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Abbott Laboratories lopinavir ritonavir
Distribution of mean dmft (decayed, missing filled teeth) by tooth type in the maxilla for <t>lopinavir-ritonavir</t> (top left) and lamivudine (top right) group. Also distribution of mean dmft in mandible lopinavir-ritonavir (bottom left) and lamivudine group (bottom right).
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1) Product Images from "Antiretroviral treatment and its impact on oral health outcomes in 5 to 7 year old Ugandan children"

Article Title: Antiretroviral treatment and its impact on oral health outcomes in 5 to 7 year old Ugandan children

Journal: Medicine

doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000022352

Distribution of mean dmft (decayed, missing filled teeth) by tooth type in the maxilla for lopinavir-ritonavir (top left) and lamivudine (top right) group. Also distribution of mean dmft in mandible lopinavir-ritonavir (bottom left) and lamivudine group (bottom right).
Figure Legend Snippet: Distribution of mean dmft (decayed, missing filled teeth) by tooth type in the maxilla for lopinavir-ritonavir (top left) and lamivudine (top right) group. Also distribution of mean dmft in mandible lopinavir-ritonavir (bottom left) and lamivudine group (bottom right).

Techniques Used:

Average numbers of retained primary teeth and erupted permanent teeth in lopinavir-ritonavir and lamivudine treatment groups.
Figure Legend Snippet: Average numbers of retained primary teeth and erupted permanent teeth in lopinavir-ritonavir and lamivudine treatment groups.

Techniques Used:

2) Product Images from "Antiretroviral treatment and its impact on oral health outcomes in 5 to 7 year old Ugandan children"

Article Title: Antiretroviral treatment and its impact on oral health outcomes in 5 to 7 year old Ugandan children

Journal: Medicine

doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000022352

Distribution of mean dmft (decayed, missing filled teeth) by tooth type in the maxilla for lopinavir-ritonavir (top left) and lamivudine (top right) group. Also distribution of mean dmft in mandible lopinavir-ritonavir (bottom left) and lamivudine group (bottom right).
Figure Legend Snippet: Distribution of mean dmft (decayed, missing filled teeth) by tooth type in the maxilla for lopinavir-ritonavir (top left) and lamivudine (top right) group. Also distribution of mean dmft in mandible lopinavir-ritonavir (bottom left) and lamivudine group (bottom right).

Techniques Used:

Average numbers of retained primary teeth and erupted permanent teeth in lopinavir-ritonavir and lamivudine treatment groups.
Figure Legend Snippet: Average numbers of retained primary teeth and erupted permanent teeth in lopinavir-ritonavir and lamivudine treatment groups.

Techniques Used:

3) Product Images from "Lopinavir/ritonavir significantly influences pharmacokinetic exposure of artemether/lumefantrine in HIV-infected Ugandan adults"

Article Title: Lopinavir/ritonavir significantly influences pharmacokinetic exposure of artemether/lumefantrine in HIV-infected Ugandan adults

Journal: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1093/jac/dkr596

Mean (±SEM) plasma concentration versus time of (a) artemether, (b) dihydroartemisinin and (c) lumefantrine for participants taking artemether/lumefantrine alone (AL alone) and artemether/lumefantrine in combination with lopinavir/ritonavir (AL plus LPV/r).
Figure Legend Snippet: Mean (±SEM) plasma concentration versus time of (a) artemether, (b) dihydroartemisinin and (c) lumefantrine for participants taking artemether/lumefantrine alone (AL alone) and artemether/lumefantrine in combination with lopinavir/ritonavir (AL plus LPV/r).

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

4) Product Images from "Metabolic and Neurologic Consequences of Chronic Lopinavir/Ritonavir Administration to C57BL/6 mice"

Article Title: Metabolic and Neurologic Consequences of Chronic Lopinavir/Ritonavir Administration to C57BL/6 mice

Journal: Antiviral research

doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2010.10.006

Lopinavir/ritonavir does not affect blood glucose in mice
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir does not affect blood glucose in mice

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

Lopinavir/ritonavir decreases retroperitoneal fat mass and circulating adipokines in mice
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir decreases retroperitoneal fat mass and circulating adipokines in mice

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

Lopinavir/ritonavir disrupts cognitive but not motor ability in mice
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir disrupts cognitive but not motor ability in mice

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

3.1 Effects of lopinavir/ritonavir on body weight and composition
Figure Legend Snippet: 3.1 Effects of lopinavir/ritonavir on body weight and composition

Techniques Used:

Lopinavir/ritonavir significantly increases circulating serum lipids in mice
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir significantly increases circulating serum lipids in mice

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

Lopinavir/ritonavir alters body weight and body composition in mice
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir alters body weight and body composition in mice

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

5) Product Images from "Lopinavir/ritonavir significantly influences pharmacokinetic exposure of artemether/lumefantrine in HIV-infected Ugandan adults"

Article Title: Lopinavir/ritonavir significantly influences pharmacokinetic exposure of artemether/lumefantrine in HIV-infected Ugandan adults

Journal: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1093/jac/dkr596

Mean (±SEM) plasma concentration versus time of (a) artemether, (b) dihydroartemisinin and (c) lumefantrine for participants taking artemether/lumefantrine alone (AL alone) and artemether/lumefantrine in combination with lopinavir/ritonavir (AL plus LPV/r).
Figure Legend Snippet: Mean (±SEM) plasma concentration versus time of (a) artemether, (b) dihydroartemisinin and (c) lumefantrine for participants taking artemether/lumefantrine alone (AL alone) and artemether/lumefantrine in combination with lopinavir/ritonavir (AL plus LPV/r).

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

6) Product Images from "Brain Injury Caused by HIV Protease Inhibitors: role of Lipodystrophy and Insulin Resistance"

Article Title: Brain Injury Caused by HIV Protease Inhibitors: role of Lipodystrophy and Insulin Resistance

Journal: Antiviral Research

doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2012.04.010

Parameters of lipodystrophy correlate with maze performance in mice Scatter plots show the statistically significant linear relationship between errors in acquisition trail block 4–6 (errors in ACQ4–6) and (A) fat mass, (B) serum leptin, and (C) serum adiponectin in vehicle- and lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice. Each point represents an individual subject, and closed circles depict vehicle-treated mice while open circles depict lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice.
Figure Legend Snippet: Parameters of lipodystrophy correlate with maze performance in mice Scatter plots show the statistically significant linear relationship between errors in acquisition trail block 4–6 (errors in ACQ4–6) and (A) fat mass, (B) serum leptin, and (C) serum adiponectin in vehicle- and lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice. Each point represents an individual subject, and closed circles depict vehicle-treated mice while open circles depict lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice.

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Blocking Assay

Parameters of insulin resistance and serum triglycerides correlate with maze performance in mice Scatter plots show the statistically significant linear relationship between errors in acquisition trail block 4–6 (errors in ACQ4–6) and (A) fasting insulin, (B) circulating NEFA 60 minutes following oral glucose administration (Post-Glu NEFA), and (C) fasting triglycerides in vehicle- and lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice. Each point represents an individual subject, and closed circles depict vehicle-treated mice while open circles depict lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice.
Figure Legend Snippet: Parameters of insulin resistance and serum triglycerides correlate with maze performance in mice Scatter plots show the statistically significant linear relationship between errors in acquisition trail block 4–6 (errors in ACQ4–6) and (A) fasting insulin, (B) circulating NEFA 60 minutes following oral glucose administration (Post-Glu NEFA), and (C) fasting triglycerides in vehicle- and lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice. Each point represents an individual subject, and closed circles depict vehicle-treated mice while open circles depict lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice.

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Blocking Assay

Lopinavir/ritonavir induces brain injury in mice Male C57BL/6 mice were treated daily with vehicle or lopinavir/ritonavir (150/37.5 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days, after which markers of cerebrovascular integrity, synaptic density, and reactive gliosis were evaluated in tissue homogenates prepared from the frontal cortex as described in Methods. Data depict mean ± SEM expression in lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice presented as % vehicle (100% line) on graph. Data were obtained from 9–20 mice/group, and were analyzed by 2-tailed, unpaired t-tests. (A) Expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-5, ZO-1, and occludin; and the matrix metalloproteinases MMP2 and MMP9. * and ** indicate significant (p
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir induces brain injury in mice Male C57BL/6 mice were treated daily with vehicle or lopinavir/ritonavir (150/37.5 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days, after which markers of cerebrovascular integrity, synaptic density, and reactive gliosis were evaluated in tissue homogenates prepared from the frontal cortex as described in Methods. Data depict mean ± SEM expression in lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice presented as % vehicle (100% line) on graph. Data were obtained from 9–20 mice/group, and were analyzed by 2-tailed, unpaired t-tests. (A) Expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-5, ZO-1, and occludin; and the matrix metalloproteinases MMP2 and MMP9. * and ** indicate significant (p

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Expressing

Lopinavir/ritonavir affects cognition and learned helplessness, but not motor ability in mice Male C57BL/6 mice were treated daily with vehicle or lopinavir/ritonavir (150/37.5 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days, after which mice were evaluated behaviorally as described in Methods. Experiments were conducted in 9–20 animals per group over 2 separate cohorts. (A) Effects of lopinavir/ritonavir on cognitive performance in the Stone T-maze. Data show the number of errors committed over 15 trials of maze training and are means ± S.E.M. of average errors accrued over 3-trial blocks. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA, and the insert depicts the significant main effects of trial number, treatment group, and the significant interaction between trial and treatment. *and ** indicate significant (p
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir affects cognition and learned helplessness, but not motor ability in mice Male C57BL/6 mice were treated daily with vehicle or lopinavir/ritonavir (150/37.5 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days, after which mice were evaluated behaviorally as described in Methods. Experiments were conducted in 9–20 animals per group over 2 separate cohorts. (A) Effects of lopinavir/ritonavir on cognitive performance in the Stone T-maze. Data show the number of errors committed over 15 trials of maze training and are means ± S.E.M. of average errors accrued over 3-trial blocks. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA, and the insert depicts the significant main effects of trial number, treatment group, and the significant interaction between trial and treatment. *and ** indicate significant (p

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

7) Product Images from "Metabolic and Neurologic Consequences of Chronic Lopinavir/Ritonavir Administration to C57BL/6 mice"

Article Title: Metabolic and Neurologic Consequences of Chronic Lopinavir/Ritonavir Administration to C57BL/6 mice

Journal: Antiviral research

doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2010.10.006

Lopinavir/ritonavir does not affect blood glucose in mice
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir does not affect blood glucose in mice

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

Lopinavir/ritonavir decreases retroperitoneal fat mass and circulating adipokines in mice
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir decreases retroperitoneal fat mass and circulating adipokines in mice

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

Lopinavir/ritonavir disrupts cognitive but not motor ability in mice
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir disrupts cognitive but not motor ability in mice

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

3.1 Effects of lopinavir/ritonavir on body weight and composition
Figure Legend Snippet: 3.1 Effects of lopinavir/ritonavir on body weight and composition

Techniques Used:

Lopinavir/ritonavir significantly increases circulating serum lipids in mice
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir significantly increases circulating serum lipids in mice

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

Lopinavir/ritonavir alters body weight and body composition in mice
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir alters body weight and body composition in mice

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

8) Product Images from "Lopinavir/ritonavir significantly influences pharmacokinetic exposure of artemether/lumefantrine in HIV-infected Ugandan adults"

Article Title: Lopinavir/ritonavir significantly influences pharmacokinetic exposure of artemether/lumefantrine in HIV-infected Ugandan adults

Journal: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1093/jac/dkr596

Mean (±SEM) plasma concentration versus time of (a) artemether, (b) dihydroartemisinin and (c) lumefantrine for participants taking artemether/lumefantrine alone (AL alone) and artemether/lumefantrine in combination with lopinavir/ritonavir (AL plus LPV/r).
Figure Legend Snippet: Mean (±SEM) plasma concentration versus time of (a) artemether, (b) dihydroartemisinin and (c) lumefantrine for participants taking artemether/lumefantrine alone (AL alone) and artemether/lumefantrine in combination with lopinavir/ritonavir (AL plus LPV/r).

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

9) Product Images from "Lopinavir/ritonavir significantly influences pharmacokinetic exposure of artemether/lumefantrine in HIV-infected Ugandan adults"

Article Title: Lopinavir/ritonavir significantly influences pharmacokinetic exposure of artemether/lumefantrine in HIV-infected Ugandan adults

Journal: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1093/jac/dkr596

Mean (±SEM) plasma concentration versus time of (a) artemether, (b) dihydroartemisinin and (c) lumefantrine for participants taking artemether/lumefantrine alone (AL alone) and artemether/lumefantrine in combination with lopinavir/ritonavir (AL plus LPV/r).
Figure Legend Snippet: Mean (±SEM) plasma concentration versus time of (a) artemether, (b) dihydroartemisinin and (c) lumefantrine for participants taking artemether/lumefantrine alone (AL alone) and artemether/lumefantrine in combination with lopinavir/ritonavir (AL plus LPV/r).

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

10) Product Images from "Antiretroviral treatment and its impact on oral health outcomes in 5 to 7 year old Ugandan children"

Article Title: Antiretroviral treatment and its impact on oral health outcomes in 5 to 7 year old Ugandan children

Journal: Medicine

doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000022352

Distribution of mean dmft (decayed, missing filled teeth) by tooth type in the maxilla for lopinavir-ritonavir (top left) and lamivudine (top right) group. Also distribution of mean dmft in mandible lopinavir-ritonavir (bottom left) and lamivudine group (bottom right).
Figure Legend Snippet: Distribution of mean dmft (decayed, missing filled teeth) by tooth type in the maxilla for lopinavir-ritonavir (top left) and lamivudine (top right) group. Also distribution of mean dmft in mandible lopinavir-ritonavir (bottom left) and lamivudine group (bottom right).

Techniques Used:

Average numbers of retained primary teeth and erupted permanent teeth in lopinavir-ritonavir and lamivudine treatment groups.
Figure Legend Snippet: Average numbers of retained primary teeth and erupted permanent teeth in lopinavir-ritonavir and lamivudine treatment groups.

Techniques Used:

11) Product Images from "Designer Adiponectin Receptor Agonist Stabilizes Metabolic Function and Prevents Brain Injury Caused by HIV Protease Inhibitors"

Article Title: Designer Adiponectin Receptor Agonist Stabilizes Metabolic Function and Prevents Brain Injury Caused by HIV Protease Inhibitors

Journal: Journal of neuroimmune pharmacology : the official journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology

doi: 10.1007/s11481-014-9529-1

ADP355 preserves markers of cerebrovascular integrity, synaptic density, and modulates reactive gliosis in PI-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated daily with vehicle or lopinavir/ritonavir (150/ 37.5 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days, after which markers of cerebrovascular integrity, synaptic density, and reactive gliosis were evaluated in tissue homogenates prepared from the frontal cortex as described in Methods. Data depict mean ± SEM expression in lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice presented as % vehicle (100 % line) on graph. Data were obtained from 12–20 mice/group, and were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA. a Expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-5, ZO-1, and occludin; and the matrix metalloproteinases MMP2 and MMP9. * and ** indicate significant ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: ADP355 preserves markers of cerebrovascular integrity, synaptic density, and modulates reactive gliosis in PI-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated daily with vehicle or lopinavir/ritonavir (150/ 37.5 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days, after which markers of cerebrovascular integrity, synaptic density, and reactive gliosis were evaluated in tissue homogenates prepared from the frontal cortex as described in Methods. Data depict mean ± SEM expression in lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice presented as % vehicle (100 % line) on graph. Data were obtained from 12–20 mice/group, and were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA. a Expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-5, ZO-1, and occludin; and the matrix metalloproteinases MMP2 and MMP9. * and ** indicate significant ( p

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Expressing

ADP355 preserves total body fat in PI-treated mice. Male C57BL/ 6 mice were given daily oral gavage administration of 10 % ethanol/15 % propylene glycol (vehicle; closed circles) or 150 mg lopinavir/37.5 mg ritonavir/kg (PI; closed circles) for 28 days. Additionally, after 14 days of PI exposure, randomly selected vehicle (vehicle/ADP; closed squares) and PI-treated mice (PI/ADP; open squares) mice were also treated daily with ADP355 (1 mg/kg) or PBS via intraperitoneal injection for the final 14 days of PI exposure. All mice were evaluated regularly for ( a ) body weight and ( b ) total body fat mass expressed as percent measured at day 0. All data are mean and S.E.M. of 9–21 mice per group. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA, and *** indicates significant ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: ADP355 preserves total body fat in PI-treated mice. Male C57BL/ 6 mice were given daily oral gavage administration of 10 % ethanol/15 % propylene glycol (vehicle; closed circles) or 150 mg lopinavir/37.5 mg ritonavir/kg (PI; closed circles) for 28 days. Additionally, after 14 days of PI exposure, randomly selected vehicle (vehicle/ADP; closed squares) and PI-treated mice (PI/ADP; open squares) mice were also treated daily with ADP355 (1 mg/kg) or PBS via intraperitoneal injection for the final 14 days of PI exposure. All mice were evaluated regularly for ( a ) body weight and ( b ) total body fat mass expressed as percent measured at day 0. All data are mean and S.E.M. of 9–21 mice per group. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA, and *** indicates significant ( p

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Injection

ADP355 preserves subcutaneous, but not visceral fat depots in PI-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were given daily administration of 10 % ethanol/15 % propylene glycol (vehicle; left bars ) or 150 mg lopinavir/37.5 mg ritonavir/kg (PI; right bars ) for 28 days. Additionally, randomly selected vehicle ( open bars ) and PI-treated mice (hatched bars) mice were also treated daily with ADP355 (1 mg/kg) or PBS via intraperitoneal injection for the final 14 days of PI exposure, after which all mice were euthanatized and subcutaneous inguinal and visceral epididymal fat pads were collected and weighed. Data are means ± S.E.M. of fat pad mass in milligrams, and were generated from 9–21 mice per group. a Inguinal fat depot weight in vehicle and lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice following administration of PBS or ADP355. *** and ** indicates significant ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: ADP355 preserves subcutaneous, but not visceral fat depots in PI-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were given daily administration of 10 % ethanol/15 % propylene glycol (vehicle; left bars ) or 150 mg lopinavir/37.5 mg ritonavir/kg (PI; right bars ) for 28 days. Additionally, randomly selected vehicle ( open bars ) and PI-treated mice (hatched bars) mice were also treated daily with ADP355 (1 mg/kg) or PBS via intraperitoneal injection for the final 14 days of PI exposure, after which all mice were euthanatized and subcutaneous inguinal and visceral epididymal fat pads were collected and weighed. Data are means ± S.E.M. of fat pad mass in milligrams, and were generated from 9–21 mice per group. a Inguinal fat depot weight in vehicle and lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice following administration of PBS or ADP355. *** and ** indicates significant ( p

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Injection, Generated

ADP355 preserves circulating serum adiponectin but not leptin in PI-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were given daily administration of 10 % ethanol/15 % propylene glycol (vehicle; left bars) or 150 mg lopinavir/37.5 mg ritonavir/kg (PI; right bars) for 28 days. Additionally, randomly selected vehicle (open bars) and PI-treated mice (hatched bars) mice were also treated daily with ADP355 (1 mg/kg) or PBS via intraperitoneal injection for the final 14 days of PI exposure, after which all mice were euthanatized and serum was collected from whole blood. a Effects of lopinavir/ritonavir with or without ADP355 on serum adiponectin concentration. Data are means ± S.E.M. of adiponectin expressed as pg/μl serum, and were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA. *** indicates significant ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: ADP355 preserves circulating serum adiponectin but not leptin in PI-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were given daily administration of 10 % ethanol/15 % propylene glycol (vehicle; left bars) or 150 mg lopinavir/37.5 mg ritonavir/kg (PI; right bars) for 28 days. Additionally, randomly selected vehicle (open bars) and PI-treated mice (hatched bars) mice were also treated daily with ADP355 (1 mg/kg) or PBS via intraperitoneal injection for the final 14 days of PI exposure, after which all mice were euthanatized and serum was collected from whole blood. a Effects of lopinavir/ritonavir with or without ADP355 on serum adiponectin concentration. Data are means ± S.E.M. of adiponectin expressed as pg/μl serum, and were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA. *** indicates significant ( p

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Injection, Concentration Assay

ADP355 preserves cognitive performance in PI-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated daily with vehicle or lopinavir/ritonavir (150/37.5 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days, after which mice were evaluated behaviorally for memory performance using the fear conditioning assay as described in Methods. Experiments were conducted in 12–20 animals per group over 2 separate cohorts. Data are means ± S.E.M. of composite freezing behavior, and were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA. *and *** indicate significant ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: ADP355 preserves cognitive performance in PI-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated daily with vehicle or lopinavir/ritonavir (150/37.5 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days, after which mice were evaluated behaviorally for memory performance using the fear conditioning assay as described in Methods. Experiments were conducted in 12–20 animals per group over 2 separate cohorts. Data are means ± S.E.M. of composite freezing behavior, and were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA. *and *** indicate significant ( p

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

12) Product Images from "Sequential Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Lopinavir and Ritonavir in Healthy Volunteers and Assessment of Different Dosing Strategies ▿Sequential Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Lopinavir and Ritonavir in Healthy Volunteers and Assessment of Different Dosing Strategies ▿ †"

Article Title: Sequential Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Lopinavir and Ritonavir in Healthy Volunteers and Assessment of Different Dosing Strategies ▿Sequential Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Lopinavir and Ritonavir in Healthy Volunteers and Assessment of Different Dosing Strategies ▿ †

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.00887-10

Ninety-five-percent prediction intervals (P2.5 to P97.5) for lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) (400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) determined from 1,000 simulations, with observed data from HIV-infected patients superimposed ( n = 84).
Figure Legend Snippet: Ninety-five-percent prediction intervals (P2.5 to P97.5) for lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) (400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) determined from 1,000 simulations, with observed data from HIV-infected patients superimposed ( n = 84).

Techniques Used: Infection

Ninety-five-percent prediction intervals (P2.5 to P97.5) for lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) (400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) determined from 1,000 simulations. Observed data were superimposed ( n = 252).
Figure Legend Snippet: Ninety-five-percent prediction intervals (P2.5 to P97.5) for lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) (400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) determined from 1,000 simulations. Observed data were superimposed ( n = 252).

Techniques Used:

Simulation of different lopinavir-ritonavir doses.
Figure Legend Snippet: Simulation of different lopinavir-ritonavir doses.

Techniques Used:

Concentration-time curves of lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) over 72 h following cessation of treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir (400-mg–100-mg twice-daily) tablets ( n = 16).
Figure Legend Snippet: Concentration-time curves of lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) over 72 h following cessation of treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir (400-mg–100-mg twice-daily) tablets ( n = 16).

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

Sequential combined lopinavir-ritonavir model.
Figure Legend Snippet: Sequential combined lopinavir-ritonavir model.

Techniques Used:

13) Product Images from "Artemether-lumefantrine co-administration with antiretrovirals: population pharmacokinetics and dosing implications"

Article Title: Artemether-lumefantrine co-administration with antiretrovirals: population pharmacokinetics and dosing implications

Journal: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

doi: 10.1111/bcp.12529

Box (25 th to 75 th percentile) and whisker (1.5 × interquartile range) plot of dose simulations. The top row illustrates the simulated terminal exposures (AUC) from 72 to 894 h for lumefantrine when given alone, in combination with HIV treatment and after an adjusted dose regimen [efavirenz (A), nevirapine (B) and lopinavir/ritonavir (C)]. The middle row illustrates the simulated exposures (AUC) from 0 to 894 h for dihydroartemisinin when given alone, in combination with HIV treatment and after an adjusted dose regimen [efavirenz (D), nevirapine (E) or lopinavir/ritonavir (F)]. The bottom row illustrates the simulated day 7 concentrations for lumefantrine when given alone, in combination with HIV treatment and after an adjusted dose regimen [efavirenz (G), nevirapine (H) or lopinavir/ritonavir (I)]. The dotted lines in the top and middle rows represent the standard exposures when the antimalarial treatment is given alone. The dotted lines in the bottom row represent previously defined day 7 cut-off concentration for therapeutic failure of 280 ng ml −1 and 175 ng ml −1
Figure Legend Snippet: Box (25 th to 75 th percentile) and whisker (1.5 × interquartile range) plot of dose simulations. The top row illustrates the simulated terminal exposures (AUC) from 72 to 894 h for lumefantrine when given alone, in combination with HIV treatment and after an adjusted dose regimen [efavirenz (A), nevirapine (B) and lopinavir/ritonavir (C)]. The middle row illustrates the simulated exposures (AUC) from 0 to 894 h for dihydroartemisinin when given alone, in combination with HIV treatment and after an adjusted dose regimen [efavirenz (D), nevirapine (E) or lopinavir/ritonavir (F)]. The bottom row illustrates the simulated day 7 concentrations for lumefantrine when given alone, in combination with HIV treatment and after an adjusted dose regimen [efavirenz (G), nevirapine (H) or lopinavir/ritonavir (I)]. The dotted lines in the top and middle rows represent the standard exposures when the antimalarial treatment is given alone. The dotted lines in the bottom row represent previously defined day 7 cut-off concentration for therapeutic failure of 280 ng ml −1 and 175 ng ml −1

Techniques Used: Whisker Assay, Concentration Assay

14) Product Images from "Lopinavir/ritonavir significantly influences pharmacokinetic exposure of artemether/lumefantrine in HIV-infected Ugandan adults"

Article Title: Lopinavir/ritonavir significantly influences pharmacokinetic exposure of artemether/lumefantrine in HIV-infected Ugandan adults

Journal: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1093/jac/dkr596

Mean (±SEM) plasma concentration versus time of (a) artemether, (b) dihydroartemisinin and (c) lumefantrine for participants taking artemether/lumefantrine alone (AL alone) and artemether/lumefantrine in combination with lopinavir/ritonavir (AL plus LPV/r).
Figure Legend Snippet: Mean (±SEM) plasma concentration versus time of (a) artemether, (b) dihydroartemisinin and (c) lumefantrine for participants taking artemether/lumefantrine alone (AL alone) and artemether/lumefantrine in combination with lopinavir/ritonavir (AL plus LPV/r).

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

15) Product Images from "Sequential Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Lopinavir and Ritonavir in Healthy Volunteers and Assessment of Different Dosing Strategies ▿Sequential Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Lopinavir and Ritonavir in Healthy Volunteers and Assessment of Different Dosing Strategies ▿ †"

Article Title: Sequential Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Lopinavir and Ritonavir in Healthy Volunteers and Assessment of Different Dosing Strategies ▿Sequential Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Lopinavir and Ritonavir in Healthy Volunteers and Assessment of Different Dosing Strategies ▿ †

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.00887-10

Ninety-five-percent prediction intervals (P2.5 to P97.5) for lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) (400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) determined from 1,000 simulations, with observed data from HIV-infected patients superimposed ( n = 84).
Figure Legend Snippet: Ninety-five-percent prediction intervals (P2.5 to P97.5) for lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) (400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) determined from 1,000 simulations, with observed data from HIV-infected patients superimposed ( n = 84).

Techniques Used: Infection

Ninety-five-percent prediction intervals (P2.5 to P97.5) for lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) (400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) determined from 1,000 simulations. Observed data were superimposed ( n = 252).
Figure Legend Snippet: Ninety-five-percent prediction intervals (P2.5 to P97.5) for lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) (400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) determined from 1,000 simulations. Observed data were superimposed ( n = 252).

Techniques Used:

Simulation of different lopinavir-ritonavir doses.
Figure Legend Snippet: Simulation of different lopinavir-ritonavir doses.

Techniques Used:

Concentration-time curves of lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) over 72 h following cessation of treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir (400-mg–100-mg twice-daily) tablets ( n = 16).
Figure Legend Snippet: Concentration-time curves of lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) over 72 h following cessation of treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir (400-mg–100-mg twice-daily) tablets ( n = 16).

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

Sequential combined lopinavir-ritonavir model.
Figure Legend Snippet: Sequential combined lopinavir-ritonavir model.

Techniques Used:

16) Product Images from "Influence of Panax ginseng on the Steady State Pharmacokinetic Profile of Lopinavir/Ritonavir (LPV/r) in Healthy Volunteers"

Article Title: Influence of Panax ginseng on the Steady State Pharmacokinetic Profile of Lopinavir/Ritonavir (LPV/r) in Healthy Volunteers

Journal: Pharmacotherapy

doi: 10.1002/phar.1473

Lopinavir and ritonavir
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir and ritonavir

Techniques Used:

17) Product Images from "Brain Injury Caused by HIV Protease Inhibitors: role of Lipodystrophy and Insulin Resistance"

Article Title: Brain Injury Caused by HIV Protease Inhibitors: role of Lipodystrophy and Insulin Resistance

Journal: Antiviral Research

doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2012.04.010

Parameters of lipodystrophy correlate with maze performance in mice Scatter plots show the statistically significant linear relationship between errors in acquisition trail block 4–6 (errors in ACQ4–6) and (A) fat mass, (B) serum leptin, and (C) serum adiponectin in vehicle- and lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice. Each point represents an individual subject, and closed circles depict vehicle-treated mice while open circles depict lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice.
Figure Legend Snippet: Parameters of lipodystrophy correlate with maze performance in mice Scatter plots show the statistically significant linear relationship between errors in acquisition trail block 4–6 (errors in ACQ4–6) and (A) fat mass, (B) serum leptin, and (C) serum adiponectin in vehicle- and lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice. Each point represents an individual subject, and closed circles depict vehicle-treated mice while open circles depict lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice.

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Blocking Assay

Parameters of insulin resistance and serum triglycerides correlate with maze performance in mice Scatter plots show the statistically significant linear relationship between errors in acquisition trail block 4–6 (errors in ACQ4–6) and (A) fasting insulin, (B) circulating NEFA 60 minutes following oral glucose administration (Post-Glu NEFA), and (C) fasting triglycerides in vehicle- and lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice. Each point represents an individual subject, and closed circles depict vehicle-treated mice while open circles depict lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice.
Figure Legend Snippet: Parameters of insulin resistance and serum triglycerides correlate with maze performance in mice Scatter plots show the statistically significant linear relationship between errors in acquisition trail block 4–6 (errors in ACQ4–6) and (A) fasting insulin, (B) circulating NEFA 60 minutes following oral glucose administration (Post-Glu NEFA), and (C) fasting triglycerides in vehicle- and lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice. Each point represents an individual subject, and closed circles depict vehicle-treated mice while open circles depict lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice.

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Blocking Assay

Lopinavir/ritonavir induces brain injury in mice Male C57BL/6 mice were treated daily with vehicle or lopinavir/ritonavir (150/37.5 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days, after which markers of cerebrovascular integrity, synaptic density, and reactive gliosis were evaluated in tissue homogenates prepared from the frontal cortex as described in Methods. Data depict mean ± SEM expression in lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice presented as % vehicle (100% line) on graph. Data were obtained from 9–20 mice/group, and were analyzed by 2-tailed, unpaired t-tests. (A) Expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-5, ZO-1, and occludin; and the matrix metalloproteinases MMP2 and MMP9. * and ** indicate significant (p
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir induces brain injury in mice Male C57BL/6 mice were treated daily with vehicle or lopinavir/ritonavir (150/37.5 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days, after which markers of cerebrovascular integrity, synaptic density, and reactive gliosis were evaluated in tissue homogenates prepared from the frontal cortex as described in Methods. Data depict mean ± SEM expression in lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice presented as % vehicle (100% line) on graph. Data were obtained from 9–20 mice/group, and were analyzed by 2-tailed, unpaired t-tests. (A) Expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-5, ZO-1, and occludin; and the matrix metalloproteinases MMP2 and MMP9. * and ** indicate significant (p

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Expressing

Lopinavir/ritonavir affects cognition and learned helplessness, but not motor ability in mice Male C57BL/6 mice were treated daily with vehicle or lopinavir/ritonavir (150/37.5 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days, after which mice were evaluated behaviorally as described in Methods. Experiments were conducted in 9–20 animals per group over 2 separate cohorts. (A) Effects of lopinavir/ritonavir on cognitive performance in the Stone T-maze. Data show the number of errors committed over 15 trials of maze training and are means ± S.E.M. of average errors accrued over 3-trial blocks. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA, and the insert depicts the significant main effects of trial number, treatment group, and the significant interaction between trial and treatment. *and ** indicate significant (p
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir affects cognition and learned helplessness, but not motor ability in mice Male C57BL/6 mice were treated daily with vehicle or lopinavir/ritonavir (150/37.5 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days, after which mice were evaluated behaviorally as described in Methods. Experiments were conducted in 9–20 animals per group over 2 separate cohorts. (A) Effects of lopinavir/ritonavir on cognitive performance in the Stone T-maze. Data show the number of errors committed over 15 trials of maze training and are means ± S.E.M. of average errors accrued over 3-trial blocks. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA, and the insert depicts the significant main effects of trial number, treatment group, and the significant interaction between trial and treatment. *and ** indicate significant (p

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

18) Product Images from "Metabolic and Neurologic Consequences of Chronic Lopinavir/Ritonavir Administration to C57BL/6 mice"

Article Title: Metabolic and Neurologic Consequences of Chronic Lopinavir/Ritonavir Administration to C57BL/6 mice

Journal: Antiviral research

doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2010.10.006

Lopinavir/ritonavir does not affect blood glucose in mice
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir does not affect blood glucose in mice

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

Lopinavir/ritonavir decreases retroperitoneal fat mass and circulating adipokines in mice
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir decreases retroperitoneal fat mass and circulating adipokines in mice

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

Lopinavir/ritonavir disrupts cognitive but not motor ability in mice
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir disrupts cognitive but not motor ability in mice

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

3.1 Effects of lopinavir/ritonavir on body weight and composition
Figure Legend Snippet: 3.1 Effects of lopinavir/ritonavir on body weight and composition

Techniques Used:

Lopinavir/ritonavir significantly increases circulating serum lipids in mice
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir significantly increases circulating serum lipids in mice

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

Lopinavir/ritonavir alters body weight and body composition in mice
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir alters body weight and body composition in mice

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

19) Product Images from "Metabolic and Neurologic Consequences of Chronic Lopinavir/Ritonavir Administration to C57BL/6 mice"

Article Title: Metabolic and Neurologic Consequences of Chronic Lopinavir/Ritonavir Administration to C57BL/6 mice

Journal: Antiviral research

doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2010.10.006

Lopinavir/ritonavir does not affect blood glucose in mice
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir does not affect blood glucose in mice

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

Lopinavir/ritonavir decreases retroperitoneal fat mass and circulating adipokines in mice
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir decreases retroperitoneal fat mass and circulating adipokines in mice

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

Lopinavir/ritonavir disrupts cognitive but not motor ability in mice
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir disrupts cognitive but not motor ability in mice

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

3.1 Effects of lopinavir/ritonavir on body weight and composition
Figure Legend Snippet: 3.1 Effects of lopinavir/ritonavir on body weight and composition

Techniques Used:

Lopinavir/ritonavir significantly increases circulating serum lipids in mice
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir significantly increases circulating serum lipids in mice

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

Lopinavir/ritonavir alters body weight and body composition in mice
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir alters body weight and body composition in mice

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

20) Product Images from "Brain Injury Caused by HIV Protease Inhibitors: role of Lipodystrophy and Insulin Resistance"

Article Title: Brain Injury Caused by HIV Protease Inhibitors: role of Lipodystrophy and Insulin Resistance

Journal: Antiviral Research

doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2012.04.010

Parameters of lipodystrophy correlate with maze performance in mice Scatter plots show the statistically significant linear relationship between errors in acquisition trail block 4–6 (errors in ACQ4–6) and (A) fat mass, (B) serum leptin, and (C) serum adiponectin in vehicle- and lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice. Each point represents an individual subject, and closed circles depict vehicle-treated mice while open circles depict lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice.
Figure Legend Snippet: Parameters of lipodystrophy correlate with maze performance in mice Scatter plots show the statistically significant linear relationship between errors in acquisition trail block 4–6 (errors in ACQ4–6) and (A) fat mass, (B) serum leptin, and (C) serum adiponectin in vehicle- and lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice. Each point represents an individual subject, and closed circles depict vehicle-treated mice while open circles depict lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice.

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Blocking Assay

Parameters of insulin resistance and serum triglycerides correlate with maze performance in mice Scatter plots show the statistically significant linear relationship between errors in acquisition trail block 4–6 (errors in ACQ4–6) and (A) fasting insulin, (B) circulating NEFA 60 minutes following oral glucose administration (Post-Glu NEFA), and (C) fasting triglycerides in vehicle- and lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice. Each point represents an individual subject, and closed circles depict vehicle-treated mice while open circles depict lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice.
Figure Legend Snippet: Parameters of insulin resistance and serum triglycerides correlate with maze performance in mice Scatter plots show the statistically significant linear relationship between errors in acquisition trail block 4–6 (errors in ACQ4–6) and (A) fasting insulin, (B) circulating NEFA 60 minutes following oral glucose administration (Post-Glu NEFA), and (C) fasting triglycerides in vehicle- and lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice. Each point represents an individual subject, and closed circles depict vehicle-treated mice while open circles depict lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice.

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Blocking Assay

Lopinavir/ritonavir induces brain injury in mice Male C57BL/6 mice were treated daily with vehicle or lopinavir/ritonavir (150/37.5 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days, after which markers of cerebrovascular integrity, synaptic density, and reactive gliosis were evaluated in tissue homogenates prepared from the frontal cortex as described in Methods. Data depict mean ± SEM expression in lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice presented as % vehicle (100% line) on graph. Data were obtained from 9–20 mice/group, and were analyzed by 2-tailed, unpaired t-tests. (A) Expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-5, ZO-1, and occludin; and the matrix metalloproteinases MMP2 and MMP9. * and ** indicate significant (p
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir induces brain injury in mice Male C57BL/6 mice were treated daily with vehicle or lopinavir/ritonavir (150/37.5 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days, after which markers of cerebrovascular integrity, synaptic density, and reactive gliosis were evaluated in tissue homogenates prepared from the frontal cortex as described in Methods. Data depict mean ± SEM expression in lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice presented as % vehicle (100% line) on graph. Data were obtained from 9–20 mice/group, and were analyzed by 2-tailed, unpaired t-tests. (A) Expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-5, ZO-1, and occludin; and the matrix metalloproteinases MMP2 and MMP9. * and ** indicate significant (p

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Expressing

Lopinavir/ritonavir affects cognition and learned helplessness, but not motor ability in mice Male C57BL/6 mice were treated daily with vehicle or lopinavir/ritonavir (150/37.5 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days, after which mice were evaluated behaviorally as described in Methods. Experiments were conducted in 9–20 animals per group over 2 separate cohorts. (A) Effects of lopinavir/ritonavir on cognitive performance in the Stone T-maze. Data show the number of errors committed over 15 trials of maze training and are means ± S.E.M. of average errors accrued over 3-trial blocks. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA, and the insert depicts the significant main effects of trial number, treatment group, and the significant interaction between trial and treatment. *and ** indicate significant (p
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir affects cognition and learned helplessness, but not motor ability in mice Male C57BL/6 mice were treated daily with vehicle or lopinavir/ritonavir (150/37.5 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days, after which mice were evaluated behaviorally as described in Methods. Experiments were conducted in 9–20 animals per group over 2 separate cohorts. (A) Effects of lopinavir/ritonavir on cognitive performance in the Stone T-maze. Data show the number of errors committed over 15 trials of maze training and are means ± S.E.M. of average errors accrued over 3-trial blocks. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA, and the insert depicts the significant main effects of trial number, treatment group, and the significant interaction between trial and treatment. *and ** indicate significant (p

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

21) Product Images from "Artemether-lumefantrine co-administration with antiretrovirals: population pharmacokinetics and dosing implications"

Article Title: Artemether-lumefantrine co-administration with antiretrovirals: population pharmacokinetics and dosing implications

Journal: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

doi: 10.1111/bcp.12529

Box (25 th to 75 th percentile) and whisker (1.5 × interquartile range) plot of dose simulations. The top row illustrates the simulated terminal exposures (AUC) from 72 to 894 h for lumefantrine when given alone, in combination with HIV treatment and after an adjusted dose regimen [efavirenz (A), nevirapine (B) and lopinavir/ritonavir (C)]. The middle row illustrates the simulated exposures (AUC) from 0 to 894 h for dihydroartemisinin when given alone, in combination with HIV treatment and after an adjusted dose regimen [efavirenz (D), nevirapine (E) or lopinavir/ritonavir (F)]. The bottom row illustrates the simulated day 7 concentrations for lumefantrine when given alone, in combination with HIV treatment and after an adjusted dose regimen [efavirenz (G), nevirapine (H) or lopinavir/ritonavir (I)]. The dotted lines in the top and middle rows represent the standard exposures when the antimalarial treatment is given alone. The dotted lines in the bottom row represent previously defined day 7 cut-off concentration for therapeutic failure of 280 ng ml −1 and 175 ng ml −1
Figure Legend Snippet: Box (25 th to 75 th percentile) and whisker (1.5 × interquartile range) plot of dose simulations. The top row illustrates the simulated terminal exposures (AUC) from 72 to 894 h for lumefantrine when given alone, in combination with HIV treatment and after an adjusted dose regimen [efavirenz (A), nevirapine (B) and lopinavir/ritonavir (C)]. The middle row illustrates the simulated exposures (AUC) from 0 to 894 h for dihydroartemisinin when given alone, in combination with HIV treatment and after an adjusted dose regimen [efavirenz (D), nevirapine (E) or lopinavir/ritonavir (F)]. The bottom row illustrates the simulated day 7 concentrations for lumefantrine when given alone, in combination with HIV treatment and after an adjusted dose regimen [efavirenz (G), nevirapine (H) or lopinavir/ritonavir (I)]. The dotted lines in the top and middle rows represent the standard exposures when the antimalarial treatment is given alone. The dotted lines in the bottom row represent previously defined day 7 cut-off concentration for therapeutic failure of 280 ng ml −1 and 175 ng ml −1

Techniques Used: Whisker Assay, Concentration Assay

22) Product Images from "Artemether-lumefantrine co-administration with antiretrovirals: population pharmacokinetics and dosing implications"

Article Title: Artemether-lumefantrine co-administration with antiretrovirals: population pharmacokinetics and dosing implications

Journal: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

doi: 10.1111/bcp.12529

Box (25 th to 75 th percentile) and whisker (1.5 × interquartile range) plot of dose simulations. The top row illustrates the simulated terminal exposures (AUC) from 72 to 894 h for lumefantrine when given alone, in combination with HIV treatment and after an adjusted dose regimen [efavirenz (A), nevirapine (B) and lopinavir/ritonavir (C)]. The middle row illustrates the simulated exposures (AUC) from 0 to 894 h for dihydroartemisinin when given alone, in combination with HIV treatment and after an adjusted dose regimen [efavirenz (D), nevirapine (E) or lopinavir/ritonavir (F)]. The bottom row illustrates the simulated day 7 concentrations for lumefantrine when given alone, in combination with HIV treatment and after an adjusted dose regimen [efavirenz (G), nevirapine (H) or lopinavir/ritonavir (I)]. The dotted lines in the top and middle rows represent the standard exposures when the antimalarial treatment is given alone. The dotted lines in the bottom row represent previously defined day 7 cut-off concentration for therapeutic failure of 280 ng ml −1 and 175 ng ml −1
Figure Legend Snippet: Box (25 th to 75 th percentile) and whisker (1.5 × interquartile range) plot of dose simulations. The top row illustrates the simulated terminal exposures (AUC) from 72 to 894 h for lumefantrine when given alone, in combination with HIV treatment and after an adjusted dose regimen [efavirenz (A), nevirapine (B) and lopinavir/ritonavir (C)]. The middle row illustrates the simulated exposures (AUC) from 0 to 894 h for dihydroartemisinin when given alone, in combination with HIV treatment and after an adjusted dose regimen [efavirenz (D), nevirapine (E) or lopinavir/ritonavir (F)]. The bottom row illustrates the simulated day 7 concentrations for lumefantrine when given alone, in combination with HIV treatment and after an adjusted dose regimen [efavirenz (G), nevirapine (H) or lopinavir/ritonavir (I)]. The dotted lines in the top and middle rows represent the standard exposures when the antimalarial treatment is given alone. The dotted lines in the bottom row represent previously defined day 7 cut-off concentration for therapeutic failure of 280 ng ml −1 and 175 ng ml −1

Techniques Used: Whisker Assay, Concentration Assay

23) Product Images from "Absence of circadian variation in the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir given as a once daily dosing regimen in HIV-1-infected patients"

Article Title: Absence of circadian variation in the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir given as a once daily dosing regimen in HIV-1-infected patients

Journal:

doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2005.02337.x

Mean (± SD) steady-state plasma lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) concentration vs time profile after administration of lopinavir/ritonavir 800/200 mg once daily with a standardized meal in the morning (open circles) and in the evening (closed circles)
Figure Legend Snippet: Mean (± SD) steady-state plasma lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) concentration vs time profile after administration of lopinavir/ritonavir 800/200 mg once daily with a standardized meal in the morning (open circles) and in the evening (closed circles)

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

Individual changes in lopinavir concentration at 24 h postdose ( C 24h ) and maximum ritonavir concentration ( C max ; ) after steady-state administration of lopinavir/ritonavir 800/200 mg once daily with food in the morning (am) or in the
Figure Legend Snippet: Individual changes in lopinavir concentration at 24 h postdose ( C 24h ) and maximum ritonavir concentration ( C max ; ) after steady-state administration of lopinavir/ritonavir 800/200 mg once daily with food in the morning (am) or in the

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

24) Product Images from "Response of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus to the Novel Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor 4?-Ethynyl-2-Fluoro-2?-Deoxyadenosine In Vitro and In Vivo"

Article Title: Response of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus to the Novel Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor 4?-Ethynyl-2-Fluoro-2?-Deoxyadenosine In Vitro and In Vivo

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.00723-12

Virological history of SIV/DeltaB670-infected macaques treated with TFV plus lopinavir-ritonavir followed by EFdA. Monkeys were infected by intravenous inoculation and longitudinally monitored for virus burden, clinical signs of disease, and changes in
Figure Legend Snippet: Virological history of SIV/DeltaB670-infected macaques treated with TFV plus lopinavir-ritonavir followed by EFdA. Monkeys were infected by intravenous inoculation and longitudinally monitored for virus burden, clinical signs of disease, and changes in

Techniques Used: Infection

25) Product Images from "Sequential Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Lopinavir and Ritonavir in Healthy Volunteers and Assessment of Different Dosing Strategies ▿Sequential Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Lopinavir and Ritonavir in Healthy Volunteers and Assessment of Different Dosing Strategies ▿ †"

Article Title: Sequential Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Lopinavir and Ritonavir in Healthy Volunteers and Assessment of Different Dosing Strategies ▿Sequential Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Lopinavir and Ritonavir in Healthy Volunteers and Assessment of Different Dosing Strategies ▿ †

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.00887-10

Ninety-five-percent prediction intervals (P2.5 to P97.5) for lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) (400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) determined from 1,000 simulations, with observed data from HIV-infected patients superimposed ( n = 84).
Figure Legend Snippet: Ninety-five-percent prediction intervals (P2.5 to P97.5) for lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) (400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) determined from 1,000 simulations, with observed data from HIV-infected patients superimposed ( n = 84).

Techniques Used: Infection

Ninety-five-percent prediction intervals (P2.5 to P97.5) for lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) (400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) determined from 1,000 simulations. Observed data were superimposed ( n = 252).
Figure Legend Snippet: Ninety-five-percent prediction intervals (P2.5 to P97.5) for lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) (400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) determined from 1,000 simulations. Observed data were superimposed ( n = 252).

Techniques Used:

Simulation of different lopinavir-ritonavir doses.
Figure Legend Snippet: Simulation of different lopinavir-ritonavir doses.

Techniques Used:

Concentration-time curves of lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) over 72 h following cessation of treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir (400-mg–100-mg twice-daily) tablets ( n = 16).
Figure Legend Snippet: Concentration-time curves of lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) over 72 h following cessation of treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir (400-mg–100-mg twice-daily) tablets ( n = 16).

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

Sequential combined lopinavir-ritonavir model.
Figure Legend Snippet: Sequential combined lopinavir-ritonavir model.

Techniques Used:

26) Product Images from "Antiretroviral treatment and its impact on oral health outcomes in 5 to 7 year old Ugandan children"

Article Title: Antiretroviral treatment and its impact on oral health outcomes in 5 to 7 year old Ugandan children

Journal: Medicine

doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000022352

Distribution of mean dmft (decayed, missing filled teeth) by tooth type in the maxilla for lopinavir-ritonavir (top left) and lamivudine (top right) group. Also distribution of mean dmft in mandible lopinavir-ritonavir (bottom left) and lamivudine group (bottom right).
Figure Legend Snippet: Distribution of mean dmft (decayed, missing filled teeth) by tooth type in the maxilla for lopinavir-ritonavir (top left) and lamivudine (top right) group. Also distribution of mean dmft in mandible lopinavir-ritonavir (bottom left) and lamivudine group (bottom right).

Techniques Used:

Average numbers of retained primary teeth and erupted permanent teeth in lopinavir-ritonavir and lamivudine treatment groups.
Figure Legend Snippet: Average numbers of retained primary teeth and erupted permanent teeth in lopinavir-ritonavir and lamivudine treatment groups.

Techniques Used:

27) Product Images from "Designer Adiponectin Receptor Agonist Stabilizes Metabolic Function and Prevents Brain Injury Caused by HIV Protease Inhibitors"

Article Title: Designer Adiponectin Receptor Agonist Stabilizes Metabolic Function and Prevents Brain Injury Caused by HIV Protease Inhibitors

Journal: Journal of neuroimmune pharmacology : the official journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology

doi: 10.1007/s11481-014-9529-1

ADP355 preserves markers of cerebrovascular integrity, synaptic density, and modulates reactive gliosis in PI-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated daily with vehicle or lopinavir/ritonavir (150/ 37.5 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days, after which markers of cerebrovascular integrity, synaptic density, and reactive gliosis were evaluated in tissue homogenates prepared from the frontal cortex as described in Methods. Data depict mean ± SEM expression in lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice presented as % vehicle (100 % line) on graph. Data were obtained from 12–20 mice/group, and were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA. a Expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-5, ZO-1, and occludin; and the matrix metalloproteinases MMP2 and MMP9. * and ** indicate significant ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: ADP355 preserves markers of cerebrovascular integrity, synaptic density, and modulates reactive gliosis in PI-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated daily with vehicle or lopinavir/ritonavir (150/ 37.5 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days, after which markers of cerebrovascular integrity, synaptic density, and reactive gliosis were evaluated in tissue homogenates prepared from the frontal cortex as described in Methods. Data depict mean ± SEM expression in lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice presented as % vehicle (100 % line) on graph. Data were obtained from 12–20 mice/group, and were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA. a Expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-5, ZO-1, and occludin; and the matrix metalloproteinases MMP2 and MMP9. * and ** indicate significant ( p

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Expressing

ADP355 preserves total body fat in PI-treated mice. Male C57BL/ 6 mice were given daily oral gavage administration of 10 % ethanol/15 % propylene glycol (vehicle; closed circles) or 150 mg lopinavir/37.5 mg ritonavir/kg (PI; closed circles) for 28 days. Additionally, after 14 days of PI exposure, randomly selected vehicle (vehicle/ADP; closed squares) and PI-treated mice (PI/ADP; open squares) mice were also treated daily with ADP355 (1 mg/kg) or PBS via intraperitoneal injection for the final 14 days of PI exposure. All mice were evaluated regularly for ( a ) body weight and ( b ) total body fat mass expressed as percent measured at day 0. All data are mean and S.E.M. of 9–21 mice per group. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA, and *** indicates significant ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: ADP355 preserves total body fat in PI-treated mice. Male C57BL/ 6 mice were given daily oral gavage administration of 10 % ethanol/15 % propylene glycol (vehicle; closed circles) or 150 mg lopinavir/37.5 mg ritonavir/kg (PI; closed circles) for 28 days. Additionally, after 14 days of PI exposure, randomly selected vehicle (vehicle/ADP; closed squares) and PI-treated mice (PI/ADP; open squares) mice were also treated daily with ADP355 (1 mg/kg) or PBS via intraperitoneal injection for the final 14 days of PI exposure. All mice were evaluated regularly for ( a ) body weight and ( b ) total body fat mass expressed as percent measured at day 0. All data are mean and S.E.M. of 9–21 mice per group. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA, and *** indicates significant ( p

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Injection

ADP355 preserves subcutaneous, but not visceral fat depots in PI-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were given daily administration of 10 % ethanol/15 % propylene glycol (vehicle; left bars ) or 150 mg lopinavir/37.5 mg ritonavir/kg (PI; right bars ) for 28 days. Additionally, randomly selected vehicle ( open bars ) and PI-treated mice (hatched bars) mice were also treated daily with ADP355 (1 mg/kg) or PBS via intraperitoneal injection for the final 14 days of PI exposure, after which all mice were euthanatized and subcutaneous inguinal and visceral epididymal fat pads were collected and weighed. Data are means ± S.E.M. of fat pad mass in milligrams, and were generated from 9–21 mice per group. a Inguinal fat depot weight in vehicle and lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice following administration of PBS or ADP355. *** and ** indicates significant ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: ADP355 preserves subcutaneous, but not visceral fat depots in PI-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were given daily administration of 10 % ethanol/15 % propylene glycol (vehicle; left bars ) or 150 mg lopinavir/37.5 mg ritonavir/kg (PI; right bars ) for 28 days. Additionally, randomly selected vehicle ( open bars ) and PI-treated mice (hatched bars) mice were also treated daily with ADP355 (1 mg/kg) or PBS via intraperitoneal injection for the final 14 days of PI exposure, after which all mice were euthanatized and subcutaneous inguinal and visceral epididymal fat pads were collected and weighed. Data are means ± S.E.M. of fat pad mass in milligrams, and were generated from 9–21 mice per group. a Inguinal fat depot weight in vehicle and lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice following administration of PBS or ADP355. *** and ** indicates significant ( p

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Injection, Generated

ADP355 preserves circulating serum adiponectin but not leptin in PI-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were given daily administration of 10 % ethanol/15 % propylene glycol (vehicle; left bars) or 150 mg lopinavir/37.5 mg ritonavir/kg (PI; right bars) for 28 days. Additionally, randomly selected vehicle (open bars) and PI-treated mice (hatched bars) mice were also treated daily with ADP355 (1 mg/kg) or PBS via intraperitoneal injection for the final 14 days of PI exposure, after which all mice were euthanatized and serum was collected from whole blood. a Effects of lopinavir/ritonavir with or without ADP355 on serum adiponectin concentration. Data are means ± S.E.M. of adiponectin expressed as pg/μl serum, and were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA. *** indicates significant ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: ADP355 preserves circulating serum adiponectin but not leptin in PI-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were given daily administration of 10 % ethanol/15 % propylene glycol (vehicle; left bars) or 150 mg lopinavir/37.5 mg ritonavir/kg (PI; right bars) for 28 days. Additionally, randomly selected vehicle (open bars) and PI-treated mice (hatched bars) mice were also treated daily with ADP355 (1 mg/kg) or PBS via intraperitoneal injection for the final 14 days of PI exposure, after which all mice were euthanatized and serum was collected from whole blood. a Effects of lopinavir/ritonavir with or without ADP355 on serum adiponectin concentration. Data are means ± S.E.M. of adiponectin expressed as pg/μl serum, and were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA. *** indicates significant ( p

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Injection, Concentration Assay

ADP355 preserves cognitive performance in PI-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated daily with vehicle or lopinavir/ritonavir (150/37.5 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days, after which mice were evaluated behaviorally for memory performance using the fear conditioning assay as described in Methods. Experiments were conducted in 12–20 animals per group over 2 separate cohorts. Data are means ± S.E.M. of composite freezing behavior, and were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA. *and *** indicate significant ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: ADP355 preserves cognitive performance in PI-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated daily with vehicle or lopinavir/ritonavir (150/37.5 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days, after which mice were evaluated behaviorally for memory performance using the fear conditioning assay as described in Methods. Experiments were conducted in 12–20 animals per group over 2 separate cohorts. Data are means ± S.E.M. of composite freezing behavior, and were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA. *and *** indicate significant ( p

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

28) Product Images from "Absence of circadian variation in the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir given as a once daily dosing regimen in HIV-1-infected patients"

Article Title: Absence of circadian variation in the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir given as a once daily dosing regimen in HIV-1-infected patients

Journal:

doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2005.02337.x

Mean (± SD) steady-state plasma lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) concentration vs time profile after administration of lopinavir/ritonavir 800/200 mg once daily with a standardized meal in the morning (open circles) and in the evening (closed circles)
Figure Legend Snippet: Mean (± SD) steady-state plasma lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) concentration vs time profile after administration of lopinavir/ritonavir 800/200 mg once daily with a standardized meal in the morning (open circles) and in the evening (closed circles)

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

Individual changes in lopinavir concentration at 24 h postdose ( C 24h ) and maximum ritonavir concentration ( C max ; ) after steady-state administration of lopinavir/ritonavir 800/200 mg once daily with food in the morning (am) or in the
Figure Legend Snippet: Individual changes in lopinavir concentration at 24 h postdose ( C 24h ) and maximum ritonavir concentration ( C max ; ) after steady-state administration of lopinavir/ritonavir 800/200 mg once daily with food in the morning (am) or in the

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

29) Product Images from "Absence of circadian variation in the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir given as a once daily dosing regimen in HIV-1-infected patients"

Article Title: Absence of circadian variation in the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir given as a once daily dosing regimen in HIV-1-infected patients

Journal:

doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2005.02337.x

Mean (± SD) steady-state plasma lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) concentration vs time profile after administration of lopinavir/ritonavir 800/200 mg once daily with a standardized meal in the morning (open circles) and in the evening (closed circles)
Figure Legend Snippet: Mean (± SD) steady-state plasma lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) concentration vs time profile after administration of lopinavir/ritonavir 800/200 mg once daily with a standardized meal in the morning (open circles) and in the evening (closed circles)

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

Individual changes in lopinavir concentration at 24 h postdose ( C 24h ) and maximum ritonavir concentration ( C max ; ) after steady-state administration of lopinavir/ritonavir 800/200 mg once daily with food in the morning (am) or in the
Figure Legend Snippet: Individual changes in lopinavir concentration at 24 h postdose ( C 24h ) and maximum ritonavir concentration ( C max ; ) after steady-state administration of lopinavir/ritonavir 800/200 mg once daily with food in the morning (am) or in the

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

30) Product Images from "Sequential Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Lopinavir and Ritonavir in Healthy Volunteers and Assessment of Different Dosing Strategies ▿Sequential Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Lopinavir and Ritonavir in Healthy Volunteers and Assessment of Different Dosing Strategies ▿ †"

Article Title: Sequential Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Lopinavir and Ritonavir in Healthy Volunteers and Assessment of Different Dosing Strategies ▿Sequential Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Lopinavir and Ritonavir in Healthy Volunteers and Assessment of Different Dosing Strategies ▿ †

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.00887-10

Ninety-five-percent prediction intervals (P2.5 to P97.5) for lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) (400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) determined from 1,000 simulations, with observed data from HIV-infected patients superimposed ( n = 84).
Figure Legend Snippet: Ninety-five-percent prediction intervals (P2.5 to P97.5) for lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) (400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) determined from 1,000 simulations, with observed data from HIV-infected patients superimposed ( n = 84).

Techniques Used: Infection

Ninety-five-percent prediction intervals (P2.5 to P97.5) for lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) (400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) determined from 1,000 simulations. Observed data were superimposed ( n = 252).
Figure Legend Snippet: Ninety-five-percent prediction intervals (P2.5 to P97.5) for lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) (400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) determined from 1,000 simulations. Observed data were superimposed ( n = 252).

Techniques Used:

Simulation of different lopinavir-ritonavir doses.
Figure Legend Snippet: Simulation of different lopinavir-ritonavir doses.

Techniques Used:

Concentration-time curves of lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) over 72 h following cessation of treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir (400-mg–100-mg twice-daily) tablets ( n = 16).
Figure Legend Snippet: Concentration-time curves of lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) over 72 h following cessation of treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir (400-mg–100-mg twice-daily) tablets ( n = 16).

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

Sequential combined lopinavir-ritonavir model.
Figure Legend Snippet: Sequential combined lopinavir-ritonavir model.

Techniques Used:

31) Product Images from "Response of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus to the Novel Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor 4?-Ethynyl-2-Fluoro-2?-Deoxyadenosine In Vitro and In Vivo"

Article Title: Response of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus to the Novel Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor 4?-Ethynyl-2-Fluoro-2?-Deoxyadenosine In Vitro and In Vivo

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.00723-12

Virological history of SIV/DeltaB670-infected macaques treated with TFV plus lopinavir-ritonavir followed by EFdA. Monkeys were infected by intravenous inoculation and longitudinally monitored for virus burden, clinical signs of disease, and changes in
Figure Legend Snippet: Virological history of SIV/DeltaB670-infected macaques treated with TFV plus lopinavir-ritonavir followed by EFdA. Monkeys were infected by intravenous inoculation and longitudinally monitored for virus burden, clinical signs of disease, and changes in

Techniques Used: Infection

32) Product Images from "Metabolic and Neurologic Consequences of Chronic Lopinavir/Ritonavir Administration to C57BL/6 mice"

Article Title: Metabolic and Neurologic Consequences of Chronic Lopinavir/Ritonavir Administration to C57BL/6 mice

Journal: Antiviral research

doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2010.10.006

Lopinavir/ritonavir does not affect blood glucose in mice
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir does not affect blood glucose in mice

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

Lopinavir/ritonavir decreases retroperitoneal fat mass and circulating adipokines in mice
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir decreases retroperitoneal fat mass and circulating adipokines in mice

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

Lopinavir/ritonavir disrupts cognitive but not motor ability in mice
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir disrupts cognitive but not motor ability in mice

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

3.1 Effects of lopinavir/ritonavir on body weight and composition
Figure Legend Snippet: 3.1 Effects of lopinavir/ritonavir on body weight and composition

Techniques Used:

Lopinavir/ritonavir significantly increases circulating serum lipids in mice
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir significantly increases circulating serum lipids in mice

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

Lopinavir/ritonavir alters body weight and body composition in mice
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir alters body weight and body composition in mice

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

33) Product Images from "Brain Injury Caused by HIV Protease Inhibitors: role of Lipodystrophy and Insulin Resistance"

Article Title: Brain Injury Caused by HIV Protease Inhibitors: role of Lipodystrophy and Insulin Resistance

Journal: Antiviral Research

doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2012.04.010

Parameters of lipodystrophy correlate with maze performance in mice Scatter plots show the statistically significant linear relationship between errors in acquisition trail block 4–6 (errors in ACQ4–6) and (A) fat mass, (B) serum leptin, and (C) serum adiponectin in vehicle- and lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice. Each point represents an individual subject, and closed circles depict vehicle-treated mice while open circles depict lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice.
Figure Legend Snippet: Parameters of lipodystrophy correlate with maze performance in mice Scatter plots show the statistically significant linear relationship between errors in acquisition trail block 4–6 (errors in ACQ4–6) and (A) fat mass, (B) serum leptin, and (C) serum adiponectin in vehicle- and lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice. Each point represents an individual subject, and closed circles depict vehicle-treated mice while open circles depict lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice.

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Blocking Assay

Parameters of insulin resistance and serum triglycerides correlate with maze performance in mice Scatter plots show the statistically significant linear relationship between errors in acquisition trail block 4–6 (errors in ACQ4–6) and (A) fasting insulin, (B) circulating NEFA 60 minutes following oral glucose administration (Post-Glu NEFA), and (C) fasting triglycerides in vehicle- and lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice. Each point represents an individual subject, and closed circles depict vehicle-treated mice while open circles depict lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice.
Figure Legend Snippet: Parameters of insulin resistance and serum triglycerides correlate with maze performance in mice Scatter plots show the statistically significant linear relationship between errors in acquisition trail block 4–6 (errors in ACQ4–6) and (A) fasting insulin, (B) circulating NEFA 60 minutes following oral glucose administration (Post-Glu NEFA), and (C) fasting triglycerides in vehicle- and lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice. Each point represents an individual subject, and closed circles depict vehicle-treated mice while open circles depict lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice.

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Blocking Assay

Lopinavir/ritonavir induces brain injury in mice Male C57BL/6 mice were treated daily with vehicle or lopinavir/ritonavir (150/37.5 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days, after which markers of cerebrovascular integrity, synaptic density, and reactive gliosis were evaluated in tissue homogenates prepared from the frontal cortex as described in Methods. Data depict mean ± SEM expression in lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice presented as % vehicle (100% line) on graph. Data were obtained from 9–20 mice/group, and were analyzed by 2-tailed, unpaired t-tests. (A) Expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-5, ZO-1, and occludin; and the matrix metalloproteinases MMP2 and MMP9. * and ** indicate significant (p
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir induces brain injury in mice Male C57BL/6 mice were treated daily with vehicle or lopinavir/ritonavir (150/37.5 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days, after which markers of cerebrovascular integrity, synaptic density, and reactive gliosis were evaluated in tissue homogenates prepared from the frontal cortex as described in Methods. Data depict mean ± SEM expression in lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice presented as % vehicle (100% line) on graph. Data were obtained from 9–20 mice/group, and were analyzed by 2-tailed, unpaired t-tests. (A) Expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-5, ZO-1, and occludin; and the matrix metalloproteinases MMP2 and MMP9. * and ** indicate significant (p

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Expressing

Lopinavir/ritonavir affects cognition and learned helplessness, but not motor ability in mice Male C57BL/6 mice were treated daily with vehicle or lopinavir/ritonavir (150/37.5 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days, after which mice were evaluated behaviorally as described in Methods. Experiments were conducted in 9–20 animals per group over 2 separate cohorts. (A) Effects of lopinavir/ritonavir on cognitive performance in the Stone T-maze. Data show the number of errors committed over 15 trials of maze training and are means ± S.E.M. of average errors accrued over 3-trial blocks. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA, and the insert depicts the significant main effects of trial number, treatment group, and the significant interaction between trial and treatment. *and ** indicate significant (p
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir affects cognition and learned helplessness, but not motor ability in mice Male C57BL/6 mice were treated daily with vehicle or lopinavir/ritonavir (150/37.5 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days, after which mice were evaluated behaviorally as described in Methods. Experiments were conducted in 9–20 animals per group over 2 separate cohorts. (A) Effects of lopinavir/ritonavir on cognitive performance in the Stone T-maze. Data show the number of errors committed over 15 trials of maze training and are means ± S.E.M. of average errors accrued over 3-trial blocks. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA, and the insert depicts the significant main effects of trial number, treatment group, and the significant interaction between trial and treatment. *and ** indicate significant (p

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

34) Product Images from "Artemether-lumefantrine co-administration with antiretrovirals: population pharmacokinetics and dosing implications"

Article Title: Artemether-lumefantrine co-administration with antiretrovirals: population pharmacokinetics and dosing implications

Journal: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

doi: 10.1111/bcp.12529

Box (25 th to 75 th percentile) and whisker (1.5 × interquartile range) plot of dose simulations. The top row illustrates the simulated terminal exposures (AUC) from 72 to 894 h for lumefantrine when given alone, in combination with HIV treatment and after an adjusted dose regimen [efavirenz (A), nevirapine (B) and lopinavir/ritonavir (C)]. The middle row illustrates the simulated exposures (AUC) from 0 to 894 h for dihydroartemisinin when given alone, in combination with HIV treatment and after an adjusted dose regimen [efavirenz (D), nevirapine (E) or lopinavir/ritonavir (F)]. The bottom row illustrates the simulated day 7 concentrations for lumefantrine when given alone, in combination with HIV treatment and after an adjusted dose regimen [efavirenz (G), nevirapine (H) or lopinavir/ritonavir (I)]. The dotted lines in the top and middle rows represent the standard exposures when the antimalarial treatment is given alone. The dotted lines in the bottom row represent previously defined day 7 cut-off concentration for therapeutic failure of 280 ng ml −1 and 175 ng ml −1
Figure Legend Snippet: Box (25 th to 75 th percentile) and whisker (1.5 × interquartile range) plot of dose simulations. The top row illustrates the simulated terminal exposures (AUC) from 72 to 894 h for lumefantrine when given alone, in combination with HIV treatment and after an adjusted dose regimen [efavirenz (A), nevirapine (B) and lopinavir/ritonavir (C)]. The middle row illustrates the simulated exposures (AUC) from 0 to 894 h for dihydroartemisinin when given alone, in combination with HIV treatment and after an adjusted dose regimen [efavirenz (D), nevirapine (E) or lopinavir/ritonavir (F)]. The bottom row illustrates the simulated day 7 concentrations for lumefantrine when given alone, in combination with HIV treatment and after an adjusted dose regimen [efavirenz (G), nevirapine (H) or lopinavir/ritonavir (I)]. The dotted lines in the top and middle rows represent the standard exposures when the antimalarial treatment is given alone. The dotted lines in the bottom row represent previously defined day 7 cut-off concentration for therapeutic failure of 280 ng ml −1 and 175 ng ml −1

Techniques Used: Whisker Assay, Concentration Assay

35) Product Images from "Designer Adiponectin Receptor Agonist Stabilizes Metabolic Function and Prevents Brain Injury Caused by HIV Protease Inhibitors"

Article Title: Designer Adiponectin Receptor Agonist Stabilizes Metabolic Function and Prevents Brain Injury Caused by HIV Protease Inhibitors

Journal: Journal of neuroimmune pharmacology : the official journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology

doi: 10.1007/s11481-014-9529-1

ADP355 preserves markers of cerebrovascular integrity, synaptic density, and modulates reactive gliosis in PI-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated daily with vehicle or lopinavir/ritonavir (150/ 37.5 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days, after which markers of cerebrovascular integrity, synaptic density, and reactive gliosis were evaluated in tissue homogenates prepared from the frontal cortex as described in Methods. Data depict mean ± SEM expression in lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice presented as % vehicle (100 % line) on graph. Data were obtained from 12–20 mice/group, and were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA. a Expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-5, ZO-1, and occludin; and the matrix metalloproteinases MMP2 and MMP9. * and ** indicate significant ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: ADP355 preserves markers of cerebrovascular integrity, synaptic density, and modulates reactive gliosis in PI-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated daily with vehicle or lopinavir/ritonavir (150/ 37.5 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days, after which markers of cerebrovascular integrity, synaptic density, and reactive gliosis were evaluated in tissue homogenates prepared from the frontal cortex as described in Methods. Data depict mean ± SEM expression in lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice presented as % vehicle (100 % line) on graph. Data were obtained from 12–20 mice/group, and were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA. a Expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-5, ZO-1, and occludin; and the matrix metalloproteinases MMP2 and MMP9. * and ** indicate significant ( p

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Expressing

ADP355 preserves total body fat in PI-treated mice. Male C57BL/ 6 mice were given daily oral gavage administration of 10 % ethanol/15 % propylene glycol (vehicle; closed circles) or 150 mg lopinavir/37.5 mg ritonavir/kg (PI; closed circles) for 28 days. Additionally, after 14 days of PI exposure, randomly selected vehicle (vehicle/ADP; closed squares) and PI-treated mice (PI/ADP; open squares) mice were also treated daily with ADP355 (1 mg/kg) or PBS via intraperitoneal injection for the final 14 days of PI exposure. All mice were evaluated regularly for ( a ) body weight and ( b ) total body fat mass expressed as percent measured at day 0. All data are mean and S.E.M. of 9–21 mice per group. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA, and *** indicates significant ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: ADP355 preserves total body fat in PI-treated mice. Male C57BL/ 6 mice were given daily oral gavage administration of 10 % ethanol/15 % propylene glycol (vehicle; closed circles) or 150 mg lopinavir/37.5 mg ritonavir/kg (PI; closed circles) for 28 days. Additionally, after 14 days of PI exposure, randomly selected vehicle (vehicle/ADP; closed squares) and PI-treated mice (PI/ADP; open squares) mice were also treated daily with ADP355 (1 mg/kg) or PBS via intraperitoneal injection for the final 14 days of PI exposure. All mice were evaluated regularly for ( a ) body weight and ( b ) total body fat mass expressed as percent measured at day 0. All data are mean and S.E.M. of 9–21 mice per group. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA, and *** indicates significant ( p

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Injection

ADP355 preserves subcutaneous, but not visceral fat depots in PI-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were given daily administration of 10 % ethanol/15 % propylene glycol (vehicle; left bars ) or 150 mg lopinavir/37.5 mg ritonavir/kg (PI; right bars ) for 28 days. Additionally, randomly selected vehicle ( open bars ) and PI-treated mice (hatched bars) mice were also treated daily with ADP355 (1 mg/kg) or PBS via intraperitoneal injection for the final 14 days of PI exposure, after which all mice were euthanatized and subcutaneous inguinal and visceral epididymal fat pads were collected and weighed. Data are means ± S.E.M. of fat pad mass in milligrams, and were generated from 9–21 mice per group. a Inguinal fat depot weight in vehicle and lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice following administration of PBS or ADP355. *** and ** indicates significant ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: ADP355 preserves subcutaneous, but not visceral fat depots in PI-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were given daily administration of 10 % ethanol/15 % propylene glycol (vehicle; left bars ) or 150 mg lopinavir/37.5 mg ritonavir/kg (PI; right bars ) for 28 days. Additionally, randomly selected vehicle ( open bars ) and PI-treated mice (hatched bars) mice were also treated daily with ADP355 (1 mg/kg) or PBS via intraperitoneal injection for the final 14 days of PI exposure, after which all mice were euthanatized and subcutaneous inguinal and visceral epididymal fat pads were collected and weighed. Data are means ± S.E.M. of fat pad mass in milligrams, and were generated from 9–21 mice per group. a Inguinal fat depot weight in vehicle and lopinavir/ritonavir-treated mice following administration of PBS or ADP355. *** and ** indicates significant ( p

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Injection, Generated

ADP355 preserves circulating serum adiponectin but not leptin in PI-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were given daily administration of 10 % ethanol/15 % propylene glycol (vehicle; left bars) or 150 mg lopinavir/37.5 mg ritonavir/kg (PI; right bars) for 28 days. Additionally, randomly selected vehicle (open bars) and PI-treated mice (hatched bars) mice were also treated daily with ADP355 (1 mg/kg) or PBS via intraperitoneal injection for the final 14 days of PI exposure, after which all mice were euthanatized and serum was collected from whole blood. a Effects of lopinavir/ritonavir with or without ADP355 on serum adiponectin concentration. Data are means ± S.E.M. of adiponectin expressed as pg/μl serum, and were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA. *** indicates significant ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: ADP355 preserves circulating serum adiponectin but not leptin in PI-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were given daily administration of 10 % ethanol/15 % propylene glycol (vehicle; left bars) or 150 mg lopinavir/37.5 mg ritonavir/kg (PI; right bars) for 28 days. Additionally, randomly selected vehicle (open bars) and PI-treated mice (hatched bars) mice were also treated daily with ADP355 (1 mg/kg) or PBS via intraperitoneal injection for the final 14 days of PI exposure, after which all mice were euthanatized and serum was collected from whole blood. a Effects of lopinavir/ritonavir with or without ADP355 on serum adiponectin concentration. Data are means ± S.E.M. of adiponectin expressed as pg/μl serum, and were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA. *** indicates significant ( p

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Injection, Concentration Assay

ADP355 preserves cognitive performance in PI-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated daily with vehicle or lopinavir/ritonavir (150/37.5 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days, after which mice were evaluated behaviorally for memory performance using the fear conditioning assay as described in Methods. Experiments were conducted in 12–20 animals per group over 2 separate cohorts. Data are means ± S.E.M. of composite freezing behavior, and were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA. *and *** indicate significant ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: ADP355 preserves cognitive performance in PI-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated daily with vehicle or lopinavir/ritonavir (150/37.5 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days, after which mice were evaluated behaviorally for memory performance using the fear conditioning assay as described in Methods. Experiments were conducted in 12–20 animals per group over 2 separate cohorts. Data are means ± S.E.M. of composite freezing behavior, and were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA. *and *** indicate significant ( p

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

36) Product Images from "Artemether-lumefantrine co-administration with antiretrovirals: population pharmacokinetics and dosing implications"

Article Title: Artemether-lumefantrine co-administration with antiretrovirals: population pharmacokinetics and dosing implications

Journal: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

doi: 10.1111/bcp.12529

Box (25 th to 75 th percentile) and whisker (1.5 × interquartile range) plot of dose simulations. The top row illustrates the simulated terminal exposures (AUC) from 72 to 894 h for lumefantrine when given alone, in combination with HIV treatment and after an adjusted dose regimen [efavirenz (A), nevirapine (B) and lopinavir/ritonavir (C)]. The middle row illustrates the simulated exposures (AUC) from 0 to 894 h for dihydroartemisinin when given alone, in combination with HIV treatment and after an adjusted dose regimen [efavirenz (D), nevirapine (E) or lopinavir/ritonavir (F)]. The bottom row illustrates the simulated day 7 concentrations for lumefantrine when given alone, in combination with HIV treatment and after an adjusted dose regimen [efavirenz (G), nevirapine (H) or lopinavir/ritonavir (I)]. The dotted lines in the top and middle rows represent the standard exposures when the antimalarial treatment is given alone. The dotted lines in the bottom row represent previously defined day 7 cut-off concentration for therapeutic failure of 280 ng ml −1 and 175 ng ml −1
Figure Legend Snippet: Box (25 th to 75 th percentile) and whisker (1.5 × interquartile range) plot of dose simulations. The top row illustrates the simulated terminal exposures (AUC) from 72 to 894 h for lumefantrine when given alone, in combination with HIV treatment and after an adjusted dose regimen [efavirenz (A), nevirapine (B) and lopinavir/ritonavir (C)]. The middle row illustrates the simulated exposures (AUC) from 0 to 894 h for dihydroartemisinin when given alone, in combination with HIV treatment and after an adjusted dose regimen [efavirenz (D), nevirapine (E) or lopinavir/ritonavir (F)]. The bottom row illustrates the simulated day 7 concentrations for lumefantrine when given alone, in combination with HIV treatment and after an adjusted dose regimen [efavirenz (G), nevirapine (H) or lopinavir/ritonavir (I)]. The dotted lines in the top and middle rows represent the standard exposures when the antimalarial treatment is given alone. The dotted lines in the bottom row represent previously defined day 7 cut-off concentration for therapeutic failure of 280 ng ml −1 and 175 ng ml −1

Techniques Used: Whisker Assay, Concentration Assay

37) Product Images from "Antiretroviral treatment and its impact on oral health outcomes in 5 to 7 year old Ugandan children"

Article Title: Antiretroviral treatment and its impact on oral health outcomes in 5 to 7 year old Ugandan children

Journal: Medicine

doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000022352

Distribution of mean dmft (decayed, missing filled teeth) by tooth type in the maxilla for lopinavir-ritonavir (top left) and lamivudine (top right) group. Also distribution of mean dmft in mandible lopinavir-ritonavir (bottom left) and lamivudine group (bottom right).
Figure Legend Snippet: Distribution of mean dmft (decayed, missing filled teeth) by tooth type in the maxilla for lopinavir-ritonavir (top left) and lamivudine (top right) group. Also distribution of mean dmft in mandible lopinavir-ritonavir (bottom left) and lamivudine group (bottom right).

Techniques Used:

Average numbers of retained primary teeth and erupted permanent teeth in lopinavir-ritonavir and lamivudine treatment groups.
Figure Legend Snippet: Average numbers of retained primary teeth and erupted permanent teeth in lopinavir-ritonavir and lamivudine treatment groups.

Techniques Used:

38) Product Images from "Absence of circadian variation in the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir given as a once daily dosing regimen in HIV-1-infected patients"

Article Title: Absence of circadian variation in the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir given as a once daily dosing regimen in HIV-1-infected patients

Journal:

doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2005.02337.x

Mean (± SD) steady-state plasma lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) concentration vs time profile after administration of lopinavir/ritonavir 800/200 mg once daily with a standardized meal in the morning (open circles) and in the evening (closed circles)
Figure Legend Snippet: Mean (± SD) steady-state plasma lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) concentration vs time profile after administration of lopinavir/ritonavir 800/200 mg once daily with a standardized meal in the morning (open circles) and in the evening (closed circles)

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

Individual changes in lopinavir concentration at 24 h postdose ( C 24h ) and maximum ritonavir concentration ( C max ; ) after steady-state administration of lopinavir/ritonavir 800/200 mg once daily with food in the morning (am) or in the
Figure Legend Snippet: Individual changes in lopinavir concentration at 24 h postdose ( C 24h ) and maximum ritonavir concentration ( C max ; ) after steady-state administration of lopinavir/ritonavir 800/200 mg once daily with food in the morning (am) or in the

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

39) Product Images from "Response of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus to the Novel Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor 4?-Ethynyl-2-Fluoro-2?-Deoxyadenosine In Vitro and In Vivo"

Article Title: Response of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus to the Novel Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor 4?-Ethynyl-2-Fluoro-2?-Deoxyadenosine In Vitro and In Vivo

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.00723-12

Virological history of SIV/DeltaB670-infected macaques treated with TFV plus lopinavir-ritonavir followed by EFdA. Monkeys were infected by intravenous inoculation and longitudinally monitored for virus burden, clinical signs of disease, and changes in
Figure Legend Snippet: Virological history of SIV/DeltaB670-infected macaques treated with TFV plus lopinavir-ritonavir followed by EFdA. Monkeys were infected by intravenous inoculation and longitudinally monitored for virus burden, clinical signs of disease, and changes in

Techniques Used: Infection

40) Product Images from "Sequential Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Lopinavir and Ritonavir in Healthy Volunteers and Assessment of Different Dosing Strategies ▿Sequential Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Lopinavir and Ritonavir in Healthy Volunteers and Assessment of Different Dosing Strategies ▿ †"

Article Title: Sequential Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Lopinavir and Ritonavir in Healthy Volunteers and Assessment of Different Dosing Strategies ▿Sequential Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Lopinavir and Ritonavir in Healthy Volunteers and Assessment of Different Dosing Strategies ▿ †

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.00887-10

Ninety-five-percent prediction intervals (P2.5 to P97.5) for lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) (400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) determined from 1,000 simulations, with observed data from HIV-infected patients superimposed ( n = 84).
Figure Legend Snippet: Ninety-five-percent prediction intervals (P2.5 to P97.5) for lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) (400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) determined from 1,000 simulations, with observed data from HIV-infected patients superimposed ( n = 84).

Techniques Used: Infection

Ninety-five-percent prediction intervals (P2.5 to P97.5) for lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) (400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) determined from 1,000 simulations. Observed data were superimposed ( n = 252).
Figure Legend Snippet: Ninety-five-percent prediction intervals (P2.5 to P97.5) for lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) (400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) determined from 1,000 simulations. Observed data were superimposed ( n = 252).

Techniques Used:

Simulation of different lopinavir-ritonavir doses.
Figure Legend Snippet: Simulation of different lopinavir-ritonavir doses.

Techniques Used:

Concentration-time curves of lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) over 72 h following cessation of treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir (400-mg–100-mg twice-daily) tablets ( n = 16).
Figure Legend Snippet: Concentration-time curves of lopinavir (A) and ritonavir (B) over 72 h following cessation of treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir (400-mg–100-mg twice-daily) tablets ( n = 16).

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

Sequential combined lopinavir-ritonavir model.
Figure Legend Snippet: Sequential combined lopinavir-ritonavir model.

Techniques Used:

Related Articles

other:

Article Title: In vitro effectivity of three approved drugs and their synergistic interaction against Leishmania infantum
Article Snippet: Tested drugsThree commercially available FDA-approved drugs were used in this study: auranofin, purchased from Abbott; lopinavir/ritonavir, purchased from Astellas pharma SPA, and sorafenib, purchased from Bayer.

Article Title: Lopinavir/ritonavir significantly influences pharmacokinetic exposure of artemether/lumefantrine in HIV-infected Ugandan adults
Article Snippet: Although artemether is predominantly metabolized via CYP3A4/5, other CYP enzymes (CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and possibly CYP2A6) are involved., , Lopinavir/ritonavir was shown to induce CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19., The observed increased clearance and decreased artemether exposure is likely due to induction of these CYP enzymes by lopinavir/ritonavir.

Article Title: Lopinavir/ritonavir significantly influences pharmacokinetic exposure of artemether/lumefantrine in HIV-infected Ugandan adults
Article Snippet: However, caution and safety monitoring of HIV/malaria-coinfected patients receiving artemether/lumefantrine with lopinavir/ritonavir is advised.

Article Title: Antiretroviral treatment and its impact on oral health outcomes in 5 to 7 year old Ugandan children
Article Snippet: In other studies involving the ANRS 12174 trial participants, Blanche et al observed less weight gain in infants given lopinavir–ritonavir while Kariyawasam et al. found lopinavir–ritonavir to be associated with dose dependent adrenal dysfunction.

Mouse Assay:

Article Title: Metabolic and Neurologic Consequences of Chronic Lopinavir/Ritonavir Administration to C57BL/6 mice
Article Snippet: These data are in keeping with published studies that have reported significant metabolic dysfunction in C57BL/6 mice treated with combined lopinavir/ritonavir in similar dose ranges ( ). .. However, the most significant finding of this study is that even the lowest dose of lopinavir/ritonavir caused significant cognitive impairment in mice. ..

Mass Spectrometry:

Article Title: In Vitro Antioxidant Properties, HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Effects of Traditional Herbal Preparations Sold in South Africa
Article Snippet: .. Ms. S. Khumalo (Social Counsellor UKZN-AIDS Programme) is thanked for providing the antiretroviral drugs; Combivir® (GlaxoSmithKline) and Kaletra® (Abbott) used as positive controls in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase assay. ..

Reverse Transcriptase Assay:

Article Title: In Vitro Antioxidant Properties, HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Effects of Traditional Herbal Preparations Sold in South Africa
Article Snippet: .. Ms. S. Khumalo (Social Counsellor UKZN-AIDS Programme) is thanked for providing the antiretroviral drugs; Combivir® (GlaxoSmithKline) and Kaletra® (Abbott) used as positive controls in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase assay. ..

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    Abbott Laboratories lopinavir ritonavir
    Mean (±SEM) plasma concentration versus time of (a) artemether, (b) dihydroartemisinin and (c) lumefantrine for participants taking artemether/lumefantrine alone (AL alone) and artemether/lumefantrine in combination with <t>lopinavir/ritonavir</t> (AL plus LPV/r).
    Lopinavir Ritonavir, supplied by Abbott Laboratories, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/lopinavir ritonavir/product/Abbott Laboratories
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    lopinavir ritonavir - by Bioz Stars, 2021-07
    86/100 stars
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    86
    Abbott Laboratories kaletra
    Percentage inhibition of HIV-1 RT by commercial herbal preparations (2.5 mg/mL). Herbal preparations with inhibitory activity above 70% were considered to be highly active. Percentage inhibition by positive controls: Combivir ® (0.5 mg/mL) and <t>Kaletra</t> ® (0.5 mg/mL) were 79.80 ± 0.12 and 62.50 ± 0.31 respectively.
    Kaletra, supplied by Abbott Laboratories, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/kaletra/product/Abbott Laboratories
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    kaletra - by Bioz Stars, 2021-07
    86/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    Image Search Results


    Mean (±SEM) plasma concentration versus time of (a) artemether, (b) dihydroartemisinin and (c) lumefantrine for participants taking artemether/lumefantrine alone (AL alone) and artemether/lumefantrine in combination with lopinavir/ritonavir (AL plus LPV/r).

    Journal: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Lopinavir/ritonavir significantly influences pharmacokinetic exposure of artemether/lumefantrine in HIV-infected Ugandan adults

    doi: 10.1093/jac/dkr596

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mean (±SEM) plasma concentration versus time of (a) artemether, (b) dihydroartemisinin and (c) lumefantrine for participants taking artemether/lumefantrine alone (AL alone) and artemether/lumefantrine in combination with lopinavir/ritonavir (AL plus LPV/r).

    Article Snippet: However, caution and safety monitoring of HIV/malaria-coinfected patients receiving artemether/lumefantrine with lopinavir/ritonavir is advised.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    Distribution of mean dmft (decayed, missing filled teeth) by tooth type in the maxilla for lopinavir-ritonavir (top left) and lamivudine (top right) group. Also distribution of mean dmft in mandible lopinavir-ritonavir (bottom left) and lamivudine group (bottom right).

    Journal: Medicine

    Article Title: Antiretroviral treatment and its impact on oral health outcomes in 5 to 7 year old Ugandan children

    doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000022352

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Distribution of mean dmft (decayed, missing filled teeth) by tooth type in the maxilla for lopinavir-ritonavir (top left) and lamivudine (top right) group. Also distribution of mean dmft in mandible lopinavir-ritonavir (bottom left) and lamivudine group (bottom right).

    Article Snippet: In other studies involving the ANRS 12174 trial participants, Blanche et al observed less weight gain in infants given lopinavir–ritonavir while Kariyawasam et al. found lopinavir–ritonavir to be associated with dose dependent adrenal dysfunction.

    Techniques:

    Average numbers of retained primary teeth and erupted permanent teeth in lopinavir-ritonavir and lamivudine treatment groups.

    Journal: Medicine

    Article Title: Antiretroviral treatment and its impact on oral health outcomes in 5 to 7 year old Ugandan children

    doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000022352

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Average numbers of retained primary teeth and erupted permanent teeth in lopinavir-ritonavir and lamivudine treatment groups.

    Article Snippet: In other studies involving the ANRS 12174 trial participants, Blanche et al observed less weight gain in infants given lopinavir–ritonavir while Kariyawasam et al. found lopinavir–ritonavir to be associated with dose dependent adrenal dysfunction.

    Techniques:

    Percentage inhibition of HIV-1 RT by commercial herbal preparations (2.5 mg/mL). Herbal preparations with inhibitory activity above 70% were considered to be highly active. Percentage inhibition by positive controls: Combivir ® (0.5 mg/mL) and Kaletra ® (0.5 mg/mL) were 79.80 ± 0.12 and 62.50 ± 0.31 respectively.

    Journal: Molecules

    Article Title: In Vitro Antioxidant Properties, HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Effects of Traditional Herbal Preparations Sold in South Africa

    doi: 10.3390/molecules15106888

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Percentage inhibition of HIV-1 RT by commercial herbal preparations (2.5 mg/mL). Herbal preparations with inhibitory activity above 70% were considered to be highly active. Percentage inhibition by positive controls: Combivir ® (0.5 mg/mL) and Kaletra ® (0.5 mg/mL) were 79.80 ± 0.12 and 62.50 ± 0.31 respectively.

    Article Snippet: Ms. S. Khumalo (Social Counsellor UKZN-AIDS Programme) is thanked for providing the antiretroviral drugs; Combivir® (GlaxoSmithKline) and Kaletra® (Abbott) used as positive controls in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase assay.

    Techniques: Inhibition, Activity Assay