magnesium chloride  (Millipore)


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    Structured Review

    Millipore magnesium chloride
    Magnesium Chloride, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 125 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/magnesium chloride/product/Millipore
    Average 99 stars, based on 125 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    magnesium chloride - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    99/100 stars

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    Centrifugation:

    Article Title: Analysis of detergent-free lipid rafts isolated from CD4+ T cell line: interaction with antigen presenting cells promotes coalescing of lipid rafts
    Article Snippet: The supernatant was decanted; the pellet was re-suspended in 10 ml of base buffer solution consisting of 20 mM Tris-HCl, 250 mM Sucrose (pH 7.8), supplemented with 1 mM CaCl2 and 1 mM MgCl2 followed by centrifugation for 2 minutes at 250 × g at 4°C. .. Then the supernatant was decanted, the pellet was re-suspended in 1 ml of the base buffer solution supplemented with, CaCl2 and MgCl2 , a protease inhibitor cocktail set (EMD BioSciences, Darmstadt, Germany), and a calpain inhibitor (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), and then lysed by passaging through a ¾ inch 23 gauge needle, 20 times.

    Luciferase:

    Article Title: Enhanced Gene Delivery Mediated by Low Molecular Weight Chitosan/DNA Complexes: Effect of pH and Serum
    Article Snippet: Dulbecco’s phosphate buffered saline (PBS) without calcium and magnesium chloride (Cat #D5652), HEPES (Cat #H4034), MES (Cat #M2933), sodium bicarbonate (Cat #S5761), sterile 1 N HCl (Cat #H9892) cell culture tested were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich, Oakville, Ontario, Canada. .. Bright-Glo™ Luciferase Assay System (Cat #E2620) and Glo Lysis Buffer (Cat #E2661) were from Promega, Madison, WI, USA.

    Cycling Probe Technology:

    Article Title: Development and validation of an UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of irinotecan, SN 38 and SN-38 glucuronide in plasma, urine, feces, liver and kidney: Application to a pharmacokinetic study of irinotecan in rats
    Article Snippet: .. Irinotecan, SN-38, CPT, uridine-5’-diphosphate-β,D-glucuronic acid ester (UDPGA), D-saccharic-1,4-lactone monohydrate, magnesium chloride, Hanks’ balanced salt solution (powder form) and formic acid were purchased from Sigma–Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA). .. Expressed human UGT isoforms (UGT1A1) was purchased from BD Biosciences (Woburn, MA, USA).

    Bradford Assay:

    Article Title: Metformin Impairs Glutamine Metabolism and Autophagy in Tumour Cells
    Article Snippet: Pellet was resuspended on ice in 200 μL of a solution containing 2 mM magnesium chloride (MgCl2 , M8266; Sigma-Aldrich), 10 mM potassium chloride (KCl, P9333; Sigma-Aldrich) and 10 mM Tris pH 7.4. .. Pellet (mitochondrial fractions) were lysed in 20 μL of lysis buffer and protein concentration determined by the Bradford assay.

    Adsorption:

    Article Title: Opsonic and Protective Properties of Antibodies Raised to Conjugate Vaccines Targeting Six Staphylococcus aureus Antigens
    Article Snippet: For the OPK assay, differentiated HL60 cells were washed in Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) lacking calcium chloride and magnesium chloride and resuspended in HBSS with these two divalent cations (HBSS++ ) supplemented with 0.1% gelatin (Sigma). .. After adsorption, the complement solution was centrifuged and filter sterilized.

    Incubation:

    Article Title: NADP+ is an endogenous PARP inhibitor in DNA damage response and tumor suppression
    Article Snippet: Purification of cellular PAR and dot blotting Cells were lysed with 10 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.5), 2 mM MgCl2 , and 10% SDS solution following 10 mM MMS (Sigma) treatment for 30 min. .. Next, the samples were incubated 2 h with additional 0.1% proteinase K (Thermo Scientific).

    Article Title: Sulphamethazine derivatives as immunomodulating agents: New therapeutic strategies for inflammatory diseases
    Article Snippet: .. Briefly 25 μL of diluted whole blood in HBSS++ (Hanks Balanced Salt Solution, containing calcium chloride and magnesium chloride) [Sigma, St. Louis, USA] was incubated with 25 μL of three different concentrations of compounds (1, 10, and 100 μg/mL), each in triplicate. ..

    Activity Assay:

    Article Title: P7C3 Neuroprotective Chemicals Function by Activating the Rate-limiting Enzyme in NAD Salvage
    Article Snippet: The NAMPT activity was determined by a coupled-enzyme spectrometric assay as described by Khan et al. ( ) with minor modifications. .. The reaction mixture contained 50mM Tris (pH8.0), 0.4 mM phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP, Sigma) 2.5mM ATP, 12mM MgCl2 , 1.5% (v/v) ethanol, 10mM semicarbazide (Sigma), 0.02%(w/v) BSA, 2.4 μg/ml NMNAT, 0.4 unit alcohol dehydrogenase, 1μM NAMPT, and 150 μM nicotinamide.

    Article Title: Relationship of glucose and oleate metabolism to cardiac function in lipin-1 deficient (fld) mice [S]
    Article Snippet: .. Each sample was assayed in a total volume of 100 µl consisting of 100 mM Tris/maleate buffer (pH 6.5) or Tris/HCl buffer (pH 7.4) in addition to 0.6 mM dithiothreitol, 1.5 mM MgCl2 (pH 7.4) and 5 mM MgCl2 (pH 6.5), 2 mg/ml FA-poor BSA, protease inhibitor cocktail (Sigma-Aldrich), 30 nM microcystin-LR, 0.6 mM PA labeled with [3 H]palmitate (approximately 6 × 104 dpm per assay), 1 mM EDTA/EGTA, 0.4 mM PC, and 200 µM tetrahydrolipstatin to inhibit the degradation of the DG product by lipase activity ( ). ..

    Article Title: Opsonic and Protective Properties of Antibodies Raised to Conjugate Vaccines Targeting Six Staphylococcus aureus Antigens
    Article Snippet: Paragraph title: Antibody analysis for opsonic killing activity ... For the OPK assay, differentiated HL60 cells were washed in Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) lacking calcium chloride and magnesium chloride and resuspended in HBSS with these two divalent cations (HBSS++ ) supplemented with 0.1% gelatin (Sigma).

    Cell Culture:

    Article Title: Enhanced Gene Delivery Mediated by Low Molecular Weight Chitosan/DNA Complexes: Effect of pH and Serum
    Article Snippet: .. Dulbecco’s phosphate buffered saline (PBS) without calcium and magnesium chloride (Cat #D5652), HEPES (Cat #H4034), MES (Cat #M2933), sodium bicarbonate (Cat #S5761), sterile 1 N HCl (Cat #H9892) cell culture tested were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich, Oakville, Ontario, Canada. .. Bright-Glo™ Luciferase Assay System (Cat #E2620) and Glo Lysis Buffer (Cat #E2661) were from Promega, Madison, WI, USA.

    Article Title: Functionalization of microparticles with mineral coatings enhances non-viral transfection of primary human cells
    Article Snippet: Paragraph title: Scanning electron micrographs of hDF cultured with MCM ... Cells were further fixed in 0.7 M sodium cacodylate trihydrate (Sigma Aldrich) with 3 mM magnesium chloride (Sigma Aldrich) and 1.5 v/v% glutaraldehyde (Sigma-Aldrich) in DI water for 2 hrs at RT.

    Article Title: Analysis of detergent-free lipid rafts isolated from CD4+ T cell line: interaction with antigen presenting cells promotes coalescing of lipid rafts
    Article Snippet: Briefly, 6 × 107 of total cells either YH16.33 alone or co-cultured with A20 (1:1 ratio) in the presence or absence of 1 mg/ml chicken ovalbumin (antigen) was cultured for 16-18 hrs. .. Then the supernatant was decanted, the pellet was re-suspended in 1 ml of the base buffer solution supplemented with, CaCl2 and MgCl2 , a protease inhibitor cocktail set (EMD BioSciences, Darmstadt, Germany), and a calpain inhibitor (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), and then lysed by passaging through a ¾ inch 23 gauge needle, 20 times.

    Expressing:

    Article Title: Dye-Sensitized Core/Active Shell Upconversion Nanoparticles for Optogenetics and Bioimaging Applications
    Article Snippet: Embryonic day 17 hippocampi from Sprague-Drawley rats were dissected in Hank’s balanced salt solution (Invitrogen) containing MgCl2 and Hepes (Sigma) and digested with papain (Worthington). .. Cells were infected with a self-inactivating lentiviral vector in which the RSV promoter drives expression of ReacHR fused to the red fluorescent protein mcherry.

    BIA-KA:

    Article Title: Enhanced Gene Delivery Mediated by Low Molecular Weight Chitosan/DNA Complexes: Effect of pH and Serum
    Article Snippet: Dulbecco’s phosphate buffered saline (PBS) without calcium and magnesium chloride (Cat #D5652), HEPES (Cat #H4034), MES (Cat #M2933), sodium bicarbonate (Cat #S5761), sterile 1 N HCl (Cat #H9892) cell culture tested were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich, Oakville, Ontario, Canada. .. BCA™ Protein Assay Kit (Cat #23227) and Compat-Able Preparation Reagent Set (Cat #23215) were from Pierce Biotechnology, Rockford, IL, USA.

    Modification:

    Article Title: Enhanced Gene Delivery Mediated by Low Molecular Weight Chitosan/DNA Complexes: Effect of pH and Serum
    Article Snippet: Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium high glucose (DMEM HG, Cat #12100-046), Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS, Cat #26140-079), Lipofectamine™ (Cat #18324-111), 0.25% Trypsin–EDTA (Cat #25200-056) and Competent DH5α cells (Cat #182630-12) were from Life Technologies, Carlsbad, California, USA. .. Dulbecco’s phosphate buffered saline (PBS) without calcium and magnesium chloride (Cat #D5652), HEPES (Cat #H4034), MES (Cat #M2933), sodium bicarbonate (Cat #S5761), sterile 1 N HCl (Cat #H9892) cell culture tested were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich, Oakville, Ontario, Canada.

    Protease Inhibitor:

    Article Title: Relationship of glucose and oleate metabolism to cardiac function in lipin-1 deficient (fld) mice [S]
    Article Snippet: .. Each sample was assayed in a total volume of 100 µl consisting of 100 mM Tris/maleate buffer (pH 6.5) or Tris/HCl buffer (pH 7.4) in addition to 0.6 mM dithiothreitol, 1.5 mM MgCl2 (pH 7.4) and 5 mM MgCl2 (pH 6.5), 2 mg/ml FA-poor BSA, protease inhibitor cocktail (Sigma-Aldrich), 30 nM microcystin-LR, 0.6 mM PA labeled with [3 H]palmitate (approximately 6 × 104 dpm per assay), 1 mM EDTA/EGTA, 0.4 mM PC, and 200 µM tetrahydrolipstatin to inhibit the degradation of the DG product by lipase activity ( ). ..

    Article Title: Analysis of detergent-free lipid rafts isolated from CD4+ T cell line: interaction with antigen presenting cells promotes coalescing of lipid rafts
    Article Snippet: .. Then the supernatant was decanted, the pellet was re-suspended in 1 ml of the base buffer solution supplemented with, CaCl2 and MgCl2 , a protease inhibitor cocktail set (EMD BioSciences, Darmstadt, Germany), and a calpain inhibitor (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), and then lysed by passaging through a ¾ inch 23 gauge needle, 20 times. .. The pellet was re-suspended with 1 ml of the base buffer solution supplemented with CaCl2 , MgCl2 , and protease inhibitor and lysed again by passaging through a ¾ inch 23 gauge needle, 20 times.

    Infection:

    Article Title: Dye-Sensitized Core/Active Shell Upconversion Nanoparticles for Optogenetics and Bioimaging Applications
    Article Snippet: Embryonic day 17 hippocampi from Sprague-Drawley rats were dissected in Hank’s balanced salt solution (Invitrogen) containing MgCl2 and Hepes (Sigma) and digested with papain (Worthington). .. Cells were infected with a self-inactivating lentiviral vector in which the RSV promoter drives expression of ReacHR fused to the red fluorescent protein mcherry.

    other:

    Article Title: Pistacia chinensis: A Potent Ameliorator of CCl4 Induced Lung and Thyroid Toxicity in Rat Model
    Article Snippet: Chemicals CCl4 , reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase, γ - glutamyl p-nitroanilide, bovine serum albumin (BSA), 1,2-dithio-bis nitro benzoic acid (DTNB), 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), picric acid, potassium iodide, sodium tartrate, copper sulphate, bromo cresol green, hydrogen peroxide solution, phenazine methosulphate, glycylglycine, magnesium chloride, guaiacol, sulfosalicylic acid, sodium azide, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), sodium hydroxide, and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) were purchased from Sigma Chemicals Co. USA.

    Transmission Assay:

    Article Title: Agmatine modulates spontaneous activity in neurons of the rat medial habenular complex—a relevant mechanism in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression?
    Article Snippet: .. In addition, this solution contained (in mM): 0.1 CaCl2 , 6 MgCl2 , and 3 kynurenic acid (Sigma-Aldrich, now Merck; Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) to suppress transmission in the neuronal tissue. ..

    Polymerase Chain Reaction:

    Article Title: Docosahexaenoic acid-induced unfolded protein response, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells are triggered by Ca2+-dependent induction of oxidative stress
    Article Snippet: Taq polymerase was from Solis Biodyne (Tartu, Estonia), 10× PCR buffer and dNTP mix were from Promega (Madison, WI, USA). .. DHA, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol, CaCl2 , KCl, MgCl2 , NaCl, Hepes, EGTA, glucose, 4-hydroxy-Tempol (Tempol), bovine serum albumin (BSA), Triton X-100, and propidium iodide were from Sigma (Steinheim, Germany).

    Papanicolaou Stain:

    Article Title: Validated LC-MS/MS method for the determination of maackiain and its sulfate and glucuronide in blood: Application to pharmacokinetic and disposition studies
    Article Snippet: .. Uridine-5'-diphosphate-β, D-glucuronic acid ester (UDPGA), 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS), D-saccharic-1,4-lactone monohydrate, magnesium chloride, and Hanks’ balanced salt solution (powder form) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO). ..

    Passaging:

    Article Title: Analysis of detergent-free lipid rafts isolated from CD4+ T cell line: interaction with antigen presenting cells promotes coalescing of lipid rafts
    Article Snippet: .. Then the supernatant was decanted, the pellet was re-suspended in 1 ml of the base buffer solution supplemented with, CaCl2 and MgCl2 , a protease inhibitor cocktail set (EMD BioSciences, Darmstadt, Germany), and a calpain inhibitor (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), and then lysed by passaging through a ¾ inch 23 gauge needle, 20 times. .. The pellet was re-suspended with 1 ml of the base buffer solution supplemented with CaCl2 , MgCl2 , and protease inhibitor and lysed again by passaging through a ¾ inch 23 gauge needle, 20 times.

    Isolation:

    Article Title: Metformin Impairs Glutamine Metabolism and Autophagy in Tumour Cells
    Article Snippet: Paragraph title: 2.12. Mitochondrial Isolation ... Pellet was resuspended on ice in 200 μL of a solution containing 2 mM magnesium chloride (MgCl2 , M8266; Sigma-Aldrich), 10 mM potassium chloride (KCl, P9333; Sigma-Aldrich) and 10 mM Tris pH 7.4.

    Article Title: Analysis of detergent-free lipid rafts isolated from CD4+ T cell line: interaction with antigen presenting cells promotes coalescing of lipid rafts
    Article Snippet: Paragraph title: Detergent-Free Isolation Protocol ... Then the supernatant was decanted, the pellet was re-suspended in 1 ml of the base buffer solution supplemented with, CaCl2 and MgCl2 , a protease inhibitor cocktail set (EMD BioSciences, Darmstadt, Germany), and a calpain inhibitor (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), and then lysed by passaging through a ¾ inch 23 gauge needle, 20 times.

    Protein Concentration:

    Article Title: Metformin Impairs Glutamine Metabolism and Autophagy in Tumour Cells
    Article Snippet: Pellet was resuspended on ice in 200 μL of a solution containing 2 mM magnesium chloride (MgCl2 , M8266; Sigma-Aldrich), 10 mM potassium chloride (KCl, P9333; Sigma-Aldrich) and 10 mM Tris pH 7.4. .. Pellet (mitochondrial fractions) were lysed in 20 μL of lysis buffer and protein concentration determined by the Bradford assay.

    Labeling:

    Article Title: Relationship of glucose and oleate metabolism to cardiac function in lipin-1 deficient (fld) mice [S]
    Article Snippet: .. Each sample was assayed in a total volume of 100 µl consisting of 100 mM Tris/maleate buffer (pH 6.5) or Tris/HCl buffer (pH 7.4) in addition to 0.6 mM dithiothreitol, 1.5 mM MgCl2 (pH 7.4) and 5 mM MgCl2 (pH 6.5), 2 mg/ml FA-poor BSA, protease inhibitor cocktail (Sigma-Aldrich), 30 nM microcystin-LR, 0.6 mM PA labeled with [3 H]palmitate (approximately 6 × 104 dpm per assay), 1 mM EDTA/EGTA, 0.4 mM PC, and 200 µM tetrahydrolipstatin to inhibit the degradation of the DG product by lipase activity ( ). ..

    Purification:

    Article Title: NADP+ is an endogenous PARP inhibitor in DNA damage response and tumor suppression
    Article Snippet: .. Purification of cellular PAR and dot blotting Cells were lysed with 10 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.5), 2 mM MgCl2 , and 10% SDS solution following 10 mM MMS (Sigma) treatment for 30 min. ..

    Article Title: P7C3 Neuroprotective Chemicals Function by Activating the Rate-limiting Enzyme in NAD Salvage
    Article Snippet: Human NAMPT and NMNAT were overexpressed in E. coli and purified as described by Wang et al. ( ) and Zhou et al. , respectively. .. The reaction mixture contained 50mM Tris (pH8.0), 0.4 mM phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP, Sigma) 2.5mM ATP, 12mM MgCl2 , 1.5% (v/v) ethanol, 10mM semicarbazide (Sigma), 0.02%(w/v) BSA, 2.4 μg/ml NMNAT, 0.4 unit alcohol dehydrogenase, 1μM NAMPT, and 150 μM nicotinamide.

    Lysis:

    Article Title: Enhanced Gene Delivery Mediated by Low Molecular Weight Chitosan/DNA Complexes: Effect of pH and Serum
    Article Snippet: Dulbecco’s phosphate buffered saline (PBS) without calcium and magnesium chloride (Cat #D5652), HEPES (Cat #H4034), MES (Cat #M2933), sodium bicarbonate (Cat #S5761), sterile 1 N HCl (Cat #H9892) cell culture tested were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich, Oakville, Ontario, Canada. .. Bright-Glo™ Luciferase Assay System (Cat #E2620) and Glo Lysis Buffer (Cat #E2661) were from Promega, Madison, WI, USA.

    Article Title: Metformin Impairs Glutamine Metabolism and Autophagy in Tumour Cells
    Article Snippet: Pellet was resuspended on ice in 200 μL of a solution containing 2 mM magnesium chloride (MgCl2 , M8266; Sigma-Aldrich), 10 mM potassium chloride (KCl, P9333; Sigma-Aldrich) and 10 mM Tris pH 7.4. .. Pellet (mitochondrial fractions) were lysed in 20 μL of lysis buffer and protein concentration determined by the Bradford assay.

    Plasmid Preparation:

    Article Title: Dye-Sensitized Core/Active Shell Upconversion Nanoparticles for Optogenetics and Bioimaging Applications
    Article Snippet: Embryonic day 17 hippocampi from Sprague-Drawley rats were dissected in Hank’s balanced salt solution (Invitrogen) containing MgCl2 and Hepes (Sigma) and digested with papain (Worthington). .. Cells were infected with a self-inactivating lentiviral vector in which the RSV promoter drives expression of ReacHR fused to the red fluorescent protein mcherry.

    Article Title: Enhanced Gene Delivery Mediated by Low Molecular Weight Chitosan/DNA Complexes: Effect of pH and Serum
    Article Snippet: Dulbecco’s phosphate buffered saline (PBS) without calcium and magnesium chloride (Cat #D5652), HEPES (Cat #H4034), MES (Cat #M2933), sodium bicarbonate (Cat #S5761), sterile 1 N HCl (Cat #H9892) cell culture tested were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich, Oakville, Ontario, Canada. .. The plasmid EGFPLuc was from Clontech Laboratories (Cat #6169-1) Mountain View, CA, USA.

    In Vitro:

    Article Title: P7C3 Neuroprotective Chemicals Function by Activating the Rate-limiting Enzyme in NAD Salvage
    Article Snippet: Paragraph title: In vitro NAMPT assay ... The reaction mixture contained 50mM Tris (pH8.0), 0.4 mM phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP, Sigma) 2.5mM ATP, 12mM MgCl2 , 1.5% (v/v) ethanol, 10mM semicarbazide (Sigma), 0.02%(w/v) BSA, 2.4 μg/ml NMNAT, 0.4 unit alcohol dehydrogenase, 1μM NAMPT, and 150 μM nicotinamide.

    Enzymatic Assay:

    Article Title: Relationship of glucose and oleate metabolism to cardiac function in lipin-1 deficient (fld) mice [S]
    Article Snippet: Paragraph title: Phosphatidate phosphatase enzymatic assay ... Each sample was assayed in a total volume of 100 µl consisting of 100 mM Tris/maleate buffer (pH 6.5) or Tris/HCl buffer (pH 7.4) in addition to 0.6 mM dithiothreitol, 1.5 mM MgCl2 (pH 7.4) and 5 mM MgCl2 (pH 6.5), 2 mg/ml FA-poor BSA, protease inhibitor cocktail (Sigma-Aldrich), 30 nM microcystin-LR, 0.6 mM PA labeled with [3 H]palmitate (approximately 6 × 104 dpm per assay), 1 mM EDTA/EGTA, 0.4 mM PC, and 200 µM tetrahydrolipstatin to inhibit the degradation of the DG product by lipase activity ( ).

    Slice Preparation:

    Article Title: Agmatine modulates spontaneous activity in neurons of the rat medial habenular complex—a relevant mechanism in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression?
    Article Snippet: Paragraph title: Slice preparation ... In addition, this solution contained (in mM): 0.1 CaCl2 , 6 MgCl2 , and 3 kynurenic acid (Sigma-Aldrich, now Merck; Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) to suppress transmission in the neuronal tissue.

    Concentration Assay:

    Article Title: Opsonic and Protective Properties of Antibodies Raised to Conjugate Vaccines Targeting Six Staphylococcus aureus Antigens
    Article Snippet: For the OPK assay, differentiated HL60 cells were washed in Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) lacking calcium chloride and magnesium chloride and resuspended in HBSS with these two divalent cations (HBSS++ ) supplemented with 0.1% gelatin (Sigma). .. Trypan blue staining was used to differentiate dead from live leukocytes, and the final cell concentration adjusted to 2.5×107 HL60 cells per ml.

    Article Title: Agmatine modulates spontaneous activity in neurons of the rat medial habenular complex—a relevant mechanism in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression?
    Article Snippet: In the ASCF solution used for brain preparation and during slicing, 50 mM sucrose was substituted for NaCl (to a final concentration of 75 mM). .. In addition, this solution contained (in mM): 0.1 CaCl2 , 6 MgCl2 , and 3 kynurenic acid (Sigma-Aldrich, now Merck; Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) to suppress transmission in the neuronal tissue.

    Chemiluminescence Immunoassay:

    Article Title: Sulphamethazine derivatives as immunomodulating agents: New therapeutic strategies for inflammatory diseases
    Article Snippet: Oxidative burst assay Luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assay was performed, as described by Helfandet al., 1982 [ ], with some modifications. .. Briefly 25 μL of diluted whole blood in HBSS++ (Hanks Balanced Salt Solution, containing calcium chloride and magnesium chloride) [Sigma, St. Louis, USA] was incubated with 25 μL of three different concentrations of compounds (1, 10, and 100 μg/mL), each in triplicate.

    Staining:

    Article Title: Opsonic and Protective Properties of Antibodies Raised to Conjugate Vaccines Targeting Six Staphylococcus aureus Antigens
    Article Snippet: For the OPK assay, differentiated HL60 cells were washed in Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) lacking calcium chloride and magnesium chloride and resuspended in HBSS with these two divalent cations (HBSS++ ) supplemented with 0.1% gelatin (Sigma). .. Trypan blue staining was used to differentiate dead from live leukocytes, and the final cell concentration adjusted to 2.5×107 HL60 cells per ml.

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  • 94
    Millipore atp measurement
    <t>AMD</t> RPE are more susceptible to oxidative stress and show lower mitochondrial activity. ( a and b ) Cell viability assays of AMD and control RPE treated with increasing concentrations of H 2 O 2 for 24 h ( a ) and 48 h ( b ). Higher susceptibility of the AMD RPE under oxidative stress conditions is observed in 48 h. ( c ) ROS production under stress is significantly higher in AMD RPE. ( d and e ) AMD RPE have significantly lower mitochondrial activity, as indicated by their <t>ATP</t> levels measured by a luminescence assay in the presence of hexokinase inhibitor. ( d ) ATP levels produced by mitochondria are significantly lower in AMD RPE as measured in the presence of hexokinase inhibitor. ( e ) ATP levels produced by glycolysis are higher in AMD RPE as measured in the absence of hexokinase inhibitor. The difference in ATP levels measured in the presence ( d ) and absence ( e ) of hexokinase inhibitor show glycolysis as the major source of ATP production in AMD RPE. Asterisks (*) indicate statistical significance, determined by the ANOVA analysis followed by Tukey's test ( P -value
    Atp Measurement, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 18 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/atp measurement/product/Millipore
    Average 94 stars, based on 18 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    atp measurement - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    95
    Millipore nmr buffer
    The m 6 A modification has minor effects on RREIIB structure and dynamics. (A) Secondary structure of RRE2Bm 6A68 , with the residues showing line-broadening with m 6 A, highlighted in red (with Mg 2+ ) and blue (no Mg 2+ ). Comparison of the 1D 1 H <t>NMR</t> spectrum of RREIIB m6A68 with or without Mg 2+ with the methyl peak indicated by arrows. The comparison of 1D imino spectra (B) and 2D [ 1 H, 13 C]-HSQC spectra (C) of RREIIB m6A68 and RREIIB in the presence (red) and absence (blue) of 3 mM Mg 2+ . Resonances exhibiting shifting are indicated using arrows, and those with ambiguous assignments denoted using an asterisk. (D) Normalized resonance intensities in 2D [ 1 H, 13 C]-HSQC spectra of RREIIB m6A68 and RREIIB in the presence (red) and absence (blue) of 3 mM Mg 2+ . A52-C8H8, A52-C2H2 and U56-C6H6 were used as a reference and normalized to 0.1. The sample conditions were 1.2–1.5 mM RREIIB m6A68 or RREIIB in 15 mM sodium phosphate, 25 mM <t>NaCl,</t> 0.1 mM EDTA, pH 6.4 with or without 3 mM MgCl 2 .
    Nmr Buffer, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 106 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/nmr buffer/product/Millipore
    Average 95 stars, based on 106 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    nmr buffer - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    95/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    Image Search Results


    AMD RPE are more susceptible to oxidative stress and show lower mitochondrial activity. ( a and b ) Cell viability assays of AMD and control RPE treated with increasing concentrations of H 2 O 2 for 24 h ( a ) and 48 h ( b ). Higher susceptibility of the AMD RPE under oxidative stress conditions is observed in 48 h. ( c ) ROS production under stress is significantly higher in AMD RPE. ( d and e ) AMD RPE have significantly lower mitochondrial activity, as indicated by their ATP levels measured by a luminescence assay in the presence of hexokinase inhibitor. ( d ) ATP levels produced by mitochondria are significantly lower in AMD RPE as measured in the presence of hexokinase inhibitor. ( e ) ATP levels produced by glycolysis are higher in AMD RPE as measured in the absence of hexokinase inhibitor. The difference in ATP levels measured in the presence ( d ) and absence ( e ) of hexokinase inhibitor show glycolysis as the major source of ATP production in AMD RPE. Asterisks (*) indicate statistical significance, determined by the ANOVA analysis followed by Tukey's test ( P -value

    Journal: Cell Death & Disease

    Article Title: Dysfunctional autophagy in RPE, a contributing factor in age-related macular degeneration

    doi: 10.1038/cddis.2016.453

    Figure Lengend Snippet: AMD RPE are more susceptible to oxidative stress and show lower mitochondrial activity. ( a and b ) Cell viability assays of AMD and control RPE treated with increasing concentrations of H 2 O 2 for 24 h ( a ) and 48 h ( b ). Higher susceptibility of the AMD RPE under oxidative stress conditions is observed in 48 h. ( c ) ROS production under stress is significantly higher in AMD RPE. ( d and e ) AMD RPE have significantly lower mitochondrial activity, as indicated by their ATP levels measured by a luminescence assay in the presence of hexokinase inhibitor. ( d ) ATP levels produced by mitochondria are significantly lower in AMD RPE as measured in the presence of hexokinase inhibitor. ( e ) ATP levels produced by glycolysis are higher in AMD RPE as measured in the absence of hexokinase inhibitor. The difference in ATP levels measured in the presence ( d ) and absence ( e ) of hexokinase inhibitor show glycolysis as the major source of ATP production in AMD RPE. Asterisks (*) indicate statistical significance, determined by the ANOVA analysis followed by Tukey's test ( P -value

    Article Snippet: To assay the mitochondrial activity in AMD and normal RPE, the ATP measurement was performed following 2-h incubation with or without 10 μ M of the bromopyruvate analog (3-BrPA), an inhibitor of the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase II (EMD Millipore, Billerica, MA, USA).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Luminescence Assay, Produced

    Identification of CK2 phosphorylation sites in mouse SIRT1. (A) Diagram of recombinant mouse SIRT1 fragments produced in E.coli. The a.a. number of the first and last a. a. for each fragment is as indicated. (B) SIRT1 fragments from (A) were incubated with CK2 α and 32 P[γ-ATP], subjected to SDS-PAGE, Coomassie staining and autoradiography. GST-PC, which contains the optimized CK2 phosphorylation site, was used as a positive control. (C) Evolutionarily conserved CK2 consensus sites located in the fragments phosphorylated by CK2 are marked (*). (D–H) Indicated Ser (S) residues in SIRT1 fragments (see Fig. 2A ) were mutated to Ala (A) individually or in combination. Fragments containing the mutation were incubated with CK2 α and 32 P[γ-ATP] and then subjected to SDS-PAGE, Coomassie staining and autoradiography. (I) CK2-dependent phosphorylation of full-length (FL) and S154/649/651/683A (4A) mutant SIRT1 in vitro . CK2 phosphorylation was performed and visualized as in (B).

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: CK2 Is the Regulator of SIRT1 Substrate-Binding Affinity, Deacetylase Activity and Cellular Response to DNA-Damage

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006611

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Identification of CK2 phosphorylation sites in mouse SIRT1. (A) Diagram of recombinant mouse SIRT1 fragments produced in E.coli. The a.a. number of the first and last a. a. for each fragment is as indicated. (B) SIRT1 fragments from (A) were incubated with CK2 α and 32 P[γ-ATP], subjected to SDS-PAGE, Coomassie staining and autoradiography. GST-PC, which contains the optimized CK2 phosphorylation site, was used as a positive control. (C) Evolutionarily conserved CK2 consensus sites located in the fragments phosphorylated by CK2 are marked (*). (D–H) Indicated Ser (S) residues in SIRT1 fragments (see Fig. 2A ) were mutated to Ala (A) individually or in combination. Fragments containing the mutation were incubated with CK2 α and 32 P[γ-ATP] and then subjected to SDS-PAGE, Coomassie staining and autoradiography. (I) CK2-dependent phosphorylation of full-length (FL) and S154/649/651/683A (4A) mutant SIRT1 in vitro . CK2 phosphorylation was performed and visualized as in (B).

    Article Snippet: In vitro kinase assay To identify CK2 phosphorylation sites, recombinant full-length or truncated His-tagged or GST-tagged SIRT1 proteins were incubated in kinase buffer (20 mM HEPES at pH 7.0, 10 mM MgCl2 , 1 mM DTT) containing 100 µM cold ATP, 1 µCi (3000 mCi/mmole) 32 P[γ-ATP] and 20 ng CK2α enzyme (Millipore) for 20 min at 30°C.

    Techniques: Recombinant, Produced, Incubation, SDS Page, Staining, Autoradiography, Positive Control, Mutagenesis, In Vitro

    Fluorescence anisotropy measurements (Δ r ) of equilibrium binding of ISWI to DNA and nucleosomes in the presence of nucleotides. (A) Equilibrium binding to a 20 bp FITC-labeled DNA substrate (25 nM) in the presence of ATP-γ-S. These data were analyzed using Scheme 1 as described in Experimental Procedures . The solid lines in the figure represent the fits of the data to this scheme, which returned the following values: 1/β A = 140 ± 30 μM, 1/β A,1 = 390 ± 70 μM, and 1/β 1,A = 42 ± 8 nM. (B) Equilibrium binding to a 20 bp FITC-labeled DNA substrate (25 nM) in the presence of ADP. The solid line in this figure represents the fit of equilibrium DNA binding data collected in the absence of nucleotide (Figure 1 A). (C) Equilibrium binding to an Alexa488-labeled 10N5 nucleosome substrate in the presence of ATP-γ-S. (D) Equilibrium binding to an Alexa488-labeled 10N5 nucleosome substrate in the presence of ADP. The solid lines in panels C and D are the fits of the equilibrium nucleosome binding data collected in the absence of nucleotides (Figure 1 C).

    Journal: Biochemistry

    Article Title: Quantitative Determination of Binding of ISWI to Nucleosomes and DNA Shows Allosteric Regulation of DNA Binding by Nucleotides

    doi: 10.1021/bi500224t

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Fluorescence anisotropy measurements (Δ r ) of equilibrium binding of ISWI to DNA and nucleosomes in the presence of nucleotides. (A) Equilibrium binding to a 20 bp FITC-labeled DNA substrate (25 nM) in the presence of ATP-γ-S. These data were analyzed using Scheme 1 as described in Experimental Procedures . The solid lines in the figure represent the fits of the data to this scheme, which returned the following values: 1/β A = 140 ± 30 μM, 1/β A,1 = 390 ± 70 μM, and 1/β 1,A = 42 ± 8 nM. (B) Equilibrium binding to a 20 bp FITC-labeled DNA substrate (25 nM) in the presence of ADP. The solid line in this figure represents the fit of equilibrium DNA binding data collected in the absence of nucleotide (Figure 1 A). (C) Equilibrium binding to an Alexa488-labeled 10N5 nucleosome substrate in the presence of ATP-γ-S. (D) Equilibrium binding to an Alexa488-labeled 10N5 nucleosome substrate in the presence of ADP. The solid lines in panels C and D are the fits of the equilibrium nucleosome binding data collected in the absence of nucleotides (Figure 1 C).

    Article Snippet: To separate ADP from ATP species, reaction mixtures were analyzed using thin liquid chromatography PEI-cellulose plates (EMD chemicals) in 0.6 M potassium phosphate (pH 3.4) buffer, quantified using a Typhoon Phosphor imager.

    Techniques: Fluorescence, Binding Assay, Labeling

    The m 6 A modification has minor effects on RREIIB structure and dynamics. (A) Secondary structure of RRE2Bm 6A68 , with the residues showing line-broadening with m 6 A, highlighted in red (with Mg 2+ ) and blue (no Mg 2+ ). Comparison of the 1D 1 H NMR spectrum of RREIIB m6A68 with or without Mg 2+ with the methyl peak indicated by arrows. The comparison of 1D imino spectra (B) and 2D [ 1 H, 13 C]-HSQC spectra (C) of RREIIB m6A68 and RREIIB in the presence (red) and absence (blue) of 3 mM Mg 2+ . Resonances exhibiting shifting are indicated using arrows, and those with ambiguous assignments denoted using an asterisk. (D) Normalized resonance intensities in 2D [ 1 H, 13 C]-HSQC spectra of RREIIB m6A68 and RREIIB in the presence (red) and absence (blue) of 3 mM Mg 2+ . A52-C8H8, A52-C2H2 and U56-C6H6 were used as a reference and normalized to 0.1. The sample conditions were 1.2–1.5 mM RREIIB m6A68 or RREIIB in 15 mM sodium phosphate, 25 mM NaCl, 0.1 mM EDTA, pH 6.4 with or without 3 mM MgCl 2 .

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: m6A minimally impacts the structure, dynamics, and Rev ARM binding properties of HIV-1 RRE stem IIB

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224850

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The m 6 A modification has minor effects on RREIIB structure and dynamics. (A) Secondary structure of RRE2Bm 6A68 , with the residues showing line-broadening with m 6 A, highlighted in red (with Mg 2+ ) and blue (no Mg 2+ ). Comparison of the 1D 1 H NMR spectrum of RREIIB m6A68 with or without Mg 2+ with the methyl peak indicated by arrows. The comparison of 1D imino spectra (B) and 2D [ 1 H, 13 C]-HSQC spectra (C) of RREIIB m6A68 and RREIIB in the presence (red) and absence (blue) of 3 mM Mg 2+ . Resonances exhibiting shifting are indicated using arrows, and those with ambiguous assignments denoted using an asterisk. (D) Normalized resonance intensities in 2D [ 1 H, 13 C]-HSQC spectra of RREIIB m6A68 and RREIIB in the presence (red) and absence (blue) of 3 mM Mg 2+ . A52-C8H8, A52-C2H2 and U56-C6H6 were used as a reference and normalized to 0.1. The sample conditions were 1.2–1.5 mM RREIIB m6A68 or RREIIB in 15 mM sodium phosphate, 25 mM NaCl, 0.1 mM EDTA, pH 6.4 with or without 3 mM MgCl 2 .

    Article Snippet: After measuring the concentration, the RNA samples were buffer-exchanged into NMR buffer (15 mM sodium phosphate, 25 mM NaCl, 0.1 mM EDTA, with or without 3 mM MgCl2 at pH = 6.4) three times using 3kDa Amicon Ultra centrifugal filters (EMD Millipore).

    Techniques: Modification, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance