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AbbVie lopinavir ritonavir
Forest plot of antiviral strategies effect on being alive and extubated at day 28 after adjustment on age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index, plateau pressure and P/F ratio. Standard of care served as reference. ORs (CI95%) are indicated after each variable and were obtained through a generalized linear mixed model with center as random effect ( N = 412). L/R <t>lopinavir/ritonavir,</t> OHQ hydroxychloroquine, P/F PaO 2 /FiO 2
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1) Product Images from "Characteristics and outcomes of acute respiratory distress syndrome related to COVID-19 in Belgian and French intensive care units according to antiviral strategies: the COVADIS multicentre observational study"

Article Title: Characteristics and outcomes of acute respiratory distress syndrome related to COVID-19 in Belgian and French intensive care units according to antiviral strategies: the COVADIS multicentre observational study

Journal: Annals of Intensive Care

doi: 10.1186/s13613-020-00751-y

Forest plot of antiviral strategies effect on being alive and extubated at day 28 after adjustment on age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index, plateau pressure and P/F ratio. Standard of care served as reference. ORs (CI95%) are indicated after each variable and were obtained through a generalized linear mixed model with center as random effect ( N = 412). L/R lopinavir/ritonavir, OHQ hydroxychloroquine, P/F PaO 2 /FiO 2
Figure Legend Snippet: Forest plot of antiviral strategies effect on being alive and extubated at day 28 after adjustment on age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index, plateau pressure and P/F ratio. Standard of care served as reference. ORs (CI95%) are indicated after each variable and were obtained through a generalized linear mixed model with center as random effect ( N = 412). L/R lopinavir/ritonavir, OHQ hydroxychloroquine, P/F PaO 2 /FiO 2

Techniques Used:

2) Product Images from "In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses"

Article Title: In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses

Journal: The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine

doi: 10.3904/kjim.2020.157

Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p
Figure Legend Snippet: Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p

Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Concentration Assay

Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

3) Product Images from "In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses"

Article Title: In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses

Journal: The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine

doi: 10.3904/kjim.2020.157

Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p
Figure Legend Snippet: Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p

Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Concentration Assay

Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

4) Product Images from "In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses"

Article Title: In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses

Journal: The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine

doi: 10.3904/kjim.2020.157

Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p
Figure Legend Snippet: Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p

Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Concentration Assay

Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

5) Product Images from "In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses"

Article Title: In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses

Journal: The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine

doi: 10.3904/kjim.2020.157

Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p
Figure Legend Snippet: Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p

Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Concentration Assay

Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

6) Product Images from "Pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir oral solution to treat COVID-19 in mechanically ventilated ICU patients"

Article Title: Pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir oral solution to treat COVID-19 in mechanically ventilated ICU patients

Journal: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1093/jac/dkaa261

Lopinavir (LPV) and ritonavir (RTV) total (median, IQR) plasma concentrations in patients treated with LPV/RTV oral solution at 400/100 mg q24h dosing regimen ( n = 9). The upper limit of LPV C trough in HIV-infected patients was set as 8000 ng/mL as reported by González de Requena et al . 5
Figure Legend Snippet: Lopinavir (LPV) and ritonavir (RTV) total (median, IQR) plasma concentrations in patients treated with LPV/RTV oral solution at 400/100 mg q24h dosing regimen ( n = 9). The upper limit of LPV C trough in HIV-infected patients was set as 8000 ng/mL as reported by González de Requena et al . 5

Techniques Used: Infection

Flow chart of COVID-19 ICU patients receiving lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg q12h as oral solution through a nasogastric tube, then receiving 400/100 mg q24h. Pharmacokinetic analysis timings are shown. AE, adverse event; LPV/r, lopinavir/ritonavir; PK, pharmacokinetic.
Figure Legend Snippet: Flow chart of COVID-19 ICU patients receiving lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg q12h as oral solution through a nasogastric tube, then receiving 400/100 mg q24h. Pharmacokinetic analysis timings are shown. AE, adverse event; LPV/r, lopinavir/ritonavir; PK, pharmacokinetic.

Techniques Used:

7) Product Images from "In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses"

Article Title: In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses

Journal: The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine

doi: 10.3904/kjim.2020.157

Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p
Figure Legend Snippet: Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p

Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Concentration Assay

Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

8) Product Images from "In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses"

Article Title: In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses

Journal: The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine

doi: 10.3904/kjim.2020.157

Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p
Figure Legend Snippet: Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p

Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Concentration Assay

Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

9) Product Images from "In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses"

Article Title: In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses

Journal: The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine

doi: 10.3904/kjim.2020.157

Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p
Figure Legend Snippet: Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p

Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Concentration Assay

Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

10) Product Images from "In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses"

Article Title: In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses

Journal: The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine

doi: 10.3904/kjim.2020.157

Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p
Figure Legend Snippet: Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p

Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Concentration Assay

Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

11) Product Images from "In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses"

Article Title: In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses

Journal: The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine

doi: 10.3904/kjim.2020.157

Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p
Figure Legend Snippet: Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p

Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Concentration Assay

Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

12) Product Images from "In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses"

Article Title: In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses

Journal: The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine

doi: 10.3904/kjim.2020.157

Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p
Figure Legend Snippet: Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p

Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Concentration Assay

Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

13) Product Images from "In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses"

Article Title: In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses

Journal: The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine

doi: 10.3904/kjim.2020.157

Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p
Figure Legend Snippet: Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p

Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Concentration Assay

Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

14) Product Images from "Characteristics and outcomes of acute respiratory distress syndrome related to COVID-19 in Belgian and French intensive care units according to antiviral strategies: the COVADIS multicentre observational study"

Article Title: Characteristics and outcomes of acute respiratory distress syndrome related to COVID-19 in Belgian and French intensive care units according to antiviral strategies: the COVADIS multicentre observational study

Journal: Annals of Intensive Care

doi: 10.1186/s13613-020-00751-y

Forest plot of antiviral strategies effect on being alive and extubated at day 28 after adjustment on age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index, plateau pressure and P/F ratio. Standard of care served as reference. ORs (CI95%) are indicated after each variable and were obtained through a generalized linear mixed model with center as random effect ( N = 412). L/R lopinavir/ritonavir, OHQ hydroxychloroquine, P/F PaO 2 /FiO 2
Figure Legend Snippet: Forest plot of antiviral strategies effect on being alive and extubated at day 28 after adjustment on age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index, plateau pressure and P/F ratio. Standard of care served as reference. ORs (CI95%) are indicated after each variable and were obtained through a generalized linear mixed model with center as random effect ( N = 412). L/R lopinavir/ritonavir, OHQ hydroxychloroquine, P/F PaO 2 /FiO 2

Techniques Used:

15) Product Images from "Arbidol monotherapy is superior to lopinavir/ritonavir in treating COVID-19"

Article Title: Arbidol monotherapy is superior to lopinavir/ritonavir in treating COVID-19

Journal: The Journal of Infection

doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.060

Dynamic changes of cycle threshold (Ct) values during treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir and arbidol. Ct, cycle threshold.
Figure Legend Snippet: Dynamic changes of cycle threshold (Ct) values during treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir and arbidol. Ct, cycle threshold.

Techniques Used:

16) Product Images from "In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses"

Article Title: In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses

Journal: The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine

doi: 10.3904/kjim.2020.157

Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p
Figure Legend Snippet: Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p

Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Concentration Assay

Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

17) Product Images from "Lopinavir-ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine for critically ill patients with COVID-19: REMAP-CAP randomized controlled trial"

Article Title: Lopinavir-ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine for critically ill patients with COVID-19: REMAP-CAP randomized controlled trial

Journal: Intensive Care Medicine

doi: 10.1007/s00134-021-06448-5

Organ support-free days and mortality. A Organ support-free days in patients allocated to lopinavir-ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, combination therapy and control among critically ill patients in the COVID-19 Antiviral Therapy Domain of the REMAP-CAP trial. Distributions of organ support-free days are displayed as the cumulative proportion ( y axis) for each study group by day ( x axis). Curves that rise more slowly are more favorable. The height of each curve at “ − 1” indicates the in‐hospital mortality for each intervention. The height of each curve at any time point indicates the proportion of patients who had that number of organ support-free days or fewer. The difference in the height of the curves at any point represents the difference in the percentile in the distribution of organ support-free days associated with that number of days alive and free of organ support. B Organ support-free days are displayed as horizontally stacked proportions by study group. Red represents worse values and blue represents better values. On primary analysis of organ support-free days, the three interventions decreased organ support-free days compared to control, with corresponding median adjusted ORs and 95% credible intervals of 0.73 (0.55–0.99), 0.57 (0.35–0.83) and 0.41 (0.24–0.72), respectively, yielding high posterior probabilities of futility (99% or greater) and high posterior probabilities of harm compared to control (98%, 99.9% and > 99.9%, respectively). C Empirical distribution of survival for lopinavir–ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, combination therapy and control. Lopinavir-ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine and combination therapy resulted in reduced survival over 90 days compared to control, with adjusted median hazard ratios (95% CrI) of 0.83 (0.65, 1.07), 0.71 (0.45, 0.97), 0.58 (0.36, 0.92), yielding high probabilities of harm compared with control of 92% and 98.4% and 98.7%, respectively
Figure Legend Snippet: Organ support-free days and mortality. A Organ support-free days in patients allocated to lopinavir-ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, combination therapy and control among critically ill patients in the COVID-19 Antiviral Therapy Domain of the REMAP-CAP trial. Distributions of organ support-free days are displayed as the cumulative proportion ( y axis) for each study group by day ( x axis). Curves that rise more slowly are more favorable. The height of each curve at “ − 1” indicates the in‐hospital mortality for each intervention. The height of each curve at any time point indicates the proportion of patients who had that number of organ support-free days or fewer. The difference in the height of the curves at any point represents the difference in the percentile in the distribution of organ support-free days associated with that number of days alive and free of organ support. B Organ support-free days are displayed as horizontally stacked proportions by study group. Red represents worse values and blue represents better values. On primary analysis of organ support-free days, the three interventions decreased organ support-free days compared to control, with corresponding median adjusted ORs and 95% credible intervals of 0.73 (0.55–0.99), 0.57 (0.35–0.83) and 0.41 (0.24–0.72), respectively, yielding high posterior probabilities of futility (99% or greater) and high posterior probabilities of harm compared to control (98%, 99.9% and > 99.9%, respectively). C Empirical distribution of survival for lopinavir–ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, combination therapy and control. Lopinavir-ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine and combination therapy resulted in reduced survival over 90 days compared to control, with adjusted median hazard ratios (95% CrI) of 0.83 (0.65, 1.07), 0.71 (0.45, 0.97), 0.58 (0.36, 0.92), yielding high probabilities of harm compared with control of 92% and 98.4% and 98.7%, respectively

Techniques Used:

Screening, randomization, and follow-up of patients in the REMAP-CAP COVID-19 Antiviral Therapy Domain randomized controlled trial. a Patients could meet more than one ineligibility criterion (Table S2, Supplementary Appendix). b Details of platform exclusions are provided in the Supplementary Results (Supplementary Appendix). c The primary analysis of organ support-free days (OSFD) and hospital survival were conducted on the REMAP-CAP intention-to-treat cohort which included all patients enrolled in the trial who met COVID-19 severe state criteria and were randomized within at least one domain, adjusting for patient factors and for assignment to interventions in other domains (Table S3, Supplementary Appendix). ^Contraindications include hypersensitivity, receiving the study drug as usual medication prior to hospitalization, human immune deficiency (HIV) infection (contraindication of lopinavir-ritonavir), severe liver failure (contraindication of lopinavir-ritonavir), receiving amiodarone as a usual medication prior to this hospitalization or any administration of amiodarone within the 72 h prior to assessment (contraindication of lopinavir-ritonavir) and high clinical risk of sustained ventricular dysrhythmia (contraindication of hydroxychloroquine) (Table S2, Supplementary Appendix)
Figure Legend Snippet: Screening, randomization, and follow-up of patients in the REMAP-CAP COVID-19 Antiviral Therapy Domain randomized controlled trial. a Patients could meet more than one ineligibility criterion (Table S2, Supplementary Appendix). b Details of platform exclusions are provided in the Supplementary Results (Supplementary Appendix). c The primary analysis of organ support-free days (OSFD) and hospital survival were conducted on the REMAP-CAP intention-to-treat cohort which included all patients enrolled in the trial who met COVID-19 severe state criteria and were randomized within at least one domain, adjusting for patient factors and for assignment to interventions in other domains (Table S3, Supplementary Appendix). ^Contraindications include hypersensitivity, receiving the study drug as usual medication prior to hospitalization, human immune deficiency (HIV) infection (contraindication of lopinavir-ritonavir), severe liver failure (contraindication of lopinavir-ritonavir), receiving amiodarone as a usual medication prior to this hospitalization or any administration of amiodarone within the 72 h prior to assessment (contraindication of lopinavir-ritonavir) and high clinical risk of sustained ventricular dysrhythmia (contraindication of hydroxychloroquine) (Table S2, Supplementary Appendix)

Techniques Used: Infection

18) Product Images from "Lopinavir-Ritonavir in the Treatment of COVID-19: A Dynamic Systematic Benefit-Risk Assessment"

Article Title: Lopinavir-Ritonavir in the Treatment of COVID-19: A Dynamic Systematic Benefit-Risk Assessment

Journal: Drug Safety

doi: 10.1007/s40264-020-00966-9

Value tree of key benefits and risks identified for lopinavir/ritonavir, ranked by order of clinical significance. Superscript 1: both benefits and risks have been ranked according to perceived clinical significance. Risks have been categorised according to system organ class. The system organ classes have been ranked based on the most serious events/events within each system, which have been presented first. ALT alanine aminotransferase, ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, AST aspartate aminotransferase, CYP cytochrome P450, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, GGT gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, ICU intensive care unit, MI myocardial infarction
Figure Legend Snippet: Value tree of key benefits and risks identified for lopinavir/ritonavir, ranked by order of clinical significance. Superscript 1: both benefits and risks have been ranked according to perceived clinical significance. Risks have been categorised according to system organ class. The system organ classes have been ranked based on the most serious events/events within each system, which have been presented first. ALT alanine aminotransferase, ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, AST aspartate aminotransferase, CYP cytochrome P450, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, GGT gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, ICU intensive care unit, MI myocardial infarction

Techniques Used: AST Assay

19) Product Images from "In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses"

Article Title: In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses

Journal: The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine

doi: 10.3904/kjim.2020.157

Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p
Figure Legend Snippet: Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p

Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Concentration Assay

Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

20) Product Images from "Characteristics and outcomes of acute respiratory distress syndrome related to COVID-19 in Belgian and French intensive care units according to antiviral strategies: the COVADIS multicentre observational study"

Article Title: Characteristics and outcomes of acute respiratory distress syndrome related to COVID-19 in Belgian and French intensive care units according to antiviral strategies: the COVADIS multicentre observational study

Journal: Annals of Intensive Care

doi: 10.1186/s13613-020-00751-y

Forest plot of antiviral strategies effect on being alive and extubated at day 28 after adjustment on age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index, plateau pressure and P/F ratio. Standard of care served as reference. ORs (CI95%) are indicated after each variable and were obtained through a generalized linear mixed model with center as random effect ( N = 412). L/R lopinavir/ritonavir, OHQ hydroxychloroquine, P/F PaO 2 /FiO 2
Figure Legend Snippet: Forest plot of antiviral strategies effect on being alive and extubated at day 28 after adjustment on age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index, plateau pressure and P/F ratio. Standard of care served as reference. ORs (CI95%) are indicated after each variable and were obtained through a generalized linear mixed model with center as random effect ( N = 412). L/R lopinavir/ritonavir, OHQ hydroxychloroquine, P/F PaO 2 /FiO 2

Techniques Used:

21) Product Images from "Pharmacokinetic Interaction Between Isavuconazole and a Fixed‐Dose Combination of Lopinavir 400 mg/Ritonavir 100 mg in Healthy Subjects"

Article Title: Pharmacokinetic Interaction Between Isavuconazole and a Fixed‐Dose Combination of Lopinavir 400 mg/Ritonavir 100 mg in Healthy Subjects

Journal: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development

doi: 10.1002/cpdd.282

Mean plasma isavuconazole concentration‐time profiles in the presence and absence of lopinavir/ritonavir in part 1 (A) and part 2 (B), and mean plasma lopinavir and ritonavir concentration‐time profiles in the presence and absence of isavuconazole (C and D). SEM, standard error of the mean.
Figure Legend Snippet: Mean plasma isavuconazole concentration‐time profiles in the presence and absence of lopinavir/ritonavir in part 1 (A) and part 2 (B), and mean plasma lopinavir and ritonavir concentration‐time profiles in the presence and absence of isavuconazole (C and D). SEM, standard error of the mean.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

22) Product Images from "In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses"

Article Title: In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses

Journal: The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine

doi: 10.3904/kjim.2020.157

Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p
Figure Legend Snippet: Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p

Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Concentration Assay

Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

23) Product Images from "Lopinavir-ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine for critically ill patients with COVID-19: REMAP-CAP randomized controlled trial"

Article Title: Lopinavir-ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine for critically ill patients with COVID-19: REMAP-CAP randomized controlled trial

Journal: Intensive Care Medicine

doi: 10.1007/s00134-021-06448-5

Organ support-free days and mortality. A Organ support-free days in patients allocated to lopinavir-ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, combination therapy and control among critically ill patients in the COVID-19 Antiviral Therapy Domain of the REMAP-CAP trial. Distributions of organ support-free days are displayed as the cumulative proportion ( y axis) for each study group by day ( x axis). Curves that rise more slowly are more favorable. The height of each curve at “ − 1” indicates the in‐hospital mortality for each intervention. The height of each curve at any time point indicates the proportion of patients who had that number of organ support-free days or fewer. The difference in the height of the curves at any point represents the difference in the percentile in the distribution of organ support-free days associated with that number of days alive and free of organ support. B Organ support-free days are displayed as horizontally stacked proportions by study group. Red represents worse values and blue represents better values. On primary analysis of organ support-free days, the three interventions decreased organ support-free days compared to control, with corresponding median adjusted ORs and 95% credible intervals of 0.73 (0.55–0.99), 0.57 (0.35–0.83) and 0.41 (0.24–0.72), respectively, yielding high posterior probabilities of futility (99% or greater) and high posterior probabilities of harm compared to control (98%, 99.9% and > 99.9%, respectively). C Empirical distribution of survival for lopinavir–ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, combination therapy and control. Lopinavir-ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine and combination therapy resulted in reduced survival over 90 days compared to control, with adjusted median hazard ratios (95% CrI) of 0.83 (0.65, 1.07), 0.71 (0.45, 0.97), 0.58 (0.36, 0.92), yielding high probabilities of harm compared with control of 92% and 98.4% and 98.7%, respectively
Figure Legend Snippet: Organ support-free days and mortality. A Organ support-free days in patients allocated to lopinavir-ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, combination therapy and control among critically ill patients in the COVID-19 Antiviral Therapy Domain of the REMAP-CAP trial. Distributions of organ support-free days are displayed as the cumulative proportion ( y axis) for each study group by day ( x axis). Curves that rise more slowly are more favorable. The height of each curve at “ − 1” indicates the in‐hospital mortality for each intervention. The height of each curve at any time point indicates the proportion of patients who had that number of organ support-free days or fewer. The difference in the height of the curves at any point represents the difference in the percentile in the distribution of organ support-free days associated with that number of days alive and free of organ support. B Organ support-free days are displayed as horizontally stacked proportions by study group. Red represents worse values and blue represents better values. On primary analysis of organ support-free days, the three interventions decreased organ support-free days compared to control, with corresponding median adjusted ORs and 95% credible intervals of 0.73 (0.55–0.99), 0.57 (0.35–0.83) and 0.41 (0.24–0.72), respectively, yielding high posterior probabilities of futility (99% or greater) and high posterior probabilities of harm compared to control (98%, 99.9% and > 99.9%, respectively). C Empirical distribution of survival for lopinavir–ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, combination therapy and control. Lopinavir-ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine and combination therapy resulted in reduced survival over 90 days compared to control, with adjusted median hazard ratios (95% CrI) of 0.83 (0.65, 1.07), 0.71 (0.45, 0.97), 0.58 (0.36, 0.92), yielding high probabilities of harm compared with control of 92% and 98.4% and 98.7%, respectively

Techniques Used:

Screening, randomization, and follow-up of patients in the REMAP-CAP COVID-19 Antiviral Therapy Domain randomized controlled trial. a Patients could meet more than one ineligibility criterion (Table S2, Supplementary Appendix). b Details of platform exclusions are provided in the Supplementary Results (Supplementary Appendix). c The primary analysis of organ support-free days (OSFD) and hospital survival were conducted on the REMAP-CAP intention-to-treat cohort which included all patients enrolled in the trial who met COVID-19 severe state criteria and were randomized within at least one domain, adjusting for patient factors and for assignment to interventions in other domains (Table S3, Supplementary Appendix). ^Contraindications include hypersensitivity, receiving the study drug as usual medication prior to hospitalization, human immune deficiency (HIV) infection (contraindication of lopinavir-ritonavir), severe liver failure (contraindication of lopinavir-ritonavir), receiving amiodarone as a usual medication prior to this hospitalization or any administration of amiodarone within the 72 h prior to assessment (contraindication of lopinavir-ritonavir) and high clinical risk of sustained ventricular dysrhythmia (contraindication of hydroxychloroquine) (Table S2, Supplementary Appendix)
Figure Legend Snippet: Screening, randomization, and follow-up of patients in the REMAP-CAP COVID-19 Antiviral Therapy Domain randomized controlled trial. a Patients could meet more than one ineligibility criterion (Table S2, Supplementary Appendix). b Details of platform exclusions are provided in the Supplementary Results (Supplementary Appendix). c The primary analysis of organ support-free days (OSFD) and hospital survival were conducted on the REMAP-CAP intention-to-treat cohort which included all patients enrolled in the trial who met COVID-19 severe state criteria and were randomized within at least one domain, adjusting for patient factors and for assignment to interventions in other domains (Table S3, Supplementary Appendix). ^Contraindications include hypersensitivity, receiving the study drug as usual medication prior to hospitalization, human immune deficiency (HIV) infection (contraindication of lopinavir-ritonavir), severe liver failure (contraindication of lopinavir-ritonavir), receiving amiodarone as a usual medication prior to this hospitalization or any administration of amiodarone within the 72 h prior to assessment (contraindication of lopinavir-ritonavir) and high clinical risk of sustained ventricular dysrhythmia (contraindication of hydroxychloroquine) (Table S2, Supplementary Appendix)

Techniques Used: Infection

24) Product Images from "In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses"

Article Title: In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses

Journal: The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine

doi: 10.3904/kjim.2020.157

Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p
Figure Legend Snippet: Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p

Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Concentration Assay

Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

25) Product Images from "In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses"

Article Title: In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses

Journal: The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine

doi: 10.3904/kjim.2020.157

Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p
Figure Legend Snippet: Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p

Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Concentration Assay

Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

26) Product Images from "In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses"

Article Title: In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses

Journal: The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine

doi: 10.3904/kjim.2020.157

Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p
Figure Legend Snippet: Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p

Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Concentration Assay

Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

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In Vitro:

Article Title: In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses
Article Snippet: Therefore, the screening of potential antivirals to fight COVID-19 is urgently needed and led us to assess the in vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine on SARS-CoV-2 at clinically administrable doses. .. Lopinavir/ritonavir showed marked in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 in terms of preventing cytotoxicity and reducing viral load, while hydroxychloroquine did not. .. The results of this in vitro study could provide insights into the establishment of effective COVID-19 therapeutics.

Article Title: In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses
Article Snippet: .. First, we could not examine the in vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against SARS-CoV-2 at their estimated concentrations from the respiratory tract, owing to the scarcity of information on tissue levels [ ]. .. Second, we did not evaluate EC50 values or pre-attachment activity of the drugs against SARS-CoV-2 in this study because the objective of the present study was to determine their in vitro activity at their clinical doses on an established infection.

Activity Assay:

Article Title: In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses
Article Snippet: Therefore, the screening of potential antivirals to fight COVID-19 is urgently needed and led us to assess the in vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine on SARS-CoV-2 at clinically administrable doses. .. Lopinavir/ritonavir showed marked in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 in terms of preventing cytotoxicity and reducing viral load, while hydroxychloroquine did not. .. The results of this in vitro study could provide insights into the establishment of effective COVID-19 therapeutics.

Article Title: In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses
Article Snippet: .. First, we could not examine the in vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against SARS-CoV-2 at their estimated concentrations from the respiratory tract, owing to the scarcity of information on tissue levels [ ]. .. Second, we did not evaluate EC50 values or pre-attachment activity of the drugs against SARS-CoV-2 in this study because the objective of the present study was to determine their in vitro activity at their clinical doses on an established infection.

Article Title: Impact of combination antiretroviral therapy in the NOD.c3c4 mouse model of autoimmune biliary disease
Article Snippet: Histological and biochemical response to antiretroviral therapy Since MMTV reverse transcriptase enzyme is sensitive to zidovudine and tenofovir and the MMTV aspartyl protease can be inhibited by lopinavir – , we tested the effect of commercially available combinations of reverse transcriptase inhibitors including emtricitabine and tenofovir (Truvada™; Gilead, Foster City, CA, USA) as well as lamivudine and zidovudine (Combivir™; GlaxoSmithKline, Triangle Park, NC, USA) on disease development in NOD.c3c4 mice. .. To evaluate the effect of combination antiretroviral therapy, the protease inhibitors lopinavir and ritonavir (Kaletra™; AbbVie, North Chicago, IL, USA) were also used where the ritonavir acts to potentiate the activity of lopinavir . .. Following 3 months of intervention, marked differences were observed in necroinflammatory disease, in cholangitis and in total Ishak score in mice treated with antiretroviral therapy vs. placebo (Fig. ).

other:

Article Title: Lopinavir-ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine for critically ill patients with COVID-19: REMAP-CAP randomized controlled trial
Article Snippet: Lopinavir–ritonavir was administered at a dose of 400 mg of lopinavir and 100 mg of ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) every 12 h. For patients with a gastric tube who were unable to swallow tablets, lopinavir-ritonavir (at the same dose) was administered as a 5-ml suspension every 12 h or alternatively as two dissolved tablets or four crushed tablets (double dose), noting that systemic absorption is reduced by approximately 50% for crushed tablets [ ].

Article Title: Characteristics and outcomes of acute respiratory distress syndrome related to COVID-19 in Belgian and French intensive care units according to antiviral strategies: the COVADIS multicentre observational study
Article Snippet: Absence of independent association between lopinavir/ritonavir and AKI after adjustment can be related to overfitting and/or to our sensitive threshold for definition of AKI, highlighted by high rates of AKI as compared to other cohorts with yet similar rate of RRT in groups not receiving L/R [ , ].

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    AbbVie ritonavir
    Antiretroviral regimens associated with reduction in serum liver enzyme levels from baseline. (A) After 4 weeks of treatment, only mice receiving Truvada and Kaletra experienced a significant mean reduction in alkaline phosphatase levels as compared to placebo, whereas by the end of 12 weeks therapy mice treated with regimens containing Truvada with or without Kaletra experienced significant reduction. (B) A significant reduction in serum alanine transaminase levels was observed in mice receiving Truvada and Kaletra but not Combivir and Kaletra [Combivir (zidovudine and lamivudine), Truvada (tenofovir and emtricitabine), Kaletra (lopinavir and <t>ritonavir);</t> data shown as means ± SEM; * P
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    AbbVie kaletra
    A randomized, open‐label, balanced, two‐treatment, single‐dose, crossover oral bioequivalence study of Lopinavir/Ritonavir Granules 40 mg/10 mg with <t>KALETRA®</t> (Lopinavir/Ritonavir) Oral Solution 80 mg/20 mg per mL in normal healthy adults under fed conditions
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    Forest plot of antiviral strategies effect on being alive and extubated at day 28 after adjustment on age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index, plateau pressure and P/F ratio. Standard of care served as reference. ORs (CI95%) are indicated after each variable and were obtained through a generalized linear mixed model with center as random effect ( N = 412). L/R <t>lopinavir/ritonavir,</t> OHQ hydroxychloroquine, P/F PaO 2 /FiO 2
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    Image Search Results


    Antiretroviral regimens associated with reduction in serum liver enzyme levels from baseline. (A) After 4 weeks of treatment, only mice receiving Truvada and Kaletra experienced a significant mean reduction in alkaline phosphatase levels as compared to placebo, whereas by the end of 12 weeks therapy mice treated with regimens containing Truvada with or without Kaletra experienced significant reduction. (B) A significant reduction in serum alanine transaminase levels was observed in mice receiving Truvada and Kaletra but not Combivir and Kaletra [Combivir (zidovudine and lamivudine), Truvada (tenofovir and emtricitabine), Kaletra (lopinavir and ritonavir); data shown as means ± SEM; * P

    Journal: Liver International

    Article Title: Impact of combination antiretroviral therapy in the NOD.c3c4 mouse model of autoimmune biliary disease

    doi: 10.1111/liv.12699

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Antiretroviral regimens associated with reduction in serum liver enzyme levels from baseline. (A) After 4 weeks of treatment, only mice receiving Truvada and Kaletra experienced a significant mean reduction in alkaline phosphatase levels as compared to placebo, whereas by the end of 12 weeks therapy mice treated with regimens containing Truvada with or without Kaletra experienced significant reduction. (B) A significant reduction in serum alanine transaminase levels was observed in mice receiving Truvada and Kaletra but not Combivir and Kaletra [Combivir (zidovudine and lamivudine), Truvada (tenofovir and emtricitabine), Kaletra (lopinavir and ritonavir); data shown as means ± SEM; * P

    Article Snippet: To evaluate the effect of combination antiretroviral therapy, the protease inhibitors lopinavir and ritonavir (Kaletra™; AbbVie, North Chicago, IL, USA) were also used where the ritonavir acts to potentiate the activity of lopinavir .

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    A randomized, open‐label, balanced, two‐treatment, single‐dose, crossover oral bioequivalence study of Lopinavir/Ritonavir Granules 40 mg/10 mg with KALETRA® (Lopinavir/Ritonavir) Oral Solution 80 mg/20 mg per mL in normal healthy adults under fed conditions

    Journal: Journal of the International AIDS Society

    Article Title: Abstracts

    doi: 10.1002/jia2.25148

    Figure Lengend Snippet: A randomized, open‐label, balanced, two‐treatment, single‐dose, crossover oral bioequivalence study of Lopinavir/Ritonavir Granules 40 mg/10 mg with KALETRA® (Lopinavir/Ritonavir) Oral Solution 80 mg/20 mg per mL in normal healthy adults under fed conditions

    Article Snippet: The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative oral bioavailability and safety profiles of Lopinavir/Ritonavir Granules 40 mg/10 mg (2 Sachets with 40/10 mg, Mylan Laboratories Limited, India) with KALETRA® (Lopinavir/Ritonavir, AbbVie Inc.) Oral Solution 80 mg/20 mg/mL.

    Techniques:

    Forest plot of antiviral strategies effect on being alive and extubated at day 28 after adjustment on age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index, plateau pressure and P/F ratio. Standard of care served as reference. ORs (CI95%) are indicated after each variable and were obtained through a generalized linear mixed model with center as random effect ( N = 412). L/R lopinavir/ritonavir, OHQ hydroxychloroquine, P/F PaO 2 /FiO 2

    Journal: Annals of Intensive Care

    Article Title: Characteristics and outcomes of acute respiratory distress syndrome related to COVID-19 in Belgian and French intensive care units according to antiviral strategies: the COVADIS multicentre observational study

    doi: 10.1186/s13613-020-00751-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Forest plot of antiviral strategies effect on being alive and extubated at day 28 after adjustment on age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index, plateau pressure and P/F ratio. Standard of care served as reference. ORs (CI95%) are indicated after each variable and were obtained through a generalized linear mixed model with center as random effect ( N = 412). L/R lopinavir/ritonavir, OHQ hydroxychloroquine, P/F PaO 2 /FiO 2

    Article Snippet: Absence of independent association between lopinavir/ritonavir and AKI after adjustment can be related to overfitting and/or to our sensitive threshold for definition of AKI, highlighted by high rates of AKI as compared to other cohorts with yet similar rate of RRT in groups not receiving L/R [ , ].

    Techniques:

    Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p

    Journal: The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine

    Article Title: In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses

    doi: 10.3904/kjim.2020.157

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Changes in viral loads in cell culture supernatant in response to different antiviral treatments. Groups are defined as follows: no treatment, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) base 1 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 400 mg once daily), HCQ base 2 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of HCQ sulfate 800 mg once daily), lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily), and combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir 7.0/1.75 μg/mL with HCQ base 1 or 2 μg/mL. a Denotes p

    Article Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir showed marked in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 in terms of preventing cytotoxicity and reducing viral load, while hydroxychloroquine did not.

    Techniques: Cell Culture, Concentration Assay

    Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).

    Journal: The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine

    Article Title: In vitro activity of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at concentrations achievable by usual doses

    doi: 10.3904/kjim.2020.157

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of different antiviral treatments on the cytopathic effects of Vero cells 48 hours after inoculation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (A) Control, (B) no antiviral treatment, (C) 2 μg/mL of hydroxychloroquine (expected plasma steady-state concentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 800 mg once daily), and (D) 7.0/1.75 μg/mL of lopinavir/ritonavir (expected plasma steady-state concentration of lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily).

    Article Snippet: Lopinavir/ritonavir showed marked in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 in terms of preventing cytotoxicity and reducing viral load, while hydroxychloroquine did not.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay