Structured Review

Elanco monensin
β-Diversity of anaerobic digester microbiome samples during different periods. (A) Boxplot of weighted UniFrac distances within microbiomes from a single anaerobic digester throughout a similar operating period. Control anaerobic digester boxplot corresponds to days 203 to 306, when the slow anaerobic digester was fed only control cow manure without <t>monensin</t> addition; the low A anaerobic digester boxplot corresponds to days 203 to 383; the low B anaerobic digester boxplot corresponds to days 203 to 355; the fast anaerobic digester boxplot only includes samples during which the anaerobic digester was subjected to high concentrations of monensin (i.e., days 265 to 306); and the slow anaerobic digester boxplot corresponds to days 306 to 383, when the anaerobic digester was subjected to high concentrations of monensin. (B) Similarity of samples postdisturbance compared to three samples prior to disturbance (prior to P2 on days 175, 189, and 201) based on the weighted UniFrac distance metric. Similarity was calculated as one minus the average weighted UniFrac distance between the sample day and the three sample days prior to disturbance (prior to P2). Colors represent the monensin concentration gradient: dark red, high monensin concentration (1 to 5 mg · liter −1 ); pink, low monensin concentration (
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1) Product Images from "Redundancy in Anaerobic Digestion Microbiomes during Disturbances by the Antibiotic Monensin"

Article Title: Redundancy in Anaerobic Digestion Microbiomes during Disturbances by the Antibiotic Monensin

Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

doi: 10.1128/AEM.02692-17

β-Diversity of anaerobic digester microbiome samples during different periods. (A) Boxplot of weighted UniFrac distances within microbiomes from a single anaerobic digester throughout a similar operating period. Control anaerobic digester boxplot corresponds to days 203 to 306, when the slow anaerobic digester was fed only control cow manure without monensin addition; the low A anaerobic digester boxplot corresponds to days 203 to 383; the low B anaerobic digester boxplot corresponds to days 203 to 355; the fast anaerobic digester boxplot only includes samples during which the anaerobic digester was subjected to high concentrations of monensin (i.e., days 265 to 306); and the slow anaerobic digester boxplot corresponds to days 306 to 383, when the anaerobic digester was subjected to high concentrations of monensin. (B) Similarity of samples postdisturbance compared to three samples prior to disturbance (prior to P2 on days 175, 189, and 201) based on the weighted UniFrac distance metric. Similarity was calculated as one minus the average weighted UniFrac distance between the sample day and the three sample days prior to disturbance (prior to P2). Colors represent the monensin concentration gradient: dark red, high monensin concentration (1 to 5 mg · liter −1 ); pink, low monensin concentration (
Figure Legend Snippet: β-Diversity of anaerobic digester microbiome samples during different periods. (A) Boxplot of weighted UniFrac distances within microbiomes from a single anaerobic digester throughout a similar operating period. Control anaerobic digester boxplot corresponds to days 203 to 306, when the slow anaerobic digester was fed only control cow manure without monensin addition; the low A anaerobic digester boxplot corresponds to days 203 to 383; the low B anaerobic digester boxplot corresponds to days 203 to 355; the fast anaerobic digester boxplot only includes samples during which the anaerobic digester was subjected to high concentrations of monensin (i.e., days 265 to 306); and the slow anaerobic digester boxplot corresponds to days 306 to 383, when the anaerobic digester was subjected to high concentrations of monensin. (B) Similarity of samples postdisturbance compared to three samples prior to disturbance (prior to P2 on days 175, 189, and 201) based on the weighted UniFrac distance metric. Similarity was calculated as one minus the average weighted UniFrac distance between the sample day and the three sample days prior to disturbance (prior to P2). Colors represent the monensin concentration gradient: dark red, high monensin concentration (1 to 5 mg · liter −1 ); pink, low monensin concentration (

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

β-Diversity of all anaerobic digester microbiome samples from day 175 to the end of the operating period. (A) Principal-coordinate analysis (PCoA) plot based on weighted UniFrac distance. (B) Distance-based redundancy analysis (db-RDA) plot showing the four measured parameters that best explained the variation observed in the PCoA plot. Methane, methane yield; alkalinity, bicarbonate alkalinity concentration; ammonia, total ammonium concentration; monensin, monensin concentration in the substrate. In both the PCoA and db-RDA plots, the points are colored on a gradient scale representing the duration of the operating period in days.
Figure Legend Snippet: β-Diversity of all anaerobic digester microbiome samples from day 175 to the end of the operating period. (A) Principal-coordinate analysis (PCoA) plot based on weighted UniFrac distance. (B) Distance-based redundancy analysis (db-RDA) plot showing the four measured parameters that best explained the variation observed in the PCoA plot. Methane, methane yield; alkalinity, bicarbonate alkalinity concentration; ammonia, total ammonium concentration; monensin, monensin concentration in the substrate. In both the PCoA and db-RDA plots, the points are colored on a gradient scale representing the duration of the operating period in days.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

Heatmaps representing relative abundance of major OTUs in anaerobic digester samples during the entire sampling period for the low A anaerobic digester (A), low B anaerobic digester (B), fast anaerobic digester (C), and slow anaerobic digester (D). OTUs represented here reached at least 5% relative abundance in any one anaerobic digester sample. Lowest-level taxonomic data, as well as the OTU ID number, are provided. The sidebar color scale represents the monensin dosing rate to the anaerobic digester. For the fast digester (panel C), the black line in the red bar indicates when the monensin dose was directly increased from 1 to 5 mg · liter −1 . For the slow digester (panel D), the black lines in the red bar indicate when the monensin dose was increased (from 1 to 2 mg · liter −1 , from 2 to 3 mg · liter −1 , from 3 to 4 mg · liter −1 , and from 4 to 5 mg · liter −1 ).
Figure Legend Snippet: Heatmaps representing relative abundance of major OTUs in anaerobic digester samples during the entire sampling period for the low A anaerobic digester (A), low B anaerobic digester (B), fast anaerobic digester (C), and slow anaerobic digester (D). OTUs represented here reached at least 5% relative abundance in any one anaerobic digester sample. Lowest-level taxonomic data, as well as the OTU ID number, are provided. The sidebar color scale represents the monensin dosing rate to the anaerobic digester. For the fast digester (panel C), the black line in the red bar indicates when the monensin dose was directly increased from 1 to 5 mg · liter −1 . For the slow digester (panel D), the black lines in the red bar indicate when the monensin dose was increased (from 1 to 2 mg · liter −1 , from 2 to 3 mg · liter −1 , from 3 to 4 mg · liter −1 , and from 4 to 5 mg · liter −1 ).

Techniques Used: Sampling

Performance parameters for the four anaerobic digesters from day 175 to the end of the operating period for specific methane yields (A), tVFA concentrations (B), total ammonium concentrations (C), and bicarbonate alkalinity concentrations (D). Points are colored on a color scale corresponding to the concentration of monensin dosed to the anaerobic digester at that time point. The different periods are marked with gray and white shading from left to right during the operating period: the first gray shading identifies P1; the first white shading identifies P2; the second gray bar identifies P3, and the second white area identifies P4 (see Table S4 in the supplemental material). The fast anaerobic digester was stopped at the end of P3 due to a loss of stability.
Figure Legend Snippet: Performance parameters for the four anaerobic digesters from day 175 to the end of the operating period for specific methane yields (A), tVFA concentrations (B), total ammonium concentrations (C), and bicarbonate alkalinity concentrations (D). Points are colored on a color scale corresponding to the concentration of monensin dosed to the anaerobic digester at that time point. The different periods are marked with gray and white shading from left to right during the operating period: the first gray shading identifies P1; the first white shading identifies P2; the second gray bar identifies P3, and the second white area identifies P4 (see Table S4 in the supplemental material). The fast anaerobic digester was stopped at the end of P3 due to a loss of stability.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

β-Diversity of the fast and slow anaerobic digester microbiome samples during high monensin periods (≥1 mg · liter −1 ; day 265 to 307 for fast anaerobic digester, and day 307 to 383 for slow anaerobic digester). (A) Principal-coordinate analysis (PCoA) based on weighted UniFrac distance. Time points are colored in a gradient scale corresponding to monensin concentration in the substrate, as indicated by the color sidebar. (B) Taxon biplot showing the most abundant OTUs in these samples (OTUs that reached an average relative abundance of ≥1% across the time period shown). OTUs are shown nearest to the samples that they are most abundant in. Sample time points are not shown as they are displayed in the left-hand PCoA. Point size represents average relative abundance of that OTU across all samples (minimum average relative abundance is 1.0%, maximum average relative abundance is 12.0%). Points are colored by phylum-level taxonomy. Three OTUs discussed in the text are highlighted. OTU 820298, OP11 OTU; OTU 265425, Prevotella OTU; OTU 837605, Bacteroidales OTU.
Figure Legend Snippet: β-Diversity of the fast and slow anaerobic digester microbiome samples during high monensin periods (≥1 mg · liter −1 ; day 265 to 307 for fast anaerobic digester, and day 307 to 383 for slow anaerobic digester). (A) Principal-coordinate analysis (PCoA) based on weighted UniFrac distance. Time points are colored in a gradient scale corresponding to monensin concentration in the substrate, as indicated by the color sidebar. (B) Taxon biplot showing the most abundant OTUs in these samples (OTUs that reached an average relative abundance of ≥1% across the time period shown). OTUs are shown nearest to the samples that they are most abundant in. Sample time points are not shown as they are displayed in the left-hand PCoA. Point size represents average relative abundance of that OTU across all samples (minimum average relative abundance is 1.0%, maximum average relative abundance is 12.0%). Points are colored by phylum-level taxonomy. Three OTUs discussed in the text are highlighted. OTU 820298, OP11 OTU; OTU 265425, Prevotella OTU; OTU 837605, Bacteroidales OTU.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

2) Product Images from "Monensin Alters the Functional and Metabolomic Profile of Rumen Microbiota in Beef Cattle"

Article Title: Monensin Alters the Functional and Metabolomic Profile of Rumen Microbiota in Beef Cattle

Journal: Animals : an Open Access Journal from MDPI

doi: 10.3390/ani8110211

Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) of rumen microbiota of beef steer fed no (control) or 200 mg/d of monensin. The linear discriminant analysis plot indicates the most differentially abundant taxa found by ranking according to their effect size (≥2.0) at the genus ( A ) and species level ( B ). The taxa enriched in steers fed the control diet are indicated with a positive score (green), and taxa enriched by the monensin treatment have a negative score (red). Only taxa meeting the significant threshold of 2.0 are shown.
Figure Legend Snippet: Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) of rumen microbiota of beef steer fed no (control) or 200 mg/d of monensin. The linear discriminant analysis plot indicates the most differentially abundant taxa found by ranking according to their effect size (≥2.0) at the genus ( A ) and species level ( B ). The taxa enriched in steers fed the control diet are indicated with a positive score (green), and taxa enriched by the monensin treatment have a negative score (red). Only taxa meeting the significant threshold of 2.0 are shown.

Techniques Used:

( A ) Distribution of category of the predicted genes by KEGG. ( B ) Differential KEGG gene functions. Differences between control and monensin samples were tested for significance using a Mann Whitney test ( p ≤ 0.05).
Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) Distribution of category of the predicted genes by KEGG. ( B ) Differential KEGG gene functions. Differences between control and monensin samples were tested for significance using a Mann Whitney test ( p ≤ 0.05).

Techniques Used: MANN-WHITNEY

3) Product Images from "Effects of monensin source on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics and performance of Bos indicus beef bulls offered a high-concentrate diet"

Article Title: Effects of monensin source on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics and performance of Bos indicus beef bulls offered a high-concentrate diet

Journal: Translational Animal Science

doi: 10.1093/tas/txz158

In vitro rumen propionate concentration over the experimental period. Brachiaria ruziziensis (11.1% CP; 61.5% TDN) was inoculated or not with monensin-A (MON-A; Rumensin-200; Elanco Animal Health; n = 12) or monensin-B (MON-B; Shandong Qilu King-Phar Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.; n = 12). Samples were collected at 0 (immediately before treatment inoculation), 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after treatment inoculation. Results were covariately-adjusted to vales obtained at hour 0. A treatment × hour interaction was detected ( P = 0.01). Within hour, letters indicate differences between treatments ( P ≤ 0.03).
Figure Legend Snippet: In vitro rumen propionate concentration over the experimental period. Brachiaria ruziziensis (11.1% CP; 61.5% TDN) was inoculated or not with monensin-A (MON-A; Rumensin-200; Elanco Animal Health; n = 12) or monensin-B (MON-B; Shandong Qilu King-Phar Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.; n = 12). Samples were collected at 0 (immediately before treatment inoculation), 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after treatment inoculation. Results were covariately-adjusted to vales obtained at hour 0. A treatment × hour interaction was detected ( P = 0.01). Within hour, letters indicate differences between treatments ( P ≤ 0.03).

Techniques Used: In Vitro, Concentration Assay

4) Product Images from "Hormones and monensin use to improve pregnancy rates in grazing lactating beef cows in the semiarid region of Argentina"

Article Title: Hormones and monensin use to improve pregnancy rates in grazing lactating beef cows in the semiarid region of Argentina

Journal: Animal Reproduction

doi: 10.21451/1984-3143-2017-AR0032

Effect of monensin capsules and hormone treatment on survival curves (n = 94 cows) throughout d 0 to 80 of experiment interval (P = 0.20). 1 M0H0 = Group treatment control (without monensin and without hormones), 2 M1H0 = Group treatment with monensin and without hormones, 3 M0H1 = Group treatment without monensin and with hormones, 4 M1H1 = Group treatment with monensin and with hormones. Period of exposure bulls with cows from day 0 to 50.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of monensin capsules and hormone treatment on survival curves (n = 94 cows) throughout d 0 to 80 of experiment interval (P = 0.20). 1 M0H0 = Group treatment control (without monensin and without hormones), 2 M1H0 = Group treatment with monensin and without hormones, 3 M0H1 = Group treatment without monensin and with hormones, 4 M1H1 = Group treatment with monensin and with hormones. Period of exposure bulls with cows from day 0 to 50.

Techniques Used:

Protocol experiment 2. Eight ruminally cannulated crossbred beef steers, four dosed with monensin (M1) and four without monensin (M0), were used. Ruminal fluid samples were taken through the fistulas on days 0, 40 and 77. Samples were taken at three times during the sampling day, before leaving to graze (hour 0), and 4 and 12 h after the start of grazing. VFA: volatile fatty acids; h: hour.
Figure Legend Snippet: Protocol experiment 2. Eight ruminally cannulated crossbred beef steers, four dosed with monensin (M1) and four without monensin (M0), were used. Ruminal fluid samples were taken through the fistulas on days 0, 40 and 77. Samples were taken at three times during the sampling day, before leaving to graze (hour 0), and 4 and 12 h after the start of grazing. VFA: volatile fatty acids; h: hour.

Techniques Used: Sampling

Protocol experiment 1. The experiments were carried out over a period of 118 days. Lactating beef cows were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Ninety-four cows were selected from a 300 cow´s herd. The experimental design used was a 2 x 2 factorial with monensin administration as first factor (M1 = with monensin vs . M0 = without monensin) and hormonal treatment as second factor (H1 = with hormonal treatment vs. H0 = no hormonal treatment). Thirty-eight days before the beginning of the breeding season, the cows were randomly assigned to the first factor, and thirty days later to the second factor, resulting in four treatments: M1H0, M1H1, M0H0 and M0H1. Bulls were exposed to cows from day 0 to 50 (bull/cow ratio 1:20) and confirmation of pregnancy was performed at 30, 60 and 80 days after start breeding season by ultrasonography. AMC: administration of monensin capsule; AP4 + EB: intravaginal application of progesterone release device (0,5 g Progesterone, DIB, Syntex, Argentina) for 8 days, plus 2 mg of estradiol benzoate (Gonadiol, Syntex, Argentina) administrated intramuscularly; RP4 + PGF + eCG: progesterone release device was removed (start of natural service), and intramuscularly were injected 0.15 g of D (+) cloprostenol (PGF, Syntex, Argentina) and 400 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (Novormon Syntex, Argentina).
Figure Legend Snippet: Protocol experiment 1. The experiments were carried out over a period of 118 days. Lactating beef cows were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Ninety-four cows were selected from a 300 cow´s herd. The experimental design used was a 2 x 2 factorial with monensin administration as first factor (M1 = with monensin vs . M0 = without monensin) and hormonal treatment as second factor (H1 = with hormonal treatment vs. H0 = no hormonal treatment). Thirty-eight days before the beginning of the breeding season, the cows were randomly assigned to the first factor, and thirty days later to the second factor, resulting in four treatments: M1H0, M1H1, M0H0 and M0H1. Bulls were exposed to cows from day 0 to 50 (bull/cow ratio 1:20) and confirmation of pregnancy was performed at 30, 60 and 80 days after start breeding season by ultrasonography. AMC: administration of monensin capsule; AP4 + EB: intravaginal application of progesterone release device (0,5 g Progesterone, DIB, Syntex, Argentina) for 8 days, plus 2 mg of estradiol benzoate (Gonadiol, Syntex, Argentina) administrated intramuscularly; RP4 + PGF + eCG: progesterone release device was removed (start of natural service), and intramuscularly were injected 0.15 g of D (+) cloprostenol (PGF, Syntex, Argentina) and 400 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (Novormon Syntex, Argentina).

Techniques Used: Injection

Effect (mean ± SEM) of treatment x hour after grazing interaction on the VFA proportion. The proportion of acetate and propionate and the acetate: propionate ratio values presented expresses the average of the three sampling days (0, 40 and 77). Samples were taken at three times during the sampling day (0, 4 and 12 h after grazing). M1 = with monensin and M0 = without monensin. *P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect (mean ± SEM) of treatment x hour after grazing interaction on the VFA proportion. The proportion of acetate and propionate and the acetate: propionate ratio values presented expresses the average of the three sampling days (0, 40 and 77). Samples were taken at three times during the sampling day (0, 4 and 12 h after grazing). M1 = with monensin and M0 = without monensin. *P

Techniques Used: Sampling

5) Product Images from "Effects of monensin source on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics and performance of Bos indicus beef bulls offered a high-concentrate diet"

Article Title: Effects of monensin source on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics and performance of Bos indicus beef bulls offered a high-concentrate diet

Journal: Translational Animal Science

doi: 10.1093/tas/txz158

In vitro rumen propionate concentration over the experimental period. Brachiaria ruziziensis (11.1% CP; 61.5% TDN) was inoculated or not with monensin-A (MON-A; Rumensin-200; Elanco Animal Health; n = 12) or monensin-B (MON-B; Shandong Qilu King-Phar Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.; n = 12). Samples were collected at 0 (immediately before treatment inoculation), 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after treatment inoculation. Results were covariately-adjusted to vales obtained at hour 0. A treatment × hour interaction was detected ( P = 0.01). Within hour, letters indicate differences between treatments ( P ≤ 0.03).
Figure Legend Snippet: In vitro rumen propionate concentration over the experimental period. Brachiaria ruziziensis (11.1% CP; 61.5% TDN) was inoculated or not with monensin-A (MON-A; Rumensin-200; Elanco Animal Health; n = 12) or monensin-B (MON-B; Shandong Qilu King-Phar Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.; n = 12). Samples were collected at 0 (immediately before treatment inoculation), 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after treatment inoculation. Results were covariately-adjusted to vales obtained at hour 0. A treatment × hour interaction was detected ( P = 0.01). Within hour, letters indicate differences between treatments ( P ≤ 0.03).

Techniques Used: In Vitro, Concentration Assay

6) Product Images from "Effects of monensin source on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics and performance of Bos indicus beef bulls offered a high-concentrate diet"

Article Title: Effects of monensin source on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics and performance of Bos indicus beef bulls offered a high-concentrate diet

Journal: Translational Animal Science

doi: 10.1093/tas/txz158

In vitro rumen propionate concentration over the experimental period. Brachiaria ruziziensis (11.1% CP; 61.5% TDN) was inoculated or not with monensin-A (MON-A; Rumensin-200; Elanco Animal Health; n = 12) or monensin-B (MON-B; Shandong Qilu King-Phar Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.; n = 12). Samples were collected at 0 (immediately before treatment inoculation), 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after treatment inoculation. Results were covariately-adjusted to vales obtained at hour 0. A treatment × hour interaction was detected ( P = 0.01). Within hour, letters indicate differences between treatments ( P ≤ 0.03).
Figure Legend Snippet: In vitro rumen propionate concentration over the experimental period. Brachiaria ruziziensis (11.1% CP; 61.5% TDN) was inoculated or not with monensin-A (MON-A; Rumensin-200; Elanco Animal Health; n = 12) or monensin-B (MON-B; Shandong Qilu King-Phar Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.; n = 12). Samples were collected at 0 (immediately before treatment inoculation), 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after treatment inoculation. Results were covariately-adjusted to vales obtained at hour 0. A treatment × hour interaction was detected ( P = 0.01). Within hour, letters indicate differences between treatments ( P ≤ 0.03).

Techniques Used: In Vitro, Concentration Assay

7) Product Images from "Effects of monensin source on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics and performance of Bos indicus beef bulls offered a high-concentrate diet"

Article Title: Effects of monensin source on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics and performance of Bos indicus beef bulls offered a high-concentrate diet

Journal: Translational Animal Science

doi: 10.1093/tas/txz158

In vitro rumen propionate concentration over the experimental period. Brachiaria ruziziensis (11.1% CP; 61.5% TDN) was inoculated or not with monensin-A (MON-A; Rumensin-200; Elanco Animal Health; n = 12) or monensin-B (MON-B; Shandong Qilu King-Phar Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.; n = 12). Samples were collected at 0 (immediately before treatment inoculation), 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after treatment inoculation. Results were covariately-adjusted to vales obtained at hour 0. A treatment × hour interaction was detected ( P = 0.01). Within hour, letters indicate differences between treatments ( P ≤ 0.03).
Figure Legend Snippet: In vitro rumen propionate concentration over the experimental period. Brachiaria ruziziensis (11.1% CP; 61.5% TDN) was inoculated or not with monensin-A (MON-A; Rumensin-200; Elanco Animal Health; n = 12) or monensin-B (MON-B; Shandong Qilu King-Phar Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.; n = 12). Samples were collected at 0 (immediately before treatment inoculation), 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after treatment inoculation. Results were covariately-adjusted to vales obtained at hour 0. A treatment × hour interaction was detected ( P = 0.01). Within hour, letters indicate differences between treatments ( P ≤ 0.03).

Techniques Used: In Vitro, Concentration Assay

8) Product Images from "Monensin Alters the Functional and Metabolomic Profile of Rumen Microbiota in Beef Cattle"

Article Title: Monensin Alters the Functional and Metabolomic Profile of Rumen Microbiota in Beef Cattle

Journal: Animals : an Open Access Journal from MDPI

doi: 10.3390/ani8110211

( A ) The scores plot of PCA model showing the directions that best explain the variance between the two treatments. ( B ) OPLS-DA score plot of all metabolite features. Group 1 = steers fed Control diet, Group 2 = steers fed 200 mg d −1 of monensin. One data point represents one composite rumen fluid sample of each steer.
Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) The scores plot of PCA model showing the directions that best explain the variance between the two treatments. ( B ) OPLS-DA score plot of all metabolite features. Group 1 = steers fed Control diet, Group 2 = steers fed 200 mg d −1 of monensin. One data point represents one composite rumen fluid sample of each steer.

Techniques Used:

Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) of rumen microbiota of beef steer fed no (control) or 200 mg/d of monensin. The linear discriminant analysis plot indicates the most differentially abundant taxa found by ranking according to their effect size (≥2.0) at the genus ( A ) and species level ( B ). The taxa enriched in steers fed the control diet are indicated with a positive score (green), and taxa enriched by the monensin treatment have a negative score (red). Only taxa meeting the significant threshold of 2.0 are shown.
Figure Legend Snippet: Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) of rumen microbiota of beef steer fed no (control) or 200 mg/d of monensin. The linear discriminant analysis plot indicates the most differentially abundant taxa found by ranking according to their effect size (≥2.0) at the genus ( A ) and species level ( B ). The taxa enriched in steers fed the control diet are indicated with a positive score (green), and taxa enriched by the monensin treatment have a negative score (red). Only taxa meeting the significant threshold of 2.0 are shown.

Techniques Used:

( A ) Distribution of category of the predicted genes by KEGG. ( B ) Differential KEGG gene functions. Differences between control and monensin samples were tested for significance using a Mann Whitney test ( p ≤ 0.05).
Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) Distribution of category of the predicted genes by KEGG. ( B ) Differential KEGG gene functions. Differences between control and monensin samples were tested for significance using a Mann Whitney test ( p ≤ 0.05).

Techniques Used: MANN-WHITNEY

9) Product Images from "Redundancy in Anaerobic Digestion Microbiomes during Disturbances by the Antibiotic Monensin"

Article Title: Redundancy in Anaerobic Digestion Microbiomes during Disturbances by the Antibiotic Monensin

Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

doi: 10.1128/AEM.02692-17

Performance parameters for the four anaerobic digesters from day 175 to the end of the operating period for specific methane yields (A), tVFA concentrations (B), total ammonium concentrations (C), and bicarbonate alkalinity concentrations (D). Points are colored on a color scale corresponding to the concentration of monensin dosed to the anaerobic digester at that time point. The different periods are marked with gray and white shading from left to right during the operating period: the first gray shading identifies P1; the first white shading identifies P2; the second gray bar identifies P3, and the second white area identifies P4 (see Table S4 in the supplemental material). The fast anaerobic digester was stopped at the end of P3 due to a loss of stability.
Figure Legend Snippet: Performance parameters for the four anaerobic digesters from day 175 to the end of the operating period for specific methane yields (A), tVFA concentrations (B), total ammonium concentrations (C), and bicarbonate alkalinity concentrations (D). Points are colored on a color scale corresponding to the concentration of monensin dosed to the anaerobic digester at that time point. The different periods are marked with gray and white shading from left to right during the operating period: the first gray shading identifies P1; the first white shading identifies P2; the second gray bar identifies P3, and the second white area identifies P4 (see Table S4 in the supplemental material). The fast anaerobic digester was stopped at the end of P3 due to a loss of stability.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

β-Diversity of anaerobic digester microbiome samples during different periods. (A) Boxplot of weighted UniFrac distances within microbiomes from a single anaerobic digester throughout a similar operating period. Control anaerobic digester boxplot corresponds to days 203 to 306, when the slow anaerobic digester was fed only control cow manure without monensin addition; the low A anaerobic digester boxplot corresponds to days 203 to 383; the low B anaerobic digester boxplot corresponds to days 203 to 355; the fast anaerobic digester boxplot only includes samples during which the anaerobic digester was subjected to high concentrations of monensin (i.e., days 265 to 306); and the slow anaerobic digester boxplot corresponds to days 306 to 383, when the anaerobic digester was subjected to high concentrations of monensin. (B) Similarity of samples postdisturbance compared to three samples prior to disturbance (prior to P2 on days 175, 189, and 201) based on the weighted UniFrac distance metric. Similarity was calculated as one minus the average weighted UniFrac distance between the sample day and the three sample days prior to disturbance (prior to P2). Colors represent the monensin concentration gradient: dark red, high monensin concentration (1 to 5 mg · liter −1 ); pink, low monensin concentration (
Figure Legend Snippet: β-Diversity of anaerobic digester microbiome samples during different periods. (A) Boxplot of weighted UniFrac distances within microbiomes from a single anaerobic digester throughout a similar operating period. Control anaerobic digester boxplot corresponds to days 203 to 306, when the slow anaerobic digester was fed only control cow manure without monensin addition; the low A anaerobic digester boxplot corresponds to days 203 to 383; the low B anaerobic digester boxplot corresponds to days 203 to 355; the fast anaerobic digester boxplot only includes samples during which the anaerobic digester was subjected to high concentrations of monensin (i.e., days 265 to 306); and the slow anaerobic digester boxplot corresponds to days 306 to 383, when the anaerobic digester was subjected to high concentrations of monensin. (B) Similarity of samples postdisturbance compared to three samples prior to disturbance (prior to P2 on days 175, 189, and 201) based on the weighted UniFrac distance metric. Similarity was calculated as one minus the average weighted UniFrac distance between the sample day and the three sample days prior to disturbance (prior to P2). Colors represent the monensin concentration gradient: dark red, high monensin concentration (1 to 5 mg · liter −1 ); pink, low monensin concentration (

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

β-Diversity of the fast and slow anaerobic digester microbiome samples during high monensin periods (≥1 mg · liter −1 ; day 265 to 307 for fast anaerobic digester, and day 307 to 383 for slow anaerobic digester). (A) Principal-coordinate analysis (PCoA) based on weighted UniFrac distance. Time points are colored in a gradient scale corresponding to monensin concentration in the substrate, as indicated by the color sidebar. (B) Taxon biplot showing the most abundant OTUs in these samples (OTUs that reached an average relative abundance of ≥1% across the time period shown). OTUs are shown nearest to the samples that they are most abundant in. Sample time points are not shown as they are displayed in the left-hand PCoA. Point size represents average relative abundance of that OTU across all samples (minimum average relative abundance is 1.0%, maximum average relative abundance is 12.0%). Points are colored by phylum-level taxonomy. Three OTUs discussed in the text are highlighted. OTU 820298, OP11 OTU; OTU 265425, Prevotella OTU; OTU 837605, Bacteroidales OTU.
Figure Legend Snippet: β-Diversity of the fast and slow anaerobic digester microbiome samples during high monensin periods (≥1 mg · liter −1 ; day 265 to 307 for fast anaerobic digester, and day 307 to 383 for slow anaerobic digester). (A) Principal-coordinate analysis (PCoA) based on weighted UniFrac distance. Time points are colored in a gradient scale corresponding to monensin concentration in the substrate, as indicated by the color sidebar. (B) Taxon biplot showing the most abundant OTUs in these samples (OTUs that reached an average relative abundance of ≥1% across the time period shown). OTUs are shown nearest to the samples that they are most abundant in. Sample time points are not shown as they are displayed in the left-hand PCoA. Point size represents average relative abundance of that OTU across all samples (minimum average relative abundance is 1.0%, maximum average relative abundance is 12.0%). Points are colored by phylum-level taxonomy. Three OTUs discussed in the text are highlighted. OTU 820298, OP11 OTU; OTU 265425, Prevotella OTU; OTU 837605, Bacteroidales OTU.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

Heatmaps representing relative abundance of major OTUs in anaerobic digester samples during the entire sampling period for the low A anaerobic digester (A), low B anaerobic digester (B), fast anaerobic digester (C), and slow anaerobic digester (D). OTUs represented here reached at least 5% relative abundance in any one anaerobic digester sample. Lowest-level taxonomic data, as well as the OTU ID number, are provided. The sidebar color scale represents the monensin dosing rate to the anaerobic digester. For the fast digester (panel C), the black line in the red bar indicates when the monensin dose was directly increased from 1 to 5 mg · liter −1 . For the slow digester (panel D), the black lines in the red bar indicate when the monensin dose was increased (from 1 to 2 mg · liter −1 , from 2 to 3 mg · liter −1 , from 3 to 4 mg · liter −1 , and from 4 to 5 mg · liter −1 ).
Figure Legend Snippet: Heatmaps representing relative abundance of major OTUs in anaerobic digester samples during the entire sampling period for the low A anaerobic digester (A), low B anaerobic digester (B), fast anaerobic digester (C), and slow anaerobic digester (D). OTUs represented here reached at least 5% relative abundance in any one anaerobic digester sample. Lowest-level taxonomic data, as well as the OTU ID number, are provided. The sidebar color scale represents the monensin dosing rate to the anaerobic digester. For the fast digester (panel C), the black line in the red bar indicates when the monensin dose was directly increased from 1 to 5 mg · liter −1 . For the slow digester (panel D), the black lines in the red bar indicate when the monensin dose was increased (from 1 to 2 mg · liter −1 , from 2 to 3 mg · liter −1 , from 3 to 4 mg · liter −1 , and from 4 to 5 mg · liter −1 ).

Techniques Used: Sampling

10) Product Images from "Hormones and monensin use to improve pregnancy rates in grazing lactating beef cows in the semiarid region of Argentina"

Article Title: Hormones and monensin use to improve pregnancy rates in grazing lactating beef cows in the semiarid region of Argentina

Journal: Animal Reproduction

doi: 10.21451/1984-3143-2017-AR0032

Effect of monensin capsules and hormone treatment on survival curves (n = 94 cows) throughout d 0 to 80 of experiment interval (P = 0.20). 1 M0H0 = Group treatment control (without monensin and without hormones), 2 M1H0 = Group treatment with monensin and without hormones, 3 M0H1 = Group treatment without monensin and with hormones, 4 M1H1 = Group treatment with monensin and with hormones. Period of exposure bulls with cows from day 0 to 50.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of monensin capsules and hormone treatment on survival curves (n = 94 cows) throughout d 0 to 80 of experiment interval (P = 0.20). 1 M0H0 = Group treatment control (without monensin and without hormones), 2 M1H0 = Group treatment with monensin and without hormones, 3 M0H1 = Group treatment without monensin and with hormones, 4 M1H1 = Group treatment with monensin and with hormones. Period of exposure bulls with cows from day 0 to 50.

Techniques Used:

Protocol experiment 2. Eight ruminally cannulated crossbred beef steers, four dosed with monensin (M1) and four without monensin (M0), were used. Ruminal fluid samples were taken through the fistulas on days 0, 40 and 77. Samples were taken at three times during the sampling day, before leaving to graze (hour 0), and 4 and 12 h after the start of grazing. VFA: volatile fatty acids; h: hour.
Figure Legend Snippet: Protocol experiment 2. Eight ruminally cannulated crossbred beef steers, four dosed with monensin (M1) and four without monensin (M0), were used. Ruminal fluid samples were taken through the fistulas on days 0, 40 and 77. Samples were taken at three times during the sampling day, before leaving to graze (hour 0), and 4 and 12 h after the start of grazing. VFA: volatile fatty acids; h: hour.

Techniques Used: Sampling

Protocol experiment 1. The experiments were carried out over a period of 118 days. Lactating beef cows were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Ninety-four cows were selected from a 300 cow´s herd. The experimental design used was a 2 x 2 factorial with monensin administration as first factor (M1 = with monensin vs . M0 = without monensin) and hormonal treatment as second factor (H1 = with hormonal treatment vs. H0 = no hormonal treatment). Thirty-eight days before the beginning of the breeding season, the cows were randomly assigned to the first factor, and thirty days later to the second factor, resulting in four treatments: M1H0, M1H1, M0H0 and M0H1. Bulls were exposed to cows from day 0 to 50 (bull/cow ratio 1:20) and confirmation of pregnancy was performed at 30, 60 and 80 days after start breeding season by ultrasonography. AMC: administration of monensin capsule; AP4 + EB: intravaginal application of progesterone release device (0,5 g Progesterone, DIB, Syntex, Argentina) for 8 days, plus 2 mg of estradiol benzoate (Gonadiol, Syntex, Argentina) administrated intramuscularly; RP4 + PGF + eCG: progesterone release device was removed (start of natural service), and intramuscularly were injected 0.15 g of D (+) cloprostenol (PGF, Syntex, Argentina) and 400 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (Novormon Syntex, Argentina).
Figure Legend Snippet: Protocol experiment 1. The experiments were carried out over a period of 118 days. Lactating beef cows were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Ninety-four cows were selected from a 300 cow´s herd. The experimental design used was a 2 x 2 factorial with monensin administration as first factor (M1 = with monensin vs . M0 = without monensin) and hormonal treatment as second factor (H1 = with hormonal treatment vs. H0 = no hormonal treatment). Thirty-eight days before the beginning of the breeding season, the cows were randomly assigned to the first factor, and thirty days later to the second factor, resulting in four treatments: M1H0, M1H1, M0H0 and M0H1. Bulls were exposed to cows from day 0 to 50 (bull/cow ratio 1:20) and confirmation of pregnancy was performed at 30, 60 and 80 days after start breeding season by ultrasonography. AMC: administration of monensin capsule; AP4 + EB: intravaginal application of progesterone release device (0,5 g Progesterone, DIB, Syntex, Argentina) for 8 days, plus 2 mg of estradiol benzoate (Gonadiol, Syntex, Argentina) administrated intramuscularly; RP4 + PGF + eCG: progesterone release device was removed (start of natural service), and intramuscularly were injected 0.15 g of D (+) cloprostenol (PGF, Syntex, Argentina) and 400 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (Novormon Syntex, Argentina).

Techniques Used: Injection

Effect (mean ± SEM) of treatment x hour after grazing interaction on the VFA proportion. The proportion of acetate and propionate and the acetate: propionate ratio values presented expresses the average of the three sampling days (0, 40 and 77). Samples were taken at three times during the sampling day (0, 4 and 12 h after grazing). M1 = with monensin and M0 = without monensin. *P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect (mean ± SEM) of treatment x hour after grazing interaction on the VFA proportion. The proportion of acetate and propionate and the acetate: propionate ratio values presented expresses the average of the three sampling days (0, 40 and 77). Samples were taken at three times during the sampling day (0, 4 and 12 h after grazing). M1 = with monensin and M0 = without monensin. *P

Techniques Used: Sampling

Related Articles

Concentration Assay:

Article Title: Energy partitioning in cattle fed diets based on tropical forage with the inclusion of antibiotic additives
Article Snippet: .. The monensin and virginiamycin additives were included in the concentrate under the commercial brands Rumensin®100 (10% concentration) produced by Elanco (Greenfield, IN, USA) and Eskalin® (2% concentration) produced by Phibro (Ridgefield Park, NJ, USA), respectively. ..

Article Title: Clostridium perfringens type A and type A and ?2 toxin associated with enterotoxemia in a 5-week-old goat
Article Snippet: Because of the intensive nature of the commercial operation, subclinical infection with an Eimeria sp. was not unexpected. .. Coccidia control on the farm consisted of monensin in the feed at a concentration of 26.5 mg/kg (Rumensin; Elanco Animal Health, Guelph, Ontario). ..

Article Title: Redundancy in Anaerobic Digestion Microbiomes during Disturbances by the Antibiotic Monensin
Article Snippet: .. For the monensin feed-dosed cows, the monensin concentration in the top dressing was increased every 2 weeks for a period of 2 months, according to the protocol recommended by the manufacturer (Elanco Animal Health, Indianapolis, IN) to introduce monensin to dairy cow diets. ..

Produced:

Article Title: Energy partitioning in cattle fed diets based on tropical forage with the inclusion of antibiotic additives
Article Snippet: .. The monensin and virginiamycin additives were included in the concentrate under the commercial brands Rumensin®100 (10% concentration) produced by Elanco (Greenfield, IN, USA) and Eskalin® (2% concentration) produced by Phibro (Ridgefield Park, NJ, USA), respectively. ..

other:

Article Title: Impact of Nutrients on the Hoof Health in Cattle
Article Snippet: In 2013, monensin was reintroduced on the European market as Kexxtone1 (Elanco, Indianapolis, IN, USA) in order to prevent hyperketonemia and associated diseases in high-risk animals [ ].

Article Title: Effects of monensin source on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics and performance of Bos indicus beef bulls offered a high-concentrate diet
Article Snippet: 1, Brachiaria ruziziensis (11.1 % CP) was inoculated or not with two sources of monensin, resulting in three treatments: 1) no monensin inoculation (CONT), 2) 20 mg of monensin sodium-A/kg of DM (Elanco Animal Health; MON-A), and 3) 20 mg of monensin sodium-B/kg of DM (Shandong Qilu King-Phar Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.; MON-B).

Article Title: 387 Supplementing a yeast-derived product to feedlot cattle: impacts on performance, physiological responses, and carcass characteristics
Article Snippet: Monensin (Rumensin 90; Elanco, Greenfield, IN) was included in the diet at 27.3 g/ton of dry matter.

Introduce:

Article Title: Redundancy in Anaerobic Digestion Microbiomes during Disturbances by the Antibiotic Monensin
Article Snippet: .. For the monensin feed-dosed cows, the monensin concentration in the top dressing was increased every 2 weeks for a period of 2 months, according to the protocol recommended by the manufacturer (Elanco Animal Health, Indianapolis, IN) to introduce monensin to dairy cow diets. ..

Negative Control:

Article Title: Effects of a bioactive olive pomace extract from Olea europaea on growth performance, gut function, and intestinal microbiota in broiler chickens
Article Snippet: .. The design was completely randomized with 3 treatments, a negative control with no additives (Control), a positive control with 100 ppm of monensin (Monensin; Elanco Valquimia S.A.) and the basal diet supplemented with 750 ppm of an olive extract ( OE , Lucta S. A.; Spain) which consisted of an olive pomace extract standardized to contain a minimum of 10% total triterpenes and 2% polyphenols. .. The theoretical concentration of OE (750 ppm, with 2% of polypenols and 10% of triterpenes) was similar to the concentration found in the experimental diet (722 ± 23 ppm, with 2.4 ± 0.25% of polypenols and 12.9 ± 0.54% of triterpenes).

Positive Control:

Article Title: Effects of a bioactive olive pomace extract from Olea europaea on growth performance, gut function, and intestinal microbiota in broiler chickens
Article Snippet: .. The design was completely randomized with 3 treatments, a negative control with no additives (Control), a positive control with 100 ppm of monensin (Monensin; Elanco Valquimia S.A.) and the basal diet supplemented with 750 ppm of an olive extract ( OE , Lucta S. A.; Spain) which consisted of an olive pomace extract standardized to contain a minimum of 10% total triterpenes and 2% polyphenols. .. The theoretical concentration of OE (750 ppm, with 2% of polypenols and 10% of triterpenes) was similar to the concentration found in the experimental diet (722 ± 23 ppm, with 2.4 ± 0.25% of polypenols and 12.9 ± 0.54% of triterpenes).

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  • 86
    Elanco rumensin
    In vitro rumen propionate concentration over the experimental period. Brachiaria ruziziensis (11.1% CP; 61.5% TDN) was inoculated or not with monensin-A (MON-A; <t>Rumensin-200;</t> Elanco Animal Health; n = 12) or monensin-B (MON-B; Shandong Qilu King-Phar Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.; n = 12). Samples were collected at 0 (immediately before treatment inoculation), 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after treatment inoculation. Results were covariately-adjusted to vales obtained at hour 0. A treatment × hour interaction was detected ( P = 0.01). Within hour, letters indicate differences between treatments ( P ≤ 0.03).
    Rumensin, supplied by Elanco, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    86
    Elanco ppm of monensin
    Effects of supplementation with <t>Monensin</t> (Antibiotic, 66 ppm Coban; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) and functional oils (0.15% Essential, Oligo Basics Agroindustrial Ltda., Cascavel, Brazil) on histological morphology of jejunum mucosa in turkey toms experiment 1. Each panel is representative of jejunal morphological characteristics of birds from each treatment group in experiment 1: A = control, B = monensin, and C = functional oils. For 12 wk, 585 male turkeys were randomly assigned to one of 3 dietary treatments: (1) control, (2) 0.15% of functional oils in basal diet, or (3) 66 ppm of monensin in a basal diet. At week 13 to week 20, each of 3 treatments were subdivided into 3 additional treatment groups (control-no additive added, 0.15% of functional oils, or 20 ppm of virginiamycin). Jejunal morphometric characteristics using standard histological processes and staining methods were used at 21 D of age with 6 birds per treatment. Villi surface area was calculated using 10 readings per replicate per variable, using the following equation: villi surface = [(UVW + BVW)/2] × VH. Abbreviations: BVW, bottom villi width; UVW, upper villi width; VH, villus height.
    Ppm Of Monensin, supplied by Elanco, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    86
    Elanco monensin
    β-Diversity of anaerobic digester microbiome samples during different periods. (A) Boxplot of weighted UniFrac distances within microbiomes from a single anaerobic digester throughout a similar operating period. Control anaerobic digester boxplot corresponds to days 203 to 306, when the slow anaerobic digester was fed only control cow manure without <t>monensin</t> addition; the low A anaerobic digester boxplot corresponds to days 203 to 383; the low B anaerobic digester boxplot corresponds to days 203 to 355; the fast anaerobic digester boxplot only includes samples during which the anaerobic digester was subjected to high concentrations of monensin (i.e., days 265 to 306); and the slow anaerobic digester boxplot corresponds to days 306 to 383, when the anaerobic digester was subjected to high concentrations of monensin. (B) Similarity of samples postdisturbance compared to three samples prior to disturbance (prior to P2 on days 175, 189, and 201) based on the weighted UniFrac distance metric. Similarity was calculated as one minus the average weighted UniFrac distance between the sample day and the three sample days prior to disturbance (prior to P2). Colors represent the monensin concentration gradient: dark red, high monensin concentration (1 to 5 mg · liter −1 ); pink, low monensin concentration (
    Monensin, supplied by Elanco, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Elanco ionophore monensin
    Daily surface-to-atmosphere nitrous oxide fluxes from the ( a ) composted and ( b ) stockpiled manure and ammonia fluxes from the ( c ) composted and ( d ) stockpiled manure from days 0 to 202. Treatment daily means (control in no supplements, 3-NOP is 3-nitrooxypropanol and 3-NOP + Mon is 3-nitrooxypropanol and <t>monensin)</t> are presented ± the standard error of the mean.
    Ionophore Monensin, supplied by Elanco, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    In vitro rumen propionate concentration over the experimental period. Brachiaria ruziziensis (11.1% CP; 61.5% TDN) was inoculated or not with monensin-A (MON-A; Rumensin-200; Elanco Animal Health; n = 12) or monensin-B (MON-B; Shandong Qilu King-Phar Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.; n = 12). Samples were collected at 0 (immediately before treatment inoculation), 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after treatment inoculation. Results were covariately-adjusted to vales obtained at hour 0. A treatment × hour interaction was detected ( P = 0.01). Within hour, letters indicate differences between treatments ( P ≤ 0.03).

    Journal: Translational Animal Science

    Article Title: Effects of monensin source on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics and performance of Bos indicus beef bulls offered a high-concentrate diet

    doi: 10.1093/tas/txz158

    Figure Lengend Snippet: In vitro rumen propionate concentration over the experimental period. Brachiaria ruziziensis (11.1% CP; 61.5% TDN) was inoculated or not with monensin-A (MON-A; Rumensin-200; Elanco Animal Health; n = 12) or monensin-B (MON-B; Shandong Qilu King-Phar Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.; n = 12). Samples were collected at 0 (immediately before treatment inoculation), 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after treatment inoculation. Results were covariately-adjusted to vales obtained at hour 0. A treatment × hour interaction was detected ( P = 0.01). Within hour, letters indicate differences between treatments ( P ≤ 0.03).

    Article Snippet: Although Rumensin (Elanco Animal Health) has been the only monensin source approved in United States, other monensin-containing products have been available in other countries, such as Brazil and Mexico.

    Techniques: In Vitro, Concentration Assay

    Effects of supplementation with Monensin (Antibiotic, 66 ppm Coban; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) and functional oils (0.15% Essential, Oligo Basics Agroindustrial Ltda., Cascavel, Brazil) on histological morphology of jejunum mucosa in turkey toms experiment 1. Each panel is representative of jejunal morphological characteristics of birds from each treatment group in experiment 1: A = control, B = monensin, and C = functional oils. For 12 wk, 585 male turkeys were randomly assigned to one of 3 dietary treatments: (1) control, (2) 0.15% of functional oils in basal diet, or (3) 66 ppm of monensin in a basal diet. At week 13 to week 20, each of 3 treatments were subdivided into 3 additional treatment groups (control-no additive added, 0.15% of functional oils, or 20 ppm of virginiamycin). Jejunal morphometric characteristics using standard histological processes and staining methods were used at 21 D of age with 6 birds per treatment. Villi surface area was calculated using 10 readings per replicate per variable, using the following equation: villi surface = [(UVW + BVW)/2] × VH. Abbreviations: BVW, bottom villi width; UVW, upper villi width; VH, villus height.

    Journal: Poultry Science

    Article Title: Effects of functional oils on the growth, carcass and meat characteristics, and intestinal morphology of commercial turkey toms

    doi: 10.1016/j.psj.2020.03.050

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of supplementation with Monensin (Antibiotic, 66 ppm Coban; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) and functional oils (0.15% Essential, Oligo Basics Agroindustrial Ltda., Cascavel, Brazil) on histological morphology of jejunum mucosa in turkey toms experiment 1. Each panel is representative of jejunal morphological characteristics of birds from each treatment group in experiment 1: A = control, B = monensin, and C = functional oils. For 12 wk, 585 male turkeys were randomly assigned to one of 3 dietary treatments: (1) control, (2) 0.15% of functional oils in basal diet, or (3) 66 ppm of monensin in a basal diet. At week 13 to week 20, each of 3 treatments were subdivided into 3 additional treatment groups (control-no additive added, 0.15% of functional oils, or 20 ppm of virginiamycin). Jejunal morphometric characteristics using standard histological processes and staining methods were used at 21 D of age with 6 birds per treatment. Villi surface area was calculated using 10 readings per replicate per variable, using the following equation: villi surface = [(UVW + BVW)/2] × VH. Abbreviations: BVW, bottom villi width; UVW, upper villi width; VH, villus height.

    Article Snippet: For the first 12 wk, each pen was randomly assigned to one of 3 dietary treatments: 1) control (conventional soybean meal + corn diet with no additive included), 2) inclusion of 0.15% of a commercial mixture of functional oils (Essential; Oligo Basics Agroindustrial Ltda., Cascavel, Brazil) in conventional soybean meal + corn diet, or 3) 66 ppm of monensin (Coban; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) in a conventional soybean meal + corn diet.

    Techniques: Functional Assay, Staining

    β-Diversity of anaerobic digester microbiome samples during different periods. (A) Boxplot of weighted UniFrac distances within microbiomes from a single anaerobic digester throughout a similar operating period. Control anaerobic digester boxplot corresponds to days 203 to 306, when the slow anaerobic digester was fed only control cow manure without monensin addition; the low A anaerobic digester boxplot corresponds to days 203 to 383; the low B anaerobic digester boxplot corresponds to days 203 to 355; the fast anaerobic digester boxplot only includes samples during which the anaerobic digester was subjected to high concentrations of monensin (i.e., days 265 to 306); and the slow anaerobic digester boxplot corresponds to days 306 to 383, when the anaerobic digester was subjected to high concentrations of monensin. (B) Similarity of samples postdisturbance compared to three samples prior to disturbance (prior to P2 on days 175, 189, and 201) based on the weighted UniFrac distance metric. Similarity was calculated as one minus the average weighted UniFrac distance between the sample day and the three sample days prior to disturbance (prior to P2). Colors represent the monensin concentration gradient: dark red, high monensin concentration (1 to 5 mg · liter −1 ); pink, low monensin concentration (

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Redundancy in Anaerobic Digestion Microbiomes during Disturbances by the Antibiotic Monensin

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.02692-17

    Figure Lengend Snippet: β-Diversity of anaerobic digester microbiome samples during different periods. (A) Boxplot of weighted UniFrac distances within microbiomes from a single anaerobic digester throughout a similar operating period. Control anaerobic digester boxplot corresponds to days 203 to 306, when the slow anaerobic digester was fed only control cow manure without monensin addition; the low A anaerobic digester boxplot corresponds to days 203 to 383; the low B anaerobic digester boxplot corresponds to days 203 to 355; the fast anaerobic digester boxplot only includes samples during which the anaerobic digester was subjected to high concentrations of monensin (i.e., days 265 to 306); and the slow anaerobic digester boxplot corresponds to days 306 to 383, when the anaerobic digester was subjected to high concentrations of monensin. (B) Similarity of samples postdisturbance compared to three samples prior to disturbance (prior to P2 on days 175, 189, and 201) based on the weighted UniFrac distance metric. Similarity was calculated as one minus the average weighted UniFrac distance between the sample day and the three sample days prior to disturbance (prior to P2). Colors represent the monensin concentration gradient: dark red, high monensin concentration (1 to 5 mg · liter −1 ); pink, low monensin concentration (

    Article Snippet: Seven dairy cows (Cornell University Teaching and Research Center, Dryden, NY) were split into two groups and fed the same diet, except that three cows (monensin feed-dosed cows) received a ration top-dressed with monensin (Rumensin 90 Premix [Elanco Animal Health, Indianapolis, IN] mixed with corn grain), while four cows (control cows) received no monensin (ration top-dressed with corn grain without Rumensin).

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    β-Diversity of all anaerobic digester microbiome samples from day 175 to the end of the operating period. (A) Principal-coordinate analysis (PCoA) plot based on weighted UniFrac distance. (B) Distance-based redundancy analysis (db-RDA) plot showing the four measured parameters that best explained the variation observed in the PCoA plot. Methane, methane yield; alkalinity, bicarbonate alkalinity concentration; ammonia, total ammonium concentration; monensin, monensin concentration in the substrate. In both the PCoA and db-RDA plots, the points are colored on a gradient scale representing the duration of the operating period in days.

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Redundancy in Anaerobic Digestion Microbiomes during Disturbances by the Antibiotic Monensin

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.02692-17

    Figure Lengend Snippet: β-Diversity of all anaerobic digester microbiome samples from day 175 to the end of the operating period. (A) Principal-coordinate analysis (PCoA) plot based on weighted UniFrac distance. (B) Distance-based redundancy analysis (db-RDA) plot showing the four measured parameters that best explained the variation observed in the PCoA plot. Methane, methane yield; alkalinity, bicarbonate alkalinity concentration; ammonia, total ammonium concentration; monensin, monensin concentration in the substrate. In both the PCoA and db-RDA plots, the points are colored on a gradient scale representing the duration of the operating period in days.

    Article Snippet: Seven dairy cows (Cornell University Teaching and Research Center, Dryden, NY) were split into two groups and fed the same diet, except that three cows (monensin feed-dosed cows) received a ration top-dressed with monensin (Rumensin 90 Premix [Elanco Animal Health, Indianapolis, IN] mixed with corn grain), while four cows (control cows) received no monensin (ration top-dressed with corn grain without Rumensin).

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    Heatmaps representing relative abundance of major OTUs in anaerobic digester samples during the entire sampling period for the low A anaerobic digester (A), low B anaerobic digester (B), fast anaerobic digester (C), and slow anaerobic digester (D). OTUs represented here reached at least 5% relative abundance in any one anaerobic digester sample. Lowest-level taxonomic data, as well as the OTU ID number, are provided. The sidebar color scale represents the monensin dosing rate to the anaerobic digester. For the fast digester (panel C), the black line in the red bar indicates when the monensin dose was directly increased from 1 to 5 mg · liter −1 . For the slow digester (panel D), the black lines in the red bar indicate when the monensin dose was increased (from 1 to 2 mg · liter −1 , from 2 to 3 mg · liter −1 , from 3 to 4 mg · liter −1 , and from 4 to 5 mg · liter −1 ).

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Redundancy in Anaerobic Digestion Microbiomes during Disturbances by the Antibiotic Monensin

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.02692-17

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Heatmaps representing relative abundance of major OTUs in anaerobic digester samples during the entire sampling period for the low A anaerobic digester (A), low B anaerobic digester (B), fast anaerobic digester (C), and slow anaerobic digester (D). OTUs represented here reached at least 5% relative abundance in any one anaerobic digester sample. Lowest-level taxonomic data, as well as the OTU ID number, are provided. The sidebar color scale represents the monensin dosing rate to the anaerobic digester. For the fast digester (panel C), the black line in the red bar indicates when the monensin dose was directly increased from 1 to 5 mg · liter −1 . For the slow digester (panel D), the black lines in the red bar indicate when the monensin dose was increased (from 1 to 2 mg · liter −1 , from 2 to 3 mg · liter −1 , from 3 to 4 mg · liter −1 , and from 4 to 5 mg · liter −1 ).

    Article Snippet: Seven dairy cows (Cornell University Teaching and Research Center, Dryden, NY) were split into two groups and fed the same diet, except that three cows (monensin feed-dosed cows) received a ration top-dressed with monensin (Rumensin 90 Premix [Elanco Animal Health, Indianapolis, IN] mixed with corn grain), while four cows (control cows) received no monensin (ration top-dressed with corn grain without Rumensin).

    Techniques: Sampling

    Performance parameters for the four anaerobic digesters from day 175 to the end of the operating period for specific methane yields (A), tVFA concentrations (B), total ammonium concentrations (C), and bicarbonate alkalinity concentrations (D). Points are colored on a color scale corresponding to the concentration of monensin dosed to the anaerobic digester at that time point. The different periods are marked with gray and white shading from left to right during the operating period: the first gray shading identifies P1; the first white shading identifies P2; the second gray bar identifies P3, and the second white area identifies P4 (see Table S4 in the supplemental material). The fast anaerobic digester was stopped at the end of P3 due to a loss of stability.

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Redundancy in Anaerobic Digestion Microbiomes during Disturbances by the Antibiotic Monensin

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.02692-17

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Performance parameters for the four anaerobic digesters from day 175 to the end of the operating period for specific methane yields (A), tVFA concentrations (B), total ammonium concentrations (C), and bicarbonate alkalinity concentrations (D). Points are colored on a color scale corresponding to the concentration of monensin dosed to the anaerobic digester at that time point. The different periods are marked with gray and white shading from left to right during the operating period: the first gray shading identifies P1; the first white shading identifies P2; the second gray bar identifies P3, and the second white area identifies P4 (see Table S4 in the supplemental material). The fast anaerobic digester was stopped at the end of P3 due to a loss of stability.

    Article Snippet: Seven dairy cows (Cornell University Teaching and Research Center, Dryden, NY) were split into two groups and fed the same diet, except that three cows (monensin feed-dosed cows) received a ration top-dressed with monensin (Rumensin 90 Premix [Elanco Animal Health, Indianapolis, IN] mixed with corn grain), while four cows (control cows) received no monensin (ration top-dressed with corn grain without Rumensin).

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    β-Diversity of the fast and slow anaerobic digester microbiome samples during high monensin periods (≥1 mg · liter −1 ; day 265 to 307 for fast anaerobic digester, and day 307 to 383 for slow anaerobic digester). (A) Principal-coordinate analysis (PCoA) based on weighted UniFrac distance. Time points are colored in a gradient scale corresponding to monensin concentration in the substrate, as indicated by the color sidebar. (B) Taxon biplot showing the most abundant OTUs in these samples (OTUs that reached an average relative abundance of ≥1% across the time period shown). OTUs are shown nearest to the samples that they are most abundant in. Sample time points are not shown as they are displayed in the left-hand PCoA. Point size represents average relative abundance of that OTU across all samples (minimum average relative abundance is 1.0%, maximum average relative abundance is 12.0%). Points are colored by phylum-level taxonomy. Three OTUs discussed in the text are highlighted. OTU 820298, OP11 OTU; OTU 265425, Prevotella OTU; OTU 837605, Bacteroidales OTU.

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Redundancy in Anaerobic Digestion Microbiomes during Disturbances by the Antibiotic Monensin

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.02692-17

    Figure Lengend Snippet: β-Diversity of the fast and slow anaerobic digester microbiome samples during high monensin periods (≥1 mg · liter −1 ; day 265 to 307 for fast anaerobic digester, and day 307 to 383 for slow anaerobic digester). (A) Principal-coordinate analysis (PCoA) based on weighted UniFrac distance. Time points are colored in a gradient scale corresponding to monensin concentration in the substrate, as indicated by the color sidebar. (B) Taxon biplot showing the most abundant OTUs in these samples (OTUs that reached an average relative abundance of ≥1% across the time period shown). OTUs are shown nearest to the samples that they are most abundant in. Sample time points are not shown as they are displayed in the left-hand PCoA. Point size represents average relative abundance of that OTU across all samples (minimum average relative abundance is 1.0%, maximum average relative abundance is 12.0%). Points are colored by phylum-level taxonomy. Three OTUs discussed in the text are highlighted. OTU 820298, OP11 OTU; OTU 265425, Prevotella OTU; OTU 837605, Bacteroidales OTU.

    Article Snippet: Seven dairy cows (Cornell University Teaching and Research Center, Dryden, NY) were split into two groups and fed the same diet, except that three cows (monensin feed-dosed cows) received a ration top-dressed with monensin (Rumensin 90 Premix [Elanco Animal Health, Indianapolis, IN] mixed with corn grain), while four cows (control cows) received no monensin (ration top-dressed with corn grain without Rumensin).

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    Daily surface-to-atmosphere nitrous oxide fluxes from the ( a ) composted and ( b ) stockpiled manure and ammonia fluxes from the ( c ) composted and ( d ) stockpiled manure from days 0 to 202. Treatment daily means (control in no supplements, 3-NOP is 3-nitrooxypropanol and 3-NOP + Mon is 3-nitrooxypropanol and monensin) are presented ± the standard error of the mean.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from stored manure from beef cattle supplemented 3-nitrooxypropanol and monensin to reduce enteric methane emissions

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-75236-w

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Daily surface-to-atmosphere nitrous oxide fluxes from the ( a ) composted and ( b ) stockpiled manure and ammonia fluxes from the ( c ) composted and ( d ) stockpiled manure from days 0 to 202. Treatment daily means (control in no supplements, 3-NOP is 3-nitrooxypropanol and 3-NOP + Mon is 3-nitrooxypropanol and monensin) are presented ± the standard error of the mean.

    Article Snippet: The ionophore monensin (Rumensin, Elanco Animal Health, Guelph, Ontario, Canada) is one of the most common additives administered to cattle as it improves feed efficiency and reduces the risk of bloat and rumen acidosis , .

    Techniques:

    ( a ) Precipitation as rain and snow and ( b ) air temperature and mean pile temperatures by treatment (control, no supplements; 3-NOP, 3-nitrooxypropanol; 3-NOP + Mon, 3-nitrooxypropanol and monensin) for the stockpile and compost from September 2016 to March 2017.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from stored manure from beef cattle supplemented 3-nitrooxypropanol and monensin to reduce enteric methane emissions

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-75236-w

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ( a ) Precipitation as rain and snow and ( b ) air temperature and mean pile temperatures by treatment (control, no supplements; 3-NOP, 3-nitrooxypropanol; 3-NOP + Mon, 3-nitrooxypropanol and monensin) for the stockpile and compost from September 2016 to March 2017.

    Article Snippet: The ionophore monensin (Rumensin, Elanco Animal Health, Guelph, Ontario, Canada) is one of the most common additives administered to cattle as it improves feed efficiency and reduces the risk of bloat and rumen acidosis , .

    Techniques:

    Daily surface-to-atmosphere carbon dioxide fluxes from the ( a ) composted and ( b ) stockpiled manure and methane fluxes from the ( c ) composted and ( d ) stockpiled manure from days 0 to 202. Treatment daily means (control is no supplements, 3-NOP is 3-nitrooxypropanol and 3-NOP + Mon is 3-nitrooxypropanol and monensin) are presented ± the standard error of the mean.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from stored manure from beef cattle supplemented 3-nitrooxypropanol and monensin to reduce enteric methane emissions

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-75236-w

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Daily surface-to-atmosphere carbon dioxide fluxes from the ( a ) composted and ( b ) stockpiled manure and methane fluxes from the ( c ) composted and ( d ) stockpiled manure from days 0 to 202. Treatment daily means (control is no supplements, 3-NOP is 3-nitrooxypropanol and 3-NOP + Mon is 3-nitrooxypropanol and monensin) are presented ± the standard error of the mean.

    Article Snippet: The ionophore monensin (Rumensin, Elanco Animal Health, Guelph, Ontario, Canada) is one of the most common additives administered to cattle as it improves feed efficiency and reduces the risk of bloat and rumen acidosis , .

    Techniques: