Monensin sodium salt
Chemical structure polyether
Monensin sodium salt has been used:. for the intracellular staining of cytokines. to study its effects on the regulation of nuclear factor-κ B (NF-κB ) activation. as a positive control to study its effects on in vitro rumen fermentation
Chemical structure polyether
https://www.bioz.com/result/monensin sodium salt/product/Millipore
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1) Product Images from "Assembly and Budding of Ebolavirus"
Article Title: Assembly and Budding of Ebolavirus
Journal: PLoS Pathogens
Figure Legend Snippet: VLP Budding Is Dependent on Microtubules 10 μM nocodazole (noc), 1 μM taxol (tax), 10 μg/ml cytochalasin D (cytD), or 5 μM monensin (mon) was added to cells 3 h after they were transfected with plasmids expressing (A) NP, VP24, VP35, and VP40, or (B) VP40 alone. At 16 h post-transfection, proteins in the cell lysates and supernatants were separated by SDS-PAGE and examined by Western blotting with anti-NP and anti-VP40 antibodies. Following nocodazol or taxol treatment, the amounts of both VP40 and NP (A) or VP40 (B) in the supernatants (i.e., efficiency of VLPs budding) were reduced. cont, mock-treated control.
Techniques Used: Transfection, Expressing, SDS Page, Western Blot
2) Product Images from "Na+/K+ pump interacts with the h-current to control bursting activity in central pattern generator neurons of leeches"
Article Title: Na+/K+ pump interacts with the h-current to control bursting activity in central pattern generator neurons of leeches
Figure Legend Snippet: Hyperpolarization of the oscillator heart interneurons and suppression of their spiking activity by intracellular leakage of Na + from an electrode and by monensin. ( A 1 ) An extracellular (blue) trace of one oscillator heart interneuron and an intracellular (vermilion) trace of a contralateral oscillator heart interneuron that was impaled with a K + -filled intracellular electrode. ( A 2 ) Impalement of an oscillator heart interneuron with a Na + -filled electrode gradually suppressed its spiking activity and hyperpolarized the neuron. There was no change in the bursting activity of the extracellularly recorded neurons in the ( A 1 ) K + and ( A 2 ) Na + recordings. ( A 3 ) During the first ten minutes, the average base potential of Na + -loaded neurons (closed circles) was significantly more hyperpolarized than the base potential of K + -loaded neurons (open circles). Such differences persisted well into the 15th and 20th minute. The data are represented as mean ± SEM, with the asterisk (*) representing significant differences between the K + and Na + base potentials (split-plot ANOVA, F 1,8 = 1847.7, p=0.006). ( B 1 ) Extracellular (blue) and intracellular (vermilion) traces from a pair of oscillator heart interneurons that were initially bathed in control saline and showed normal alternating bursting. ( B 2 ) When the oscillator heart interneurons were bathed in Ca 2+ -free saline with 2 mM Cs + and 1.8 mM Mn 2+ , they produced a more tonic firing pattern that was interspersed with synchronized oscillations. ( B 3 ) When the oscillator heart interneurons were subsequently treated with 10 µM monensin in the same Ca 2+ -free saline, the spiking activity of both oscillator heart interneurons were suppressed and the membrane potential of the intracellularly recoded neuron gradually hyperpolarized. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19322.003
Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Produced
Figure Legend Snippet: Monensin stimulates the outward Na + /K + pump current. ( A 1 ) Membrane current trace from an oscillator heart interneuron with its membrane potential ( V m ) voltage-clamped at −45 mV (see inset) in Ca 2+ -free saline with 1.8 mM Mn 2+ plus 2 mM Cs. Changes in the neuron’s membrane current ( I m ) were observed under three experimental treatments: pre-monensin saline for five minutes, 10 µM monensin for 10 min, and 10 µM monensin plus 100 µM strophanthidin (SPTD) for another five minutes. ( A 2 ) A scatterplot of membrane currents from five preparations, with each green dashed line representing a mean for each of the three experimental treatments. Monensin induced a significant outward current relative to pre-monensin saline. Monensin plus strophanthidin induced a significant inward current relative to pre-monensin or monensin saline. The asterisks (*) represent significance from the pre-monensin saline whereas the hashtag (#) represents significance from the monensin saline (Tukey’s test, p
Figure Legend Snippet: A biophysical model of oscillator heart interneurons that mimics three experimental treatments with monensin. ( A 1 ) Sample traces of simulated activity by oscillator heart interneurons functioning as a half center oscillator in normal saline, which were observed when parameters g ¯ h = 4.9 nS and M = 0 s −1 . ( A 2 ) Simulated activity of oscillator heart interneurons with a Na + /K + pump stimulated by monensin (monensin saline), observed when g ¯ h = 4.9 nS and M = 2.2 × 10 −3 s −1 . ( A 3 ) Simulated activity of a half-center oscillator with blocked h -current and pump stimulated by monensin (monensin plus Cs + saline), observed when g ¯ h = 0.1 nS and M = 1.9 × 10 −4 s −1 . Sample traces representing membrane potentials ( V m ) of both left (L, blue) and right (R, vermilion) oscillator heart interneurons as well as h -current ( I h , yellow), pump current ( I pump , reddish purple), and intracellular Na + concentration [Na] i (black) belonging to the right oscillator heart interneuron. ( B 1 ) A scatterplot depicting incremental shortening of the period as the monensin rate constant increases towards 2.2 × 10 −3 s −1 in a model of a half-center oscillator with the h -current present. Spiking activity was suppressed at rate constant values larger than 2.2 × 10 −3 s −1 . ( B 2 ) In a simulation of a half-center oscillator, the average pump current over the entire burst cycle was fixed at 155.5 pA, which resulted in a longer period, burst duration, and interburst interval. Intracellular Na + concentration [Na] i appeared to increase and decrease more slowly relative to a ( A 1 ) normal half-center oscillator with a dynamic pump current. ( B 3 ) Fixing the average pump current over the entire burst cycle to 144.4 pA (a value lower than 155.5 pA) produced irregular bouts of bursting. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19322.011
Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay, Produced
Figure Legend Snippet: The cycle-to-cycle effects of monensin on the period of oscillator heart interneurons. ( A ) Initial application of monensin rapidly shortens the period towards a stable minimum value. The concentration of 10 µM monensin (vermilion line) shortens the period more rapidly than the lower concentration of 1 µM (blue line). The amount of time a period needs to reach its minimum value at the 200th cycle can be measured by summing up all the periods leading up to that 200th cycle. ( B ) A scatterplot of the amount of time that has passed before the period has reached its value at the 200th cycle in both 1 µM and 10 µM monensin treatments. ( C ) A scatterplot of the period at the 200th cycle in both 1 µM and 10 µM monensin treatments. The dashed green lines in the scatter plots represent means whereas the asterisk (*) represents significance from control (unpaired t-test, p=0.003). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19322.006
Techniques Used: Concentration Assay
Figure Legend Snippet: Stimulating the pump with 10 µM monensin in pharmacologically isolated heart interneurons requires h -current to shorten the interburst interval but not to shorten the burst duration. Extracellular traces from left (blue) and right (vermilion) oscillator heart interneurons [HN(L) and HN(R) neurons] that were pharmacological isolated as bursters by being treated with ( A 1 ) saline that contained 500 µM bicuculline (Bic). ( A 2 ) The isolated oscillator heart interneurons were then treated with saline that contained 500 µM bicuculline plus 10 µM monensin. Corresponding scatter plots of ( A 3 ) burst duration and ( A 4 ) interburst interval. Extracellular traces from another pair of isolated oscillator heart interneurons that were treated with ( B 1 ) saline that contained 500 µM bicuculline plus 2 mM Cs + saline followed by followed by another treatment with ( B 2 ) saline that contained 500 µM bicuculline, 2 mM Cs + , plus 10 µM monensin saline. Corresponding scatter plots of ( B 3 ) burst duration and ( B 4 ) interburst interval. The dashed green lines represent means whereas asterisks (*) and hashtags (#) represent significance from control and bicuculline, respectively (Tukey’s test, p
Techniques Used: Isolation
3) Product Images from "Multiple phosphatidylinositol(3)phosphate roles in retinal pigment epithelium membrane recycling"
Article Title: Multiple phosphatidylinositol(3)phosphate roles in retinal pigment epithelium membrane recycling
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of WIPI2 knockdown on LC3 puncta and on lysosome colocalization. hRPE1 ( A ) ARPE-19 ( B ) or HEK ( C ) cells were transfected with WIPI2 shRNA (marked by DsRed expression) and immunostained for WIPI2 and LC3. ( B ) Results showing LC3 puncta in WIPI2 knockdown ARPE-19 cells were reproduced with a second shRNA targeting a different sequence in WIPI2 than the one used in Fig. 10 . (D-G) ARPE-19 cells were transfected with WIPI2 shRNA (marked by DsRed expression), and treated with starvation ( D ), bafilomycin A ( E ), or monensin ( F ), then immunostained for LC3 and LAMP2. LC3 puncta and LAMP1-positive lysosomes accumulate in each case, but lysosome co-localization with LC3 is much more pronounced in response to starvation or bafilomycin treatment than in response to monensin treatment. ( G ) ARPE-19 cells were transfected with WIPI2 shRNA, and treated overnight with CQ or CQ and wortmannin together.
Techniques Used: Transfection, shRNA, Expressing, Sequencing
4) Product Images from "Distinct functions of ATG16L1 isoforms in membrane binding and LC3B lipidation in autophagy-related processes"
Article Title: Distinct functions of ATG16L1 isoforms in membrane binding and LC3B lipidation in autophagy-related processes
Journal: Nature cell biology
Figure Legend Snippet: Membrane binding of ATG16L1 in autophagy and during lipidation on perturbed endosomes reveals isoform specific functions a , LC3B/GABARAP lipidation in WT and ATG16L1 KO HEK293 cells rescued or not with ATG16L1β, ATG16L1β F32A/I35A/I36A (β FII) or ATG16L1 (aa 1–249), treated for 2 h as indicated. Cell lysates were immunoblotted against the indicated proteins. b, Levels of LC3B-II/GAPDH quantified from immunoblots in (a) and normalized to fed WT cells. c , Degradation of long-lived proteins in HEK293 WT and in ATG16L1 KO cells rescued or not with ATG16L1β, ATG16L1β F32A/I35A/I36A (β FII) or ATG16L1 (aa 1–249) was quantified based on the Baf.A1 sensitive release of 14 C-valine after 4 h in indicated conditions. d, Confocal images of Zymosan-Alexa594-containing phagosomes counter-stained for LC3B in ATG16L1 KO RAW264.7 cells rescued or not with ATG16L1β, ATG16L1β F32A/I35A/I36A (β FII) or ATG16L1α V308A/R309A/V310A (α VRV). Scale bars: 10μm. The images are representative of n=2 independent experiments. e , LC3B lipidation in ATG16L1 KO HEK293 cells rescued or not with ATG16L1β, ATG16L1α V308A/R309A/V310A (α VRV) or ATG16L1 (aa 1–249). Cells were treated or not with monensin for 1 h or EBSS for 2 h in the presence or absence of Baf.A1. Co-treatment with VPS34 inhibitor VPS34IN1 and ULK1/2 inhibitor MRT68921 was performed where indicated. Cell lysates were immunoblotted against the indicated proteins. f , The levels of LC3B-II/GAPDH were quantified from immunoblots in (e) and normalized to cells rescued with ATG16L1β in the starved condition. g , LC3B lipidation in ATG16L1 KO HEK293 cells rescued or not with ATG16L1β, ATG16L1α, ATG16L1β V308A/R309A/V310A (β VRV), ATG16L1α V308A/R309A/V310A (α VRV) or ATG16L1 (aa 1–249), treated as indicated for 2h. Cell lysates were immunoblotted against the indicated proteins. h .
Techniques Used: Binding Assay, Western Blot, Staining
5) Product Images from "pH regulation in early endosomes and interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins control avian retrovirus fusion"
Article Title: pH regulation in early endosomes and interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins control avian retrovirus fusion
Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry
Figure Legend Snippet: Kinetics of ASLV fusion and measurement of endosomal pH. A, illustration of the virus labeling strategy with Gag-mCherry ( red ) and EcpH-ICAM ( green ) to assess the pH drop in virus-carrying endosomes ( top ) and images of CV-1 cells before (0 h) and after (1 h) internalization of labeled viruses ( bottom ). Virus entry into acidic endosomes is manifested in disappearance of the EcpH signal and accumulation of Gag-mCherry in the perinuclear areas. B , kinetics of ASLV fusion with A549/TVA950 cells in DMEM measured by the BlaM assay and EcpH quenching measured in parallel imaging experiments. C, images of Gag-mCherry/EcpH-ICAM co-labeled ASLV particles internalized by A549/TVA950 cells at different pH. Viruses were pre-bound to cells in the cold and allowed to enter by incubation at 37 °C for 15 min. Cells were then placed in buffers of the indicated acidity supplemented with monensin and nigericin to equilibrate the external and endosomal pH (see “Experimental procedures” for details). The EcpH signal is virtually lost in the background cell fluorescence at pH ≤ 6.2. A triangle shows the expected fluorescence ratio in DMEM equilibrated with air (pH ∼ 7.9). D, calibration of the mean ratio of EcpH and mCherry signals from intracellular compartments as a function of endosomal pH (as illustrated in panel C ). Data are mean ratios ± S.E. from at least 4 image fields acquired for each pH value. The light pink and blue colored regions represent the pH range conducive for ASLV fusion and the background EcpH/mCherry ratio, respectively. E and F, kinetics of ASLV fusion with A549/TVA950 cells in LIB ( E ) or DMEM buffered with HEPES at pH 7.4 ( F ), as measured by the BlaM assay. EcpH quenching in panel E was measured in parallel imaging experiments. Data are mean ± S.E. from 3 ( panels B and E ) and 2 ( panel F ) independent triplicate experiments.
Techniques Used: Labeling, Imaging, Incubation, Fluorescence
6) Product Images from "In Vitro Assessment of Uptake and Lysosomal Sequestration of Respiratory Drugs in Alveolar Macrophage Cell Line NR8383"
Article Title: In Vitro Assessment of Uptake and Lysosomal Sequestration of Respiratory Drugs in Alveolar Macrophage Cell Line NR8383
Journal: Pharmaceutical Research
Figure Legend Snippet: Qualitative assessment of lysosomal sequestration of LysoTracker Red (LTR) and three drugs studied in NR8383 by confocal microscopy: ( a ) differential interference contrast image of a single NR8383 cell treated with 200 nM LTR; ( b ) the same cell being excited to detect LTR localised in lysosomes under control conditions; the localisation of LTR in the lysosomes of NR8383 was reduced in presence of 20 mM NH4Cl ( c ), 5 μM monensin ( d ), 10 μM nigericin ( e ), 5 μM clarithromycin ( f ) and 5 μM imipramine ( g ), and showed minor changes in presence of 5 μM formoterol ( h ).
Techniques Used: Confocal Microscopy
Figure Legend Snippet: K p (C cell /C medium ) estimated in NR8383 in the absence ( ) (control) and presence of ( a ) 10 μM nigericin ( ) ( b ) 5 μM monensin ( ) at 5 μM concentration of imipramine, clarithromycin, formoterol and fenoterol. Data represent mean ± SD of at least 3 experiments (**, p
Techniques Used: Concentration Assay
Article Title: Wnt Modulating Agents Inhibit Human Cytomegalovirus Replication
Article Snippet: Monensin, nigericin, salinomycin, and
Article Title: House dust mite induced allergic airway disease is attenuated in CD11ccreIL-4Rα−/l°x mice
Article Snippet: .. For intracellular cytokine staining, lung cells were seeded at 2 × 106 cells/well and stimulated at 37 o C for 4 hours with phorbal myristate acetate (Sigma-Aldrich) (50ng/ml), ionomycin (Sigma-Aldrich) (250ng/ml) and
Article Title: TIM-4 Identifies IFN-γ–Expressing Proinflammatory B Effector 1 Cells That Promote Tumor and Allograft Rejection
Article Snippet: The digested tissue was layered onto Lympholyte M and spun at 1500 × g for 20 min. Lymphocytes isolated from the buffy coat were enumerated. .. The cells were plated at 1 × 106 /ml and stimulated with PMA (50 ng/ml), ionomycin (500 ng/ml), and