mers cov antigen  (Sino Biological)


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    Name:
    MERS CoV Spike RBD Protein fragment
    Description:
    A DNA sequence encoding the receptor binding domain RBD of spike protein fragment MERS CoV AFS88936 1 Glu367 Tyr606 was expressed with a polyhistidine tag at the C terminus
    Catalog Number:
    40071-V08B1
    Price:
    None
    Category:
    recombinant protein
    Product Aliases:
    coronavirus s1 Protein MERS-CoV, coronavirus s2 Protein MERS-CoV, coronavirus spike Protein MERS-CoV, cov spike Protein MERS-CoV, ncov RBD Protein MERS-CoV, ncov s1 Protein MERS-CoV, ncov s2 Protein MERS-CoV, ncov spike Protein MERS-CoV, RBD Protein MERS-CoV, S Protein MERS-CoV, s1 Protein MERS-CoV, Spike RBD Protein MERS-CoV
    Host:
    Baculovirus-Insect Cells
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    Structured Review

    Sino Biological mers cov antigen
    Rhesus monkeys demonstrated limited clinical indicators of disease in response to infection with <t>MERS-CoV</t> Jordan-n3/2012. (A) Temperature, respiratory rate and peripheral oxygen saturation were within normal ranges for rhesus monkeys. (B) CBC/Diff data indicating limited response to MERS-CoV inoculation. WBC, lymphocyte, neutrophil and monocyte total counts were within normal ranges, although some changes are observed. Hashed lines indicate normal value ranges. Group 1 Mock (blue squares), Group 2 5×10 6 PFU (orange triangles), and Group 3, Green circles (5×10 6 PFU w/BAL). Arrows indicate challenge and re-challenge days. The shaded backgrounds represent the different phases of the experiment, initial challenge, followed by the 2 nd and 3 rd challenges.
    A DNA sequence encoding the receptor binding domain RBD of spike protein fragment MERS CoV AFS88936 1 Glu367 Tyr606 was expressed with a polyhistidine tag at the C terminus
    https://www.bioz.com/result/mers cov antigen/product/Sino Biological
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    mers cov antigen - by Bioz Stars, 2021-09
    86/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "3B11-N, a Monoclonal Antibody Against MERS-CoV, Reduces Lung Pathology in Rhesus Monkeys following Intratracheal Inoculation of MERS-CoV Jordan-n3/2012"

    Article Title: 3B11-N, a Monoclonal Antibody Against MERS-CoV, Reduces Lung Pathology in Rhesus Monkeys following Intratracheal Inoculation of MERS-CoV Jordan-n3/2012

    Journal: Virology

    doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2016.01.004

    Rhesus monkeys demonstrated limited clinical indicators of disease in response to infection with MERS-CoV Jordan-n3/2012. (A) Temperature, respiratory rate and peripheral oxygen saturation were within normal ranges for rhesus monkeys. (B) CBC/Diff data indicating limited response to MERS-CoV inoculation. WBC, lymphocyte, neutrophil and monocyte total counts were within normal ranges, although some changes are observed. Hashed lines indicate normal value ranges. Group 1 Mock (blue squares), Group 2 5×10 6 PFU (orange triangles), and Group 3, Green circles (5×10 6 PFU w/BAL). Arrows indicate challenge and re-challenge days. The shaded backgrounds represent the different phases of the experiment, initial challenge, followed by the 2 nd and 3 rd challenges.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Rhesus monkeys demonstrated limited clinical indicators of disease in response to infection with MERS-CoV Jordan-n3/2012. (A) Temperature, respiratory rate and peripheral oxygen saturation were within normal ranges for rhesus monkeys. (B) CBC/Diff data indicating limited response to MERS-CoV inoculation. WBC, lymphocyte, neutrophil and monocyte total counts were within normal ranges, although some changes are observed. Hashed lines indicate normal value ranges. Group 1 Mock (blue squares), Group 2 5×10 6 PFU (orange triangles), and Group 3, Green circles (5×10 6 PFU w/BAL). Arrows indicate challenge and re-challenge days. The shaded backgrounds represent the different phases of the experiment, initial challenge, followed by the 2 nd and 3 rd challenges.

    Techniques Used: Infection

    MERS-CoV exposure of rhesus results in mild, but quantifiable lung pathology. (A) Lung volume quantification indicates mild, virus specific changes. Left panel is the total abnormal lung volume as quantified from CT data for Groups 1, 2, and 3. The data demonstrate that lung pathology is transient and re-challenge does not result in increased lung pathology. Right panel is the quantification of the CT as a percentage of total lung volume. Asterisks indicate days at which peak lung pathology was observed for individual subjects Group 1 Mock (blue squares), Group 2 5×10 6 PFU (orange triangles), and Group 3, 5×10 6 PFU w/BAL (green circles) Arrows indicate challenge and re-challenge days. The shaded backgrounds represent the different phases of the experiment, initial challenge, followed by the 2 nd and 3 rd challenges. (B) Representative CT of selected subjects from each group demonstrating peak lung pathology.
    Figure Legend Snippet: MERS-CoV exposure of rhesus results in mild, but quantifiable lung pathology. (A) Lung volume quantification indicates mild, virus specific changes. Left panel is the total abnormal lung volume as quantified from CT data for Groups 1, 2, and 3. The data demonstrate that lung pathology is transient and re-challenge does not result in increased lung pathology. Right panel is the quantification of the CT as a percentage of total lung volume. Asterisks indicate days at which peak lung pathology was observed for individual subjects Group 1 Mock (blue squares), Group 2 5×10 6 PFU (orange triangles), and Group 3, 5×10 6 PFU w/BAL (green circles) Arrows indicate challenge and re-challenge days. The shaded backgrounds represent the different phases of the experiment, initial challenge, followed by the 2 nd and 3 rd challenges. (B) Representative CT of selected subjects from each group demonstrating peak lung pathology.

    Techniques Used:

    2) Product Images from "Livestock Susceptibility to Infection with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus "

    Article Title: Livestock Susceptibility to Infection with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    Journal: Emerging Infectious Diseases

    doi: 10.3201/eid2302.161239

    MERS-CoV viral RNA in respiratory tissues of llamas (A) and pigs (B). Viral RNA was determined in tissue homogenates at postinoculation days 4 and 24. Error bars indicate SDs when results were positive in > 1 animal. Dashed lines depict the detection limit of the assays (C t ≤40). C t , cycle threshold; MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; PI, postinoculation.
    Figure Legend Snippet: MERS-CoV viral RNA in respiratory tissues of llamas (A) and pigs (B). Viral RNA was determined in tissue homogenates at postinoculation days 4 and 24. Error bars indicate SDs when results were positive in > 1 animal. Dashed lines depict the detection limit of the assays (C t ≤40). C t , cycle threshold; MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; PI, postinoculation.

    Techniques Used:

    Antibody responses after experimental inoculation of MERS-CoV into llamas and pigs. A) MERS-CoV S1 antibody responses were analyzed in serum from all animals at postinoculation days 0, 14, and 24. An ELISA with recombinant MERS-CoV S1 protein was used, and results are represented individually. B) Individual MERS-CoV neutralization titers from llamas and pigs as determined from serum. Dashed lines depict the detection limit of the assays. MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; OD, optical density; PRNT 90 , 90% plaque reduction neutralization test.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antibody responses after experimental inoculation of MERS-CoV into llamas and pigs. A) MERS-CoV S1 antibody responses were analyzed in serum from all animals at postinoculation days 0, 14, and 24. An ELISA with recombinant MERS-CoV S1 protein was used, and results are represented individually. B) Individual MERS-CoV neutralization titers from llamas and pigs as determined from serum. Dashed lines depict the detection limit of the assays. MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; OD, optical density; PRNT 90 , 90% plaque reduction neutralization test.

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Recombinant, Neutralization, Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test

    Viral shedding of llamas and pigs after experimental inoculation with MERS-CoV. A) Viral RNA and B) infectious MERS-CoV from nasal swab samples collected from llamas (top) and pigs (bottom) at different times after challenge. Each bar represents an individual animal. Dashed lines depict the detection limit of the assays. C t , cycle threshold; MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; TCID 50 , 50% tissue culture infective dose.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Viral shedding of llamas and pigs after experimental inoculation with MERS-CoV. A) Viral RNA and B) infectious MERS-CoV from nasal swab samples collected from llamas (top) and pigs (bottom) at different times after challenge. Each bar represents an individual animal. Dashed lines depict the detection limit of the assays. C t , cycle threshold; MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; TCID 50 , 50% tissue culture infective dose.

    Techniques Used:

    Histology and expression of viral antigen (IHC) and viral RNA (ISH) at postinoculation day 4 in the nasal respiratory epithelium of sheep, pigs, llamas, and horses inoculated with MERS-CoV. A mild to severe rhinitis with epithelial necrosis and hypertrophy and inflammation of the epithelium and lamina propria was observed in the nasal respiratory tissue of pigs and llamas. Associated with these was presence of virus antigen (IHC) and RNA (ISH). No substantial lesions, virus antigen, or virus RNA were detected in the nasal respiratory tissues of sheep and horses (HE, IHC, ISH). Original magnification ×200 for all images. HE, hematoxylin and eosin; IHC, immunohistochemistry; ISH, in situ hybridization; MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histology and expression of viral antigen (IHC) and viral RNA (ISH) at postinoculation day 4 in the nasal respiratory epithelium of sheep, pigs, llamas, and horses inoculated with MERS-CoV. A mild to severe rhinitis with epithelial necrosis and hypertrophy and inflammation of the epithelium and lamina propria was observed in the nasal respiratory tissue of pigs and llamas. Associated with these was presence of virus antigen (IHC) and RNA (ISH). No substantial lesions, virus antigen, or virus RNA were detected in the nasal respiratory tissues of sheep and horses (HE, IHC, ISH). Original magnification ×200 for all images. HE, hematoxylin and eosin; IHC, immunohistochemistry; ISH, in situ hybridization; MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Immunohistochemistry, In Situ Hybridization

    Presence of MERS-CoV receptor DPP4 (IHC) and of mucosubstances (PAS) in upper and lower respiratory tract tissues from sheep, pigs, llamas, and horses. A) In the nose, DPP4 (red cytoplasmic or membrane staining) was present on the lining epithelium of pigs, llamas, and horses but not sheep. PAS staining (magenta) demonstrated more mucous cells in the lining epithelium of sheep and horses and a layer of mucus on the lining epithelium of the horses. B) DPP4 (red cytoplasmic or membrane staining) was present on the lining epithelium of the trachea, bronchus/bronchioles, and alveoli in the pigs, llamas and horses but not in the sheep. Original magnification ×400 for all images. DPP4, dipeptidyl peptidase-4; IHC, immunohistochemistry; MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; PAS, periodic acid–Schiff; term., terminal.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Presence of MERS-CoV receptor DPP4 (IHC) and of mucosubstances (PAS) in upper and lower respiratory tract tissues from sheep, pigs, llamas, and horses. A) In the nose, DPP4 (red cytoplasmic or membrane staining) was present on the lining epithelium of pigs, llamas, and horses but not sheep. PAS staining (magenta) demonstrated more mucous cells in the lining epithelium of sheep and horses and a layer of mucus on the lining epithelium of the horses. B) DPP4 (red cytoplasmic or membrane staining) was present on the lining epithelium of the trachea, bronchus/bronchioles, and alveoli in the pigs, llamas and horses but not in the sheep. Original magnification ×400 for all images. DPP4, dipeptidyl peptidase-4; IHC, immunohistochemistry; MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; PAS, periodic acid–Schiff; term., terminal.

    Techniques Used: Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    3) Product Images from "Intratracheal exposure of common marmosets to MERS-CoV Jordan-n3/2012 or MERS-CoV EMC/2012 isolates does not result in lethal disease"

    Article Title: Intratracheal exposure of common marmosets to MERS-CoV Jordan-n3/2012 or MERS-CoV EMC/2012 isolates does not result in lethal disease

    Journal: Virology

    doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2015.07.013

    Sequencing of MERS-CoV Spike protein and data analysis
    Figure Legend Snippet: Sequencing of MERS-CoV Spike protein and data analysis

    Techniques Used: Sequencing

    Gross and Histopathology. (A) Gross lung pathology demonstrating mostly normal lung with multifocal to coalescing moderate interstitial pneumonia in the left caudal lung lobe. (B) Low magnification of lung field from MERS-CoV EMC inoculated subject demonstrating
    Figure Legend Snippet: Gross and Histopathology. (A) Gross lung pathology demonstrating mostly normal lung with multifocal to coalescing moderate interstitial pneumonia in the left caudal lung lobe. (B) Low magnification of lung field from MERS-CoV EMC inoculated subject demonstrating

    Techniques Used: Histopathology

    Ex-vivo analysis of primary cells. Cells were isolated from lung, kidney, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and one-step growth kinetics were performed as described in Materials and Methods. Lung, Kidney and BAL demonstrate that MERS-CoV is able to replicate
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ex-vivo analysis of primary cells. Cells were isolated from lung, kidney, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and one-step growth kinetics were performed as described in Materials and Methods. Lung, Kidney and BAL demonstrate that MERS-CoV is able to replicate

    Techniques Used: Ex Vivo, Isolation

    Fluorescence Reduction Neutralizing Assay. Sera from all subjects was evaluated for the presence of neutralizing antibody to MERS-CoV as described in Materials and Methods. Neutralizing antibody could be detected above the background of the Mock infected
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fluorescence Reduction Neutralizing Assay. Sera from all subjects was evaluated for the presence of neutralizing antibody to MERS-CoV as described in Materials and Methods. Neutralizing antibody could be detected above the background of the Mock infected

    Techniques Used: Fluorescence, Neutralizing Assay, Infection

    4) Product Images from "Voltammetric-based immunosensor for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen"

    Article Title: Voltammetric-based immunosensor for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen

    Journal: Mikrochimica Acta

    doi: 10.1007/s00604-021-04867-1

    a The response as percentage change in the reduction current of the control sensor (the sensor prepared by immobilization of the MERS-CoV antibody) and the N protein sensor after incubation with 10 ng.mL −1 of the N protein solution in PBS buffer pH 7.4. b The cross reactivity responses of the N protein biosensor towards the binding with 1 ng.mL −1 of N protein, Flu B, Flu A, HCoV and MERS-CoV antigens. c Biosensor response towards binding with 1 ng.mL −1 of the N protein after storage for different number of days. d Immunosensor response obtained for the negative and five patient samples with their corresponding Ct values
    Figure Legend Snippet: a The response as percentage change in the reduction current of the control sensor (the sensor prepared by immobilization of the MERS-CoV antibody) and the N protein sensor after incubation with 10 ng.mL −1 of the N protein solution in PBS buffer pH 7.4. b The cross reactivity responses of the N protein biosensor towards the binding with 1 ng.mL −1 of N protein, Flu B, Flu A, HCoV and MERS-CoV antigens. c Biosensor response towards binding with 1 ng.mL −1 of the N protein after storage for different number of days. d Immunosensor response obtained for the negative and five patient samples with their corresponding Ct values

    Techniques Used: Incubation, Binding Assay

    5) Product Images from "Livestock Susceptibility to Infection with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus "

    Article Title: Livestock Susceptibility to Infection with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    Journal: Emerging Infectious Diseases

    doi: 10.3201/eid2302.161239

    MERS-CoV viral RNA in respiratory tissues of llamas (A) and pigs (B). Viral RNA was determined in tissue homogenates at postinoculation days 4 and 24. Error bars indicate SDs when results were positive in > 1 animal. Dashed lines depict the detection limit of the assays (C t ≤40). C t , cycle threshold; MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; PI, postinoculation.
    Figure Legend Snippet: MERS-CoV viral RNA in respiratory tissues of llamas (A) and pigs (B). Viral RNA was determined in tissue homogenates at postinoculation days 4 and 24. Error bars indicate SDs when results were positive in > 1 animal. Dashed lines depict the detection limit of the assays (C t ≤40). C t , cycle threshold; MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; PI, postinoculation.

    Techniques Used:

    Antibody responses after experimental inoculation of MERS-CoV into llamas and pigs. A) MERS-CoV S1 antibody responses were analyzed in serum from all animals at postinoculation days 0, 14, and 24. An ELISA with recombinant MERS-CoV S1 protein was used, and results are represented individually. B) Individual MERS-CoV neutralization titers from llamas and pigs as determined from serum. Dashed lines depict the detection limit of the assays. MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; OD, optical density; PRNT 90 , 90% plaque reduction neutralization test.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antibody responses after experimental inoculation of MERS-CoV into llamas and pigs. A) MERS-CoV S1 antibody responses were analyzed in serum from all animals at postinoculation days 0, 14, and 24. An ELISA with recombinant MERS-CoV S1 protein was used, and results are represented individually. B) Individual MERS-CoV neutralization titers from llamas and pigs as determined from serum. Dashed lines depict the detection limit of the assays. MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; OD, optical density; PRNT 90 , 90% plaque reduction neutralization test.

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Recombinant, Neutralization, Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test

    Viral shedding of llamas and pigs after experimental inoculation with MERS-CoV. A) Viral RNA and B) infectious MERS-CoV from nasal swab samples collected from llamas (top) and pigs (bottom) at different times after challenge. Each bar represents an individual animal. Dashed lines depict the detection limit of the assays. C t , cycle threshold; MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; TCID 50 , 50% tissue culture infective dose.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Viral shedding of llamas and pigs after experimental inoculation with MERS-CoV. A) Viral RNA and B) infectious MERS-CoV from nasal swab samples collected from llamas (top) and pigs (bottom) at different times after challenge. Each bar represents an individual animal. Dashed lines depict the detection limit of the assays. C t , cycle threshold; MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; TCID 50 , 50% tissue culture infective dose.

    Techniques Used:

    Histology and expression of viral antigen (IHC) and viral RNA (ISH) at postinoculation day 4 in the nasal respiratory epithelium of sheep, pigs, llamas, and horses inoculated with MERS-CoV. A mild to severe rhinitis with epithelial necrosis and hypertrophy and inflammation of the epithelium and lamina propria was observed in the nasal respiratory tissue of pigs and llamas. Associated with these was presence of virus antigen (IHC) and RNA (ISH). No substantial lesions, virus antigen, or virus RNA were detected in the nasal respiratory tissues of sheep and horses (HE, IHC, ISH). Original magnification ×200 for all images. HE, hematoxylin and eosin; IHC, immunohistochemistry; ISH, in situ hybridization; MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histology and expression of viral antigen (IHC) and viral RNA (ISH) at postinoculation day 4 in the nasal respiratory epithelium of sheep, pigs, llamas, and horses inoculated with MERS-CoV. A mild to severe rhinitis with epithelial necrosis and hypertrophy and inflammation of the epithelium and lamina propria was observed in the nasal respiratory tissue of pigs and llamas. Associated with these was presence of virus antigen (IHC) and RNA (ISH). No substantial lesions, virus antigen, or virus RNA were detected in the nasal respiratory tissues of sheep and horses (HE, IHC, ISH). Original magnification ×200 for all images. HE, hematoxylin and eosin; IHC, immunohistochemistry; ISH, in situ hybridization; MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Immunohistochemistry, In Situ Hybridization

    Presence of MERS-CoV receptor DPP4 (IHC) and of mucosubstances (PAS) in upper and lower respiratory tract tissues from sheep, pigs, llamas, and horses. A) In the nose, DPP4 (red cytoplasmic or membrane staining) was present on the lining epithelium of pigs, llamas, and horses but not sheep. PAS staining (magenta) demonstrated more mucous cells in the lining epithelium of sheep and horses and a layer of mucus on the lining epithelium of the horses. B) DPP4 (red cytoplasmic or membrane staining) was present on the lining epithelium of the trachea, bronchus/bronchioles, and alveoli in the pigs, llamas and horses but not in the sheep. Original magnification ×400 for all images. DPP4, dipeptidyl peptidase-4; IHC, immunohistochemistry; MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; PAS, periodic acid–Schiff; term., terminal.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Presence of MERS-CoV receptor DPP4 (IHC) and of mucosubstances (PAS) in upper and lower respiratory tract tissues from sheep, pigs, llamas, and horses. A) In the nose, DPP4 (red cytoplasmic or membrane staining) was present on the lining epithelium of pigs, llamas, and horses but not sheep. PAS staining (magenta) demonstrated more mucous cells in the lining epithelium of sheep and horses and a layer of mucus on the lining epithelium of the horses. B) DPP4 (red cytoplasmic or membrane staining) was present on the lining epithelium of the trachea, bronchus/bronchioles, and alveoli in the pigs, llamas and horses but not in the sheep. Original magnification ×400 for all images. DPP4, dipeptidyl peptidase-4; IHC, immunohistochemistry; MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; PAS, periodic acid–Schiff; term., terminal.

    Techniques Used: Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    6) Product Images from "Intratracheal exposure of common marmosets to MERS-CoV Jordan-n3/2012 or MERS-CoV EMC/2012 isolates does not result in lethal disease"

    Article Title: Intratracheal exposure of common marmosets to MERS-CoV Jordan-n3/2012 or MERS-CoV EMC/2012 isolates does not result in lethal disease

    Journal: Virology

    doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2015.07.013

    Sequencing of MERS-CoV Spike protein and data analysis
    Figure Legend Snippet: Sequencing of MERS-CoV Spike protein and data analysis

    Techniques Used: Sequencing

    Gross and Histopathology. (A) Gross lung pathology demonstrating mostly normal lung with multifocal to coalescing moderate interstitial pneumonia in the left caudal lung lobe. (B) Low magnification of lung field from MERS-CoV EMC inoculated subject demonstrating
    Figure Legend Snippet: Gross and Histopathology. (A) Gross lung pathology demonstrating mostly normal lung with multifocal to coalescing moderate interstitial pneumonia in the left caudal lung lobe. (B) Low magnification of lung field from MERS-CoV EMC inoculated subject demonstrating

    Techniques Used: Histopathology

    Ex-vivo analysis of primary cells. Cells were isolated from lung, kidney, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and one-step growth kinetics were performed as described in Materials and Methods. Lung, Kidney and BAL demonstrate that MERS-CoV is able to replicate
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ex-vivo analysis of primary cells. Cells were isolated from lung, kidney, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and one-step growth kinetics were performed as described in Materials and Methods. Lung, Kidney and BAL demonstrate that MERS-CoV is able to replicate

    Techniques Used: Ex Vivo, Isolation

    Fluorescence Reduction Neutralizing Assay. Sera from all subjects was evaluated for the presence of neutralizing antibody to MERS-CoV as described in Materials and Methods. Neutralizing antibody could be detected above the background of the Mock infected
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fluorescence Reduction Neutralizing Assay. Sera from all subjects was evaluated for the presence of neutralizing antibody to MERS-CoV as described in Materials and Methods. Neutralizing antibody could be detected above the background of the Mock infected

    Techniques Used: Fluorescence, Neutralizing Assay, Infection

    Related Articles

    Incubation:

    Article Title: Superior immune responses induced by intranasal immunization with recombinant adenovirus-based vaccine expressing full-length Spike protein of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus
    Article Snippet: .. Briefly, 96-well plates (Nunc MaxiSorp; Thermo Fisher Scientific) were coated with 200 ng/well of S1 (aa 1–725; 40069-V08B1), S2 (aa 726–1296; 40070-V08B), RBD (aa 367–606; 40071-V08B1) (Sino Biological Inc.), or rNTD (aa 18–353) of MERS-CoV Spike protein in 100 μl PBS and incubated overnight at 4°C. ..

    In Vitro:

    Article Title: Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 RBD with a built in T helper epitope induces strong neutralization antibody response
    Article Snippet: .. 3.2 S1-4 protein possessed antigenicity in vitro The antigenicity of S1-4 protein was demonstrated by WB analysis with a commercial recombinant RBD protein (Val16 - Arg685 of spike protein; 76.45 kDa) expressed in baculovirus-insect cells by Sino Biological (Beijing, China) as positive control ( ). ..

    Western Blot:

    Article Title: Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 RBD with a built in T helper epitope induces strong neutralization antibody response
    Article Snippet: .. 3.2 S1-4 protein possessed antigenicity in vitro The antigenicity of S1-4 protein was demonstrated by WB analysis with a commercial recombinant RBD protein (Val16 - Arg685 of spike protein; 76.45 kDa) expressed in baculovirus-insect cells by Sino Biological (Beijing, China) as positive control ( ). ..

    Recombinant:

    Article Title: Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 RBD with a built in T helper epitope induces strong neutralization antibody response
    Article Snippet: .. 3.2 S1-4 protein possessed antigenicity in vitro The antigenicity of S1-4 protein was demonstrated by WB analysis with a commercial recombinant RBD protein (Val16 - Arg685 of spike protein; 76.45 kDa) expressed in baculovirus-insect cells by Sino Biological (Beijing, China) as positive control ( ). ..

    Article Title: Preclinical Studies of Immunogenity, Protectivity, and Safety of the Combined Vector Vaccine for Prevention of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome
    Article Snippet: .. The following recombinant proteins were used: S glycoprotein (40069-V08B; Sino Biological, China) and RBD (40071-V08B1; Sino Biological). ..

    Positive Control:

    Article Title: Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 RBD with a built in T helper epitope induces strong neutralization antibody response
    Article Snippet: .. 3.2 S1-4 protein possessed antigenicity in vitro The antigenicity of S1-4 protein was demonstrated by WB analysis with a commercial recombinant RBD protein (Val16 - Arg685 of spike protein; 76.45 kDa) expressed in baculovirus-insect cells by Sino Biological (Beijing, China) as positive control ( ). ..

    other:

    Article Title: Voltammetric-based immunosensor for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen
    Article Snippet: The MERS-CoV antigen (725 Spike protein S1) and its antibody were obtained from Sino Biological (Beijing, China) ( https://www.sinobiological.com/ ).

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    Sino Biological mers cov spike antigen protein
    Detection of <t>SARS-CoV-2</t> antigen protein. (A) Schematic diagram for the COVID-19 FET sensor for detection of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. (B) Real-time response of COVID-19 FET toward SARS-CoV-2 antigen protein in PBS and (C) related dose-dependent response curve ( V DS = 0.01 V). Graphene-based FET without SARS-CoV-2 antibody is presented as negative control. (D) Selective response of COVID-19 FET sensor toward target SARS-CoV-2 antigen protein and <t>MERS-CoV</t> protein. (E) Real-time response of COVID-19 FET toward SARS-CoV-2 antigen protein in UTM and (F) related dose-dependent response curve.
    Mers Cov Spike Antigen Protein, supplied by Sino Biological, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/mers cov spike antigen protein/product/Sino Biological
    Average 95 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    mers cov spike antigen protein - by Bioz Stars, 2021-09
    95/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    86
    Sino Biological mers cov antigen
    <t>MERS-CoV</t> viral RNA in respiratory tissues of llamas (A) and pigs (B). Viral RNA was determined in tissue homogenates at postinoculation days 4 and 24. Error bars indicate SDs when results were positive in > 1 animal. Dashed lines depict the detection limit of the assays (C t ≤40). C t , cycle threshold; MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; PI, postinoculation.
    Mers Cov Antigen, supplied by Sino Biological, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/mers cov antigen/product/Sino Biological
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    mers cov antigen - by Bioz Stars, 2021-09
    86/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    94
    Sino Biological middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus mers antigen
    Plasmablast-derived IgG monoclonal antibodies from three COVID-19 patients. (a) A total of 219 IgG monoclonal antibodies were produced from COVID-19 patients (50 from case A, 131 from case B, 38 from case C). An average of 13.7±6.8% and 13.0±7.3% of antibodies were reactive with spike glycoprotein (S) and nucleocapsid (N) antigens of <t>SARS-CoV-2,</t> respectively. The data are presented as specificity, number of antibodies, and the percentage of total antibodies isolated from each patient. (b) The binding activity of anti-SARS-CoV-2 MAbs with spike glycoprotein, RBD and the S2 subunit in ELISA. Anti-influenza H3 MAb BS-1A and anti-SARS RBD CR3022 were included as controls. Each experiment was repeated twice. The OD 450 values are presented as mean ± standard error of the mean. Panels (c) and (d) show numbers of variable domain mutations in MAb genes and variation in MAb CDR3 lengths among anti-S2 and anti-N MAbs, respectively. Antibodies that strongly cross-react with at least one betacoronavirus (SARS or <t>MERS</t> or OC43) were defined as cross-reactive MAbs. CDR3 length and mutation numbers are presented as mean ± standard error of the mean (anti-S2, specific, n=4 versus cross-reactive, n=5; anti-N, specific, n=16 versus cross-reactive, n=19). The two-tailed Mann-Whitney test was performed to compare the mutations between two groups. * p
    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Mers Antigen, supplied by Sino Biological, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus mers antigen/product/Sino Biological
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus mers antigen - by Bioz Stars, 2021-09
    94/100 stars
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    Detection of SARS-CoV-2 antigen protein. (A) Schematic diagram for the COVID-19 FET sensor for detection of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. (B) Real-time response of COVID-19 FET toward SARS-CoV-2 antigen protein in PBS and (C) related dose-dependent response curve ( V DS = 0.01 V). Graphene-based FET without SARS-CoV-2 antibody is presented as negative control. (D) Selective response of COVID-19 FET sensor toward target SARS-CoV-2 antigen protein and MERS-CoV protein. (E) Real-time response of COVID-19 FET toward SARS-CoV-2 antigen protein in UTM and (F) related dose-dependent response curve.

    Journal: ACS Nano

    Article Title: Rapid Detection of COVID-19 Causative Virus (SARS-CoV-2) in Human Nasopharyngeal Swab Specimens Using Field-Effect Transistor-Based Biosensor

    doi: 10.1021/acsnano.0c02823

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Detection of SARS-CoV-2 antigen protein. (A) Schematic diagram for the COVID-19 FET sensor for detection of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. (B) Real-time response of COVID-19 FET toward SARS-CoV-2 antigen protein in PBS and (C) related dose-dependent response curve ( V DS = 0.01 V). Graphene-based FET without SARS-CoV-2 antibody is presented as negative control. (D) Selective response of COVID-19 FET sensor toward target SARS-CoV-2 antigen protein and MERS-CoV protein. (E) Real-time response of COVID-19 FET toward SARS-CoV-2 antigen protein in UTM and (F) related dose-dependent response curve.

    Article Snippet: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay A 96-well plate was coated with SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen protein (40591-V08H; Sino Biological, Inc., China) or MERS-CoV spike antigen protein (40069-V08H, Sino Biological) for 1 h at 37 °C and then blocked with 5% BSA.

    Techniques: Negative Control

    MERS-CoV viral RNA in respiratory tissues of llamas (A) and pigs (B). Viral RNA was determined in tissue homogenates at postinoculation days 4 and 24. Error bars indicate SDs when results were positive in > 1 animal. Dashed lines depict the detection limit of the assays (C t ≤40). C t , cycle threshold; MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; PI, postinoculation.

    Journal: Emerging Infectious Diseases

    Article Title: Livestock Susceptibility to Infection with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    doi: 10.3201/eid2302.161239

    Figure Lengend Snippet: MERS-CoV viral RNA in respiratory tissues of llamas (A) and pigs (B). Viral RNA was determined in tissue homogenates at postinoculation days 4 and 24. Error bars indicate SDs when results were positive in > 1 animal. Dashed lines depict the detection limit of the assays (C t ≤40). C t , cycle threshold; MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; PI, postinoculation.

    Article Snippet: Sequential slides were either stained with hematoxylin and eosin or used to detect the DPP4 receptor and MERS-CoV antigen by IHC and viral genome by ISH ( , ).

    Techniques:

    Antibody responses after experimental inoculation of MERS-CoV into llamas and pigs. A) MERS-CoV S1 antibody responses were analyzed in serum from all animals at postinoculation days 0, 14, and 24. An ELISA with recombinant MERS-CoV S1 protein was used, and results are represented individually. B) Individual MERS-CoV neutralization titers from llamas and pigs as determined from serum. Dashed lines depict the detection limit of the assays. MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; OD, optical density; PRNT 90 , 90% plaque reduction neutralization test.

    Journal: Emerging Infectious Diseases

    Article Title: Livestock Susceptibility to Infection with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    doi: 10.3201/eid2302.161239

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Antibody responses after experimental inoculation of MERS-CoV into llamas and pigs. A) MERS-CoV S1 antibody responses were analyzed in serum from all animals at postinoculation days 0, 14, and 24. An ELISA with recombinant MERS-CoV S1 protein was used, and results are represented individually. B) Individual MERS-CoV neutralization titers from llamas and pigs as determined from serum. Dashed lines depict the detection limit of the assays. MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; OD, optical density; PRNT 90 , 90% plaque reduction neutralization test.

    Article Snippet: Sequential slides were either stained with hematoxylin and eosin or used to detect the DPP4 receptor and MERS-CoV antigen by IHC and viral genome by ISH ( , ).

    Techniques: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Recombinant, Neutralization, Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test

    Viral shedding of llamas and pigs after experimental inoculation with MERS-CoV. A) Viral RNA and B) infectious MERS-CoV from nasal swab samples collected from llamas (top) and pigs (bottom) at different times after challenge. Each bar represents an individual animal. Dashed lines depict the detection limit of the assays. C t , cycle threshold; MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; TCID 50 , 50% tissue culture infective dose.

    Journal: Emerging Infectious Diseases

    Article Title: Livestock Susceptibility to Infection with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    doi: 10.3201/eid2302.161239

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Viral shedding of llamas and pigs after experimental inoculation with MERS-CoV. A) Viral RNA and B) infectious MERS-CoV from nasal swab samples collected from llamas (top) and pigs (bottom) at different times after challenge. Each bar represents an individual animal. Dashed lines depict the detection limit of the assays. C t , cycle threshold; MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; TCID 50 , 50% tissue culture infective dose.

    Article Snippet: Sequential slides were either stained with hematoxylin and eosin or used to detect the DPP4 receptor and MERS-CoV antigen by IHC and viral genome by ISH ( , ).

    Techniques:

    Histology and expression of viral antigen (IHC) and viral RNA (ISH) at postinoculation day 4 in the nasal respiratory epithelium of sheep, pigs, llamas, and horses inoculated with MERS-CoV. A mild to severe rhinitis with epithelial necrosis and hypertrophy and inflammation of the epithelium and lamina propria was observed in the nasal respiratory tissue of pigs and llamas. Associated with these was presence of virus antigen (IHC) and RNA (ISH). No substantial lesions, virus antigen, or virus RNA were detected in the nasal respiratory tissues of sheep and horses (HE, IHC, ISH). Original magnification ×200 for all images. HE, hematoxylin and eosin; IHC, immunohistochemistry; ISH, in situ hybridization; MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    Journal: Emerging Infectious Diseases

    Article Title: Livestock Susceptibility to Infection with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    doi: 10.3201/eid2302.161239

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Histology and expression of viral antigen (IHC) and viral RNA (ISH) at postinoculation day 4 in the nasal respiratory epithelium of sheep, pigs, llamas, and horses inoculated with MERS-CoV. A mild to severe rhinitis with epithelial necrosis and hypertrophy and inflammation of the epithelium and lamina propria was observed in the nasal respiratory tissue of pigs and llamas. Associated with these was presence of virus antigen (IHC) and RNA (ISH). No substantial lesions, virus antigen, or virus RNA were detected in the nasal respiratory tissues of sheep and horses (HE, IHC, ISH). Original magnification ×200 for all images. HE, hematoxylin and eosin; IHC, immunohistochemistry; ISH, in situ hybridization; MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    Article Snippet: Sequential slides were either stained with hematoxylin and eosin or used to detect the DPP4 receptor and MERS-CoV antigen by IHC and viral genome by ISH ( , ).

    Techniques: Expressing, Immunohistochemistry, In Situ Hybridization

    Presence of MERS-CoV receptor DPP4 (IHC) and of mucosubstances (PAS) in upper and lower respiratory tract tissues from sheep, pigs, llamas, and horses. A) In the nose, DPP4 (red cytoplasmic or membrane staining) was present on the lining epithelium of pigs, llamas, and horses but not sheep. PAS staining (magenta) demonstrated more mucous cells in the lining epithelium of sheep and horses and a layer of mucus on the lining epithelium of the horses. B) DPP4 (red cytoplasmic or membrane staining) was present on the lining epithelium of the trachea, bronchus/bronchioles, and alveoli in the pigs, llamas and horses but not in the sheep. Original magnification ×400 for all images. DPP4, dipeptidyl peptidase-4; IHC, immunohistochemistry; MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; PAS, periodic acid–Schiff; term., terminal.

    Journal: Emerging Infectious Diseases

    Article Title: Livestock Susceptibility to Infection with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    doi: 10.3201/eid2302.161239

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Presence of MERS-CoV receptor DPP4 (IHC) and of mucosubstances (PAS) in upper and lower respiratory tract tissues from sheep, pigs, llamas, and horses. A) In the nose, DPP4 (red cytoplasmic or membrane staining) was present on the lining epithelium of pigs, llamas, and horses but not sheep. PAS staining (magenta) demonstrated more mucous cells in the lining epithelium of sheep and horses and a layer of mucus on the lining epithelium of the horses. B) DPP4 (red cytoplasmic or membrane staining) was present on the lining epithelium of the trachea, bronchus/bronchioles, and alveoli in the pigs, llamas and horses but not in the sheep. Original magnification ×400 for all images. DPP4, dipeptidyl peptidase-4; IHC, immunohistochemistry; MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; PAS, periodic acid–Schiff; term., terminal.

    Article Snippet: Sequential slides were either stained with hematoxylin and eosin or used to detect the DPP4 receptor and MERS-CoV antigen by IHC and viral genome by ISH ( , ).

    Techniques: Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    Sequencing of MERS-CoV Spike protein and data analysis

    Journal: Virology

    Article Title: Intratracheal exposure of common marmosets to MERS-CoV Jordan-n3/2012 or MERS-CoV EMC/2012 isolates does not result in lethal disease

    doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2015.07.013

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Sequencing of MERS-CoV Spike protein and data analysis

    Article Snippet: To detect MERS-CoV antigen, IHC was performed using a rabbit polyclonal antiserum against MERS-CoV (Sino Biological PR China) (1:1000).

    Techniques: Sequencing

    Gross and Histopathology. (A) Gross lung pathology demonstrating mostly normal lung with multifocal to coalescing moderate interstitial pneumonia in the left caudal lung lobe. (B) Low magnification of lung field from MERS-CoV EMC inoculated subject demonstrating

    Journal: Virology

    Article Title: Intratracheal exposure of common marmosets to MERS-CoV Jordan-n3/2012 or MERS-CoV EMC/2012 isolates does not result in lethal disease

    doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2015.07.013

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Gross and Histopathology. (A) Gross lung pathology demonstrating mostly normal lung with multifocal to coalescing moderate interstitial pneumonia in the left caudal lung lobe. (B) Low magnification of lung field from MERS-CoV EMC inoculated subject demonstrating

    Article Snippet: To detect MERS-CoV antigen, IHC was performed using a rabbit polyclonal antiserum against MERS-CoV (Sino Biological PR China) (1:1000).

    Techniques: Histopathology

    Ex-vivo analysis of primary cells. Cells were isolated from lung, kidney, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and one-step growth kinetics were performed as described in Materials and Methods. Lung, Kidney and BAL demonstrate that MERS-CoV is able to replicate

    Journal: Virology

    Article Title: Intratracheal exposure of common marmosets to MERS-CoV Jordan-n3/2012 or MERS-CoV EMC/2012 isolates does not result in lethal disease

    doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2015.07.013

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Ex-vivo analysis of primary cells. Cells were isolated from lung, kidney, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and one-step growth kinetics were performed as described in Materials and Methods. Lung, Kidney and BAL demonstrate that MERS-CoV is able to replicate

    Article Snippet: To detect MERS-CoV antigen, IHC was performed using a rabbit polyclonal antiserum against MERS-CoV (Sino Biological PR China) (1:1000).

    Techniques: Ex Vivo, Isolation

    Fluorescence Reduction Neutralizing Assay. Sera from all subjects was evaluated for the presence of neutralizing antibody to MERS-CoV as described in Materials and Methods. Neutralizing antibody could be detected above the background of the Mock infected

    Journal: Virology

    Article Title: Intratracheal exposure of common marmosets to MERS-CoV Jordan-n3/2012 or MERS-CoV EMC/2012 isolates does not result in lethal disease

    doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2015.07.013

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Fluorescence Reduction Neutralizing Assay. Sera from all subjects was evaluated for the presence of neutralizing antibody to MERS-CoV as described in Materials and Methods. Neutralizing antibody could be detected above the background of the Mock infected

    Article Snippet: To detect MERS-CoV antigen, IHC was performed using a rabbit polyclonal antiserum against MERS-CoV (Sino Biological PR China) (1:1000).

    Techniques: Fluorescence, Neutralizing Assay, Infection

    Plasmablast-derived IgG monoclonal antibodies from three COVID-19 patients. (a) A total of 219 IgG monoclonal antibodies were produced from COVID-19 patients (50 from case A, 131 from case B, 38 from case C). An average of 13.7±6.8% and 13.0±7.3% of antibodies were reactive with spike glycoprotein (S) and nucleocapsid (N) antigens of SARS-CoV-2, respectively. The data are presented as specificity, number of antibodies, and the percentage of total antibodies isolated from each patient. (b) The binding activity of anti-SARS-CoV-2 MAbs with spike glycoprotein, RBD and the S2 subunit in ELISA. Anti-influenza H3 MAb BS-1A and anti-SARS RBD CR3022 were included as controls. Each experiment was repeated twice. The OD 450 values are presented as mean ± standard error of the mean. Panels (c) and (d) show numbers of variable domain mutations in MAb genes and variation in MAb CDR3 lengths among anti-S2 and anti-N MAbs, respectively. Antibodies that strongly cross-react with at least one betacoronavirus (SARS or MERS or OC43) were defined as cross-reactive MAbs. CDR3 length and mutation numbers are presented as mean ± standard error of the mean (anti-S2, specific, n=4 versus cross-reactive, n=5; anti-N, specific, n=16 versus cross-reactive, n=19). The two-tailed Mann-Whitney test was performed to compare the mutations between two groups. * p

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: Plasmablast-derived antibody response to acute SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans

    doi: 10.1101/2020.08.28.267526

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Plasmablast-derived IgG monoclonal antibodies from three COVID-19 patients. (a) A total of 219 IgG monoclonal antibodies were produced from COVID-19 patients (50 from case A, 131 from case B, 38 from case C). An average of 13.7±6.8% and 13.0±7.3% of antibodies were reactive with spike glycoprotein (S) and nucleocapsid (N) antigens of SARS-CoV-2, respectively. The data are presented as specificity, number of antibodies, and the percentage of total antibodies isolated from each patient. (b) The binding activity of anti-SARS-CoV-2 MAbs with spike glycoprotein, RBD and the S2 subunit in ELISA. Anti-influenza H3 MAb BS-1A and anti-SARS RBD CR3022 were included as controls. Each experiment was repeated twice. The OD 450 values are presented as mean ± standard error of the mean. Panels (c) and (d) show numbers of variable domain mutations in MAb genes and variation in MAb CDR3 lengths among anti-S2 and anti-N MAbs, respectively. Antibodies that strongly cross-react with at least one betacoronavirus (SARS or MERS or OC43) were defined as cross-reactive MAbs. CDR3 length and mutation numbers are presented as mean ± standard error of the mean (anti-S2, specific, n=4 versus cross-reactive, n=5; anti-N, specific, n=16 versus cross-reactive, n=19). The two-tailed Mann-Whitney test was performed to compare the mutations between two groups. * p

    Article Snippet: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)ELISA plates (Corning® 96-well Clear Polystyrene High Bind Stripwell™ Microplate, USA) were coated with 8 μg/ml SARS-CoV-2 antigens (spike glycoprotein extracellular or receptor-binding domains, or nucleocapsid: Sino Biological, China) or SARS antigen (spike glycoprotein S1 subunit: Sino Biological, China) or Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS) antigen (spike glycoprotein extracellular domain: Sino Biological, China) or human coronavirus OC43 antigen (spike glycoprotein extracellular domain: Sino Biological, China) at 4°C overnight.

    Techniques: Derivative Assay, Produced, Isolation, Binding Assay, Activity Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Mutagenesis, Two Tailed Test, MANN-WHITNEY