interleukin (IL)-6 (Panel B) production in J774A.1 macrophages. TNF-α and IL-6 production was measured in the supernatants of J774A.1 cells treated with LFE (10–50 μg mL −1 ) and LPS (1 μg mL −1 ) for 18 h by means of Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA). Values are expressed as mean ± s.e.m of at least three experiments, each in triplicate. Comparisons were performed using one-way analysis of variance and multiple comparisons were made by Bonferroni’s test. *** denotes p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of LFE (10–50 μg mL −1 ) on LPS –induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (Panel A) and interleukin (IL)-6 (Panel B) production in J774A.1 macrophages. TNF-α and IL-6 production was measured in the supernatants of J774A.1 cells treated with LFE (10–50 μg mL −1 ) and LPS (1 μg mL −1 ) for 18 h by means of Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA). Values are expressed as mean ± s.e.m of at least three experiments, each in triplicate. Comparisons were performed using one-way analysis of variance and multiple comparisons were made by Bonferroni’s test. *** denotes p

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    7) Product Images from "AST-120 Reduces Neuroinflammation Induced by Indoxyl Sulfate in Glial Cells"

    Article Title: AST-120 Reduces Neuroinflammation Induced by Indoxyl Sulfate in Glial Cells

    Journal: Journal of Clinical Medicine

    doi: 10.3390/jcm7100365

    Effect of IS (60, 30 and 15 μM) in inflammatory conditions, induced by LPS (1 µg/mL) + IFN (100 U/mL), on NO relase ( Panel A ), evaluated as NO 2 [µM]. Effect of IS (15–60 μM) in presence of LPS (1 µg/mL) + IFN (100 U/mL) on iNOS ( Panel B ), and COX-2 ( Panel D ) expression in primary astrocytes and mixed glial cells. Cellular fluorescence was evaluated using fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis (FACSscan; Becton Dickinson), and elaborated with Cell Quest software. Panel C shows the representative fluorescence images for iNOS expression (for primary astrocytes the pink line represent the cellular control, the blue line represent LPS + IFN, the yellow line represent IS 30 µM + LPS + IFN; for mixed glial cells the violet line represent the cellular control, the light blue line represent LPS + IFN, the orange line represent IS 30 µM + LPS + IFN). Panel E shows the representative fluorescence images for COX-2 expression (for primary astrocytes the pink line represent the cellular control, the blue line represent LPS + IFN, the yellow line represent IS 30 µM with LPS + IFN; for mixed glial cells the violet line represent the cellular control, the light blue line represent LPS + IFN, the orange line represent IS 30 µM with LPS + IFN. Effect of IS (15, 30, and 60 μM) in inflammatory conditions, induced by LPS (1 µg/mL) and IFN (100 U/mL) on TNF-α ( Panel F ) and on IL-6 ( Panel G ) release by astrocytes and mixed glial cells. Cyokine release was assessed by ELISA assay. Values are expressed as NO 2 - release, or mean fluorescence intensity or as pg/mL protein for cytokines. Comparisons were performed using a one-way analysis of variance and multiple comparisons were made by Bonferroni’s post test. °°° denotes p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of IS (60, 30 and 15 μM) in inflammatory conditions, induced by LPS (1 µg/mL) + IFN (100 U/mL), on NO relase ( Panel A ), evaluated as NO 2 [µM]. Effect of IS (15–60 μM) in presence of LPS (1 µg/mL) + IFN (100 U/mL) on iNOS ( Panel B ), and COX-2 ( Panel D ) expression in primary astrocytes and mixed glial cells. Cellular fluorescence was evaluated using fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis (FACSscan; Becton Dickinson), and elaborated with Cell Quest software. Panel C shows the representative fluorescence images for iNOS expression (for primary astrocytes the pink line represent the cellular control, the blue line represent LPS + IFN, the yellow line represent IS 30 µM + LPS + IFN; for mixed glial cells the violet line represent the cellular control, the light blue line represent LPS + IFN, the orange line represent IS 30 µM + LPS + IFN). Panel E shows the representative fluorescence images for COX-2 expression (for primary astrocytes the pink line represent the cellular control, the blue line represent LPS + IFN, the yellow line represent IS 30 µM with LPS + IFN; for mixed glial cells the violet line represent the cellular control, the light blue line represent LPS + IFN, the orange line represent IS 30 µM with LPS + IFN. Effect of IS (15, 30, and 60 μM) in inflammatory conditions, induced by LPS (1 µg/mL) and IFN (100 U/mL) on TNF-α ( Panel F ) and on IL-6 ( Panel G ) release by astrocytes and mixed glial cells. Cyokine release was assessed by ELISA assay. Values are expressed as NO 2 - release, or mean fluorescence intensity or as pg/mL protein for cytokines. Comparisons were performed using a one-way analysis of variance and multiple comparisons were made by Bonferroni’s post test. °°° denotes p

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Fluorescence, FACS, Software, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Effect o f sera from eighteen different subjects: four healthy people (H1–H4; Panel A and D ), eight CKD patients (CKD1–CKD8; Panel B and E ) and six CKD dialysed patients (HD1–HD6; Panel C and F ), with or without AST-120, on nitrite ( Panel A – C ) and on TNF-α ( Panel D – F ) production in inflammatory conditions, induced by LPS (1 µg/mL) and IFN (100 U/mL) in C6 cells. Values are expressed as [µM] NO 2 − release, or as pg/mL protein, respectively. Comparisons were performed using a one-way analysis of variance and multiple comparisons were made by Bonferroni’s test. °°° denotes p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect o f sera from eighteen different subjects: four healthy people (H1–H4; Panel A and D ), eight CKD patients (CKD1–CKD8; Panel B and E ) and six CKD dialysed patients (HD1–HD6; Panel C and F ), with or without AST-120, on nitrite ( Panel A – C ) and on TNF-α ( Panel D – F ) production in inflammatory conditions, induced by LPS (1 µg/mL) and IFN (100 U/mL) in C6 cells. Values are expressed as [µM] NO 2 − release, or as pg/mL protein, respectively. Comparisons were performed using a one-way analysis of variance and multiple comparisons were made by Bonferroni’s test. °°° denotes p

    Techniques Used: AST Assay

    8) Product Images from "Systemic inflammation in glucocerebrosidase-deficient mice with minimal glucosylceramide storage"

    Article Title: Systemic inflammation in glucocerebrosidase-deficient mice with minimal glucosylceramide storage

    Journal: The Journal of Clinical Investigation

    doi: 10.1172/JCI14530

    Inflammatory reaction in the liver of GbaL444P/L444P mice. ( a ) Inflammatory foci were scattered in the liver of a 2-month-old mutant mouse (arrows). ( b ) Higher magnification of an inflammatory area. Note the apoptotic hepatocyte in the inflammatory area (arrow). ( c ) Immunostaining with F4/80 antibody to visualize ramified Kupffer cells in wild-type liver sections. ( d ) In mutant liver, the F4/80–positive Kupffer cells were amoeboid and swollen. ( e ) TUNEL-positive, apoptotic nuclei (arrows) were distinguished in the inflammatory lesion of the mutant mouse. ( f ) TNF-α mRNA expression in the liver of mutant and wild-type mice. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inflammatory reaction in the liver of GbaL444P/L444P mice. ( a ) Inflammatory foci were scattered in the liver of a 2-month-old mutant mouse (arrows). ( b ) Higher magnification of an inflammatory area. Note the apoptotic hepatocyte in the inflammatory area (arrow). ( c ) Immunostaining with F4/80 antibody to visualize ramified Kupffer cells in wild-type liver sections. ( d ) In mutant liver, the F4/80–positive Kupffer cells were amoeboid and swollen. ( e ) TUNEL-positive, apoptotic nuclei (arrows) were distinguished in the inflammatory lesion of the mutant mouse. ( f ) TNF-α mRNA expression in the liver of mutant and wild-type mice. * P

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Mutagenesis, Immunostaining, TUNEL Assay, Expressing

    9) Product Images from "Effect of Hochuekkito on Alveolar Macrophage Inflammatory Responses in Hyperglycemic Mice"

    Article Title: Effect of Hochuekkito on Alveolar Macrophage Inflammatory Responses in Hyperglycemic Mice

    Journal: Inflammation

    doi: 10.1007/s10753-012-9441-x

    Effect of TJ-41 on TNF-α production in pulmonary-alveolar macrophages. After stimulating AMs with the TLR ligands, PGN (10 μg/ml), LPS (100 ng/ml), or FLG (1 μg/ml) for 18 h, supernatants were harvested, and TNF-α levels were measured in cell supernatants by ELISA. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of TJ-41 on TNF-α production in pulmonary-alveolar macrophages. After stimulating AMs with the TLR ligands, PGN (10 μg/ml), LPS (100 ng/ml), or FLG (1 μg/ml) for 18 h, supernatants were harvested, and TNF-α levels were measured in cell supernatants by ELISA. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM.

    Techniques Used: Affinity Magnetic Separation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    10) Product Images from "Oral TNF-? Gene Silencing using a Polymeric Microsphere-Based Delivery System for the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease"

    Article Title: Oral TNF-? Gene Silencing using a Polymeric Microsphere-Based Delivery System for the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Journal: Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society

    doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2010.10.002

    Murine TNF-α expression upon oral delivery of siRNA against TNF-α using NiMOS in a dextran sulfate (DSS)-induced acute colitis mouse model. a) Quantitative real time-PCR analysis performed on samples of the large intestines obtained from control and experimental treatment groups showing lower mRNA transcript upon oral administration of siRNA with NiMOS. b) Levels of TNF-α as determined by ELISA.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Murine TNF-α expression upon oral delivery of siRNA against TNF-α using NiMOS in a dextran sulfate (DSS)-induced acute colitis mouse model. a) Quantitative real time-PCR analysis performed on samples of the large intestines obtained from control and experimental treatment groups showing lower mRNA transcript upon oral administration of siRNA with NiMOS. b) Levels of TNF-α as determined by ELISA.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    11) Product Images from "Signaling events in pathogen-induced macrophage foam cell formation"

    Article Title: Signaling events in pathogen-induced macrophage foam cell formation

    Journal: Pathogens and Disease

    doi: 10.1093/femspd/ftw074

    Levels of TNF-α and IL1β production by BMDM in response to P. gingivalis and C. pneumoniae during foam cell formation. BMDM from C57BL-6 mice ( n = 4) were cultured in the presence of human LDL (200 μg ml −1 ) alone, P. gingivalis (MOI 100), C. pneumoniae (MOI 10), LDL with P. gingivalis (MOI 100) or LDL with C. pneumoniae (MOI 10). Culture supernatants were collected after 24 h, and assayed for TNF-α ( A ) and IL1β ( B ) by ELISA. Data were pooled from two independent experiments and are reported as the mean ± SEM. *, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Levels of TNF-α and IL1β production by BMDM in response to P. gingivalis and C. pneumoniae during foam cell formation. BMDM from C57BL-6 mice ( n = 4) were cultured in the presence of human LDL (200 μg ml −1 ) alone, P. gingivalis (MOI 100), C. pneumoniae (MOI 10), LDL with P. gingivalis (MOI 100) or LDL with C. pneumoniae (MOI 10). Culture supernatants were collected after 24 h, and assayed for TNF-α ( A ) and IL1β ( B ) by ELISA. Data were pooled from two independent experiments and are reported as the mean ± SEM. *, P

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Cell Culture, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    12) Product Images from "Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Protein Tat Induces Tumor Necrosis Factor-?-Mediated Neurotoxicity"

    Article Title: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Protein Tat Induces Tumor Necrosis Factor-?-Mediated Neurotoxicity

    Journal: Neurobiology of disease

    doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2007.03.004

    Tat 1-72 and Tat Δ31-61 concentration-dependently increased levels of TNF-α in primary macrophages and microglia. Phase contrast microscopic images of primary macrophages (A) and microglia (C), and immunohistochemical staining for CD11b of macrophages (B) and microglial (D) confirmed the purity of the preparations. Tat 1-72 (open squares) and Tat Δ31-61 (open circles) concentration-dependently (4 h incubations) increased levels of TNF-α from primary macrophages (E) and microglia (F). Basal levels of TNF-α for macrophages were 4.9 ± 1.2 pg/mL and for microglia were 11.0 ± 1.8 pg/mL. Values are means and SEM of experiments conducted three separate times (n=3) each time using different batches of cells.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Tat 1-72 and Tat Δ31-61 concentration-dependently increased levels of TNF-α in primary macrophages and microglia. Phase contrast microscopic images of primary macrophages (A) and microglia (C), and immunohistochemical staining for CD11b of macrophages (B) and microglial (D) confirmed the purity of the preparations. Tat 1-72 (open squares) and Tat Δ31-61 (open circles) concentration-dependently (4 h incubations) increased levels of TNF-α from primary macrophages (E) and microglia (F). Basal levels of TNF-α for macrophages were 4.9 ± 1.2 pg/mL and for microglia were 11.0 ± 1.8 pg/mL. Values are means and SEM of experiments conducted three separate times (n=3) each time using different batches of cells.

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    Specificity of Tat 1-72 - and Tat Δ31-61 -induced increases in levels of TNF-α. Tat 1-72 - (1.4 μg/ml) and Tat Δ31-61 - (1.4 μg/ml) induced increases in levels of TNF-α from U937 cells were blocked significantly by immunoadsorption with anti-Tat antibody (Ab) and by heating the peptide at 100°C (100°C). For all conditions tested, values are means and SEM (n=4). * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Specificity of Tat 1-72 - and Tat Δ31-61 -induced increases in levels of TNF-α. Tat 1-72 - (1.4 μg/ml) and Tat Δ31-61 - (1.4 μg/ml) induced increases in levels of TNF-α from U937 cells were blocked significantly by immunoadsorption with anti-Tat antibody (Ab) and by heating the peptide at 100°C (100°C). For all conditions tested, values are means and SEM (n=4). * p

    Techniques Used:

    TNF-α immunoneutralization blocked the neurotoxic effects of supernatants from Tat 1-72 and Tat Δ31-61 treated U937 cells. Immunoneutralization of TNF-α with anti-TNF-α antibody (1 μg/ml) decreased significantly neuronal cell death caused by supernatants from U937 cells treated with 1.4 μg/ml Tat 1-72 (Tat sup. vs. Tat sup. + Ab) and supernatants from U937 cells treated with 1.4 μg/ml Tat Δ31-61 (mTat sup. vs. mTat sup. + Ab). Neuronal survival was expressed as a percent of values obtained for neurons treated with media from vehicle-treated U937 cells (sup). Values are means and SEM of determinations made using four separate batches of cultured cells (n=4). Bar, 50 μm.* p
    Figure Legend Snippet: TNF-α immunoneutralization blocked the neurotoxic effects of supernatants from Tat 1-72 and Tat Δ31-61 treated U937 cells. Immunoneutralization of TNF-α with anti-TNF-α antibody (1 μg/ml) decreased significantly neuronal cell death caused by supernatants from U937 cells treated with 1.4 μg/ml Tat 1-72 (Tat sup. vs. Tat sup. + Ab) and supernatants from U937 cells treated with 1.4 μg/ml Tat Δ31-61 (mTat sup. vs. mTat sup. + Ab). Neuronal survival was expressed as a percent of values obtained for neurons treated with media from vehicle-treated U937 cells (sup). Values are means and SEM of determinations made using four separate batches of cultured cells (n=4). Bar, 50 μm.* p

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture

    Tat-induced TNF-α release in differentiated monocytes was time and concentration-dependent. Tat 1-72 (● 14 ng/ml; ■ 70 ng/ml; ◆ 140 ng/ml; ▴ 700 ng/ml) induced a rapid concentration-dependent increase in TNF-α from differentiated U937 (A) and THP-1 cells (C). Tat 1-72 (open squares) and Tat Δ31-61 (open circles) concentration-dependently increased levels of TNF-α from differentiated U937 (B) and THP-1 cells (D). Basal levels of TNF-α for U937 cells were 88.1 ± 8.2 pg/ml and for THP-1 cells 20.3 ± 5.6 pg/ml. Values are means and SEM. Tat 1-72 time-course (n=3) and concentration-response (n=3) experiments, and Tat Δ31-61 concentration-response (n=5) experiments for each cell line.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Tat-induced TNF-α release in differentiated monocytes was time and concentration-dependent. Tat 1-72 (● 14 ng/ml; ■ 70 ng/ml; ◆ 140 ng/ml; ▴ 700 ng/ml) induced a rapid concentration-dependent increase in TNF-α from differentiated U937 (A) and THP-1 cells (C). Tat 1-72 (open squares) and Tat Δ31-61 (open circles) concentration-dependently increased levels of TNF-α from differentiated U937 (B) and THP-1 cells (D). Basal levels of TNF-α for U937 cells were 88.1 ± 8.2 pg/ml and for THP-1 cells 20.3 ± 5.6 pg/ml. Values are means and SEM. Tat 1-72 time-course (n=3) and concentration-response (n=3) experiments, and Tat Δ31-61 concentration-response (n=5) experiments for each cell line.

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    13) Product Images from "Increased Survival and Reduced Neutrophil Infiltration of the Liver in Rab27a- but Not Munc13-4-Deficient Mice in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Systemic Inflammation ▿"

    Article Title: Increased Survival and Reduced Neutrophil Infiltration of the Liver in Rab27a- but Not Munc13-4-Deficient Mice in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Systemic Inflammation ▿

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.05043-11

    Mice lacking Rab27a but not Munc13-4 have impaired in vivo secretion of TNF-α in response to LPS. Munc13-4 jinx / jinx ( jinx ), Rab27a ash / ash ( ashen ), and wild-type (WT) mice were challenged with a single intraperitoneal injection of LPS or PBS. Blood
    Figure Legend Snippet: Mice lacking Rab27a but not Munc13-4 have impaired in vivo secretion of TNF-α in response to LPS. Munc13-4 jinx / jinx ( jinx ), Rab27a ash / ash ( ashen ), and wild-type (WT) mice were challenged with a single intraperitoneal injection of LPS or PBS. Blood

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, In Vivo, Injection

    14) Product Images from "Plant Polyphenols and Exendin-4 Prevent Hyperactivity and TNF-α Release in LPS-Treated In vitro Neuron/Astrocyte/Microglial Networks"

    Article Title: Plant Polyphenols and Exendin-4 Prevent Hyperactivity and TNF-α Release in LPS-Treated In vitro Neuron/Astrocyte/Microglial Networks

    Journal: Frontiers in Neuroscience

    doi: 10.3389/fnins.2017.00500

    Release of TNF-α at 6 and 12 h after LPS application. The cytokine TNF-α is released from LPS-treated networks but not from networks pre-treated with polyphenols or exendin-4. Graph shows TNF-α concentration 6 h (filled bars) and 12 h (open bars) post-LPS (3 μg/ml) treatment with or without curcumin (CU, 1 μM) crocin (CR, 20 μM), resveratrol (RE, 200 nM) or exendin-4 (EX-4, 30 nM) pre-conditioning. Data are expressed as pg/ml and represent mean ± SEM of three independent experiments. ** P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Release of TNF-α at 6 and 12 h after LPS application. The cytokine TNF-α is released from LPS-treated networks but not from networks pre-treated with polyphenols or exendin-4. Graph shows TNF-α concentration 6 h (filled bars) and 12 h (open bars) post-LPS (3 μg/ml) treatment with or without curcumin (CU, 1 μM) crocin (CR, 20 μM), resveratrol (RE, 200 nM) or exendin-4 (EX-4, 30 nM) pre-conditioning. Data are expressed as pg/ml and represent mean ± SEM of three independent experiments. ** P

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    15) Product Images from "Impaired wound healing in mouse models of diabetes is mediated by TNF-α dysregulation and associated with enhanced activation of forkhead box O1 (FOXO1)"

    Article Title: Impaired wound healing in mouse models of diabetes is mediated by TNF-α dysregulation and associated with enhanced activation of forkhead box O1 (FOXO1)

    Journal: Diabetologia

    doi: 10.1007/s00125-009-1529-y

    Diabetes increases TNF- α mRNA and protein levels, fibroblast apoptosis, caspase-3/7 activity and FOXO1 DNA binding in healing wounds. A 1.5 mm excisional full thickness wound was created in the scalp of db / db diabetic (black bars) and normoglycaemic
    Figure Legend Snippet: Diabetes increases TNF- α mRNA and protein levels, fibroblast apoptosis, caspase-3/7 activity and FOXO1 DNA binding in healing wounds. A 1.5 mm excisional full thickness wound was created in the scalp of db / db diabetic (black bars) and normoglycaemic

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Binding Assay

    Healing of excisional wounds is impaired in db / db mice and improved by inhibition of TNF- α . A 1.5 mm excisional wound was placed in the scalp of db / db mice and their non-diabetic littermates. Mice were treated by i.p. injection of pegsunercept
    Figure Legend Snippet: Healing of excisional wounds is impaired in db / db mice and improved by inhibition of TNF- α . A 1.5 mm excisional wound was placed in the scalp of db / db mice and their non-diabetic littermates. Mice were treated by i.p. injection of pegsunercept

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Inhibition, Injection

    TNF- α inhibition reduces fibroblast apoptosis and increases fibroblast numbers in diabetic mice. Excisional wounds were created in the scalp of db / db ( a , c , e ) and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice ( b , d ) or their matched normoglycaemic controls.
    Figure Legend Snippet: TNF- α inhibition reduces fibroblast apoptosis and increases fibroblast numbers in diabetic mice. Excisional wounds were created in the scalp of db / db ( a , c , e ) and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice ( b , d ) or their matched normoglycaemic controls.

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Mouse Assay

    TNF- α inhibition decreases infiltration of inflammatory cells and FOXO1 activation. Excisional wounds were created in db / db ( a , d ) or streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice ( b , c ) or their matched normoglycaemic controls and treated with pegsunercept
    Figure Legend Snippet: TNF- α inhibition decreases infiltration of inflammatory cells and FOXO1 activation. Excisional wounds were created in db / db ( a , d ) or streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice ( b , c ) or their matched normoglycaemic controls and treated with pegsunercept

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Activation Assay, Mouse Assay

    FOXO1 RNAi inhibits TNF- α upregulation of pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic genes in human fibroblasts. Real-time qPCR (white bars) was performed on total RNA isolated from human fibroblasts that had been stimulated with TNF- α (20 ng/ml)
    Figure Legend Snippet: FOXO1 RNAi inhibits TNF- α upregulation of pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic genes in human fibroblasts. Real-time qPCR (white bars) was performed on total RNA isolated from human fibroblasts that had been stimulated with TNF- α (20 ng/ml)

    Techniques Used: Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Isolation

    16) Product Images from "EGFR-mediated Macrophage Activation Promotes Colitis-associated Tumorigenesis"

    Article Title: EGFR-mediated Macrophage Activation Promotes Colitis-associated Tumorigenesis

    Journal: Oncogene

    doi: 10.1038/onc.2017.23

    Egfr Δmye mice demonstrate decreased M1 macrophage activation during colon tumorigenesis (a) Protein levels of M1 stimuli, IFN-γ and TNF-α, were assessed by Luminex Multiplex Array from colonic tissues 77 days post-AOM injection. n = 5 control tissues and 6-9 tumors with paired non-tumor area per genotype. (b) mRNA levels of M1 markers, Nos2 and Il1b , were assessed by qRT-PCR from colonic tissues 77 days post-AOM injection. n = 6-8 control tissues and 8-10 tumors with paired non-tumor area per genotype. (c) Protein levels of the M1 marker, IL-1β, were assessed by Luminex Multiplex Array from colonic tissues 77 days post-AOM injection. n = 5 control tissues and 6-9 tumors with paired non-tumor area per genotype. In (a-c), * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Egfr Δmye mice demonstrate decreased M1 macrophage activation during colon tumorigenesis (a) Protein levels of M1 stimuli, IFN-γ and TNF-α, were assessed by Luminex Multiplex Array from colonic tissues 77 days post-AOM injection. n = 5 control tissues and 6-9 tumors with paired non-tumor area per genotype. (b) mRNA levels of M1 markers, Nos2 and Il1b , were assessed by qRT-PCR from colonic tissues 77 days post-AOM injection. n = 6-8 control tissues and 8-10 tumors with paired non-tumor area per genotype. (c) Protein levels of the M1 marker, IL-1β, were assessed by Luminex Multiplex Array from colonic tissues 77 days post-AOM injection. n = 5 control tissues and 6-9 tumors with paired non-tumor area per genotype. In (a-c), * P

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Activation Assay, Luminex, Multiplex Assay, Injection, Quantitative RT-PCR, Marker

    17) Product Images from "Dual TNF-?/Cyclin D1 Gene Silencing With an Oral Polymeric Microparticle System as a Novel Strategy for the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease"

    Article Title: Dual TNF-?/Cyclin D1 Gene Silencing With an Oral Polymeric Microparticle System as a Novel Strategy for the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Journal: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology

    doi: 10.1038/ctg.2011.1

    Colonic cytokine and chemokine profiles. The cytokine expression profile upon oral delivery of cyclin D1 (CyD1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), or a combination of both short interfering RNA (siRNA) encapsulated in nanoparticles-in-microsphere oral system (NiMOS) was determined using a chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay Q-Plex Mouse Cytokine Screen (Quansys Biosciences). Concentrations of the cytokines ( a ) interferon (IFN)-γ, ( b ) interleukin (IL)-1α, ( c ) IL-1β, ( d ) IL-2, ( e ) IL-5, ( f ) IL-6, ( g ) IL-17 and pro-inflammatory chemokines ( h ) monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, ( i ) monocyte inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, and ( j ) granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) in the large intestine are shown. Administration of CyD1 NiMOS led to a significant reduction in protein expression both time points tested compared with the remaining groups. The effect of combined TNF-α/CyD1 NiMOS and TNF-α was less pronounced, but led to decreased protein levels in comparison with control groups. Values expressed as mean±s.d. ( n =5). Δ P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Colonic cytokine and chemokine profiles. The cytokine expression profile upon oral delivery of cyclin D1 (CyD1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), or a combination of both short interfering RNA (siRNA) encapsulated in nanoparticles-in-microsphere oral system (NiMOS) was determined using a chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay Q-Plex Mouse Cytokine Screen (Quansys Biosciences). Concentrations of the cytokines ( a ) interferon (IFN)-γ, ( b ) interleukin (IL)-1α, ( c ) IL-1β, ( d ) IL-2, ( e ) IL-5, ( f ) IL-6, ( g ) IL-17 and pro-inflammatory chemokines ( h ) monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, ( i ) monocyte inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, and ( j ) granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) in the large intestine are shown. Administration of CyD1 NiMOS led to a significant reduction in protein expression both time points tested compared with the remaining groups. The effect of combined TNF-α/CyD1 NiMOS and TNF-α was less pronounced, but led to decreased protein levels in comparison with control groups. Values expressed as mean±s.d. ( n =5). Δ P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Small Interfering RNA, Chemiluminescent ELISA

    Microscopic evaluation of colonic tissue histopathology. Bright-field images of haematoxylin and eosin stained sections of the colon harvested from each control and test group. Images are shown at magnifications of × 10 and × 40 from tissue cryosections obtained on day 10 and day 12 of the study. Sections from the first control group show normal and healthy colon tissue. Intestinal tissues from the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) control group, the group treated with blank and scrambled short interfering RNA (siRNA) nanoparticles-in-microsphere oral system (NiMOS) showed a severe infiltration of white blood cells, abnormal mucosal structure, and a certain degree of goblet cell depletion. Tissue from the group receiving tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cyclin D1 (CyD1), or combined TNF/CyD1 silencing NiMOS showed signs of regeneration and exhibited a tissue architecture more closely resembling that of healthy tissue in the normal control group. Occurrence of goblet cells is indicated by red arrows; cell infiltration and abnormal tissue histology is indicated by black arrows.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Microscopic evaluation of colonic tissue histopathology. Bright-field images of haematoxylin and eosin stained sections of the colon harvested from each control and test group. Images are shown at magnifications of × 10 and × 40 from tissue cryosections obtained on day 10 and day 12 of the study. Sections from the first control group show normal and healthy colon tissue. Intestinal tissues from the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) control group, the group treated with blank and scrambled short interfering RNA (siRNA) nanoparticles-in-microsphere oral system (NiMOS) showed a severe infiltration of white blood cells, abnormal mucosal structure, and a certain degree of goblet cell depletion. Tissue from the group receiving tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cyclin D1 (CyD1), or combined TNF/CyD1 silencing NiMOS showed signs of regeneration and exhibited a tissue architecture more closely resembling that of healthy tissue in the normal control group. Occurrence of goblet cells is indicated by red arrows; cell infiltration and abnormal tissue histology is indicated by black arrows.

    Techniques Used: Histopathology, Staining, Small Interfering RNA

    Macroscopic assessment of anti-inflammatory therapeutic efficacy. ( a ) Timeline of the study. Animals were continuously exposed to 3.5-wt% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) throughout the course of the study. Oral administration of short interfering RNA (siRNA)-containing and blank nanoparticles-in-microsphere oral system (NiMOS) was performed on days 3, 5, and 7 followed by tissue harvest on days 10 and 12, as indicated by the medium and long arrows, respectively. ( b ) Determination of colonic length in control and test groups at both end time points of the study. Silencing NiMOS test groups showed an increase in colon length compared with animals from control groups except the healthy control mice. ( c ) Percent change of original body weight of Balb/c mice upon continuous exposure to DSS for development of acute colitis model for the duration of the study (12 days). Weight loss was most severe in the DSS control group as well as animals receiving blank or scrambled siRNA sequence NiMOS. The test groups consisting of cyclin D1 ( CyD1 ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and TNF-α/CyD1 siRNA-encapsulating NiMOS exhibited significantly less change in original body weight. ( d ) Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the large intestine normalized to the total protein content of each sample. Administration of silencing NiMOS led to a reduction in MPO activity in all three test groups on both time points tested whereas elevated levels were measured in the control and DSS control group, as well as groups receiving blank and inactive siRNA sequence-containing NiMOS. Levels represent concentrations obtained from samples on days 10 and 12 of the study (3 and 5 days after administration). Values are expressed as mean±s.d. ( n =4–5). Δ P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Macroscopic assessment of anti-inflammatory therapeutic efficacy. ( a ) Timeline of the study. Animals were continuously exposed to 3.5-wt% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) throughout the course of the study. Oral administration of short interfering RNA (siRNA)-containing and blank nanoparticles-in-microsphere oral system (NiMOS) was performed on days 3, 5, and 7 followed by tissue harvest on days 10 and 12, as indicated by the medium and long arrows, respectively. ( b ) Determination of colonic length in control and test groups at both end time points of the study. Silencing NiMOS test groups showed an increase in colon length compared with animals from control groups except the healthy control mice. ( c ) Percent change of original body weight of Balb/c mice upon continuous exposure to DSS for development of acute colitis model for the duration of the study (12 days). Weight loss was most severe in the DSS control group as well as animals receiving blank or scrambled siRNA sequence NiMOS. The test groups consisting of cyclin D1 ( CyD1 ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and TNF-α/CyD1 siRNA-encapsulating NiMOS exhibited significantly less change in original body weight. ( d ) Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the large intestine normalized to the total protein content of each sample. Administration of silencing NiMOS led to a reduction in MPO activity in all three test groups on both time points tested whereas elevated levels were measured in the control and DSS control group, as well as groups receiving blank and inactive siRNA sequence-containing NiMOS. Levels represent concentrations obtained from samples on days 10 and 12 of the study (3 and 5 days after administration). Values are expressed as mean±s.d. ( n =4–5). Δ P

    Techniques Used: Small Interfering RNA, Mouse Assay, Sequencing, Activity Assay

    mRNA and protein expression profiles in control and short interfering RNA (siRNA)-treated mice. Murine tumor necrosis factor-α ( TNF-α ) and murine cyclin D1 ( CyD1 ) expression upon oral administration of three doses of nanoparticles-in-microsphere oral system (NiMOS; blank or encapsulating inactive (scrambled) siRNA, TNF-α siRNA, CyD1 siRNA, combined TNF-α/CyD1 siRNA) to animals under continuous dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) exposure. Each control or test group consisted of four to five animals. Gene mRNA levels were measured by real-time quantitative PCR analysis, normalized against L32 and depicted as relative gene expression of ( a ) murine TNF-α and ( b ) murine CyD1 mRNA performed on samples of the large intestines. Repeated oral administration of the respective siRNA and combination therapy loaded NiMOS led to a reduced mRNA expression of TNF-α and CyD1 , respectively, compared with DSS control animals or animals treated with unloaded or scrambled siRNA loaded NiMOS study. ( c ) Quantitative determination of TNF-α in total cell lysates from colonic tissue by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of the protein were significantly reduced in CyD1 NiMOS groups on day 10 compared with all remaining treatment and control groups including the healthy control group. On day 12, TNF-α levels were reduced in all active siRNA groups compared with the inactive (scrambled) siRNA and blank NiMOS as well as untreated and control and DSS control groups. ( d ) Western blot of total cell lysates from intestinal tissue for determination of CyD1 with the loading control β-actin. Administration of CyD1 siRNA-loaded NiMOS led to reduction in CyD1 expression compared with the remaining control and test groups on days 10 and 12, whereas protein expression was reduced in TNF-α/CyD1 combined siRNA NiMOS only on day 10 and showed a slight increase on day 12. Values are represented as mean±s.d. ( n =4–5). Control=naïve, no colitis; DSS control=colitis, no treatment; blank NiMOS=colitis, blank microspheres; scramble NiMOS=colitis, scrambled siRNA-containing microspheres; CyD1 NiMOS=colitis, CyD1 siRNA-containing microspheres; TNF-α NiMOS=colitis, TNF-α siRNA-containing microspheres; TNF/CyD1 NiMOS=colitis, microspheres containing and combination of both TNF-α and CyD1 siRNA. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: mRNA and protein expression profiles in control and short interfering RNA (siRNA)-treated mice. Murine tumor necrosis factor-α ( TNF-α ) and murine cyclin D1 ( CyD1 ) expression upon oral administration of three doses of nanoparticles-in-microsphere oral system (NiMOS; blank or encapsulating inactive (scrambled) siRNA, TNF-α siRNA, CyD1 siRNA, combined TNF-α/CyD1 siRNA) to animals under continuous dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) exposure. Each control or test group consisted of four to five animals. Gene mRNA levels were measured by real-time quantitative PCR analysis, normalized against L32 and depicted as relative gene expression of ( a ) murine TNF-α and ( b ) murine CyD1 mRNA performed on samples of the large intestines. Repeated oral administration of the respective siRNA and combination therapy loaded NiMOS led to a reduced mRNA expression of TNF-α and CyD1 , respectively, compared with DSS control animals or animals treated with unloaded or scrambled siRNA loaded NiMOS study. ( c ) Quantitative determination of TNF-α in total cell lysates from colonic tissue by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of the protein were significantly reduced in CyD1 NiMOS groups on day 10 compared with all remaining treatment and control groups including the healthy control group. On day 12, TNF-α levels were reduced in all active siRNA groups compared with the inactive (scrambled) siRNA and blank NiMOS as well as untreated and control and DSS control groups. ( d ) Western blot of total cell lysates from intestinal tissue for determination of CyD1 with the loading control β-actin. Administration of CyD1 siRNA-loaded NiMOS led to reduction in CyD1 expression compared with the remaining control and test groups on days 10 and 12, whereas protein expression was reduced in TNF-α/CyD1 combined siRNA NiMOS only on day 10 and showed a slight increase on day 12. Values are represented as mean±s.d. ( n =4–5). Control=naïve, no colitis; DSS control=colitis, no treatment; blank NiMOS=colitis, blank microspheres; scramble NiMOS=colitis, scrambled siRNA-containing microspheres; CyD1 NiMOS=colitis, CyD1 siRNA-containing microspheres; TNF-α NiMOS=colitis, TNF-α siRNA-containing microspheres; TNF/CyD1 NiMOS=colitis, microspheres containing and combination of both TNF-α and CyD1 siRNA. * P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Small Interfering RNA, Mouse Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Western Blot

    18) Product Images from "The kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate inhibits TNF-? production in vitro and prevents TNF-dependent acute hepatic inflammation"

    Article Title: The kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate inhibits TNF-? production in vitro and prevents TNF-dependent acute hepatic inflammation

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.0501758102

    Inhibition of TNF-α- and macrophage-dependent acute liver injury in mice. Either imatinib- or saline-pretreated BALB/c mice were challenged with Con A (15 mg/kg, n = 8 per group). ( A ) Plasma ALT-levels were determined 8 h after Con A injection ( * , P ≤ 0.0001). ( B ) Imatinib prevents histomorphologic liver changes [hematoxylin/eosin (H E) staining]. A representative example from each group is shown (magnification: ×150). ( C and D ) Hepatic mRNA levels of TNF-α ( C ) and the corresponding TNF-α plasma levels ( D ) were determined 2 h after Con A injection by real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively ( * , P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibition of TNF-α- and macrophage-dependent acute liver injury in mice. Either imatinib- or saline-pretreated BALB/c mice were challenged with Con A (15 mg/kg, n = 8 per group). ( A ) Plasma ALT-levels were determined 8 h after Con A injection ( * , P ≤ 0.0001). ( B ) Imatinib prevents histomorphologic liver changes [hematoxylin/eosin (H E) staining]. A representative example from each group is shown (magnification: ×150). ( C and D ) Hepatic mRNA levels of TNF-α ( C ) and the corresponding TNF-α plasma levels ( D ) were determined 2 h after Con A injection by real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively ( * , P

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Mouse Assay, Injection, Staining, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Imatinib prevents GalN/LPS-induced but not GalN/TNF-induced hepatic failure. ( A and B ) Plasma-ALT ( A ) and circulating TNF-α levels ( B ) from either imatinib- or saline-pretreated mice that were subsequently injected with GalN/LPS ( n = 4, * , P ≤ 0.01). ( C ) Plasma-ALT levels from either imatinib- or saline-treated mice that were challenged with GalN/TNF-α ( n = 4, P > 0.05). ( D ) Imatinib rescued mice from lethal doses of GalN/LPS ( n = 10 in each group; * , P ≤ 0.001).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Imatinib prevents GalN/LPS-induced but not GalN/TNF-induced hepatic failure. ( A and B ) Plasma-ALT ( A ) and circulating TNF-α levels ( B ) from either imatinib- or saline-pretreated mice that were subsequently injected with GalN/LPS ( n = 4, * , P ≤ 0.01). ( C ) Plasma-ALT levels from either imatinib- or saline-treated mice that were challenged with GalN/TNF-α ( n = 4, P > 0.05). ( D ) Imatinib rescued mice from lethal doses of GalN/LPS ( n = 10 in each group; * , P ≤ 0.001).

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Injection

    Imatinib inhibits TNF-α production in human myeloid cells. Human PBMCs, monocytes, or macrophages were exposed to either saline or imatinib (1 h, 1 μM) followed by 3-h stimulation with 100 ng/ml LPS. ( A ) LPS-induced TNF-α levels in supernatants of all three cell types as determined by ELISA ( n = 5; * , P ≤ 0.01). ( B and C ) Imatinib dose-dependently inhibits LPS-induced TNF-α protein ( B ) ( n = 5; * , P ≤ 0.01) and TNF-α mRNA expression ( C ) ( n = 3; * , P ≤ 0.01) in human PBMCs.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Imatinib inhibits TNF-α production in human myeloid cells. Human PBMCs, monocytes, or macrophages were exposed to either saline or imatinib (1 h, 1 μM) followed by 3-h stimulation with 100 ng/ml LPS. ( A ) LPS-induced TNF-α levels in supernatants of all three cell types as determined by ELISA ( n = 5; * , P ≤ 0.01). ( B and C ) Imatinib dose-dependently inhibits LPS-induced TNF-α protein ( B ) ( n = 5; * , P ≤ 0.01) and TNF-α mRNA expression ( C ) ( n = 3; * , P ≤ 0.01) in human PBMCs.

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Expressing

    19) Product Images from "Lipopolysaccharide augments the in vivo lethal action of doxorubicin against mice via hepatic damage"

    Article Title: Lipopolysaccharide augments the in vivo lethal action of doxorubicin against mice via hepatic damage

    Journal:

    doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2007.03568.x

    Role of TNF-α and IFN-γ in the lethal action of DOX
    Figure Legend Snippet: Role of TNF-α and IFN-γ in the lethal action of DOX

    Techniques Used:

    Role of TNF-α and IFN-γ in the lethal action of DOX
    Figure Legend Snippet: Role of TNF-α and IFN-γ in the lethal action of DOX

    Techniques Used:

    20) Product Images from "Tumor Necrosis Factor-? Mediates Diabetes-Enhanced Apoptosis of Matrix-Producing Cells and Impairs Diabetic Healing"

    Article Title: Tumor Necrosis Factor-? Mediates Diabetes-Enhanced Apoptosis of Matrix-Producing Cells and Impairs Diabetic Healing

    Journal: The American Journal of Pathology

    doi: 10.2353/ajpath.2006.050907

    TNF-α inhibition reduces fibroblast apoptosis and caspase-3 activity in both diabetic and normoglycemic mice during the early response to bacterial stimulus. Live P. gingivalis was inoculated into the scalp of diabetic (db/db) and normoglycemic (db/+) littermates. TNF-α was inhibited by local and systemic injection of etanercept while control mice received an injection of vehicle alone. Mice were euthanized 21 hours after bacterial inoculation. Fibroblast apoptosis was detected with the TUNEL assay, and caspase-3 activity was measured using a fluorimetric kit. An asterisk indicates a significant difference in mice treated with etanercept compared to vehicle alone ( P
    Figure Legend Snippet: TNF-α inhibition reduces fibroblast apoptosis and caspase-3 activity in both diabetic and normoglycemic mice during the early response to bacterial stimulus. Live P. gingivalis was inoculated into the scalp of diabetic (db/db) and normoglycemic (db/+) littermates. TNF-α was inhibited by local and systemic injection of etanercept while control mice received an injection of vehicle alone. Mice were euthanized 21 hours after bacterial inoculation. Fibroblast apoptosis was detected with the TUNEL assay, and caspase-3 activity was measured using a fluorimetric kit. An asterisk indicates a significant difference in mice treated with etanercept compared to vehicle alone ( P

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Activity Assay, Mouse Assay, Injection, TUNEL Assay

    21) Product Images from "A Francisella tularensis Locus Required for Spermine Responsiveness Is Necessary for Virulence ▿"

    Article Title: A Francisella tularensis Locus Required for Spermine Responsiveness Is Necessary for Virulence ▿

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.00135-11

    LVS ΔFTL_0883 and Schu S4 ΔFTT_0615c stimulate TNF-α. Bacteria cultivated overnight in TSB-C were used to infect either human macrophages or murine BMDM at an MOI of 10. After 24 h, the supernatants were removed, and an ELISA was
    Figure Legend Snippet: LVS ΔFTL_0883 and Schu S4 ΔFTT_0615c stimulate TNF-α. Bacteria cultivated overnight in TSB-C were used to infect either human macrophages or murine BMDM at an MOI of 10. After 24 h, the supernatants were removed, and an ELISA was

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    TNF-α receptor and IL-1β receptor contribute to prolonged survival of mice infected with ΔFTT_0615c. Control (B6129SF2/J) or knockout (TNFR1/IL-1R1 KO) mice were infected intratracheally with 80 CFU of ΔFTT_0615c, and survival
    Figure Legend Snippet: TNF-α receptor and IL-1β receptor contribute to prolonged survival of mice infected with ΔFTT_0615c. Control (B6129SF2/J) or knockout (TNFR1/IL-1R1 KO) mice were infected intratracheally with 80 CFU of ΔFTT_0615c, and survival

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Infection, Knock-Out

    22) Product Images from "Polyphenolic Extract from Tarocco (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) Clone “Lempso” Exerts Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects via NF-kB and Nrf-2 Activation in Murine Macrophages"

    Article Title: Polyphenolic Extract from Tarocco (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) Clone “Lempso” Exerts Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects via NF-kB and Nrf-2 Activation in Murine Macrophages

    Journal: Nutrients

    doi: 10.3390/nu10121961

    Effect of LFE (10–50 μg mL −1 ) on LPS –induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (Panel A) and interleukin (IL)-6 (Panel B) production in J774A.1 macrophages. TNF-α and IL-6 production was measured in the supernatants of J774A.1 cells treated with LFE (10–50 μg mL −1 ) and LPS (1 μg mL −1 ) for 18 h by means of Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA). Values are expressed as mean ± s.e.m of at least three experiments, each in triplicate. Comparisons were performed using one-way analysis of variance and multiple comparisons were made by Bonferroni’s test. *** denotes p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of LFE (10–50 μg mL −1 ) on LPS –induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (Panel A) and interleukin (IL)-6 (Panel B) production in J774A.1 macrophages. TNF-α and IL-6 production was measured in the supernatants of J774A.1 cells treated with LFE (10–50 μg mL −1 ) and LPS (1 μg mL −1 ) for 18 h by means of Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA). Values are expressed as mean ± s.e.m of at least three experiments, each in triplicate. Comparisons were performed using one-way analysis of variance and multiple comparisons were made by Bonferroni’s test. *** denotes p

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    23) Product Images from "Indoxyl Sulfate Affects Glial Function Increasing Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation in Chronic Kidney Disease: Interaction between Astrocytes and Microglia"

    Article Title: Indoxyl Sulfate Affects Glial Function Increasing Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation in Chronic Kidney Disease: Interaction between Astrocytes and Microglia

    Journal: Frontiers in Pharmacology

    doi: 10.3389/fphar.2017.00370

    Effect of IS (15–60 μM) on iNOS (A) , COX-2 (B) expression by astrocytes and mixed glial cells. Cellular fluorescence was evaluated using fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis (FACSscan; Becton Dickinson) and elaborated with Cell Quest software. Values are expressed as mean fluorescence intensity ( n = 9). Effect of IS (15–60 μM) TNF-α (C) and IL-6 (D) release by astrocytes and mixed glial cells ( n = 9). Cyokine release was assessed by ELISA assay and expressed as pg/ml ( n = 9). ∘∘∘ , ∘∘ , and °denote P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of IS (15–60 μM) on iNOS (A) , COX-2 (B) expression by astrocytes and mixed glial cells. Cellular fluorescence was evaluated using fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis (FACSscan; Becton Dickinson) and elaborated with Cell Quest software. Values are expressed as mean fluorescence intensity ( n = 9). Effect of IS (15–60 μM) TNF-α (C) and IL-6 (D) release by astrocytes and mixed glial cells ( n = 9). Cyokine release was assessed by ELISA assay and expressed as pg/ml ( n = 9). ∘∘∘ , ∘∘ , and °denote P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Fluorescence, FACS, Software, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    24) Product Images from "AST-120 Reduces Neuroinflammation Induced by Indoxyl Sulfate in Glial Cells"

    Article Title: AST-120 Reduces Neuroinflammation Induced by Indoxyl Sulfate in Glial Cells

    Journal: Journal of Clinical Medicine

    doi: 10.3390/jcm7100365

    Effect of IS (60, 30 and 15 μM) in inflammatory conditions, induced by LPS (1 µg/mL) + IFN (100 U/mL), on NO relase ( Panel A ), evaluated as NO 2 [µM]. Effect of IS (15–60 μM) in presence of LPS (1 µg/mL) + IFN (100 U/mL) on iNOS ( Panel B ), and COX-2 ( Panel D ) expression in primary astrocytes and mixed glial cells. Cellular fluorescence was evaluated using fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis (FACSscan; Becton Dickinson), and elaborated with Cell Quest software. Panel C shows the representative fluorescence images for iNOS expression (for primary astrocytes the pink line represent the cellular control, the blue line represent LPS + IFN, the yellow line represent IS 30 µM + LPS + IFN; for mixed glial cells the violet line represent the cellular control, the light blue line represent LPS + IFN, the orange line represent IS 30 µM + LPS + IFN). Panel E shows the representative fluorescence images for COX-2 expression (for primary astrocytes the pink line represent the cellular control, the blue line represent LPS + IFN, the yellow line represent IS 30 µM with LPS + IFN; for mixed glial cells the violet line represent the cellular control, the light blue line represent LPS + IFN, the orange line represent IS 30 µM with LPS + IFN. Effect of IS (15, 30, and 60 μM) in inflammatory conditions, induced by LPS (1 µg/mL) and IFN (100 U/mL) on TNF-α ( Panel F ) and on IL-6 ( Panel G ) release by astrocytes and mixed glial cells. Cyokine release was assessed by ELISA assay. Values are expressed as NO 2 - release, or mean fluorescence intensity or as pg/mL protein for cytokines. Comparisons were performed using a one-way analysis of variance and multiple comparisons were made by Bonferroni’s post test. °°° denotes p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of IS (60, 30 and 15 μM) in inflammatory conditions, induced by LPS (1 µg/mL) + IFN (100 U/mL), on NO relase ( Panel A ), evaluated as NO 2 [µM]. Effect of IS (15–60 μM) in presence of LPS (1 µg/mL) + IFN (100 U/mL) on iNOS ( Panel B ), and COX-2 ( Panel D ) expression in primary astrocytes and mixed glial cells. Cellular fluorescence was evaluated using fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis (FACSscan; Becton Dickinson), and elaborated with Cell Quest software. Panel C shows the representative fluorescence images for iNOS expression (for primary astrocytes the pink line represent the cellular control, the blue line represent LPS + IFN, the yellow line represent IS 30 µM + LPS + IFN; for mixed glial cells the violet line represent the cellular control, the light blue line represent LPS + IFN, the orange line represent IS 30 µM + LPS + IFN). Panel E shows the representative fluorescence images for COX-2 expression (for primary astrocytes the pink line represent the cellular control, the blue line represent LPS + IFN, the yellow line represent IS 30 µM with LPS + IFN; for mixed glial cells the violet line represent the cellular control, the light blue line represent LPS + IFN, the orange line represent IS 30 µM with LPS + IFN. Effect of IS (15, 30, and 60 μM) in inflammatory conditions, induced by LPS (1 µg/mL) and IFN (100 U/mL) on TNF-α ( Panel F ) and on IL-6 ( Panel G ) release by astrocytes and mixed glial cells. Cyokine release was assessed by ELISA assay. Values are expressed as NO 2 - release, or mean fluorescence intensity or as pg/mL protein for cytokines. Comparisons were performed using a one-way analysis of variance and multiple comparisons were made by Bonferroni’s post test. °°° denotes p

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Fluorescence, FACS, Software, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Effect of sera from eighteen different subjects: four healthy people (H1–H4; Panel A and D ), eight CKD patients (CKD1–CKD8; Panel B and E ) and six CKD dialysed patients (HD1–HD6; Panel C and F ), with or without AST-120, on nitrite ( Panel A – C ) and on TNF-α ( Panel D – F ) production in inflammatory conditions, induced by LPS (1 µg/mL) and IFN (100 U/mL) in C6 cells. Values are expressed as [µM] NO 2 − release, or as pg/mL protein, respectively. Comparisons were performed using a one-way analysis of variance and multiple comparisons were made by Bonferroni’s test. °°° denotes p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of sera from eighteen different subjects: four healthy people (H1–H4; Panel A and D ), eight CKD patients (CKD1–CKD8; Panel B and E ) and six CKD dialysed patients (HD1–HD6; Panel C and F ), with or without AST-120, on nitrite ( Panel A – C ) and on TNF-α ( Panel D – F ) production in inflammatory conditions, induced by LPS (1 µg/mL) and IFN (100 U/mL) in C6 cells. Values are expressed as [µM] NO 2 − release, or as pg/mL protein, respectively. Comparisons were performed using a one-way analysis of variance and multiple comparisons were made by Bonferroni’s test. °°° denotes p

    Techniques Used: AST Assay

    25) Product Images from "Immunization with an Apoptotic Cell-Binding Protein Recapitulates the Nephritis and Sequential Autoantibody Emergence of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus"

    Article Title: Immunization with an Apoptotic Cell-Binding Protein Recapitulates the Nephritis and Sequential Autoantibody Emergence of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Journal:

    doi:

    LPS and TNF- α induce loss of self-tolerance to β 2 GPI and production of autoreactive aCL. BALB/c mice were immunized with soluble or apoptotic cell-bound human β 2 GPI in the presence of LPS, TNF- α , or levan. Diluted (1/100)
    Figure Legend Snippet: LPS and TNF- α induce loss of self-tolerance to β 2 GPI and production of autoreactive aCL. BALB/c mice were immunized with soluble or apoptotic cell-bound human β 2 GPI in the presence of LPS, TNF- α , or levan. Diluted (1/100)

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

    LPS and TNF- α differentially affect the IgG and IgM anti- β 2 GPI responses to soluble and apoptotic cell-bound β 2 GPI. BALB/c mice were immunized with soluble or apoptotic cell-bound HEPES buffer without (−) or with (+) human
    Figure Legend Snippet: LPS and TNF- α differentially affect the IgG and IgM anti- β 2 GPI responses to soluble and apoptotic cell-bound β 2 GPI. BALB/c mice were immunized with soluble or apoptotic cell-bound HEPES buffer without (−) or with (+) human

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

    26) Product Images from "GCF2/LRRFIP1 Represses Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Expression"

    Article Title: GCF2/LRRFIP1 Represses Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Expression

    Journal:

    doi: 10.1128/MCB.25.20.9073-9081.2005

    (A) The affinity of the TNF-α −308A sequence for the DNA-binding complex is higher than the affinity of the TNF-α −308G sequence. This is a representative example of several different independent experiments. The polymorphic
    Figure Legend Snippet: (A) The affinity of the TNF-α −308A sequence for the DNA-binding complex is higher than the affinity of the TNF-α −308G sequence. This is a representative example of several different independent experiments. The polymorphic

    Techniques Used: Sequencing, Binding Assay

    TNF-α production by macrophages and lymphocytes from donors with and without the polymorphism.
    Figure Legend Snippet: TNF-α production by macrophages and lymphocytes from donors with and without the polymorphism.

    Techniques Used:

    Related Articles

    Clone Assay:

    Article Title: Site-specific protein modifications through pyrroline-carboxy-lysine residues
    Article Snippet: Mouse tumor necrosis factor alpha (mTNF-α), human FK506-binding protein 1A (FKBP) and mouse epidermal growth factor (mEGF) were cloned into pET vectors using PIPE ( ). .. FAS-TE constructs with a purine at the +1 codon position after TAG (CTG2223ATT, TCC2307AGC, CGG2351AGG, and CAG2373AAT) were constructed to reduce termination efficiency ( ). hFAS-TE was expressed in HK100 cells ( ); mTNF-α, FKBP, and mEGF were expressed in BL21(DE3) cells (Invitrogen) grown in terrific broth media (Sigma) at 37 °C supplemented with 5 mM D-Orn .

    Amplification:

    Article Title: Systemic inflammation in glucocerebrosidase-deficient mice with minimal glucosylceramide storage
    Article Snippet: The TaqMan Pre-developed Assay Reagent kits for murine TNF-α and IL-1β (Applied Biosystems) were used. .. For standardization of quantitation, GAPDH was amplified simultaneously.

    Synthesized:

    Article Title: Systemic inflammation in glucocerebrosidase-deficient mice with minimal glucosylceramide storage
    Article Snippet: The TaqMan Pre-developed Assay Reagent kits for murine TNF-α and IL-1β (Applied Biosystems) were used. .. Total RNA was isolated from liver and lymph nodes with TRIzol (GIBCO BRL; Life Technologies Inc., Rockville, Maryland, USA). cDNA was synthesized from total RNA with reverse transcriptase reaction using the Superscript II kit (Invitrogen Corp., Carlsbad, California, USA). cDNA was synthesized from 1 μg of total RNA for TNF-α and 300 ng of total RNA for IL-1β.

    Construct:

    Article Title: Site-specific protein modifications through pyrroline-carboxy-lysine residues
    Article Snippet: .. FAS-TE constructs with a purine at the +1 codon position after TAG (CTG2223ATT, TCC2307AGC, CGG2351AGG, and CAG2373AAT) were constructed to reduce termination efficiency ( ). hFAS-TE was expressed in HK100 cells ( ); mTNF-α, FKBP, and mEGF were expressed in BL21(DE3) cells (Invitrogen) grown in terrific broth media (Sigma) at 37 °C supplemented with 5 mM D-Orn . .. Proteins were purified using Ni-NTA (Qiagen) chromatography and yields are listed in .

    Article Title: Oral TNF-? Gene Silencing using a Polymeric Microsphere-Based Delivery System for the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease
    Article Snippet: .. Pre-diluted cDNA was mixed with 0.2 μM of primer pair detecting the murine TNF-α or L32 construct and SYBR® Green pcr master mix and pipetted into an ABI Prism™ 96-well optical reaction plate (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). .. The quantitative PCR reaction was performed in the 7300 Real-Time PCR System from Applied Biosystems using the following cycle program: 40 cycles 95°C for 15 seconds; 60°C for 1 minute.

    SYBR Green Assay:

    Article Title: Oral TNF-? Gene Silencing using a Polymeric Microsphere-Based Delivery System for the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease
    Article Snippet: .. Pre-diluted cDNA was mixed with 0.2 μM of primer pair detecting the murine TNF-α or L32 construct and SYBR® Green pcr master mix and pipetted into an ABI Prism™ 96-well optical reaction plate (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). .. The quantitative PCR reaction was performed in the 7300 Real-Time PCR System from Applied Biosystems using the following cycle program: 40 cycles 95°C for 15 seconds; 60°C for 1 minute.

    Quantitation Assay:

    Article Title: Systemic inflammation in glucocerebrosidase-deficient mice with minimal glucosylceramide storage
    Article Snippet: The TaqMan Pre-developed Assay Reagent kits for murine TNF-α and IL-1β (Applied Biosystems) were used. .. For standardization of quantitation, GAPDH was amplified simultaneously.

    Expressing:

    Article Title: Systemic inflammation in glucocerebrosidase-deficient mice with minimal glucosylceramide storage
    Article Snippet: Cytokine gene expression levels were determined after reverse transcription of RNA samples by real-time PCR by using an ABI PRISM 7700 Sequence Detection System (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, California, USA) as described previously ( ). .. The TaqMan Pre-developed Assay Reagent kits for murine TNF-α and IL-1β (Applied Biosystems) were used.

    Article Title: Branched RNA: A New Architecture for RNA Interference
    Article Snippet: .. HeLa cells were transfected with 250 ng of a plasmid expressing murine TNF-α using lipofectin (Invitrogen ), following the manufacturer's instructions. .. One hour after transfection cells were transfected with 100 nM double strand concentration of siRNA against TNF-α , using oligofectamine (Invitrogen ).

    Article Title: Site-specific protein modifications through pyrroline-carboxy-lysine residues
    Article Snippet: E. coli cells were cotransformed with pAra-pylSTCD and an expression plasmid for the protein of interest as described ( ). .. FAS-TE constructs with a purine at the +1 codon position after TAG (CTG2223ATT, TCC2307AGC, CGG2351AGG, and CAG2373AAT) were constructed to reduce termination efficiency ( ). hFAS-TE was expressed in HK100 cells ( ); mTNF-α, FKBP, and mEGF were expressed in BL21(DE3) cells (Invitrogen) grown in terrific broth media (Sigma) at 37 °C supplemented with 5 mM D-Orn .

    Article Title: Oral TNF-? Gene Silencing using a Polymeric Microsphere-Based Delivery System for the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease
    Article Snippet: L32 gene expressing the L32 ribosomal protein served as a control. .. Pre-diluted cDNA was mixed with 0.2 μM of primer pair detecting the murine TNF-α or L32 construct and SYBR® Green pcr master mix and pipetted into an ABI Prism™ 96-well optical reaction plate (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA).

    Modification:

    Article Title: Inhibitory effect of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on titanium particle-induced TNF-? release and in vivo osteolysis
    Article Snippet: Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM), L-glutamine, penicillin, streptomycin, and fetal bovine serum (FBS) were from Gibco Invitrogen (Rockville, MD). .. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for murine TNF-α was obtained from BioSource International (Camarillo, CA). (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was from Sigma (St. Louis, MO).

    Article Title: Branched RNA: A New Architecture for RNA Interference
    Article Snippet: Cell Culture, Transfection, and Cellular Assays HeLa cells were cultured under standard conditions (37°C, 5% CO2 , Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium, 10% fetal bovine serum, 2 mM L-glutamine, supplemented with penicillin (100 U/mL) and streptomycin (100 mg/mL)). .. HeLa cells were transfected with 250 ng of a plasmid expressing murine TNF-α using lipofectin (Invitrogen ), following the manufacturer's instructions.

    Transfection:

    Article Title: Branched RNA: A New Architecture for RNA Interference
    Article Snippet: .. HeLa cells were transfected with 250 ng of a plasmid expressing murine TNF-α using lipofectin (Invitrogen ), following the manufacturer's instructions. .. One hour after transfection cells were transfected with 100 nM double strand concentration of siRNA against TNF-α , using oligofectamine (Invitrogen ).

    Article Title: Site-specific protein modifications through pyrroline-carboxy-lysine residues
    Article Snippet: FAS-TE constructs with a purine at the +1 codon position after TAG (CTG2223ATT, TCC2307AGC, CGG2351AGG, and CAG2373AAT) were constructed to reduce termination efficiency ( ). hFAS-TE was expressed in HK100 cells ( ); mTNF-α, FKBP, and mEGF were expressed in BL21(DE3) cells (Invitrogen) grown in terrific broth media (Sigma) at 37 °C supplemented with 5 mM D-Orn . .. Pcl incorporation into proteins in HEK293F cells was accomplished by transient transfection ( ).

    Chromatography:

    Article Title: Site-specific protein modifications through pyrroline-carboxy-lysine residues
    Article Snippet: FAS-TE constructs with a purine at the +1 codon position after TAG (CTG2223ATT, TCC2307AGC, CGG2351AGG, and CAG2373AAT) were constructed to reduce termination efficiency ( ). hFAS-TE was expressed in HK100 cells ( ); mTNF-α, FKBP, and mEGF were expressed in BL21(DE3) cells (Invitrogen) grown in terrific broth media (Sigma) at 37 °C supplemented with 5 mM D-Orn . .. Proteins were purified using Ni-NTA (Qiagen) chromatography and yields are listed in .

    Activation Assay:

    Article Title: PD-1 blunts the function of ovarian tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells by inactivating NF-κB
    Article Snippet: For murine TNF-α, ELISA kits from eBioscience were used according to manufacturer’s protocol. .. CD11c+ cells were isolated from ascites of tumor-bearing mice or humans, settled overnight in culture and then treated with DMSO, 10 μM, 2.5 μM, 1.25 μM PTP Inhibitor IV (SHP-2 inhibitor) from EMD Millipore (Billerica, MA), or 10uM NFKB Activation Inhibitor VI, BOT-64 from Santa Cruz Biotech (Santa Cruz, CA) for 2 hrs.

    Cell Culture:

    Article Title: Branched RNA: A New Architecture for RNA Interference
    Article Snippet: Paragraph title: 2.3. Cell Culture, Transfection, and Cellular Assays ... HeLa cells were transfected with 250 ng of a plasmid expressing murine TNF-α using lipofectin (Invitrogen ), following the manufacturer's instructions.

    Article Title: Effect of Hochuekkito on Alveolar Macrophage Inflammatory Responses in Hyperglycemic Mice
    Article Snippet: Cells were cultured in the medium alone or stimulated with specified reagents, and RNA was isolated at the indicated time points using the RNAqueous Kit (Ambion, Austin, TX) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. .. Specific primers for murine TNF-α, TLR2, 4, and 5 were designed, and PCR was performed in triplicate with Fast Universal PCR Master Mix in the ABI 7500 Fast Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems).

    Article Title: Signaling events in pathogen-induced macrophage foam cell formation
    Article Snippet: .. Cell culture supernatant fluids were assayed using commercially available ELISA kits for murine TNF-α (eBioscience, San Diego, CA), IL-1β and IL-6 (R & D Systems, Minneapolis, MN) according to the manufacturer's instructions. .. Plates were read in an ELx800 Universal Microplate Reader (Bio-Tek Instruments, Inc., Winooski, VT), and data analyzed using SoftMax Pro 4.6 software.

    Article Title: AST-120 Reduces Neuroinflammation Induced by Indoxyl Sulfate in Glial Cells
    Article Snippet: TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations in the supernatant of cultured primary astrocytes and mixed glial cells were assessed using an Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA). .. Commercially-available kits for murine TNF-α and IL-6 were used according to the manufacturer’s instruction (e-Biosciences, San Diego, CA, USA).

    Affinity Magnetic Separation:

    Article Title: Effect of Hochuekkito on Alveolar Macrophage Inflammatory Responses in Hyperglycemic Mice
    Article Snippet: Real-Time PCR AMs were plated in 12-well plates at 4 × 105 cells per well. .. Specific primers for murine TNF-α, TLR2, 4, and 5 were designed, and PCR was performed in triplicate with Fast Universal PCR Master Mix in the ABI 7500 Fast Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems).

    Cytokine Assay:

    Article Title: Signaling events in pathogen-induced macrophage foam cell formation
    Article Snippet: Paragraph title: Cytokine assay ... Cell culture supernatant fluids were assayed using commercially available ELISA kits for murine TNF-α (eBioscience, San Diego, CA), IL-1β and IL-6 (R & D Systems, Minneapolis, MN) according to the manufacturer's instructions.

    Sequencing:

    Article Title: Systemic inflammation in glucocerebrosidase-deficient mice with minimal glucosylceramide storage
    Article Snippet: Cytokine gene expression levels were determined after reverse transcription of RNA samples by real-time PCR by using an ABI PRISM 7700 Sequence Detection System (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, California, USA) as described previously ( ). .. The TaqMan Pre-developed Assay Reagent kits for murine TNF-α and IL-1β (Applied Biosystems) were used.

    Binding Assay:

    Article Title: Site-specific protein modifications through pyrroline-carboxy-lysine residues
    Article Snippet: FAS-TE constructs with a purine at the +1 codon position after TAG (CTG2223ATT, TCC2307AGC, CGG2351AGG, and CAG2373AAT) were constructed to reduce termination efficiency ( ). hFAS-TE was expressed in HK100 cells ( ); mTNF-α, FKBP, and mEGF were expressed in BL21(DE3) cells (Invitrogen) grown in terrific broth media (Sigma) at 37 °C supplemented with 5 mM D-Orn . .. TAG codons were introduced into pRS expression vectors for human retinol binding protein (hRBP4), mouse erythropoietin (mEPO), two mIgG1 Fc constructs (Fc1, Fc2), and a human IgG4 antibody (hIgG4) ( ).

    Mutagenesis:

    Article Title: Systemic inflammation in glucocerebrosidase-deficient mice with minimal glucosylceramide storage
    Article Snippet: The TaqMan Pre-developed Assay Reagent kits for murine TNF-α and IL-1β (Applied Biosystems) were used. .. The expression level of each gene is presented as fold increase in mutant mice compared with control mice.

    Isolation:

    Article Title: Systemic inflammation in glucocerebrosidase-deficient mice with minimal glucosylceramide storage
    Article Snippet: The TaqMan Pre-developed Assay Reagent kits for murine TNF-α and IL-1β (Applied Biosystems) were used. .. Total RNA was isolated from liver and lymph nodes with TRIzol (GIBCO BRL; Life Technologies Inc., Rockville, Maryland, USA). cDNA was synthesized from total RNA with reverse transcriptase reaction using the Superscript II kit (Invitrogen Corp., Carlsbad, California, USA). cDNA was synthesized from 1 μg of total RNA for TNF-α and 300 ng of total RNA for IL-1β.

    Article Title: Effect of Hochuekkito on Alveolar Macrophage Inflammatory Responses in Hyperglycemic Mice
    Article Snippet: Cells were cultured in the medium alone or stimulated with specified reagents, and RNA was isolated at the indicated time points using the RNAqueous Kit (Ambion, Austin, TX) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. .. Specific primers for murine TNF-α, TLR2, 4, and 5 were designed, and PCR was performed in triplicate with Fast Universal PCR Master Mix in the ABI 7500 Fast Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems).

    Article Title: PD-1 blunts the function of ovarian tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells by inactivating NF-κB
    Article Snippet: For murine TNF-α, ELISA kits from eBioscience were used according to manufacturer’s protocol. .. CD11c+ cells were isolated from ascites of tumor-bearing mice or humans, settled overnight in culture and then treated with DMSO, 10 μM, 2.5 μM, 1.25 μM PTP Inhibitor IV (SHP-2 inhibitor) from EMD Millipore (Billerica, MA), or 10uM NFKB Activation Inhibitor VI, BOT-64 from Santa Cruz Biotech (Santa Cruz, CA) for 2 hrs.

    Mouse Assay:

    Article Title: Systemic inflammation in glucocerebrosidase-deficient mice with minimal glucosylceramide storage
    Article Snippet: The TaqMan Pre-developed Assay Reagent kits for murine TNF-α and IL-1β (Applied Biosystems) were used. .. The expression level of each gene is presented as fold increase in mutant mice compared with control mice.

    Article Title: PD-1 blunts the function of ovarian tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells by inactivating NF-κB
    Article Snippet: For murine TNF-α, ELISA kits from eBioscience were used according to manufacturer’s protocol. .. CD11c+ cells were isolated from ascites of tumor-bearing mice or humans, settled overnight in culture and then treated with DMSO, 10 μM, 2.5 μM, 1.25 μM PTP Inhibitor IV (SHP-2 inhibitor) from EMD Millipore (Billerica, MA), or 10uM NFKB Activation Inhibitor VI, BOT-64 from Santa Cruz Biotech (Santa Cruz, CA) for 2 hrs.

    Polymerase Chain Reaction:

    Article Title: Effect of Hochuekkito on Alveolar Macrophage Inflammatory Responses in Hyperglycemic Mice
    Article Snippet: .. Specific primers for murine TNF-α, TLR2, 4, and 5 were designed, and PCR was performed in triplicate with Fast Universal PCR Master Mix in the ABI 7500 Fast Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems). ..

    Article Title: Oral TNF-? Gene Silencing using a Polymeric Microsphere-Based Delivery System for the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease
    Article Snippet: .. Pre-diluted cDNA was mixed with 0.2 μM of primer pair detecting the murine TNF-α or L32 construct and SYBR® Green pcr master mix and pipetted into an ABI Prism™ 96-well optical reaction plate (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). .. The quantitative PCR reaction was performed in the 7300 Real-Time PCR System from Applied Biosystems using the following cycle program: 40 cycles 95°C for 15 seconds; 60°C for 1 minute.

    Purification:

    Article Title: Site-specific protein modifications through pyrroline-carboxy-lysine residues
    Article Snippet: FAS-TE constructs with a purine at the +1 codon position after TAG (CTG2223ATT, TCC2307AGC, CGG2351AGG, and CAG2373AAT) were constructed to reduce termination efficiency ( ). hFAS-TE was expressed in HK100 cells ( ); mTNF-α, FKBP, and mEGF were expressed in BL21(DE3) cells (Invitrogen) grown in terrific broth media (Sigma) at 37 °C supplemented with 5 mM D-Orn . .. Proteins were purified using Ni-NTA (Qiagen) chromatography and yields are listed in .

    Plasmid Preparation:

    Article Title: Branched RNA: A New Architecture for RNA Interference
    Article Snippet: .. HeLa cells were transfected with 250 ng of a plasmid expressing murine TNF-α using lipofectin (Invitrogen ), following the manufacturer's instructions. .. One hour after transfection cells were transfected with 100 nM double strand concentration of siRNA against TNF-α , using oligofectamine (Invitrogen ).

    Article Title: Site-specific protein modifications through pyrroline-carboxy-lysine residues
    Article Snippet: The thioesterase domain of human fatty acid synthase (hFAS-TE) was expressed using a pMH4 plasmid. .. FAS-TE constructs with a purine at the +1 codon position after TAG (CTG2223ATT, TCC2307AGC, CGG2351AGG, and CAG2373AAT) were constructed to reduce termination efficiency ( ). hFAS-TE was expressed in HK100 cells ( ); mTNF-α, FKBP, and mEGF were expressed in BL21(DE3) cells (Invitrogen) grown in terrific broth media (Sigma) at 37 °C supplemented with 5 mM D-Orn .

    Software:

    Article Title: Signaling events in pathogen-induced macrophage foam cell formation
    Article Snippet: Cell culture supernatant fluids were assayed using commercially available ELISA kits for murine TNF-α (eBioscience, San Diego, CA), IL-1β and IL-6 (R & D Systems, Minneapolis, MN) according to the manufacturer's instructions. .. Plates were read in an ELx800 Universal Microplate Reader (Bio-Tek Instruments, Inc., Winooski, VT), and data analyzed using SoftMax Pro 4.6 software.

    Article Title: PD-1 blunts the function of ovarian tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells by inactivating NF-κB
    Article Snippet: For murine TNF-α, ELISA kits from eBioscience were used according to manufacturer’s protocol. .. The TNFα levels were read using “Soft Max Pro” software for a HRP-TMB endpoint.

    Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction:

    Article Title: Systemic inflammation in glucocerebrosidase-deficient mice with minimal glucosylceramide storage
    Article Snippet: Paragraph title: Quantitative mRNA analysis by real-time PCR. ... The TaqMan Pre-developed Assay Reagent kits for murine TNF-α and IL-1β (Applied Biosystems) were used.

    Article Title: Effect of Hochuekkito on Alveolar Macrophage Inflammatory Responses in Hyperglycemic Mice
    Article Snippet: .. Specific primers for murine TNF-α, TLR2, 4, and 5 were designed, and PCR was performed in triplicate with Fast Universal PCR Master Mix in the ABI 7500 Fast Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems). ..

    Article Title: Oral TNF-? Gene Silencing using a Polymeric Microsphere-Based Delivery System for the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease
    Article Snippet: Paragraph title: Quantitative analysis of cDNA by quantitative polymerase chain reaction ... Pre-diluted cDNA was mixed with 0.2 μM of primer pair detecting the murine TNF-α or L32 construct and SYBR® Green pcr master mix and pipetted into an ABI Prism™ 96-well optical reaction plate (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA).

    Positron Emission Tomography:

    Article Title: Site-specific protein modifications through pyrroline-carboxy-lysine residues
    Article Snippet: Mouse tumor necrosis factor alpha (mTNF-α), human FK506-binding protein 1A (FKBP) and mouse epidermal growth factor (mEGF) were cloned into pET vectors using PIPE ( ). .. FAS-TE constructs with a purine at the +1 codon position after TAG (CTG2223ATT, TCC2307AGC, CGG2351AGG, and CAG2373AAT) were constructed to reduce termination efficiency ( ). hFAS-TE was expressed in HK100 cells ( ); mTNF-α, FKBP, and mEGF were expressed in BL21(DE3) cells (Invitrogen) grown in terrific broth media (Sigma) at 37 °C supplemented with 5 mM D-Orn .

    Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay:

    Article Title: Inhibitory effect of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on titanium particle-induced TNF-? release and in vivo osteolysis
    Article Snippet: .. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for murine TNF-α was obtained from BioSource International (Camarillo, CA). (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was from Sigma (St. Louis, MO). .. A nitrocellulose membrane and an enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) kit were purchased from Amersham Biosciences Corp. (Piscataway, NJ).

    Article Title: Branched RNA: A New Architecture for RNA Interference
    Article Snippet: HeLa cells were transfected with 250 ng of a plasmid expressing murine TNF-α using lipofectin (Invitrogen ), following the manufacturer's instructions. .. TNF-α concentration was determined from cell culture supernatant by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (Bender MedSystems ) following the manufacturer's instructions.

    Article Title: Signaling events in pathogen-induced macrophage foam cell formation
    Article Snippet: .. Cell culture supernatant fluids were assayed using commercially available ELISA kits for murine TNF-α (eBioscience, San Diego, CA), IL-1β and IL-6 (R & D Systems, Minneapolis, MN) according to the manufacturer's instructions. .. Plates were read in an ELx800 Universal Microplate Reader (Bio-Tek Instruments, Inc., Winooski, VT), and data analyzed using SoftMax Pro 4.6 software.

    Article Title: PD-1 blunts the function of ovarian tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells by inactivating NF-κB
    Article Snippet: .. For murine TNF-α, ELISA kits from eBioscience were used according to manufacturer’s protocol. .. CD11c+ cells were isolated from ascites of tumor-bearing mice or humans, settled overnight in culture and then treated with DMSO, 10 μM, 2.5 μM, 1.25 μM PTP Inhibitor IV (SHP-2 inhibitor) from EMD Millipore (Billerica, MA), or 10uM NFKB Activation Inhibitor VI, BOT-64 from Santa Cruz Biotech (Santa Cruz, CA) for 2 hrs.

    Article Title: Polyphenolic Extract from Tarocco (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) Clone “Lempso” Exerts Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects via NF-kB and Nrf-2 Activation in Murine Macrophages
    Article Snippet: .. TNF-α and IL-6 Determination in Macrophages J774A.1 Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 concentrations in J774A.1 treated with LFE (10–50 μg mL−1 ) and LPS (1 μg mL−1 ) for 18 h, as previously described, were assessed by an Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) assay by using a commercial kit, for murine TNF-α or IL-6, according to manufacturer’s instructions (e-Biosciences, San Diego, CA, USA) as previously reported [ ]. ..

    Article Title: Sodium Thiosulfate Prevents Chondrocyte Mineralization and Reduces the Severity of Murine Osteoarthritis
    Article Snippet: .. Cytokine and chemokine quantification At the reported time points of the different experiments, cell supernatants were assayed using murine or human IL-6 and murine TNF-α, MCP-1 or IL-1β ELISA kits (eBioscience). .. The manufacturer’s protocols were explicitly followed, and the results were read at 450nm using the Spectrax M5e (Molecular devices).

    Article Title: AST-120 Reduces Neuroinflammation Induced by Indoxyl Sulfate in Glial Cells
    Article Snippet: TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations in the supernatant of cultured primary astrocytes and mixed glial cells were assessed using an Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA). .. Commercially-available kits for murine TNF-α and IL-6 were used according to the manufacturer’s instruction (e-Biosciences, San Diego, CA, USA).

    Article Title: The Uremic Toxin Indoxyl Sulphate Enhances Macrophage Response to LPS
    Article Snippet: .. TNF-α and IL-6 determination TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations in J774A.1 and mouse peritoneal macrophages culture medium stimulated for 18 h with LPS (1 µg/ml) and IS (1000–62.5 µM) as previously described were assessed by an Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) assay by using a commercial kit, for murine TNF-α or IL-6, according to manufacturer's instruction (e-Biosciences, CA, USA). ..

    Concentration Assay:

    Article Title: Branched RNA: A New Architecture for RNA Interference
    Article Snippet: HeLa cells were transfected with 250 ng of a plasmid expressing murine TNF-α using lipofectin (Invitrogen ), following the manufacturer's instructions. .. One hour after transfection cells were transfected with 100 nM double strand concentration of siRNA against TNF-α , using oligofectamine (Invitrogen ).

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  • 99
    Thermo Fisher recombinant murine tnf α
    (A) Cytotoxic effect of aspirin on RAW264.7 cells determined by MTT assay. RAW264.7 cells were treated with increasing concentration of aspirin for 24 h before assay. (B) Cytotoxic effect of aspirin in the presence of <t>TNF-α,</t> as determined by MTT assay. Cells were pretreated with indicated concentration of aspirin for 1 h and then stimulated with TNF-α (10 ng/ml) for 24 h. Data represent the mean ± standard deviation of three independent measurements. TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-α.
    Recombinant Murine Tnf α, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/recombinant murine tnf α/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 99 stars, based on 6 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
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    92
    Thermo Fisher murine tnf α
    Egfr Δmye mice demonstrate decreased M1 macrophage activation during colon tumorigenesis (a) Protein levels of M1 stimuli, IFN-γ and <t>TNF-α,</t> were assessed by Luminex Multiplex Array from colonic tissues 77 days post-AOM injection. n = 5 control tissues and 6-9 tumors with paired non-tumor area per genotype. (b) mRNA levels of M1 markers, Nos2 and Il1b , were assessed by qRT-PCR from colonic tissues 77 days post-AOM injection. n = 6-8 control tissues and 8-10 tumors with paired non-tumor area per genotype. (c) Protein levels of the M1 marker, IL-1β, were assessed by Luminex Multiplex Array from colonic tissues 77 days post-AOM injection. n = 5 control tissues and 6-9 tumors with paired non-tumor area per genotype. In (a-c), * P
    Murine Tnf α, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/murine tnf α/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 92 stars, based on 2 article reviews
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    murine tnf α - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
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    99
    Thermo Fisher murine tnf α elisa kit
    Egfr Δmye mice demonstrate decreased M1 macrophage activation during colon tumorigenesis (a) Protein levels of M1 stimuli, IFN-γ and <t>TNF-α,</t> were assessed by Luminex Multiplex Array from colonic tissues 77 days post-AOM injection. n = 5 control tissues and 6-9 tumors with paired non-tumor area per genotype. (b) mRNA levels of M1 markers, Nos2 and Il1b , were assessed by qRT-PCR from colonic tissues 77 days post-AOM injection. n = 6-8 control tissues and 8-10 tumors with paired non-tumor area per genotype. (c) Protein levels of the M1 marker, IL-1β, were assessed by Luminex Multiplex Array from colonic tissues 77 days post-AOM injection. n = 5 control tissues and 6-9 tumors with paired non-tumor area per genotype. In (a-c), * P
    Murine Tnf α Elisa Kit, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/murine tnf α elisa kit/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 99 stars, based on 4 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    murine tnf α elisa kit - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    99/100 stars
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    (A) Cytotoxic effect of aspirin on RAW264.7 cells determined by MTT assay. RAW264.7 cells were treated with increasing concentration of aspirin for 24 h before assay. (B) Cytotoxic effect of aspirin in the presence of TNF-α, as determined by MTT assay. Cells were pretreated with indicated concentration of aspirin for 1 h and then stimulated with TNF-α (10 ng/ml) for 24 h. Data represent the mean ± standard deviation of three independent measurements. TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-α.

    Journal: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine

    Article Title: Aspirin suppresses TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression via NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in RAW264.7 cells

    doi: 10.3892/etm.2017.5252

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A) Cytotoxic effect of aspirin on RAW264.7 cells determined by MTT assay. RAW264.7 cells were treated with increasing concentration of aspirin for 24 h before assay. (B) Cytotoxic effect of aspirin in the presence of TNF-α, as determined by MTT assay. Cells were pretreated with indicated concentration of aspirin for 1 h and then stimulated with TNF-α (10 ng/ml) for 24 h. Data represent the mean ± standard deviation of three independent measurements. TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-α.

    Article Snippet: Recombinant murine TNF-α was purchased from Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc. (Biosource; MA, USA), and aspirin was purchased from Langtze Biomedical Technology (Nanjing, China).

    Techniques: MTT Assay, Concentration Assay, Standard Deviation

    Aspirin inhibits TNF-α-stimulated NF-κB activation in RAW264.7 cells. (A) Nuclear levels of NF-κB p65 were detected by western blot analysis in cells were pre-treated with or without aspirin for 1 h and then simulated with TNF-α (10 ng/ml) for 1 h. (B) Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and (C) western blot analysis were performed to examine the mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP-9, respectively, in cells pre-cultured with or without PDTC (10 µM) and aspirin (600 µM) for 1 h, and then treated with TNF-α for 24 h. Densitometric results represent the mean ± standard deviation of three independent measurements. # P

    Journal: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine

    Article Title: Aspirin suppresses TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression via NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in RAW264.7 cells

    doi: 10.3892/etm.2017.5252

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Aspirin inhibits TNF-α-stimulated NF-κB activation in RAW264.7 cells. (A) Nuclear levels of NF-κB p65 were detected by western blot analysis in cells were pre-treated with or without aspirin for 1 h and then simulated with TNF-α (10 ng/ml) for 1 h. (B) Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and (C) western blot analysis were performed to examine the mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP-9, respectively, in cells pre-cultured with or without PDTC (10 µM) and aspirin (600 µM) for 1 h, and then treated with TNF-α for 24 h. Densitometric results represent the mean ± standard deviation of three independent measurements. # P

    Article Snippet: Recombinant murine TNF-α was purchased from Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc. (Biosource; MA, USA), and aspirin was purchased from Langtze Biomedical Technology (Nanjing, China).

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Western Blot, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing, Cell Culture, Standard Deviation

    Inhibitory effect of aspirin on MMP-9 expression in TNF-α-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Cells were pre-treated with or without the indicated concentrations of aspirin for 1 h and then stimulated with TNF-α (10 ng/ml) for 24 h. (A) MMP-9 activity in the conditioned media was analyzed by zymography. (B) Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and (C) western blot analysis were performed to examine the mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP-9, respectively. Densitometric results are presented as the mean ± standard deviation of three independent measurements. # P

    Journal: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine

    Article Title: Aspirin suppresses TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression via NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in RAW264.7 cells

    doi: 10.3892/etm.2017.5252

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Inhibitory effect of aspirin on MMP-9 expression in TNF-α-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Cells were pre-treated with or without the indicated concentrations of aspirin for 1 h and then stimulated with TNF-α (10 ng/ml) for 24 h. (A) MMP-9 activity in the conditioned media was analyzed by zymography. (B) Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and (C) western blot analysis were performed to examine the mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP-9, respectively. Densitometric results are presented as the mean ± standard deviation of three independent measurements. # P

    Article Snippet: Recombinant murine TNF-α was purchased from Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc. (Biosource; MA, USA), and aspirin was purchased from Langtze Biomedical Technology (Nanjing, China).

    Techniques: Expressing, Activity Assay, Zymography, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Western Blot, Standard Deviation

    Effects of aspirin on TNF-α-stimulated activation of MAPK signaling pathway in RAW264.7 cells. (A) Aspirin inhibited the TNF-α-stimulated phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK and JNK, as determined using western blot analysis. Cells were incubated for 1 h in the absence or present of aspirin (600 µM) and then stimulated for 10, 20, 30 and 60 min with 10 ng/ml of TNF-α. (B) Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and (C) western blot analysis were performed to examine the effect of MAPK inhibitors on the mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP-9, respectively. Cells were pre-incubated with or without 10 µM PD98059 (p-ERK inhibitor), 10 µM SB203580 (p-p38 inhibitor), SP600125 (p-JNK inhibitor) and aspirin (600 µM) for 1 h and then with TNF-α (10 ng/ml) for 24 h. Densitometric results are represented the mean ± standard deviation of three independent measurements. # P

    Journal: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine

    Article Title: Aspirin suppresses TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression via NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in RAW264.7 cells

    doi: 10.3892/etm.2017.5252

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of aspirin on TNF-α-stimulated activation of MAPK signaling pathway in RAW264.7 cells. (A) Aspirin inhibited the TNF-α-stimulated phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK and JNK, as determined using western blot analysis. Cells were incubated for 1 h in the absence or present of aspirin (600 µM) and then stimulated for 10, 20, 30 and 60 min with 10 ng/ml of TNF-α. (B) Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and (C) western blot analysis were performed to examine the effect of MAPK inhibitors on the mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP-9, respectively. Cells were pre-incubated with or without 10 µM PD98059 (p-ERK inhibitor), 10 µM SB203580 (p-p38 inhibitor), SP600125 (p-JNK inhibitor) and aspirin (600 µM) for 1 h and then with TNF-α (10 ng/ml) for 24 h. Densitometric results are represented the mean ± standard deviation of three independent measurements. # P

    Article Snippet: Recombinant murine TNF-α was purchased from Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc. (Biosource; MA, USA), and aspirin was purchased from Langtze Biomedical Technology (Nanjing, China).

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Western Blot, Incubation, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing, Standard Deviation

    Egfr Δmye mice demonstrate decreased M1 macrophage activation during colon tumorigenesis (a) Protein levels of M1 stimuli, IFN-γ and TNF-α, were assessed by Luminex Multiplex Array from colonic tissues 77 days post-AOM injection. n = 5 control tissues and 6-9 tumors with paired non-tumor area per genotype. (b) mRNA levels of M1 markers, Nos2 and Il1b , were assessed by qRT-PCR from colonic tissues 77 days post-AOM injection. n = 6-8 control tissues and 8-10 tumors with paired non-tumor area per genotype. (c) Protein levels of the M1 marker, IL-1β, were assessed by Luminex Multiplex Array from colonic tissues 77 days post-AOM injection. n = 5 control tissues and 6-9 tumors with paired non-tumor area per genotype. In (a-c), * P

    Journal: Oncogene

    Article Title: EGFR-mediated Macrophage Activation Promotes Colitis-associated Tumorigenesis

    doi: 10.1038/onc.2017.23

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Egfr Δmye mice demonstrate decreased M1 macrophage activation during colon tumorigenesis (a) Protein levels of M1 stimuli, IFN-γ and TNF-α, were assessed by Luminex Multiplex Array from colonic tissues 77 days post-AOM injection. n = 5 control tissues and 6-9 tumors with paired non-tumor area per genotype. (b) mRNA levels of M1 markers, Nos2 and Il1b , were assessed by qRT-PCR from colonic tissues 77 days post-AOM injection. n = 6-8 control tissues and 8-10 tumors with paired non-tumor area per genotype. (c) Protein levels of the M1 marker, IL-1β, were assessed by Luminex Multiplex Array from colonic tissues 77 days post-AOM injection. n = 5 control tissues and 6-9 tumors with paired non-tumor area per genotype. In (a-c), * P

    Article Snippet: Murine TNF-α was from Thermo Fisher Scientific (Waltham, MA, USA).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Activation Assay, Luminex, Multiplex Assay, Injection, Quantitative RT-PCR, Marker