mnase seq samples  (New England Biolabs)


Bioz Verified Symbol New England Biolabs is a verified supplier
Bioz Manufacturer Symbol New England Biolabs manufactures this product  
  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 91

    Structured Review

    New England Biolabs mnase seq samples
    Histone deacetylation contributes to stable gene silencing. ( A ) RT-PCR showed that 1 ng/ml TSA for 24 hr significantly relieved Ikaros-induced reduced repression of Igll and Myc primary transcripts. Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. ( B ) <t>MNase</t> PCR showed that 1 ng/ml TSA for 24 hr did not significantly affect protection of 80–120 bp amplicons (short, left) but significantly reduced protection of 130–140 bp amplicons (long, right) at the Igll1 promoter. Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. ( C ) ChIP-PCR to assess Ikaros-induced recruitment of histone H2B to the Igll1 promoter between control cells and cells treated with 1 ng/ml TSA for 24 hr. Enrichment was normalised to total H3. Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. TSA significantly blunted the Ikaros-induced increase the H2B/H3 ratio at the Igll1 promoter and TSS. ( D ) 3D DNA-FISH to monitor the position of Igll1 alleles (green) relative to γ-satellite DNA (red, blue is DAPI). The percentage of Igll1 alleles associated with γ-satellite DNA is shown as mean ± SE. Where indicated, cells were treated over night with TSA (1 ng/ml) and/or <t>4-OHT.</t> At least 300 Igll1 alleles were scored for each experimental condition across 3 independent biological replicates. The impact of TSA was statistically significant across replicates (p=9.54 × 10-18 GLM binomial logit). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.021 10.7554/eLife.22767.022 Numerical data used to generate Figure 6A,B,C and D . DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.022
    Mnase Seq Samples, supplied by New England Biolabs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/mnase seq samples/product/New England Biolabs
    Average 91 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    mnase seq samples - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
    91/100 stars

    Related Products / Commonly Used Together

    mnase-seq
    mnase digestion

    Images

    1) Product Images from "A high-resolution map of transcriptional repression"

    Article Title: A high-resolution map of transcriptional repression

    Journal: eLife

    doi: 10.7554/eLife.22767

    Histone deacetylation contributes to stable gene silencing. ( A ) RT-PCR showed that 1 ng/ml TSA for 24 hr significantly relieved Ikaros-induced reduced repression of Igll and Myc primary transcripts. Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. ( B ) MNase PCR showed that 1 ng/ml TSA for 24 hr did not significantly affect protection of 80–120 bp amplicons (short, left) but significantly reduced protection of 130–140 bp amplicons (long, right) at the Igll1 promoter. Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. ( C ) ChIP-PCR to assess Ikaros-induced recruitment of histone H2B to the Igll1 promoter between control cells and cells treated with 1 ng/ml TSA for 24 hr. Enrichment was normalised to total H3. Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. TSA significantly blunted the Ikaros-induced increase the H2B/H3 ratio at the Igll1 promoter and TSS. ( D ) 3D DNA-FISH to monitor the position of Igll1 alleles (green) relative to γ-satellite DNA (red, blue is DAPI). The percentage of Igll1 alleles associated with γ-satellite DNA is shown as mean ± SE. Where indicated, cells were treated over night with TSA (1 ng/ml) and/or 4-OHT. At least 300 Igll1 alleles were scored for each experimental condition across 3 independent biological replicates. The impact of TSA was statistically significant across replicates (p=9.54 × 10-18 GLM binomial logit). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.021 10.7554/eLife.22767.022 Numerical data used to generate Figure 6A,B,C and D . DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.022
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histone deacetylation contributes to stable gene silencing. ( A ) RT-PCR showed that 1 ng/ml TSA for 24 hr significantly relieved Ikaros-induced reduced repression of Igll and Myc primary transcripts. Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. ( B ) MNase PCR showed that 1 ng/ml TSA for 24 hr did not significantly affect protection of 80–120 bp amplicons (short, left) but significantly reduced protection of 130–140 bp amplicons (long, right) at the Igll1 promoter. Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. ( C ) ChIP-PCR to assess Ikaros-induced recruitment of histone H2B to the Igll1 promoter between control cells and cells treated with 1 ng/ml TSA for 24 hr. Enrichment was normalised to total H3. Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. TSA significantly blunted the Ikaros-induced increase the H2B/H3 ratio at the Igll1 promoter and TSS. ( D ) 3D DNA-FISH to monitor the position of Igll1 alleles (green) relative to γ-satellite DNA (red, blue is DAPI). The percentage of Igll1 alleles associated with γ-satellite DNA is shown as mean ± SE. Where indicated, cells were treated over night with TSA (1 ng/ml) and/or 4-OHT. At least 300 Igll1 alleles were scored for each experimental condition across 3 independent biological replicates. The impact of TSA was statistically significant across replicates (p=9.54 × 10-18 GLM binomial logit). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.021 10.7554/eLife.22767.022 Numerical data used to generate Figure 6A,B,C and D . DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.022

    Techniques Used: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

    Ikaros controls promoter accessibility through NuRD-associated chromatin remodeling. ( A ) Left: CHD4 expression in control and Chd4 shRNA cells by western blotting. Tubulin is a loading control. One of 5 independent biological replicates. Right: Experimental outline. ( B ) MNase-PCR at the Igll1 and Myc promoters in control (black) or Chd4 shRNA cells (red) at the indicated times after 4-OHT. Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. Chd4 shRNA significantly reduced the Ikaros-induced increase in nucleosome occupancy at 15, 30 and 120 min at the Igll1 promoter and at 30 and 120 min at the Myc promoter. ( C ) RNAP2 ChIP-PCR (top) and MNase-PCR (bottom) at the Igll1 and Myc promoters after 4-OHT in control (black) or Chd4 shRNA cells (red). Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. RNAP2 binding was significantly reduced in control cells but not in Chd4 shRNA-treated cells from 5 to 120 min after 4-OHT at the Igll1 and the Myc promoter. Primary transcripts were significantly reduced in control but not in Chd4 shRNA-treated cells at 15 and 30 min for Igll1 and at 30 and 120 min for Myc . ( D ) ChIP-PCR for CHD4 (black), MBD3 (grey) and BRG1 (orange) at the Igll1 promoters at the indicated times after 4-OHT. Mean ± SE, 5 independent biological replicates for CHD4 and BRG1, 3 independent biological replicates for MBD3. CHD4 and MBD3 binding at the Igll1 promoter were significantly increased from 5 to 60 min. BRG1 binding was significantly decreased from 30 to 120 min. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.015 10.7554/eLife.22767.016 Numerical data used to generate Figure 4B,C and D . DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.016
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ikaros controls promoter accessibility through NuRD-associated chromatin remodeling. ( A ) Left: CHD4 expression in control and Chd4 shRNA cells by western blotting. Tubulin is a loading control. One of 5 independent biological replicates. Right: Experimental outline. ( B ) MNase-PCR at the Igll1 and Myc promoters in control (black) or Chd4 shRNA cells (red) at the indicated times after 4-OHT. Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. Chd4 shRNA significantly reduced the Ikaros-induced increase in nucleosome occupancy at 15, 30 and 120 min at the Igll1 promoter and at 30 and 120 min at the Myc promoter. ( C ) RNAP2 ChIP-PCR (top) and MNase-PCR (bottom) at the Igll1 and Myc promoters after 4-OHT in control (black) or Chd4 shRNA cells (red). Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. RNAP2 binding was significantly reduced in control cells but not in Chd4 shRNA-treated cells from 5 to 120 min after 4-OHT at the Igll1 and the Myc promoter. Primary transcripts were significantly reduced in control but not in Chd4 shRNA-treated cells at 15 and 30 min for Igll1 and at 30 and 120 min for Myc . ( D ) ChIP-PCR for CHD4 (black), MBD3 (grey) and BRG1 (orange) at the Igll1 promoters at the indicated times after 4-OHT. Mean ± SE, 5 independent biological replicates for CHD4 and BRG1, 3 independent biological replicates for MBD3. CHD4 and MBD3 binding at the Igll1 promoter were significantly increased from 5 to 60 min. BRG1 binding was significantly decreased from 30 to 120 min. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.015 10.7554/eLife.22767.016 Numerical data used to generate Figure 4B,C and D . DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.016

    Techniques Used: Expressing, shRNA, Western Blot, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, Binding Assay

    Nuclear translocation of Ikaros by proteolytic cleavage of Ikaros fusion proteins. ( A ) Schematic representation of Ikaros translocation induced by the proteolytic cleavage of Ikaros-TEV-ERt2 by Tobacco Etch Virus (TEV) protease. Ikaros-TEV-ERt2 fusion proteins are retained in the cytompasm until cleavage. The separate N- and C-termini of TEV protease are fused to FKBP and FRB, respectively. TEV activity is restored by the addition of rapamycin (R) ( Wehr et al., 2006 ). Cleavage separates Ikaros from ERt2. The efficiency of inducible cleavage after rapamycin (2 hr, 25 nM) is monitored by western blotting using Ikaros antibodies (right). Actin was used as loading control. Representative of 3 independent biological replicates. ( B ) MNase digestion followed by PCR was used to determine changes in the accessibility of the Igll1 and Myc promoters after triptolide-induced removal of RNAP2. The experiment complements the data shown in Figure 3B and C , but Split-TEV was used instead of 4-OHT-induced nuclear translocation of Ikaros. Split-TEV was activated by the addition of rapamycin at 25 nM for 2 hr. Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. Ikaros induction and tripolide-mediated RNAP2 depletion may synergise in increasing the nucleosome occupancy of the Igll1 promoter. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.013 10.7554/eLife.22767.014 Numerical data used to generate Figure 3—figure supplement 1A,B,C and D . DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.014
    Figure Legend Snippet: Nuclear translocation of Ikaros by proteolytic cleavage of Ikaros fusion proteins. ( A ) Schematic representation of Ikaros translocation induced by the proteolytic cleavage of Ikaros-TEV-ERt2 by Tobacco Etch Virus (TEV) protease. Ikaros-TEV-ERt2 fusion proteins are retained in the cytompasm until cleavage. The separate N- and C-termini of TEV protease are fused to FKBP and FRB, respectively. TEV activity is restored by the addition of rapamycin (R) ( Wehr et al., 2006 ). Cleavage separates Ikaros from ERt2. The efficiency of inducible cleavage after rapamycin (2 hr, 25 nM) is monitored by western blotting using Ikaros antibodies (right). Actin was used as loading control. Representative of 3 independent biological replicates. ( B ) MNase digestion followed by PCR was used to determine changes in the accessibility of the Igll1 and Myc promoters after triptolide-induced removal of RNAP2. The experiment complements the data shown in Figure 3B and C , but Split-TEV was used instead of 4-OHT-induced nuclear translocation of Ikaros. Split-TEV was activated by the addition of rapamycin at 25 nM for 2 hr. Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. Ikaros induction and tripolide-mediated RNAP2 depletion may synergise in increasing the nucleosome occupancy of the Igll1 promoter. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.013 10.7554/eLife.22767.014 Numerical data used to generate Figure 3—figure supplement 1A,B,C and D . DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.014

    Techniques Used: Translocation Assay, Activity Assay, Western Blot, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Interdependence of silencing mechanisms leveraged by Ikaros. ( A ) 3D DNA-FISH to monitor the position of Igll1 alleles (green) relative to γ-satellite DNA (red, blue is DAPI). The percentage of Igll1 alleles associated with γ-satellite DNA is shown as mean ± SE. Where indicated, control or sh Chd4 cells were treated over night with 4-OHT. At least 300 Igll1 alleles were scored for each experimental condition across 3 independent biological replicates. The impact of Chd4 knockdown was statistically significant across replicates (p=5.54×10-38 GLM binomial logit). ( B ) ChIP kinetics of Ikaros and EBF binding to the Igll1 promoter in control (left) and sh Chd4 cells (right). Increased binding of Ikaros to the Igll1 promoter was significant for both control and sh Chd4 cells, decreased binding of EBF1 was significant in control, but not in sh Chd4 cells. Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. Ikaros and EBF1 binding at 15, 30 and 120 min were significantly higher in sh Chd4 than control cells. ( C ) MNase-seq data from 3 independent biological replicates were integrated with Ikaros ChIP-seq data to show nucleosome occupancy at Ikaros binding peaks before and 6 hr after nuclear translocation of Ikaros. ( D ) Dynamics of Ikaros binding, RNAP2 eviction, loss of primary transcripts, nucleosome invasion, and histone deacetylation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.023 10.7554/eLife.22767.024 Numerical data used to generate Figure 7A and B . DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.024
    Figure Legend Snippet: Interdependence of silencing mechanisms leveraged by Ikaros. ( A ) 3D DNA-FISH to monitor the position of Igll1 alleles (green) relative to γ-satellite DNA (red, blue is DAPI). The percentage of Igll1 alleles associated with γ-satellite DNA is shown as mean ± SE. Where indicated, control or sh Chd4 cells were treated over night with 4-OHT. At least 300 Igll1 alleles were scored for each experimental condition across 3 independent biological replicates. The impact of Chd4 knockdown was statistically significant across replicates (p=5.54×10-38 GLM binomial logit). ( B ) ChIP kinetics of Ikaros and EBF binding to the Igll1 promoter in control (left) and sh Chd4 cells (right). Increased binding of Ikaros to the Igll1 promoter was significant for both control and sh Chd4 cells, decreased binding of EBF1 was significant in control, but not in sh Chd4 cells. Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. Ikaros and EBF1 binding at 15, 30 and 120 min were significantly higher in sh Chd4 than control cells. ( C ) MNase-seq data from 3 independent biological replicates were integrated with Ikaros ChIP-seq data to show nucleosome occupancy at Ikaros binding peaks before and 6 hr after nuclear translocation of Ikaros. ( D ) Dynamics of Ikaros binding, RNAP2 eviction, loss of primary transcripts, nucleosome invasion, and histone deacetylation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.023 10.7554/eLife.22767.024 Numerical data used to generate Figure 7A and B . DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.024

    Techniques Used: Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, Binding Assay, Translocation Assay

    Related Articles

    other:

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: For MNase-seq, 50 ng DNA after MNase digestion (carrier ethanol treatment for 6 hr or 0.5 μM 4-OHT treatment for 6 hr) were used to prepare MNase-seq samples (Next Ultra, NEB) without size selection steps.

    Similar Products

  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 91
    New England Biolabs mnase seq samples
    Histone deacetylation contributes to stable gene silencing. ( A ) RT-PCR showed that 1 ng/ml TSA for 24 hr significantly relieved Ikaros-induced reduced repression of Igll and Myc primary transcripts. Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. ( B ) <t>MNase</t> PCR showed that 1 ng/ml TSA for 24 hr did not significantly affect protection of 80–120 bp amplicons (short, left) but significantly reduced protection of 130–140 bp amplicons (long, right) at the Igll1 promoter. Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. ( C ) ChIP-PCR to assess Ikaros-induced recruitment of histone H2B to the Igll1 promoter between control cells and cells treated with 1 ng/ml TSA for 24 hr. Enrichment was normalised to total H3. Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. TSA significantly blunted the Ikaros-induced increase the H2B/H3 ratio at the Igll1 promoter and TSS. ( D ) 3D DNA-FISH to monitor the position of Igll1 alleles (green) relative to γ-satellite DNA (red, blue is DAPI). The percentage of Igll1 alleles associated with γ-satellite DNA is shown as mean ± SE. Where indicated, cells were treated over night with TSA (1 ng/ml) and/or <t>4-OHT.</t> At least 300 Igll1 alleles were scored for each experimental condition across 3 independent biological replicates. The impact of TSA was statistically significant across replicates (p=9.54 × 10-18 GLM binomial logit). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.021 10.7554/eLife.22767.022 Numerical data used to generate Figure 6A,B,C and D . DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.022
    Mnase Seq Samples, supplied by New England Biolabs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/mnase seq samples/product/New England Biolabs
    Average 91 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    mnase seq samples - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
    91/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    Image Search Results


    Histone deacetylation contributes to stable gene silencing. ( A ) RT-PCR showed that 1 ng/ml TSA for 24 hr significantly relieved Ikaros-induced reduced repression of Igll and Myc primary transcripts. Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. ( B ) MNase PCR showed that 1 ng/ml TSA for 24 hr did not significantly affect protection of 80–120 bp amplicons (short, left) but significantly reduced protection of 130–140 bp amplicons (long, right) at the Igll1 promoter. Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. ( C ) ChIP-PCR to assess Ikaros-induced recruitment of histone H2B to the Igll1 promoter between control cells and cells treated with 1 ng/ml TSA for 24 hr. Enrichment was normalised to total H3. Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. TSA significantly blunted the Ikaros-induced increase the H2B/H3 ratio at the Igll1 promoter and TSS. ( D ) 3D DNA-FISH to monitor the position of Igll1 alleles (green) relative to γ-satellite DNA (red, blue is DAPI). The percentage of Igll1 alleles associated with γ-satellite DNA is shown as mean ± SE. Where indicated, cells were treated over night with TSA (1 ng/ml) and/or 4-OHT. At least 300 Igll1 alleles were scored for each experimental condition across 3 independent biological replicates. The impact of TSA was statistically significant across replicates (p=9.54 × 10-18 GLM binomial logit). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.021 10.7554/eLife.22767.022 Numerical data used to generate Figure 6A,B,C and D . DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.022

    Journal: eLife

    Article Title: A high-resolution map of transcriptional repression

    doi: 10.7554/eLife.22767

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Histone deacetylation contributes to stable gene silencing. ( A ) RT-PCR showed that 1 ng/ml TSA for 24 hr significantly relieved Ikaros-induced reduced repression of Igll and Myc primary transcripts. Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. ( B ) MNase PCR showed that 1 ng/ml TSA for 24 hr did not significantly affect protection of 80–120 bp amplicons (short, left) but significantly reduced protection of 130–140 bp amplicons (long, right) at the Igll1 promoter. Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. ( C ) ChIP-PCR to assess Ikaros-induced recruitment of histone H2B to the Igll1 promoter between control cells and cells treated with 1 ng/ml TSA for 24 hr. Enrichment was normalised to total H3. Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. TSA significantly blunted the Ikaros-induced increase the H2B/H3 ratio at the Igll1 promoter and TSS. ( D ) 3D DNA-FISH to monitor the position of Igll1 alleles (green) relative to γ-satellite DNA (red, blue is DAPI). The percentage of Igll1 alleles associated with γ-satellite DNA is shown as mean ± SE. Where indicated, cells were treated over night with TSA (1 ng/ml) and/or 4-OHT. At least 300 Igll1 alleles were scored for each experimental condition across 3 independent biological replicates. The impact of TSA was statistically significant across replicates (p=9.54 × 10-18 GLM binomial logit). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.021 10.7554/eLife.22767.022 Numerical data used to generate Figure 6A,B,C and D . DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.022

    Article Snippet: For MNase-seq, 50 ng DNA after MNase digestion (carrier ethanol treatment for 6 hr or 0.5 μM 4-OHT treatment for 6 hr) were used to prepare MNase-seq samples (Next Ultra, NEB) without size selection steps.

    Techniques: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

    Ikaros controls promoter accessibility through NuRD-associated chromatin remodeling. ( A ) Left: CHD4 expression in control and Chd4 shRNA cells by western blotting. Tubulin is a loading control. One of 5 independent biological replicates. Right: Experimental outline. ( B ) MNase-PCR at the Igll1 and Myc promoters in control (black) or Chd4 shRNA cells (red) at the indicated times after 4-OHT. Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. Chd4 shRNA significantly reduced the Ikaros-induced increase in nucleosome occupancy at 15, 30 and 120 min at the Igll1 promoter and at 30 and 120 min at the Myc promoter. ( C ) RNAP2 ChIP-PCR (top) and MNase-PCR (bottom) at the Igll1 and Myc promoters after 4-OHT in control (black) or Chd4 shRNA cells (red). Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. RNAP2 binding was significantly reduced in control cells but not in Chd4 shRNA-treated cells from 5 to 120 min after 4-OHT at the Igll1 and the Myc promoter. Primary transcripts were significantly reduced in control but not in Chd4 shRNA-treated cells at 15 and 30 min for Igll1 and at 30 and 120 min for Myc . ( D ) ChIP-PCR for CHD4 (black), MBD3 (grey) and BRG1 (orange) at the Igll1 promoters at the indicated times after 4-OHT. Mean ± SE, 5 independent biological replicates for CHD4 and BRG1, 3 independent biological replicates for MBD3. CHD4 and MBD3 binding at the Igll1 promoter were significantly increased from 5 to 60 min. BRG1 binding was significantly decreased from 30 to 120 min. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.015 10.7554/eLife.22767.016 Numerical data used to generate Figure 4B,C and D . DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.016

    Journal: eLife

    Article Title: A high-resolution map of transcriptional repression

    doi: 10.7554/eLife.22767

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Ikaros controls promoter accessibility through NuRD-associated chromatin remodeling. ( A ) Left: CHD4 expression in control and Chd4 shRNA cells by western blotting. Tubulin is a loading control. One of 5 independent biological replicates. Right: Experimental outline. ( B ) MNase-PCR at the Igll1 and Myc promoters in control (black) or Chd4 shRNA cells (red) at the indicated times after 4-OHT. Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. Chd4 shRNA significantly reduced the Ikaros-induced increase in nucleosome occupancy at 15, 30 and 120 min at the Igll1 promoter and at 30 and 120 min at the Myc promoter. ( C ) RNAP2 ChIP-PCR (top) and MNase-PCR (bottom) at the Igll1 and Myc promoters after 4-OHT in control (black) or Chd4 shRNA cells (red). Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. RNAP2 binding was significantly reduced in control cells but not in Chd4 shRNA-treated cells from 5 to 120 min after 4-OHT at the Igll1 and the Myc promoter. Primary transcripts were significantly reduced in control but not in Chd4 shRNA-treated cells at 15 and 30 min for Igll1 and at 30 and 120 min for Myc . ( D ) ChIP-PCR for CHD4 (black), MBD3 (grey) and BRG1 (orange) at the Igll1 promoters at the indicated times after 4-OHT. Mean ± SE, 5 independent biological replicates for CHD4 and BRG1, 3 independent biological replicates for MBD3. CHD4 and MBD3 binding at the Igll1 promoter were significantly increased from 5 to 60 min. BRG1 binding was significantly decreased from 30 to 120 min. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.015 10.7554/eLife.22767.016 Numerical data used to generate Figure 4B,C and D . DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.016

    Article Snippet: For MNase-seq, 50 ng DNA after MNase digestion (carrier ethanol treatment for 6 hr or 0.5 μM 4-OHT treatment for 6 hr) were used to prepare MNase-seq samples (Next Ultra, NEB) without size selection steps.

    Techniques: Expressing, shRNA, Western Blot, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, Binding Assay

    Nuclear translocation of Ikaros by proteolytic cleavage of Ikaros fusion proteins. ( A ) Schematic representation of Ikaros translocation induced by the proteolytic cleavage of Ikaros-TEV-ERt2 by Tobacco Etch Virus (TEV) protease. Ikaros-TEV-ERt2 fusion proteins are retained in the cytompasm until cleavage. The separate N- and C-termini of TEV protease are fused to FKBP and FRB, respectively. TEV activity is restored by the addition of rapamycin (R) ( Wehr et al., 2006 ). Cleavage separates Ikaros from ERt2. The efficiency of inducible cleavage after rapamycin (2 hr, 25 nM) is monitored by western blotting using Ikaros antibodies (right). Actin was used as loading control. Representative of 3 independent biological replicates. ( B ) MNase digestion followed by PCR was used to determine changes in the accessibility of the Igll1 and Myc promoters after triptolide-induced removal of RNAP2. The experiment complements the data shown in Figure 3B and C , but Split-TEV was used instead of 4-OHT-induced nuclear translocation of Ikaros. Split-TEV was activated by the addition of rapamycin at 25 nM for 2 hr. Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. Ikaros induction and tripolide-mediated RNAP2 depletion may synergise in increasing the nucleosome occupancy of the Igll1 promoter. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.013 10.7554/eLife.22767.014 Numerical data used to generate Figure 3—figure supplement 1A,B,C and D . DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.014

    Journal: eLife

    Article Title: A high-resolution map of transcriptional repression

    doi: 10.7554/eLife.22767

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Nuclear translocation of Ikaros by proteolytic cleavage of Ikaros fusion proteins. ( A ) Schematic representation of Ikaros translocation induced by the proteolytic cleavage of Ikaros-TEV-ERt2 by Tobacco Etch Virus (TEV) protease. Ikaros-TEV-ERt2 fusion proteins are retained in the cytompasm until cleavage. The separate N- and C-termini of TEV protease are fused to FKBP and FRB, respectively. TEV activity is restored by the addition of rapamycin (R) ( Wehr et al., 2006 ). Cleavage separates Ikaros from ERt2. The efficiency of inducible cleavage after rapamycin (2 hr, 25 nM) is monitored by western blotting using Ikaros antibodies (right). Actin was used as loading control. Representative of 3 independent biological replicates. ( B ) MNase digestion followed by PCR was used to determine changes in the accessibility of the Igll1 and Myc promoters after triptolide-induced removal of RNAP2. The experiment complements the data shown in Figure 3B and C , but Split-TEV was used instead of 4-OHT-induced nuclear translocation of Ikaros. Split-TEV was activated by the addition of rapamycin at 25 nM for 2 hr. Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. Ikaros induction and tripolide-mediated RNAP2 depletion may synergise in increasing the nucleosome occupancy of the Igll1 promoter. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.013 10.7554/eLife.22767.014 Numerical data used to generate Figure 3—figure supplement 1A,B,C and D . DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.014

    Article Snippet: For MNase-seq, 50 ng DNA after MNase digestion (carrier ethanol treatment for 6 hr or 0.5 μM 4-OHT treatment for 6 hr) were used to prepare MNase-seq samples (Next Ultra, NEB) without size selection steps.

    Techniques: Translocation Assay, Activity Assay, Western Blot, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Interdependence of silencing mechanisms leveraged by Ikaros. ( A ) 3D DNA-FISH to monitor the position of Igll1 alleles (green) relative to γ-satellite DNA (red, blue is DAPI). The percentage of Igll1 alleles associated with γ-satellite DNA is shown as mean ± SE. Where indicated, control or sh Chd4 cells were treated over night with 4-OHT. At least 300 Igll1 alleles were scored for each experimental condition across 3 independent biological replicates. The impact of Chd4 knockdown was statistically significant across replicates (p=5.54×10-38 GLM binomial logit). ( B ) ChIP kinetics of Ikaros and EBF binding to the Igll1 promoter in control (left) and sh Chd4 cells (right). Increased binding of Ikaros to the Igll1 promoter was significant for both control and sh Chd4 cells, decreased binding of EBF1 was significant in control, but not in sh Chd4 cells. Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. Ikaros and EBF1 binding at 15, 30 and 120 min were significantly higher in sh Chd4 than control cells. ( C ) MNase-seq data from 3 independent biological replicates were integrated with Ikaros ChIP-seq data to show nucleosome occupancy at Ikaros binding peaks before and 6 hr after nuclear translocation of Ikaros. ( D ) Dynamics of Ikaros binding, RNAP2 eviction, loss of primary transcripts, nucleosome invasion, and histone deacetylation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.023 10.7554/eLife.22767.024 Numerical data used to generate Figure 7A and B . DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.024

    Journal: eLife

    Article Title: A high-resolution map of transcriptional repression

    doi: 10.7554/eLife.22767

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Interdependence of silencing mechanisms leveraged by Ikaros. ( A ) 3D DNA-FISH to monitor the position of Igll1 alleles (green) relative to γ-satellite DNA (red, blue is DAPI). The percentage of Igll1 alleles associated with γ-satellite DNA is shown as mean ± SE. Where indicated, control or sh Chd4 cells were treated over night with 4-OHT. At least 300 Igll1 alleles were scored for each experimental condition across 3 independent biological replicates. The impact of Chd4 knockdown was statistically significant across replicates (p=5.54×10-38 GLM binomial logit). ( B ) ChIP kinetics of Ikaros and EBF binding to the Igll1 promoter in control (left) and sh Chd4 cells (right). Increased binding of Ikaros to the Igll1 promoter was significant for both control and sh Chd4 cells, decreased binding of EBF1 was significant in control, but not in sh Chd4 cells. Mean ± SE, 3 independent biological replicates. Ikaros and EBF1 binding at 15, 30 and 120 min were significantly higher in sh Chd4 than control cells. ( C ) MNase-seq data from 3 independent biological replicates were integrated with Ikaros ChIP-seq data to show nucleosome occupancy at Ikaros binding peaks before and 6 hr after nuclear translocation of Ikaros. ( D ) Dynamics of Ikaros binding, RNAP2 eviction, loss of primary transcripts, nucleosome invasion, and histone deacetylation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.023 10.7554/eLife.22767.024 Numerical data used to generate Figure 7A and B . DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.024

    Article Snippet: For MNase-seq, 50 ng DNA after MNase digestion (carrier ethanol treatment for 6 hr or 0.5 μM 4-OHT treatment for 6 hr) were used to prepare MNase-seq samples (Next Ultra, NEB) without size selection steps.

    Techniques: Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, Binding Assay, Translocation Assay