kir6 1  (Alomone Labs)


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    Alomone Labs kir6 1
    Expression of K ATP channel subunits in DRG at the mRNA and protein level . A . RT-PCR product bands consistent with the presence of mRNA encoding K ATP channel subunits in DRG from control rats . Total mRNA was isolated from the L5 DRG. Amplified products appeared at positions corresponding to the expected base pair lengths of 168 <t>(Kir6.2),</t> 182 (SUR1), 110 <t>(Kir6.1),</t> 124 (SUR2) and 315 (18S). B . Western blotting using antibodies against K ATP channel subunits in DRG of control rats . Kir6.2 antibody recognized one immunoreactive band at 37 kDa. SUR1 antibody revealed prominent immunoreactive bands at 150 and 37 kDa, and a less pronounced band at 125 kDa. The band at 150 kDa indicates glycosylated SUR1 bound to Kir6.2. Kir6.1 did not detect any band in DRG tissue, while a band of 37 kDa was detected in samples of brain tissue. Two immunoreactive bands at 150 and 74 kDa were detected by SUR2 antibody. Molecular size markers are shown on the left.
    Kir6 1, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Images

    1) Product Images from "K ATP channel subunits in rat dorsal root ganglia: alterations by painful axotomy"

    Article Title: K ATP channel subunits in rat dorsal root ganglia: alterations by painful axotomy

    Journal: Molecular Pain

    doi: 10.1186/1744-8069-6-6

    Expression of K ATP channel subunits in DRG at the mRNA and protein level . A . RT-PCR product bands consistent with the presence of mRNA encoding K ATP channel subunits in DRG from control rats . Total mRNA was isolated from the L5 DRG. Amplified products appeared at positions corresponding to the expected base pair lengths of 168 (Kir6.2), 182 (SUR1), 110 (Kir6.1), 124 (SUR2) and 315 (18S). B . Western blotting using antibodies against K ATP channel subunits in DRG of control rats . Kir6.2 antibody recognized one immunoreactive band at 37 kDa. SUR1 antibody revealed prominent immunoreactive bands at 150 and 37 kDa, and a less pronounced band at 125 kDa. The band at 150 kDa indicates glycosylated SUR1 bound to Kir6.2. Kir6.1 did not detect any band in DRG tissue, while a band of 37 kDa was detected in samples of brain tissue. Two immunoreactive bands at 150 and 74 kDa were detected by SUR2 antibody. Molecular size markers are shown on the left.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Expression of K ATP channel subunits in DRG at the mRNA and protein level . A . RT-PCR product bands consistent with the presence of mRNA encoding K ATP channel subunits in DRG from control rats . Total mRNA was isolated from the L5 DRG. Amplified products appeared at positions corresponding to the expected base pair lengths of 168 (Kir6.2), 182 (SUR1), 110 (Kir6.1), 124 (SUR2) and 315 (18S). B . Western blotting using antibodies against K ATP channel subunits in DRG of control rats . Kir6.2 antibody recognized one immunoreactive band at 37 kDa. SUR1 antibody revealed prominent immunoreactive bands at 150 and 37 kDa, and a less pronounced band at 125 kDa. The band at 150 kDa indicates glycosylated SUR1 bound to Kir6.2. Kir6.1 did not detect any band in DRG tissue, while a band of 37 kDa was detected in samples of brain tissue. Two immunoreactive bands at 150 and 74 kDa were detected by SUR2 antibody. Molecular size markers are shown on the left.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Isolation, Amplification, Western Blot

    Presence and distribution of Kir6.2, SUR1, and SUR2 subunits in DRG neurons and satellite glial cells from control rats . Samples of DRG slices were co-labeled with DAPI, which stains nuclei (blue), and the antibody against each individual subunit (red) (A-D). A . Kir6.1 immunofluorescence was absent in DRG. In contrast the same antibody revealed immunostaining in positive controls (rat brain and aorta smooth muscle; not shown). B . Immunofluorescence against Kir6.2 is identified on plasma membranes (yellow arrowheads) and cytosol (white arrow). Most satellite glial cells also stained positive for Kir6.2. C . Immunofluorescence against SUR1 is observed in the plasma (yellow arrowheads) and nuclear membranes (purple color), as well as along the axons (single yellow arrowhead). Satellite glial cells also stained positive. D . Staining against the SUR2 subunit is observed in the plasma membrane (yellow arrowheads), nuclear membrane (purple color), and the cytosol (white arrow). Satellite glial cells also stained positive. In order to confirm the localization of staining in the plasmalemmal membrane of neurons versus the satellite cell membrane, we examined dissociated DRG cells, stained with the same antibodies, using confocal microscopy. These images clearly showed that neuronal plasmalemmal membrane stained positive for SUR1 ( E ), Kir6.2 ( F ), and SUR2 ( G ). Nuclear envelops also stained positive ( E and G , single yellow arrowhead). Distinct positive staining was also observed in satellite cells ( G ). In E , images correspond to 5 sequential confocal images of z-projections (with spacing increments of 1 μm).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Presence and distribution of Kir6.2, SUR1, and SUR2 subunits in DRG neurons and satellite glial cells from control rats . Samples of DRG slices were co-labeled with DAPI, which stains nuclei (blue), and the antibody against each individual subunit (red) (A-D). A . Kir6.1 immunofluorescence was absent in DRG. In contrast the same antibody revealed immunostaining in positive controls (rat brain and aorta smooth muscle; not shown). B . Immunofluorescence against Kir6.2 is identified on plasma membranes (yellow arrowheads) and cytosol (white arrow). Most satellite glial cells also stained positive for Kir6.2. C . Immunofluorescence against SUR1 is observed in the plasma (yellow arrowheads) and nuclear membranes (purple color), as well as along the axons (single yellow arrowhead). Satellite glial cells also stained positive. D . Staining against the SUR2 subunit is observed in the plasma membrane (yellow arrowheads), nuclear membrane (purple color), and the cytosol (white arrow). Satellite glial cells also stained positive. In order to confirm the localization of staining in the plasmalemmal membrane of neurons versus the satellite cell membrane, we examined dissociated DRG cells, stained with the same antibodies, using confocal microscopy. These images clearly showed that neuronal plasmalemmal membrane stained positive for SUR1 ( E ), Kir6.2 ( F ), and SUR2 ( G ). Nuclear envelops also stained positive ( E and G , single yellow arrowhead). Distinct positive staining was also observed in satellite cells ( G ). In E , images correspond to 5 sequential confocal images of z-projections (with spacing increments of 1 μm).

    Techniques Used: Labeling, Immunofluorescence, Immunostaining, Staining, Confocal Microscopy

    Colocalization studies in DRG neurons . A-C. Colocalization of BODIPY-Glybenclamide staining of SUR1 subunits ( A ), with anti-Kir6.2 antibody ( B ), showing that SUR1 subunits are co-expressed with Kir6.2 subunits in the same complexes ( C : merged). D-F . Co-localization of anti-SUR1 antibody ( D ) with anti-CGRP antibody ( E ) in DRG studied under fluorescent microscopy. Merged image ( F ) shows anti-SUR1 immunofluorescence present in small, CGRP positive neurons, as well as in CGRP negative neurons. G - I . Co-localization of anti-SUR1 antibody ( G ) with anti-CGRP antibody ( H ) in dissociated neurons studied under confocal microscopy. Merged image ( I ) shows SUR1 immunofluorescence present in small, CGRP + neurons (arrows), as well as in CGRP negative neurons. K - M . Co-localization of anti-SUR1 antibody ( K ) with anti-Caspr antibody ( L ) in DRG studied under confocal microscopy. Merged image ( M ) shows that SUR1 immunofluorescence co-localizes with anti-Caspr staining in paranodal sites. Yellow arrowheads point to SUR1 positive SLI (in K ). N - P . Colocalization of anti-Kir6.2 antibody ( N ) with anti-Caspr antibody ( O ) in DRG studied under confocal microscopy. Merged image ( P ) shows that anti-SUR1 immunofluorescence colocalizes with anti-Caspr staining in paranodal sites, adjacent to Ranvier's nodes (White arrows point at paranodal K ATP channels). This colocalization of Caspr with SUR1 or Kir6.2 indicates that K ATP channels of the Kir6.2/SUR1 subtype are present in paranodal sites (white arrows) adjacent to nodes of Ranvier. All samples are from slices within DRG tissue.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Colocalization studies in DRG neurons . A-C. Colocalization of BODIPY-Glybenclamide staining of SUR1 subunits ( A ), with anti-Kir6.2 antibody ( B ), showing that SUR1 subunits are co-expressed with Kir6.2 subunits in the same complexes ( C : merged). D-F . Co-localization of anti-SUR1 antibody ( D ) with anti-CGRP antibody ( E ) in DRG studied under fluorescent microscopy. Merged image ( F ) shows anti-SUR1 immunofluorescence present in small, CGRP positive neurons, as well as in CGRP negative neurons. G - I . Co-localization of anti-SUR1 antibody ( G ) with anti-CGRP antibody ( H ) in dissociated neurons studied under confocal microscopy. Merged image ( I ) shows SUR1 immunofluorescence present in small, CGRP + neurons (arrows), as well as in CGRP negative neurons. K - M . Co-localization of anti-SUR1 antibody ( K ) with anti-Caspr antibody ( L ) in DRG studied under confocal microscopy. Merged image ( M ) shows that SUR1 immunofluorescence co-localizes with anti-Caspr staining in paranodal sites. Yellow arrowheads point to SUR1 positive SLI (in K ). N - P . Colocalization of anti-Kir6.2 antibody ( N ) with anti-Caspr antibody ( O ) in DRG studied under confocal microscopy. Merged image ( P ) shows that anti-SUR1 immunofluorescence colocalizes with anti-Caspr staining in paranodal sites, adjacent to Ranvier's nodes (White arrows point at paranodal K ATP channels). This colocalization of Caspr with SUR1 or Kir6.2 indicates that K ATP channels of the Kir6.2/SUR1 subtype are present in paranodal sites (white arrows) adjacent to nodes of Ranvier. All samples are from slices within DRG tissue.

    Techniques Used: Staining, Microscopy, Immunofluorescence, Confocal Microscopy

    Distribution of K ATP subunits on DRG examined by electron microscopy . Samples from slices within DRG tissue were treated with antibodies against Kir6.2 or SUR1, which were labeled with gold particles (shown as black dots). A . Anti-Kir6.2 staining on axonal membrane (red arrow) and myelin sheath (yellow arrowhead). B . Anti-SUR1 staining on axonal membrane (red arrows). C . Anti-SUR1 staining on axonal membrane (red arrows) and into a SLI (yellow arrowheads). The axons are marked by red asterisks.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Distribution of K ATP subunits on DRG examined by electron microscopy . Samples from slices within DRG tissue were treated with antibodies against Kir6.2 or SUR1, which were labeled with gold particles (shown as black dots). A . Anti-Kir6.2 staining on axonal membrane (red arrow) and myelin sheath (yellow arrowhead). B . Anti-SUR1 staining on axonal membrane (red arrows). C . Anti-SUR1 staining on axonal membrane (red arrows) and into a SLI (yellow arrowheads). The axons are marked by red asterisks.

    Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy, Labeling, Staining

    kir6 1  (Alomone Labs)


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    Alomone Labs kir6 1
    Expression of K ATP channel subunits in DRG at the mRNA and protein level . A . RT-PCR product bands consistent with the presence of mRNA encoding K ATP channel subunits in DRG from control rats . Total mRNA was isolated from the L5 DRG. Amplified products appeared at positions corresponding to the expected base pair lengths of 168 <t>(Kir6.2),</t> 182 (SUR1), 110 <t>(Kir6.1),</t> 124 (SUR2) and 315 (18S). B . Western blotting using antibodies against K ATP channel subunits in DRG of control rats . Kir6.2 antibody recognized one immunoreactive band at 37 kDa. SUR1 antibody revealed prominent immunoreactive bands at 150 and 37 kDa, and a less pronounced band at 125 kDa. The band at 150 kDa indicates glycosylated SUR1 bound to Kir6.2. Kir6.1 did not detect any band in DRG tissue, while a band of 37 kDa was detected in samples of brain tissue. Two immunoreactive bands at 150 and 74 kDa were detected by SUR2 antibody. Molecular size markers are shown on the left.
    Kir6 1, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/kir6 1/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    kir6 1 - by Bioz Stars, 2023-02
    94/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "K ATP channel subunits in rat dorsal root ganglia: alterations by painful axotomy"

    Article Title: K ATP channel subunits in rat dorsal root ganglia: alterations by painful axotomy

    Journal: Molecular Pain

    doi: 10.1186/1744-8069-6-6

    Expression of K ATP channel subunits in DRG at the mRNA and protein level . A . RT-PCR product bands consistent with the presence of mRNA encoding K ATP channel subunits in DRG from control rats . Total mRNA was isolated from the L5 DRG. Amplified products appeared at positions corresponding to the expected base pair lengths of 168 (Kir6.2), 182 (SUR1), 110 (Kir6.1), 124 (SUR2) and 315 (18S). B . Western blotting using antibodies against K ATP channel subunits in DRG of control rats . Kir6.2 antibody recognized one immunoreactive band at 37 kDa. SUR1 antibody revealed prominent immunoreactive bands at 150 and 37 kDa, and a less pronounced band at 125 kDa. The band at 150 kDa indicates glycosylated SUR1 bound to Kir6.2. Kir6.1 did not detect any band in DRG tissue, while a band of 37 kDa was detected in samples of brain tissue. Two immunoreactive bands at 150 and 74 kDa were detected by SUR2 antibody. Molecular size markers are shown on the left.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Expression of K ATP channel subunits in DRG at the mRNA and protein level . A . RT-PCR product bands consistent with the presence of mRNA encoding K ATP channel subunits in DRG from control rats . Total mRNA was isolated from the L5 DRG. Amplified products appeared at positions corresponding to the expected base pair lengths of 168 (Kir6.2), 182 (SUR1), 110 (Kir6.1), 124 (SUR2) and 315 (18S). B . Western blotting using antibodies against K ATP channel subunits in DRG of control rats . Kir6.2 antibody recognized one immunoreactive band at 37 kDa. SUR1 antibody revealed prominent immunoreactive bands at 150 and 37 kDa, and a less pronounced band at 125 kDa. The band at 150 kDa indicates glycosylated SUR1 bound to Kir6.2. Kir6.1 did not detect any band in DRG tissue, while a band of 37 kDa was detected in samples of brain tissue. Two immunoreactive bands at 150 and 74 kDa were detected by SUR2 antibody. Molecular size markers are shown on the left.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Isolation, Amplification, Western Blot

    Presence and distribution of Kir6.2, SUR1, and SUR2 subunits in DRG neurons and satellite glial cells from control rats . Samples of DRG slices were co-labeled with DAPI, which stains nuclei (blue), and the antibody against each individual subunit (red) (A-D). A . Kir6.1 immunofluorescence was absent in DRG. In contrast the same antibody revealed immunostaining in positive controls (rat brain and aorta smooth muscle; not shown). B . Immunofluorescence against Kir6.2 is identified on plasma membranes (yellow arrowheads) and cytosol (white arrow). Most satellite glial cells also stained positive for Kir6.2. C . Immunofluorescence against SUR1 is observed in the plasma (yellow arrowheads) and nuclear membranes (purple color), as well as along the axons (single yellow arrowhead). Satellite glial cells also stained positive. D . Staining against the SUR2 subunit is observed in the plasma membrane (yellow arrowheads), nuclear membrane (purple color), and the cytosol (white arrow). Satellite glial cells also stained positive. In order to confirm the localization of staining in the plasmalemmal membrane of neurons versus the satellite cell membrane, we examined dissociated DRG cells, stained with the same antibodies, using confocal microscopy. These images clearly showed that neuronal plasmalemmal membrane stained positive for SUR1 ( E ), Kir6.2 ( F ), and SUR2 ( G ). Nuclear envelops also stained positive ( E and G , single yellow arrowhead). Distinct positive staining was also observed in satellite cells ( G ). In E , images correspond to 5 sequential confocal images of z-projections (with spacing increments of 1 μm).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Presence and distribution of Kir6.2, SUR1, and SUR2 subunits in DRG neurons and satellite glial cells from control rats . Samples of DRG slices were co-labeled with DAPI, which stains nuclei (blue), and the antibody against each individual subunit (red) (A-D). A . Kir6.1 immunofluorescence was absent in DRG. In contrast the same antibody revealed immunostaining in positive controls (rat brain and aorta smooth muscle; not shown). B . Immunofluorescence against Kir6.2 is identified on plasma membranes (yellow arrowheads) and cytosol (white arrow). Most satellite glial cells also stained positive for Kir6.2. C . Immunofluorescence against SUR1 is observed in the plasma (yellow arrowheads) and nuclear membranes (purple color), as well as along the axons (single yellow arrowhead). Satellite glial cells also stained positive. D . Staining against the SUR2 subunit is observed in the plasma membrane (yellow arrowheads), nuclear membrane (purple color), and the cytosol (white arrow). Satellite glial cells also stained positive. In order to confirm the localization of staining in the plasmalemmal membrane of neurons versus the satellite cell membrane, we examined dissociated DRG cells, stained with the same antibodies, using confocal microscopy. These images clearly showed that neuronal plasmalemmal membrane stained positive for SUR1 ( E ), Kir6.2 ( F ), and SUR2 ( G ). Nuclear envelops also stained positive ( E and G , single yellow arrowhead). Distinct positive staining was also observed in satellite cells ( G ). In E , images correspond to 5 sequential confocal images of z-projections (with spacing increments of 1 μm).

    Techniques Used: Labeling, Immunofluorescence, Immunostaining, Staining, Confocal Microscopy

    Colocalization studies in DRG neurons . A-C. Colocalization of BODIPY-Glybenclamide staining of SUR1 subunits ( A ), with anti-Kir6.2 antibody ( B ), showing that SUR1 subunits are co-expressed with Kir6.2 subunits in the same complexes ( C : merged). D-F . Co-localization of anti-SUR1 antibody ( D ) with anti-CGRP antibody ( E ) in DRG studied under fluorescent microscopy. Merged image ( F ) shows anti-SUR1 immunofluorescence present in small, CGRP positive neurons, as well as in CGRP negative neurons. G - I . Co-localization of anti-SUR1 antibody ( G ) with anti-CGRP antibody ( H ) in dissociated neurons studied under confocal microscopy. Merged image ( I ) shows SUR1 immunofluorescence present in small, CGRP + neurons (arrows), as well as in CGRP negative neurons. K - M . Co-localization of anti-SUR1 antibody ( K ) with anti-Caspr antibody ( L ) in DRG studied under confocal microscopy. Merged image ( M ) shows that SUR1 immunofluorescence co-localizes with anti-Caspr staining in paranodal sites. Yellow arrowheads point to SUR1 positive SLI (in K ). N - P . Colocalization of anti-Kir6.2 antibody ( N ) with anti-Caspr antibody ( O ) in DRG studied under confocal microscopy. Merged image ( P ) shows that anti-SUR1 immunofluorescence colocalizes with anti-Caspr staining in paranodal sites, adjacent to Ranvier's nodes (White arrows point at paranodal K ATP channels). This colocalization of Caspr with SUR1 or Kir6.2 indicates that K ATP channels of the Kir6.2/SUR1 subtype are present in paranodal sites (white arrows) adjacent to nodes of Ranvier. All samples are from slices within DRG tissue.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Colocalization studies in DRG neurons . A-C. Colocalization of BODIPY-Glybenclamide staining of SUR1 subunits ( A ), with anti-Kir6.2 antibody ( B ), showing that SUR1 subunits are co-expressed with Kir6.2 subunits in the same complexes ( C : merged). D-F . Co-localization of anti-SUR1 antibody ( D ) with anti-CGRP antibody ( E ) in DRG studied under fluorescent microscopy. Merged image ( F ) shows anti-SUR1 immunofluorescence present in small, CGRP positive neurons, as well as in CGRP negative neurons. G - I . Co-localization of anti-SUR1 antibody ( G ) with anti-CGRP antibody ( H ) in dissociated neurons studied under confocal microscopy. Merged image ( I ) shows SUR1 immunofluorescence present in small, CGRP + neurons (arrows), as well as in CGRP negative neurons. K - M . Co-localization of anti-SUR1 antibody ( K ) with anti-Caspr antibody ( L ) in DRG studied under confocal microscopy. Merged image ( M ) shows that SUR1 immunofluorescence co-localizes with anti-Caspr staining in paranodal sites. Yellow arrowheads point to SUR1 positive SLI (in K ). N - P . Colocalization of anti-Kir6.2 antibody ( N ) with anti-Caspr antibody ( O ) in DRG studied under confocal microscopy. Merged image ( P ) shows that anti-SUR1 immunofluorescence colocalizes with anti-Caspr staining in paranodal sites, adjacent to Ranvier's nodes (White arrows point at paranodal K ATP channels). This colocalization of Caspr with SUR1 or Kir6.2 indicates that K ATP channels of the Kir6.2/SUR1 subtype are present in paranodal sites (white arrows) adjacent to nodes of Ranvier. All samples are from slices within DRG tissue.

    Techniques Used: Staining, Microscopy, Immunofluorescence, Confocal Microscopy

    Distribution of K ATP subunits on DRG examined by electron microscopy . Samples from slices within DRG tissue were treated with antibodies against Kir6.2 or SUR1, which were labeled with gold particles (shown as black dots). A . Anti-Kir6.2 staining on axonal membrane (red arrow) and myelin sheath (yellow arrowhead). B . Anti-SUR1 staining on axonal membrane (red arrows). C . Anti-SUR1 staining on axonal membrane (red arrows) and into a SLI (yellow arrowheads). The axons are marked by red asterisks.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Distribution of K ATP subunits on DRG examined by electron microscopy . Samples from slices within DRG tissue were treated with antibodies against Kir6.2 or SUR1, which were labeled with gold particles (shown as black dots). A . Anti-Kir6.2 staining on axonal membrane (red arrow) and myelin sheath (yellow arrowhead). B . Anti-SUR1 staining on axonal membrane (red arrows). C . Anti-SUR1 staining on axonal membrane (red arrows) and into a SLI (yellow arrowheads). The axons are marked by red asterisks.

    Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy, Labeling, Staining

    antibodies against kir6 1  (Alomone Labs)


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    Alomone Labs antibodies against kir6 1
    Nico ameliorated LPS-induced ALI and inflammation. (a) Nico increased LPS-induced <t>Kir6.1</t> and Kir6.2 downregulation in the lung. (b, c) Lung sections stained with H&E showed severe injury in the LPS group which was attenuated by Nico pretreatment. The data revealed a high score for the LPS-treated group which was decreased in the Nico-pretreated group. (d) Nico pretreatment significantly reduced LPS-induced protein leakage in BALF. (e, f) Nico alleviated LPS-induced increments of MPO activities in BALF and lung homogenate. (g, h) Nico prevented the production of TNF- α and IL-1 β in lung homogenate. Data were shown as mean ± SEM ( n = 6 − 8). Statistically significant differences: ∗ P < 0.05 versus the control group; # P < 0.05 versus the LPS group. Scale bar: 50 μ m.
    Antibodies Against Kir6 1, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/antibodies against kir6 1/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
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    Images

    1) Product Images from "Nicorandil Attenuates LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Pulmonary Endothelial Cell Protection via NF- κ B and MAPK Pathways"

    Article Title: Nicorandil Attenuates LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Pulmonary Endothelial Cell Protection via NF- κ B and MAPK Pathways

    Journal: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity

    doi: 10.1155/2019/4957646

    Nico ameliorated LPS-induced ALI and inflammation. (a) Nico increased LPS-induced Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 downregulation in the lung. (b, c) Lung sections stained with H&E showed severe injury in the LPS group which was attenuated by Nico pretreatment. The data revealed a high score for the LPS-treated group which was decreased in the Nico-pretreated group. (d) Nico pretreatment significantly reduced LPS-induced protein leakage in BALF. (e, f) Nico alleviated LPS-induced increments of MPO activities in BALF and lung homogenate. (g, h) Nico prevented the production of TNF- α and IL-1 β in lung homogenate. Data were shown as mean ± SEM ( n = 6 − 8). Statistically significant differences: ∗ P < 0.05 versus the control group; # P < 0.05 versus the LPS group. Scale bar: 50 μ m.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Nico ameliorated LPS-induced ALI and inflammation. (a) Nico increased LPS-induced Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 downregulation in the lung. (b, c) Lung sections stained with H&E showed severe injury in the LPS group which was attenuated by Nico pretreatment. The data revealed a high score for the LPS-treated group which was decreased in the Nico-pretreated group. (d) Nico pretreatment significantly reduced LPS-induced protein leakage in BALF. (e, f) Nico alleviated LPS-induced increments of MPO activities in BALF and lung homogenate. (g, h) Nico prevented the production of TNF- α and IL-1 β in lung homogenate. Data were shown as mean ± SEM ( n = 6 − 8). Statistically significant differences: ∗ P < 0.05 versus the control group; # P < 0.05 versus the LPS group. Scale bar: 50 μ m.

    Techniques Used: Staining

    kir6 1  (Alomone Labs)


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    Alomone Labs kir6 1
    Unchanged <t>Kir6.1</t> subunits expression in heart tissues in Kir6.2 −/− mice. Data are expressed as means ± SEM (n=3 per group).
    Kir6 1, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Images

    1) Product Images from "Role of Kir6.2 subunits of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in endotoxemia-induced cardiac dysfunction"

    Article Title: Role of Kir6.2 subunits of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in endotoxemia-induced cardiac dysfunction

    Journal: Cardiovascular Diabetology

    doi: 10.1186/1475-2840-12-75

    Unchanged Kir6.1 subunits expression in heart tissues in Kir6.2 −/− mice. Data are expressed as means ± SEM (n=3 per group).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Unchanged Kir6.1 subunits expression in heart tissues in Kir6.2 −/− mice. Data are expressed as means ± SEM (n=3 per group).

    Techniques Used: Expressing

    Lack of Kir6.2 subunits deteriorates cardiac function in mice following LPS treatment (A, representative echocardiograms). Unlike WT mice, Kir6.2 −/− mice failed to augment cardiac performance 360 min after LPS administration, and progressed to significant depression of ventricular function as determined by left ventricular ejection fraction (EF, B ) and fraction of shortening (FS, C ). * P <0.05 compared with Control (unpaired t test). Data are expressed as means ± SEM (n=10 per group).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Lack of Kir6.2 subunits deteriorates cardiac function in mice following LPS treatment (A, representative echocardiograms). Unlike WT mice, Kir6.2 −/− mice failed to augment cardiac performance 360 min after LPS administration, and progressed to significant depression of ventricular function as determined by left ventricular ejection fraction (EF, B ) and fraction of shortening (FS, C ). * P <0.05 compared with Control (unpaired t test). Data are expressed as means ± SEM (n=10 per group).

    Techniques Used:

    Morphological analysis of myocardial damage in WT and Kir6.2 −/− mice 360 min after LPS administration. Representative light and electron micrographs of the left ventricular tissues indicate that LPS-induced endotoxemia caused more severe myocardial damage in Kir6.2 −/− mice than in WT mice (n = 6 per group). Mt, mitochondria; Mf, myofiber.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Morphological analysis of myocardial damage in WT and Kir6.2 −/− mice 360 min after LPS administration. Representative light and electron micrographs of the left ventricular tissues indicate that LPS-induced endotoxemia caused more severe myocardial damage in Kir6.2 −/− mice than in WT mice (n = 6 per group). Mt, mitochondria; Mf, myofiber.

    Techniques Used:

    Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, A) and creatine kinase (CK, B) levels were significantly elevated in Kir6.2 −/− mice following LPS treatment. ** P <0.01 compared with WT (unpaired t test); # P <0.05, ## P <0.01 compared with Control (unpaired t test). Data are expressed as means ± SEM (n=10 per group).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, A) and creatine kinase (CK, B) levels were significantly elevated in Kir6.2 −/− mice following LPS treatment. ** P <0.01 compared with WT (unpaired t test); # P <0.05, ## P <0.01 compared with Control (unpaired t test). Data are expressed as means ± SEM (n=10 per group).

    Techniques Used:

    Lack of Kir6.2 subunits exacerbates myocardial apoptosis in mice at 90, 180 and 360 min after LPS administration (TUNEL × 400). Arrow indicates TUNEL positive cells. * P <0.05, ** P <0.01 compared with WT (unpaired t test). Data are expressed as means ± SEM (n=6 per group).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Lack of Kir6.2 subunits exacerbates myocardial apoptosis in mice at 90, 180 and 360 min after LPS administration (TUNEL × 400). Arrow indicates TUNEL positive cells. * P <0.05, ** P <0.01 compared with WT (unpaired t test). Data are expressed as means ± SEM (n=6 per group).

    Techniques Used: TUNEL Assay

    Serum (A) and myocardial (B) TNF-α levels were significantly elevated in Kir6.2 −/− mice following LPS treatment. Kir6.2 −/− mice displayed greater TNF-α level in both serum and myocardial tissues than WT mice 360 min after LPS administration. ** P <0.01 compared with WT (unpaired t test). Data are expressed as means ± SEM (n=10 per group).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Serum (A) and myocardial (B) TNF-α levels were significantly elevated in Kir6.2 −/− mice following LPS treatment. Kir6.2 −/− mice displayed greater TNF-α level in both serum and myocardial tissues than WT mice 360 min after LPS administration. ** P <0.01 compared with WT (unpaired t test). Data are expressed as means ± SEM (n=10 per group).

    Techniques Used:

    anti kir4 1  (Alomone Labs)


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    Alomone Labs anti kir4 1
    ( A ) Inwardly rectifying potassium channels <t>Kir4.1</t> (green) are localized in the area of the photoreceptors and in outer nuclear layer (red arrowhead), but not in Müller cell processes such as stalks or endfeet. This is different from most of vertebrates where Kir4.1 channels were found in Müller cells . ( B ) Glial Müller cell specific marker vimentin, V (green); photoreceptor specific alpha-1 subunit of transducin, Gαt1 (red); nucleus-specific marker, DAPI (blue). Vimentin staining is observed in endfeet, somata, stalks and in distal processes (yellow arrowhead points somata, white arrow shows stalk). DAPI staining (blue) shows nuclei of retinal cells. Alpha-1 subunit of transducin (Gαt1, red) is a marker of the second messenger G-protein cascade and it is found mostly in photoreceptors. ( C ) ATP-dependent K + channel, Kir6.1 (black), is localized in stalks (white arrow) and in endfeet, while ( D ) two pore domain acid sensitive K + channels, TASK-1 (black) are found in whole Müller cell compartments: in endfeet (black arrowhead), stalks (white arrow), somata (yellow arrowhead) and in distal processes (white arrowhead). Scale bar = 20 µm. ILM-inner limiting membrane, GCL-ganglion cell layer, IPL-inner plexiform layer, INL-inner nuclear layer, ONL-outer nuclear layer, IS- inner segments of photoreceptors.
    Anti Kir4 1, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/anti kir4 1/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    anti kir4 1 - by Bioz Stars, 2023-02
    94/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Unidirectional Photoreceptor-to-Müller Glia Coupling and Unique K + Channel Expression in Caiman Retina"

    Article Title: Unidirectional Photoreceptor-to-Müller Glia Coupling and Unique K + Channel Expression in Caiman Retina

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097155

    ( A ) Inwardly rectifying potassium channels Kir4.1 (green) are localized in the area of the photoreceptors and in outer nuclear layer (red arrowhead), but not in Müller cell processes such as stalks or endfeet. This is different from most of vertebrates where Kir4.1 channels were found in Müller cells . ( B ) Glial Müller cell specific marker vimentin, V (green); photoreceptor specific alpha-1 subunit of transducin, Gαt1 (red); nucleus-specific marker, DAPI (blue). Vimentin staining is observed in endfeet, somata, stalks and in distal processes (yellow arrowhead points somata, white arrow shows stalk). DAPI staining (blue) shows nuclei of retinal cells. Alpha-1 subunit of transducin (Gαt1, red) is a marker of the second messenger G-protein cascade and it is found mostly in photoreceptors. ( C ) ATP-dependent K + channel, Kir6.1 (black), is localized in stalks (white arrow) and in endfeet, while ( D ) two pore domain acid sensitive K + channels, TASK-1 (black) are found in whole Müller cell compartments: in endfeet (black arrowhead), stalks (white arrow), somata (yellow arrowhead) and in distal processes (white arrowhead). Scale bar = 20 µm. ILM-inner limiting membrane, GCL-ganglion cell layer, IPL-inner plexiform layer, INL-inner nuclear layer, ONL-outer nuclear layer, IS- inner segments of photoreceptors.
    Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) Inwardly rectifying potassium channels Kir4.1 (green) are localized in the area of the photoreceptors and in outer nuclear layer (red arrowhead), but not in Müller cell processes such as stalks or endfeet. This is different from most of vertebrates where Kir4.1 channels were found in Müller cells . ( B ) Glial Müller cell specific marker vimentin, V (green); photoreceptor specific alpha-1 subunit of transducin, Gαt1 (red); nucleus-specific marker, DAPI (blue). Vimentin staining is observed in endfeet, somata, stalks and in distal processes (yellow arrowhead points somata, white arrow shows stalk). DAPI staining (blue) shows nuclei of retinal cells. Alpha-1 subunit of transducin (Gαt1, red) is a marker of the second messenger G-protein cascade and it is found mostly in photoreceptors. ( C ) ATP-dependent K + channel, Kir6.1 (black), is localized in stalks (white arrow) and in endfeet, while ( D ) two pore domain acid sensitive K + channels, TASK-1 (black) are found in whole Müller cell compartments: in endfeet (black arrowhead), stalks (white arrow), somata (yellow arrowhead) and in distal processes (white arrowhead). Scale bar = 20 µm. ILM-inner limiting membrane, GCL-ganglion cell layer, IPL-inner plexiform layer, INL-inner nuclear layer, ONL-outer nuclear layer, IS- inner segments of photoreceptors.

    Techniques Used: Marker, Staining

    kir6 1  (Alomone Labs)


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    Alomone Labs kir6 1
    ( A ) Inwardly rectifying potassium channels Kir4.1 (green) are localized in the area of the photoreceptors and in outer nuclear layer (red arrowhead), but not in Müller cell processes such as stalks or endfeet. This is different from most of vertebrates where Kir4.1 channels were found in Müller cells . ( B ) Glial Müller cell specific marker vimentin, V (green); photoreceptor specific alpha-1 subunit of transducin, Gαt1 (red); nucleus-specific marker, DAPI (blue). Vimentin staining is observed in endfeet, somata, stalks and in distal processes (yellow arrowhead points somata, white arrow shows stalk). DAPI staining (blue) shows nuclei of retinal cells. Alpha-1 subunit of transducin (Gαt1, red) is a marker of the second messenger G-protein cascade and it is found mostly in photoreceptors. ( C ) ATP-dependent K + channel, <t>Kir6.1</t> (black), is localized in stalks (white arrow) and in endfeet, while ( D ) two pore domain acid sensitive K + channels, TASK-1 (black) are found in whole Müller cell compartments: in endfeet (black arrowhead), stalks (white arrow), somata (yellow arrowhead) and in distal processes (white arrowhead). Scale bar = 20 µm. ILM-inner limiting membrane, GCL-ganglion cell layer, IPL-inner plexiform layer, INL-inner nuclear layer, ONL-outer nuclear layer, IS- inner segments of photoreceptors.
    Kir6 1, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/kir6 1/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    kir6 1 - by Bioz Stars, 2023-02
    94/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Unidirectional Photoreceptor-to-Müller Glia Coupling and Unique K + Channel Expression in Caiman Retina"

    Article Title: Unidirectional Photoreceptor-to-Müller Glia Coupling and Unique K + Channel Expression in Caiman Retina

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097155

    ( A ) Inwardly rectifying potassium channels Kir4.1 (green) are localized in the area of the photoreceptors and in outer nuclear layer (red arrowhead), but not in Müller cell processes such as stalks or endfeet. This is different from most of vertebrates where Kir4.1 channels were found in Müller cells . ( B ) Glial Müller cell specific marker vimentin, V (green); photoreceptor specific alpha-1 subunit of transducin, Gαt1 (red); nucleus-specific marker, DAPI (blue). Vimentin staining is observed in endfeet, somata, stalks and in distal processes (yellow arrowhead points somata, white arrow shows stalk). DAPI staining (blue) shows nuclei of retinal cells. Alpha-1 subunit of transducin (Gαt1, red) is a marker of the second messenger G-protein cascade and it is found mostly in photoreceptors. ( C ) ATP-dependent K + channel, Kir6.1 (black), is localized in stalks (white arrow) and in endfeet, while ( D ) two pore domain acid sensitive K + channels, TASK-1 (black) are found in whole Müller cell compartments: in endfeet (black arrowhead), stalks (white arrow), somata (yellow arrowhead) and in distal processes (white arrowhead). Scale bar = 20 µm. ILM-inner limiting membrane, GCL-ganglion cell layer, IPL-inner plexiform layer, INL-inner nuclear layer, ONL-outer nuclear layer, IS- inner segments of photoreceptors.
    Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) Inwardly rectifying potassium channels Kir4.1 (green) are localized in the area of the photoreceptors and in outer nuclear layer (red arrowhead), but not in Müller cell processes such as stalks or endfeet. This is different from most of vertebrates where Kir4.1 channels were found in Müller cells . ( B ) Glial Müller cell specific marker vimentin, V (green); photoreceptor specific alpha-1 subunit of transducin, Gαt1 (red); nucleus-specific marker, DAPI (blue). Vimentin staining is observed in endfeet, somata, stalks and in distal processes (yellow arrowhead points somata, white arrow shows stalk). DAPI staining (blue) shows nuclei of retinal cells. Alpha-1 subunit of transducin (Gαt1, red) is a marker of the second messenger G-protein cascade and it is found mostly in photoreceptors. ( C ) ATP-dependent K + channel, Kir6.1 (black), is localized in stalks (white arrow) and in endfeet, while ( D ) two pore domain acid sensitive K + channels, TASK-1 (black) are found in whole Müller cell compartments: in endfeet (black arrowhead), stalks (white arrow), somata (yellow arrowhead) and in distal processes (white arrowhead). Scale bar = 20 µm. ILM-inner limiting membrane, GCL-ganglion cell layer, IPL-inner plexiform layer, INL-inner nuclear layer, ONL-outer nuclear layer, IS- inner segments of photoreceptors.

    Techniques Used: Marker, Staining

    anti kir6 1  (Alomone Labs)


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    Alomone Labs anti kir6 1
    ( A ) Inwardly rectifying potassium channels Kir4.1 (green) are localized in the area of the photoreceptors and in outer nuclear layer (red arrowhead), but not in Müller cell processes such as stalks or endfeet. This is different from most of vertebrates where Kir4.1 channels were found in Müller cells . ( B ) Glial Müller cell specific marker vimentin, V (green); photoreceptor specific alpha-1 subunit of transducin, Gαt1 (red); nucleus-specific marker, DAPI (blue). Vimentin staining is observed in endfeet, somata, stalks and in distal processes (yellow arrowhead points somata, white arrow shows stalk). DAPI staining (blue) shows nuclei of retinal cells. Alpha-1 subunit of transducin (Gαt1, red) is a marker of the second messenger G-protein cascade and it is found mostly in photoreceptors. ( C ) ATP-dependent K + channel, <t>Kir6.1</t> (black), is localized in stalks (white arrow) and in endfeet, while ( D ) two pore domain acid sensitive K + channels, TASK-1 (black) are found in whole Müller cell compartments: in endfeet (black arrowhead), stalks (white arrow), somata (yellow arrowhead) and in distal processes (white arrowhead). Scale bar = 20 µm. ILM-inner limiting membrane, GCL-ganglion cell layer, IPL-inner plexiform layer, INL-inner nuclear layer, ONL-outer nuclear layer, IS- inner segments of photoreceptors.
    Anti Kir6 1, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/anti kir6 1/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    anti kir6 1 - by Bioz Stars, 2023-02
    94/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Unidirectional Photoreceptor-to-Müller Glia Coupling and Unique K + Channel Expression in Caiman Retina"

    Article Title: Unidirectional Photoreceptor-to-Müller Glia Coupling and Unique K + Channel Expression in Caiman Retina

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097155

    ( A ) Inwardly rectifying potassium channels Kir4.1 (green) are localized in the area of the photoreceptors and in outer nuclear layer (red arrowhead), but not in Müller cell processes such as stalks or endfeet. This is different from most of vertebrates where Kir4.1 channels were found in Müller cells . ( B ) Glial Müller cell specific marker vimentin, V (green); photoreceptor specific alpha-1 subunit of transducin, Gαt1 (red); nucleus-specific marker, DAPI (blue). Vimentin staining is observed in endfeet, somata, stalks and in distal processes (yellow arrowhead points somata, white arrow shows stalk). DAPI staining (blue) shows nuclei of retinal cells. Alpha-1 subunit of transducin (Gαt1, red) is a marker of the second messenger G-protein cascade and it is found mostly in photoreceptors. ( C ) ATP-dependent K + channel, Kir6.1 (black), is localized in stalks (white arrow) and in endfeet, while ( D ) two pore domain acid sensitive K + channels, TASK-1 (black) are found in whole Müller cell compartments: in endfeet (black arrowhead), stalks (white arrow), somata (yellow arrowhead) and in distal processes (white arrowhead). Scale bar = 20 µm. ILM-inner limiting membrane, GCL-ganglion cell layer, IPL-inner plexiform layer, INL-inner nuclear layer, ONL-outer nuclear layer, IS- inner segments of photoreceptors.
    Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) Inwardly rectifying potassium channels Kir4.1 (green) are localized in the area of the photoreceptors and in outer nuclear layer (red arrowhead), but not in Müller cell processes such as stalks or endfeet. This is different from most of vertebrates where Kir4.1 channels were found in Müller cells . ( B ) Glial Müller cell specific marker vimentin, V (green); photoreceptor specific alpha-1 subunit of transducin, Gαt1 (red); nucleus-specific marker, DAPI (blue). Vimentin staining is observed in endfeet, somata, stalks and in distal processes (yellow arrowhead points somata, white arrow shows stalk). DAPI staining (blue) shows nuclei of retinal cells. Alpha-1 subunit of transducin (Gαt1, red) is a marker of the second messenger G-protein cascade and it is found mostly in photoreceptors. ( C ) ATP-dependent K + channel, Kir6.1 (black), is localized in stalks (white arrow) and in endfeet, while ( D ) two pore domain acid sensitive K + channels, TASK-1 (black) are found in whole Müller cell compartments: in endfeet (black arrowhead), stalks (white arrow), somata (yellow arrowhead) and in distal processes (white arrowhead). Scale bar = 20 µm. ILM-inner limiting membrane, GCL-ganglion cell layer, IPL-inner plexiform layer, INL-inner nuclear layer, ONL-outer nuclear layer, IS- inner segments of photoreceptors.

    Techniques Used: Marker, Staining

    polyclonal rabbit anti kir 6 1  (Alomone Labs)


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    Alomone Labs polyclonal rabbit anti kir 6 1
    Western blotting show expression of both Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 K ATP channel pore-forming subunits in unstimulated and LPS/IFNγ-stimulated BV-2 cells (A, left) and microglial primary cultures (A, Right). Staining for the microglial cell membrane marker CD11b (B and E) and the K ATP channel subunits Kir 6.1 (C) or Kir 6.2 (F) showed colocalization in BV-2 microglia, indicating the expression of the K ATP channel at the cytoplasmic membrane (D and G, white arrows) . Control: unstimulated cells; L+I: cells stimulated with LPS and IFNγ. Scale bar = 30 μm.
    Polyclonal Rabbit Anti Kir 6 1, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/polyclonal rabbit anti kir 6 1/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    polyclonal rabbit anti kir 6 1 - by Bioz Stars, 2023-02
    94/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Oral administration of the K ATP channel opener diazoxide ameliorates disease progression in a murine model of multiple sclerosis"

    Article Title: Oral administration of the K ATP channel opener diazoxide ameliorates disease progression in a murine model of multiple sclerosis

    Journal: Journal of Neuroinflammation

    doi: 10.1186/1742-2094-8-149

    Western blotting show expression of both Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 K ATP channel pore-forming subunits in unstimulated and LPS/IFNγ-stimulated BV-2 cells (A, left) and microglial primary cultures (A, Right). Staining for the microglial cell membrane marker CD11b (B and E) and the K ATP channel subunits Kir 6.1 (C) or Kir 6.2 (F) showed colocalization in BV-2 microglia, indicating the expression of the K ATP channel at the cytoplasmic membrane (D and G, white arrows) . Control: unstimulated cells; L+I: cells stimulated with LPS and IFNγ. Scale bar = 30 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Western blotting show expression of both Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 K ATP channel pore-forming subunits in unstimulated and LPS/IFNγ-stimulated BV-2 cells (A, left) and microglial primary cultures (A, Right). Staining for the microglial cell membrane marker CD11b (B and E) and the K ATP channel subunits Kir 6.1 (C) or Kir 6.2 (F) showed colocalization in BV-2 microglia, indicating the expression of the K ATP channel at the cytoplasmic membrane (D and G, white arrows) . Control: unstimulated cells; L+I: cells stimulated with LPS and IFNγ. Scale bar = 30 μm.

    Techniques Used: Western Blot, Expressing, Staining, Marker

    kir6 1  (Alomone Labs)


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    Alomone Labs kir6 1
    Western blotting show expression of both <t>Kir6.1</t> and Kir6.2 K ATP channel pore-forming subunits in unstimulated and LPS/IFNγ-stimulated BV-2 cells (A, left) and microglial primary cultures (A, Right). Staining for the microglial cell membrane marker CD11b (B and E) and the K ATP channel subunits Kir 6.1 (C) or Kir 6.2 (F) showed colocalization in BV-2 microglia, indicating the expression of the K ATP channel at the cytoplasmic membrane (D and G, white arrows) . Control: unstimulated cells; L+I: cells stimulated with LPS and IFNγ. Scale bar = 30 μm.
    Kir6 1, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/kir6 1/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    kir6 1 - by Bioz Stars, 2023-02
    94/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Oral administration of the K ATP channel opener diazoxide ameliorates disease progression in a murine model of multiple sclerosis"

    Article Title: Oral administration of the K ATP channel opener diazoxide ameliorates disease progression in a murine model of multiple sclerosis

    Journal: Journal of Neuroinflammation

    doi: 10.1186/1742-2094-8-149

    Western blotting show expression of both Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 K ATP channel pore-forming subunits in unstimulated and LPS/IFNγ-stimulated BV-2 cells (A, left) and microglial primary cultures (A, Right). Staining for the microglial cell membrane marker CD11b (B and E) and the K ATP channel subunits Kir 6.1 (C) or Kir 6.2 (F) showed colocalization in BV-2 microglia, indicating the expression of the K ATP channel at the cytoplasmic membrane (D and G, white arrows) . Control: unstimulated cells; L+I: cells stimulated with LPS and IFNγ. Scale bar = 30 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Western blotting show expression of both Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 K ATP channel pore-forming subunits in unstimulated and LPS/IFNγ-stimulated BV-2 cells (A, left) and microglial primary cultures (A, Right). Staining for the microglial cell membrane marker CD11b (B and E) and the K ATP channel subunits Kir 6.1 (C) or Kir 6.2 (F) showed colocalization in BV-2 microglia, indicating the expression of the K ATP channel at the cytoplasmic membrane (D and G, white arrows) . Control: unstimulated cells; L+I: cells stimulated with LPS and IFNγ. Scale bar = 30 μm.

    Techniques Used: Western Blot, Expressing, Staining, Marker

    Confocal double immunofluorescence images of CD11b (red, A and D) and Kir6.2 (green, B and E) in spinal cord sections from healthy control mice (Ctrl) or MOG 35-55 EAE mice . A slight intensity was found for Kir6.2 in healthy section showing low localization of the K ATP Kir6.2 subunit in CD11b-positive cells (white arrows, C). However, higher intensity of Kir6.2 subunit in CD11b reactive cells showing a strong colocalization of both (white arrows, F) was observed. Western blotting for Kir6.2 in total protein homogenates from lumbar-sacral and thoracic-cervical regions of the spinal cord from non-immunized control animals (control, G) and EAE mice (EAE, G) show an increase in Kir6.2 expression in EAE mice. This increase is statistically significant in the thoracic-cervical level of the spinal cord (H). Results are shown as mean ± SEM. ** p < 0.01 between control and EAE. Scale bar = 30 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Confocal double immunofluorescence images of CD11b (red, A and D) and Kir6.2 (green, B and E) in spinal cord sections from healthy control mice (Ctrl) or MOG 35-55 EAE mice . A slight intensity was found for Kir6.2 in healthy section showing low localization of the K ATP Kir6.2 subunit in CD11b-positive cells (white arrows, C). However, higher intensity of Kir6.2 subunit in CD11b reactive cells showing a strong colocalization of both (white arrows, F) was observed. Western blotting for Kir6.2 in total protein homogenates from lumbar-sacral and thoracic-cervical regions of the spinal cord from non-immunized control animals (control, G) and EAE mice (EAE, G) show an increase in Kir6.2 expression in EAE mice. This increase is statistically significant in the thoracic-cervical level of the spinal cord (H). Results are shown as mean ± SEM. ** p < 0.01 between control and EAE. Scale bar = 30 μm.

    Techniques Used: Immunofluorescence, Western Blot, Expressing

    anti kir6 2  (Alomone Labs)


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    Alomone Labs anti kir6 2
    Western blotting show expression of both <t>Kir6.1</t> and <t>Kir6.2</t> K ATP channel pore-forming subunits in unstimulated and LPS/IFNγ-stimulated BV-2 cells (A, left) and microglial primary cultures (A, Right). Staining for the microglial cell membrane marker CD11b (B and E) and the K ATP channel subunits Kir 6.1 (C) or Kir 6.2 (F) showed colocalization in BV-2 microglia, indicating the expression of the K ATP channel at the cytoplasmic membrane (D and G, white arrows) . Control: unstimulated cells; L+I: cells stimulated with LPS and IFNγ. Scale bar = 30 μm.
    Anti Kir6 2, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/anti kir6 2/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    anti kir6 2 - by Bioz Stars, 2023-02
    94/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Oral administration of the K ATP channel opener diazoxide ameliorates disease progression in a murine model of multiple sclerosis"

    Article Title: Oral administration of the K ATP channel opener diazoxide ameliorates disease progression in a murine model of multiple sclerosis

    Journal: Journal of Neuroinflammation

    doi: 10.1186/1742-2094-8-149

    Western blotting show expression of both Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 K ATP channel pore-forming subunits in unstimulated and LPS/IFNγ-stimulated BV-2 cells (A, left) and microglial primary cultures (A, Right). Staining for the microglial cell membrane marker CD11b (B and E) and the K ATP channel subunits Kir 6.1 (C) or Kir 6.2 (F) showed colocalization in BV-2 microglia, indicating the expression of the K ATP channel at the cytoplasmic membrane (D and G, white arrows) . Control: unstimulated cells; L+I: cells stimulated with LPS and IFNγ. Scale bar = 30 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Western blotting show expression of both Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 K ATP channel pore-forming subunits in unstimulated and LPS/IFNγ-stimulated BV-2 cells (A, left) and microglial primary cultures (A, Right). Staining for the microglial cell membrane marker CD11b (B and E) and the K ATP channel subunits Kir 6.1 (C) or Kir 6.2 (F) showed colocalization in BV-2 microglia, indicating the expression of the K ATP channel at the cytoplasmic membrane (D and G, white arrows) . Control: unstimulated cells; L+I: cells stimulated with LPS and IFNγ. Scale bar = 30 μm.

    Techniques Used: Western Blot, Expressing, Staining, Marker

    Confocal double immunofluorescence images of CD11b (red, A and D) and Kir6.2 (green, B and E) in spinal cord sections from healthy control mice (Ctrl) or MOG 35-55 EAE mice . A slight intensity was found for Kir6.2 in healthy section showing low localization of the K ATP Kir6.2 subunit in CD11b-positive cells (white arrows, C). However, higher intensity of Kir6.2 subunit in CD11b reactive cells showing a strong colocalization of both (white arrows, F) was observed. Western blotting for Kir6.2 in total protein homogenates from lumbar-sacral and thoracic-cervical regions of the spinal cord from non-immunized control animals (control, G) and EAE mice (EAE, G) show an increase in Kir6.2 expression in EAE mice. This increase is statistically significant in the thoracic-cervical level of the spinal cord (H). Results are shown as mean ± SEM. ** p < 0.01 between control and EAE. Scale bar = 30 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Confocal double immunofluorescence images of CD11b (red, A and D) and Kir6.2 (green, B and E) in spinal cord sections from healthy control mice (Ctrl) or MOG 35-55 EAE mice . A slight intensity was found for Kir6.2 in healthy section showing low localization of the K ATP Kir6.2 subunit in CD11b-positive cells (white arrows, C). However, higher intensity of Kir6.2 subunit in CD11b reactive cells showing a strong colocalization of both (white arrows, F) was observed. Western blotting for Kir6.2 in total protein homogenates from lumbar-sacral and thoracic-cervical regions of the spinal cord from non-immunized control animals (control, G) and EAE mice (EAE, G) show an increase in Kir6.2 expression in EAE mice. This increase is statistically significant in the thoracic-cervical level of the spinal cord (H). Results are shown as mean ± SEM. ** p < 0.01 between control and EAE. Scale bar = 30 μm.

    Techniques Used: Immunofluorescence, Western Blot, Expressing

    anti kir6 2  (Alomone Labs)


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    Alomone Labs anti kir6 2
    Western blotting show expression of both <t>Kir6.1</t> and <t>Kir6.2</t> K ATP channel pore-forming subunits in unstimulated and LPS/IFNγ-stimulated BV-2 cells (A, left) and microglial primary cultures (A, Right). Staining for the microglial cell membrane marker CD11b (B and E) and the K ATP channel subunits Kir 6.1 (C) or Kir 6.2 (F) showed colocalization in BV-2 microglia, indicating the expression of the K ATP channel at the cytoplasmic membrane (D and G, white arrows) . Control: unstimulated cells; L+I: cells stimulated with LPS and IFNγ. Scale bar = 30 μm.
    Anti Kir6 2, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/anti kir6 2/product/Alomone Labs
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    Images

    1) Product Images from "Oral administration of the K ATP channel opener diazoxide ameliorates disease progression in a murine model of multiple sclerosis"

    Article Title: Oral administration of the K ATP channel opener diazoxide ameliorates disease progression in a murine model of multiple sclerosis

    Journal: Journal of Neuroinflammation

    doi: 10.1186/1742-2094-8-149

    Western blotting show expression of both Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 K ATP channel pore-forming subunits in unstimulated and LPS/IFNγ-stimulated BV-2 cells (A, left) and microglial primary cultures (A, Right). Staining for the microglial cell membrane marker CD11b (B and E) and the K ATP channel subunits Kir 6.1 (C) or Kir 6.2 (F) showed colocalization in BV-2 microglia, indicating the expression of the K ATP channel at the cytoplasmic membrane (D and G, white arrows) . Control: unstimulated cells; L+I: cells stimulated with LPS and IFNγ. Scale bar = 30 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Western blotting show expression of both Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 K ATP channel pore-forming subunits in unstimulated and LPS/IFNγ-stimulated BV-2 cells (A, left) and microglial primary cultures (A, Right). Staining for the microglial cell membrane marker CD11b (B and E) and the K ATP channel subunits Kir 6.1 (C) or Kir 6.2 (F) showed colocalization in BV-2 microglia, indicating the expression of the K ATP channel at the cytoplasmic membrane (D and G, white arrows) . Control: unstimulated cells; L+I: cells stimulated with LPS and IFNγ. Scale bar = 30 μm.

    Techniques Used: Western Blot, Expressing, Staining, Marker

    Confocal double immunofluorescence images of CD11b (red, A and D) and Kir6.2 (green, B and E) in spinal cord sections from healthy control mice (Ctrl) or MOG 35-55 EAE mice . A slight intensity was found for Kir6.2 in healthy section showing low localization of the K ATP Kir6.2 subunit in CD11b-positive cells (white arrows, C). However, higher intensity of Kir6.2 subunit in CD11b reactive cells showing a strong colocalization of both (white arrows, F) was observed. Western blotting for Kir6.2 in total protein homogenates from lumbar-sacral and thoracic-cervical regions of the spinal cord from non-immunized control animals (control, G) and EAE mice (EAE, G) show an increase in Kir6.2 expression in EAE mice. This increase is statistically significant in the thoracic-cervical level of the spinal cord (H). Results are shown as mean ± SEM. ** p < 0.01 between control and EAE. Scale bar = 30 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Confocal double immunofluorescence images of CD11b (red, A and D) and Kir6.2 (green, B and E) in spinal cord sections from healthy control mice (Ctrl) or MOG 35-55 EAE mice . A slight intensity was found for Kir6.2 in healthy section showing low localization of the K ATP Kir6.2 subunit in CD11b-positive cells (white arrows, C). However, higher intensity of Kir6.2 subunit in CD11b reactive cells showing a strong colocalization of both (white arrows, F) was observed. Western blotting for Kir6.2 in total protein homogenates from lumbar-sacral and thoracic-cervical regions of the spinal cord from non-immunized control animals (control, G) and EAE mice (EAE, G) show an increase in Kir6.2 expression in EAE mice. This increase is statistically significant in the thoracic-cervical level of the spinal cord (H). Results are shown as mean ± SEM. ** p < 0.01 between control and EAE. Scale bar = 30 μm.

    Techniques Used: Immunofluorescence, Western Blot, Expressing

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    Alomone Labs kir6 1
    Expression of K ATP channel subunits in DRG at the mRNA and protein level . A . RT-PCR product bands consistent with the presence of mRNA encoding K ATP channel subunits in DRG from control rats . Total mRNA was isolated from the L5 DRG. Amplified products appeared at positions corresponding to the expected base pair lengths of 168 <t>(Kir6.2),</t> 182 (SUR1), 110 <t>(Kir6.1),</t> 124 (SUR2) and 315 (18S). B . Western blotting using antibodies against K ATP channel subunits in DRG of control rats . Kir6.2 antibody recognized one immunoreactive band at 37 kDa. SUR1 antibody revealed prominent immunoreactive bands at 150 and 37 kDa, and a less pronounced band at 125 kDa. The band at 150 kDa indicates glycosylated SUR1 bound to Kir6.2. Kir6.1 did not detect any band in DRG tissue, while a band of 37 kDa was detected in samples of brain tissue. Two immunoreactive bands at 150 and 74 kDa were detected by SUR2 antibody. Molecular size markers are shown on the left.
    Kir6 1, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Alomone Labs antibodies against kir6 1
    Nico ameliorated LPS-induced ALI and inflammation. (a) Nico increased LPS-induced <t>Kir6.1</t> and Kir6.2 downregulation in the lung. (b, c) Lung sections stained with H&E showed severe injury in the LPS group which was attenuated by Nico pretreatment. The data revealed a high score for the LPS-treated group which was decreased in the Nico-pretreated group. (d) Nico pretreatment significantly reduced LPS-induced protein leakage in BALF. (e, f) Nico alleviated LPS-induced increments of MPO activities in BALF and lung homogenate. (g, h) Nico prevented the production of TNF- α and IL-1 β in lung homogenate. Data were shown as mean ± SEM ( n = 6 − 8). Statistically significant differences: ∗ P < 0.05 versus the control group; # P < 0.05 versus the LPS group. Scale bar: 50 μ m.
    Antibodies Against Kir6 1, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Alomone Labs anti kir4 1
    ( A ) Inwardly rectifying potassium channels <t>Kir4.1</t> (green) are localized in the area of the photoreceptors and in outer nuclear layer (red arrowhead), but not in Müller cell processes such as stalks or endfeet. This is different from most of vertebrates where Kir4.1 channels were found in Müller cells . ( B ) Glial Müller cell specific marker vimentin, V (green); photoreceptor specific alpha-1 subunit of transducin, Gαt1 (red); nucleus-specific marker, DAPI (blue). Vimentin staining is observed in endfeet, somata, stalks and in distal processes (yellow arrowhead points somata, white arrow shows stalk). DAPI staining (blue) shows nuclei of retinal cells. Alpha-1 subunit of transducin (Gαt1, red) is a marker of the second messenger G-protein cascade and it is found mostly in photoreceptors. ( C ) ATP-dependent K + channel, Kir6.1 (black), is localized in stalks (white arrow) and in endfeet, while ( D ) two pore domain acid sensitive K + channels, TASK-1 (black) are found in whole Müller cell compartments: in endfeet (black arrowhead), stalks (white arrow), somata (yellow arrowhead) and in distal processes (white arrowhead). Scale bar = 20 µm. ILM-inner limiting membrane, GCL-ganglion cell layer, IPL-inner plexiform layer, INL-inner nuclear layer, ONL-outer nuclear layer, IS- inner segments of photoreceptors.
    Anti Kir4 1, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Alomone Labs anti kir6 1
    ( A ) Inwardly rectifying potassium channels Kir4.1 (green) are localized in the area of the photoreceptors and in outer nuclear layer (red arrowhead), but not in Müller cell processes such as stalks or endfeet. This is different from most of vertebrates where Kir4.1 channels were found in Müller cells . ( B ) Glial Müller cell specific marker vimentin, V (green); photoreceptor specific alpha-1 subunit of transducin, Gαt1 (red); nucleus-specific marker, DAPI (blue). Vimentin staining is observed in endfeet, somata, stalks and in distal processes (yellow arrowhead points somata, white arrow shows stalk). DAPI staining (blue) shows nuclei of retinal cells. Alpha-1 subunit of transducin (Gαt1, red) is a marker of the second messenger G-protein cascade and it is found mostly in photoreceptors. ( C ) ATP-dependent K + channel, <t>Kir6.1</t> (black), is localized in stalks (white arrow) and in endfeet, while ( D ) two pore domain acid sensitive K + channels, TASK-1 (black) are found in whole Müller cell compartments: in endfeet (black arrowhead), stalks (white arrow), somata (yellow arrowhead) and in distal processes (white arrowhead). Scale bar = 20 µm. ILM-inner limiting membrane, GCL-ganglion cell layer, IPL-inner plexiform layer, INL-inner nuclear layer, ONL-outer nuclear layer, IS- inner segments of photoreceptors.
    Anti Kir6 1, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Alomone Labs polyclonal rabbit anti kir 6 1
    Western blotting show expression of both Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 K ATP channel pore-forming subunits in unstimulated and LPS/IFNγ-stimulated BV-2 cells (A, left) and microglial primary cultures (A, Right). Staining for the microglial cell membrane marker CD11b (B and E) and the K ATP channel subunits Kir 6.1 (C) or Kir 6.2 (F) showed colocalization in BV-2 microglia, indicating the expression of the K ATP channel at the cytoplasmic membrane (D and G, white arrows) . Control: unstimulated cells; L+I: cells stimulated with LPS and IFNγ. Scale bar = 30 μm.
    Polyclonal Rabbit Anti Kir 6 1, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Alomone Labs anti kir6 2
    Western blotting show expression of both <t>Kir6.1</t> and <t>Kir6.2</t> K ATP channel pore-forming subunits in unstimulated and LPS/IFNγ-stimulated BV-2 cells (A, left) and microglial primary cultures (A, Right). Staining for the microglial cell membrane marker CD11b (B and E) and the K ATP channel subunits Kir 6.1 (C) or Kir 6.2 (F) showed colocalization in BV-2 microglia, indicating the expression of the K ATP channel at the cytoplasmic membrane (D and G, white arrows) . Control: unstimulated cells; L+I: cells stimulated with LPS and IFNγ. Scale bar = 30 μm.
    Anti Kir6 2, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Expression of K ATP channel subunits in DRG at the mRNA and protein level . A . RT-PCR product bands consistent with the presence of mRNA encoding K ATP channel subunits in DRG from control rats . Total mRNA was isolated from the L5 DRG. Amplified products appeared at positions corresponding to the expected base pair lengths of 168 (Kir6.2), 182 (SUR1), 110 (Kir6.1), 124 (SUR2) and 315 (18S). B . Western blotting using antibodies against K ATP channel subunits in DRG of control rats . Kir6.2 antibody recognized one immunoreactive band at 37 kDa. SUR1 antibody revealed prominent immunoreactive bands at 150 and 37 kDa, and a less pronounced band at 125 kDa. The band at 150 kDa indicates glycosylated SUR1 bound to Kir6.2. Kir6.1 did not detect any band in DRG tissue, while a band of 37 kDa was detected in samples of brain tissue. Two immunoreactive bands at 150 and 74 kDa were detected by SUR2 antibody. Molecular size markers are shown on the left.

    Journal: Molecular Pain

    Article Title: K ATP channel subunits in rat dorsal root ganglia: alterations by painful axotomy

    doi: 10.1186/1744-8069-6-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Expression of K ATP channel subunits in DRG at the mRNA and protein level . A . RT-PCR product bands consistent with the presence of mRNA encoding K ATP channel subunits in DRG from control rats . Total mRNA was isolated from the L5 DRG. Amplified products appeared at positions corresponding to the expected base pair lengths of 168 (Kir6.2), 182 (SUR1), 110 (Kir6.1), 124 (SUR2) and 315 (18S). B . Western blotting using antibodies against K ATP channel subunits in DRG of control rats . Kir6.2 antibody recognized one immunoreactive band at 37 kDa. SUR1 antibody revealed prominent immunoreactive bands at 150 and 37 kDa, and a less pronounced band at 125 kDa. The band at 150 kDa indicates glycosylated SUR1 bound to Kir6.2. Kir6.1 did not detect any band in DRG tissue, while a band of 37 kDa was detected in samples of brain tissue. Two immunoreactive bands at 150 and 74 kDa were detected by SUR2 antibody. Molecular size markers are shown on the left.

    Article Snippet: After blocking with 4% normal goat serum for 1 h at room temperature, slides were incubated in polyclonal rabbit antibodies to Kir6.1, Kir6.2 (1:500, Alomone, Jerusalem, Israel), and SUR1 or SUR2 (1:50, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA).

    Techniques: Expressing, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Isolation, Amplification, Western Blot

    Presence and distribution of Kir6.2, SUR1, and SUR2 subunits in DRG neurons and satellite glial cells from control rats . Samples of DRG slices were co-labeled with DAPI, which stains nuclei (blue), and the antibody against each individual subunit (red) (A-D). A . Kir6.1 immunofluorescence was absent in DRG. In contrast the same antibody revealed immunostaining in positive controls (rat brain and aorta smooth muscle; not shown). B . Immunofluorescence against Kir6.2 is identified on plasma membranes (yellow arrowheads) and cytosol (white arrow). Most satellite glial cells also stained positive for Kir6.2. C . Immunofluorescence against SUR1 is observed in the plasma (yellow arrowheads) and nuclear membranes (purple color), as well as along the axons (single yellow arrowhead). Satellite glial cells also stained positive. D . Staining against the SUR2 subunit is observed in the plasma membrane (yellow arrowheads), nuclear membrane (purple color), and the cytosol (white arrow). Satellite glial cells also stained positive. In order to confirm the localization of staining in the plasmalemmal membrane of neurons versus the satellite cell membrane, we examined dissociated DRG cells, stained with the same antibodies, using confocal microscopy. These images clearly showed that neuronal plasmalemmal membrane stained positive for SUR1 ( E ), Kir6.2 ( F ), and SUR2 ( G ). Nuclear envelops also stained positive ( E and G , single yellow arrowhead). Distinct positive staining was also observed in satellite cells ( G ). In E , images correspond to 5 sequential confocal images of z-projections (with spacing increments of 1 μm).

    Journal: Molecular Pain

    Article Title: K ATP channel subunits in rat dorsal root ganglia: alterations by painful axotomy

    doi: 10.1186/1744-8069-6-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Presence and distribution of Kir6.2, SUR1, and SUR2 subunits in DRG neurons and satellite glial cells from control rats . Samples of DRG slices were co-labeled with DAPI, which stains nuclei (blue), and the antibody against each individual subunit (red) (A-D). A . Kir6.1 immunofluorescence was absent in DRG. In contrast the same antibody revealed immunostaining in positive controls (rat brain and aorta smooth muscle; not shown). B . Immunofluorescence against Kir6.2 is identified on plasma membranes (yellow arrowheads) and cytosol (white arrow). Most satellite glial cells also stained positive for Kir6.2. C . Immunofluorescence against SUR1 is observed in the plasma (yellow arrowheads) and nuclear membranes (purple color), as well as along the axons (single yellow arrowhead). Satellite glial cells also stained positive. D . Staining against the SUR2 subunit is observed in the plasma membrane (yellow arrowheads), nuclear membrane (purple color), and the cytosol (white arrow). Satellite glial cells also stained positive. In order to confirm the localization of staining in the plasmalemmal membrane of neurons versus the satellite cell membrane, we examined dissociated DRG cells, stained with the same antibodies, using confocal microscopy. These images clearly showed that neuronal plasmalemmal membrane stained positive for SUR1 ( E ), Kir6.2 ( F ), and SUR2 ( G ). Nuclear envelops also stained positive ( E and G , single yellow arrowhead). Distinct positive staining was also observed in satellite cells ( G ). In E , images correspond to 5 sequential confocal images of z-projections (with spacing increments of 1 μm).

    Article Snippet: After blocking with 4% normal goat serum for 1 h at room temperature, slides were incubated in polyclonal rabbit antibodies to Kir6.1, Kir6.2 (1:500, Alomone, Jerusalem, Israel), and SUR1 or SUR2 (1:50, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA).

    Techniques: Labeling, Immunofluorescence, Immunostaining, Staining, Confocal Microscopy

    Colocalization studies in DRG neurons . A-C. Colocalization of BODIPY-Glybenclamide staining of SUR1 subunits ( A ), with anti-Kir6.2 antibody ( B ), showing that SUR1 subunits are co-expressed with Kir6.2 subunits in the same complexes ( C : merged). D-F . Co-localization of anti-SUR1 antibody ( D ) with anti-CGRP antibody ( E ) in DRG studied under fluorescent microscopy. Merged image ( F ) shows anti-SUR1 immunofluorescence present in small, CGRP positive neurons, as well as in CGRP negative neurons. G - I . Co-localization of anti-SUR1 antibody ( G ) with anti-CGRP antibody ( H ) in dissociated neurons studied under confocal microscopy. Merged image ( I ) shows SUR1 immunofluorescence present in small, CGRP + neurons (arrows), as well as in CGRP negative neurons. K - M . Co-localization of anti-SUR1 antibody ( K ) with anti-Caspr antibody ( L ) in DRG studied under confocal microscopy. Merged image ( M ) shows that SUR1 immunofluorescence co-localizes with anti-Caspr staining in paranodal sites. Yellow arrowheads point to SUR1 positive SLI (in K ). N - P . Colocalization of anti-Kir6.2 antibody ( N ) with anti-Caspr antibody ( O ) in DRG studied under confocal microscopy. Merged image ( P ) shows that anti-SUR1 immunofluorescence colocalizes with anti-Caspr staining in paranodal sites, adjacent to Ranvier's nodes (White arrows point at paranodal K ATP channels). This colocalization of Caspr with SUR1 or Kir6.2 indicates that K ATP channels of the Kir6.2/SUR1 subtype are present in paranodal sites (white arrows) adjacent to nodes of Ranvier. All samples are from slices within DRG tissue.

    Journal: Molecular Pain

    Article Title: K ATP channel subunits in rat dorsal root ganglia: alterations by painful axotomy

    doi: 10.1186/1744-8069-6-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Colocalization studies in DRG neurons . A-C. Colocalization of BODIPY-Glybenclamide staining of SUR1 subunits ( A ), with anti-Kir6.2 antibody ( B ), showing that SUR1 subunits are co-expressed with Kir6.2 subunits in the same complexes ( C : merged). D-F . Co-localization of anti-SUR1 antibody ( D ) with anti-CGRP antibody ( E ) in DRG studied under fluorescent microscopy. Merged image ( F ) shows anti-SUR1 immunofluorescence present in small, CGRP positive neurons, as well as in CGRP negative neurons. G - I . Co-localization of anti-SUR1 antibody ( G ) with anti-CGRP antibody ( H ) in dissociated neurons studied under confocal microscopy. Merged image ( I ) shows SUR1 immunofluorescence present in small, CGRP + neurons (arrows), as well as in CGRP negative neurons. K - M . Co-localization of anti-SUR1 antibody ( K ) with anti-Caspr antibody ( L ) in DRG studied under confocal microscopy. Merged image ( M ) shows that SUR1 immunofluorescence co-localizes with anti-Caspr staining in paranodal sites. Yellow arrowheads point to SUR1 positive SLI (in K ). N - P . Colocalization of anti-Kir6.2 antibody ( N ) with anti-Caspr antibody ( O ) in DRG studied under confocal microscopy. Merged image ( P ) shows that anti-SUR1 immunofluorescence colocalizes with anti-Caspr staining in paranodal sites, adjacent to Ranvier's nodes (White arrows point at paranodal K ATP channels). This colocalization of Caspr with SUR1 or Kir6.2 indicates that K ATP channels of the Kir6.2/SUR1 subtype are present in paranodal sites (white arrows) adjacent to nodes of Ranvier. All samples are from slices within DRG tissue.

    Article Snippet: After blocking with 4% normal goat serum for 1 h at room temperature, slides were incubated in polyclonal rabbit antibodies to Kir6.1, Kir6.2 (1:500, Alomone, Jerusalem, Israel), and SUR1 or SUR2 (1:50, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA).

    Techniques: Staining, Microscopy, Immunofluorescence, Confocal Microscopy

    Distribution of K ATP subunits on DRG examined by electron microscopy . Samples from slices within DRG tissue were treated with antibodies against Kir6.2 or SUR1, which were labeled with gold particles (shown as black dots). A . Anti-Kir6.2 staining on axonal membrane (red arrow) and myelin sheath (yellow arrowhead). B . Anti-SUR1 staining on axonal membrane (red arrows). C . Anti-SUR1 staining on axonal membrane (red arrows) and into a SLI (yellow arrowheads). The axons are marked by red asterisks.

    Journal: Molecular Pain

    Article Title: K ATP channel subunits in rat dorsal root ganglia: alterations by painful axotomy

    doi: 10.1186/1744-8069-6-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Distribution of K ATP subunits on DRG examined by electron microscopy . Samples from slices within DRG tissue were treated with antibodies against Kir6.2 or SUR1, which were labeled with gold particles (shown as black dots). A . Anti-Kir6.2 staining on axonal membrane (red arrow) and myelin sheath (yellow arrowhead). B . Anti-SUR1 staining on axonal membrane (red arrows). C . Anti-SUR1 staining on axonal membrane (red arrows) and into a SLI (yellow arrowheads). The axons are marked by red asterisks.

    Article Snippet: After blocking with 4% normal goat serum for 1 h at room temperature, slides were incubated in polyclonal rabbit antibodies to Kir6.1, Kir6.2 (1:500, Alomone, Jerusalem, Israel), and SUR1 or SUR2 (1:50, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA).

    Techniques: Electron Microscopy, Labeling, Staining

    Nico ameliorated LPS-induced ALI and inflammation. (a) Nico increased LPS-induced Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 downregulation in the lung. (b, c) Lung sections stained with H&E showed severe injury in the LPS group which was attenuated by Nico pretreatment. The data revealed a high score for the LPS-treated group which was decreased in the Nico-pretreated group. (d) Nico pretreatment significantly reduced LPS-induced protein leakage in BALF. (e, f) Nico alleviated LPS-induced increments of MPO activities in BALF and lung homogenate. (g, h) Nico prevented the production of TNF- α and IL-1 β in lung homogenate. Data were shown as mean ± SEM ( n = 6 − 8). Statistically significant differences: ∗ P < 0.05 versus the control group; # P < 0.05 versus the LPS group. Scale bar: 50 μ m.

    Journal: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity

    Article Title: Nicorandil Attenuates LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Pulmonary Endothelial Cell Protection via NF- κ B and MAPK Pathways

    doi: 10.1155/2019/4957646

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Nico ameliorated LPS-induced ALI and inflammation. (a) Nico increased LPS-induced Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 downregulation in the lung. (b, c) Lung sections stained with H&E showed severe injury in the LPS group which was attenuated by Nico pretreatment. The data revealed a high score for the LPS-treated group which was decreased in the Nico-pretreated group. (d) Nico pretreatment significantly reduced LPS-induced protein leakage in BALF. (e, f) Nico alleviated LPS-induced increments of MPO activities in BALF and lung homogenate. (g, h) Nico prevented the production of TNF- α and IL-1 β in lung homogenate. Data were shown as mean ± SEM ( n = 6 − 8). Statistically significant differences: ∗ P < 0.05 versus the control group; # P < 0.05 versus the LPS group. Scale bar: 50 μ m.

    Article Snippet: Then, the transferred membranes were incubated with primary antibodies against Kir6.1 (Alomone Labs, Jerusalem, Israel), Kir6.2 (Abcam), NF- κ B p-p65/p65, p-i κ B- α /i κ B- α , p-p38/p38, p-ERK/ERK, p-JNK/JNK, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), cleaved-caspase-3 (c-caspase-3), caspase-9 (1 : 1000, Cell Signaling Technology), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) (1 : 1000, Santa Cruz), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (1 : 1000, Millipore), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), VE-cadherin, Nox4 (1 : 1000), MnSOD (1 : 5000, Abcam), and β -actin (1 : 5000, Proteintech, Rosemont, USA) overnight.

    Techniques: Staining

    ( A ) Inwardly rectifying potassium channels Kir4.1 (green) are localized in the area of the photoreceptors and in outer nuclear layer (red arrowhead), but not in Müller cell processes such as stalks or endfeet. This is different from most of vertebrates where Kir4.1 channels were found in Müller cells . ( B ) Glial Müller cell specific marker vimentin, V (green); photoreceptor specific alpha-1 subunit of transducin, Gαt1 (red); nucleus-specific marker, DAPI (blue). Vimentin staining is observed in endfeet, somata, stalks and in distal processes (yellow arrowhead points somata, white arrow shows stalk). DAPI staining (blue) shows nuclei of retinal cells. Alpha-1 subunit of transducin (Gαt1, red) is a marker of the second messenger G-protein cascade and it is found mostly in photoreceptors. ( C ) ATP-dependent K + channel, Kir6.1 (black), is localized in stalks (white arrow) and in endfeet, while ( D ) two pore domain acid sensitive K + channels, TASK-1 (black) are found in whole Müller cell compartments: in endfeet (black arrowhead), stalks (white arrow), somata (yellow arrowhead) and in distal processes (white arrowhead). Scale bar = 20 µm. ILM-inner limiting membrane, GCL-ganglion cell layer, IPL-inner plexiform layer, INL-inner nuclear layer, ONL-outer nuclear layer, IS- inner segments of photoreceptors.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Unidirectional Photoreceptor-to-Müller Glia Coupling and Unique K + Channel Expression in Caiman Retina

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097155

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ( A ) Inwardly rectifying potassium channels Kir4.1 (green) are localized in the area of the photoreceptors and in outer nuclear layer (red arrowhead), but not in Müller cell processes such as stalks or endfeet. This is different from most of vertebrates where Kir4.1 channels were found in Müller cells . ( B ) Glial Müller cell specific marker vimentin, V (green); photoreceptor specific alpha-1 subunit of transducin, Gαt1 (red); nucleus-specific marker, DAPI (blue). Vimentin staining is observed in endfeet, somata, stalks and in distal processes (yellow arrowhead points somata, white arrow shows stalk). DAPI staining (blue) shows nuclei of retinal cells. Alpha-1 subunit of transducin (Gαt1, red) is a marker of the second messenger G-protein cascade and it is found mostly in photoreceptors. ( C ) ATP-dependent K + channel, Kir6.1 (black), is localized in stalks (white arrow) and in endfeet, while ( D ) two pore domain acid sensitive K + channels, TASK-1 (black) are found in whole Müller cell compartments: in endfeet (black arrowhead), stalks (white arrow), somata (yellow arrowhead) and in distal processes (white arrowhead). Scale bar = 20 µm. ILM-inner limiting membrane, GCL-ganglion cell layer, IPL-inner plexiform layer, INL-inner nuclear layer, ONL-outer nuclear layer, IS- inner segments of photoreceptors.

    Article Snippet: We used the following primary antibodies: (i) for glial markers: mouse anti-S100β (1∶1000; Sigma-Aldrich, S2532), mouse anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP; 1∶300; Sigma-Aldrich, G6171), mouse anti-glutamine synthetase (GS; 1∶500; Millipore, MAB302), mouse anti-vimentin (1∶300; PROGEN Biotechnik GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany, VIM 3B4), (ii) for channel proteins: rabbit anti-TASK-1 (1∶200; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, SC-28635), rabbit anti TREK-2 (1∶500; Alomone), rabbit anti TASK-3 (1∶300; Alomone), mouse anti-Kir4.1 (1∶300; Sigma-Aldrich, WH0003766M1), rabbit anti-Kir4.1 (1∶200; Alomone, APC-035), rabbit anti-Kir6.1 (1∶200; Alomone, APC-105), rabbit anti-Kir6.1, -Kir6.2, and -SUR1 (1∶200; 1∶150; 1∶200 respectively; R.W.

    Techniques: Marker, Staining

    ( A ) Inwardly rectifying potassium channels Kir4.1 (green) are localized in the area of the photoreceptors and in outer nuclear layer (red arrowhead), but not in Müller cell processes such as stalks or endfeet. This is different from most of vertebrates where Kir4.1 channels were found in Müller cells . ( B ) Glial Müller cell specific marker vimentin, V (green); photoreceptor specific alpha-1 subunit of transducin, Gαt1 (red); nucleus-specific marker, DAPI (blue). Vimentin staining is observed in endfeet, somata, stalks and in distal processes (yellow arrowhead points somata, white arrow shows stalk). DAPI staining (blue) shows nuclei of retinal cells. Alpha-1 subunit of transducin (Gαt1, red) is a marker of the second messenger G-protein cascade and it is found mostly in photoreceptors. ( C ) ATP-dependent K + channel, Kir6.1 (black), is localized in stalks (white arrow) and in endfeet, while ( D ) two pore domain acid sensitive K + channels, TASK-1 (black) are found in whole Müller cell compartments: in endfeet (black arrowhead), stalks (white arrow), somata (yellow arrowhead) and in distal processes (white arrowhead). Scale bar = 20 µm. ILM-inner limiting membrane, GCL-ganglion cell layer, IPL-inner plexiform layer, INL-inner nuclear layer, ONL-outer nuclear layer, IS- inner segments of photoreceptors.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Unidirectional Photoreceptor-to-Müller Glia Coupling and Unique K + Channel Expression in Caiman Retina

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097155

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ( A ) Inwardly rectifying potassium channels Kir4.1 (green) are localized in the area of the photoreceptors and in outer nuclear layer (red arrowhead), but not in Müller cell processes such as stalks or endfeet. This is different from most of vertebrates where Kir4.1 channels were found in Müller cells . ( B ) Glial Müller cell specific marker vimentin, V (green); photoreceptor specific alpha-1 subunit of transducin, Gαt1 (red); nucleus-specific marker, DAPI (blue). Vimentin staining is observed in endfeet, somata, stalks and in distal processes (yellow arrowhead points somata, white arrow shows stalk). DAPI staining (blue) shows nuclei of retinal cells. Alpha-1 subunit of transducin (Gαt1, red) is a marker of the second messenger G-protein cascade and it is found mostly in photoreceptors. ( C ) ATP-dependent K + channel, Kir6.1 (black), is localized in stalks (white arrow) and in endfeet, while ( D ) two pore domain acid sensitive K + channels, TASK-1 (black) are found in whole Müller cell compartments: in endfeet (black arrowhead), stalks (white arrow), somata (yellow arrowhead) and in distal processes (white arrowhead). Scale bar = 20 µm. ILM-inner limiting membrane, GCL-ganglion cell layer, IPL-inner plexiform layer, INL-inner nuclear layer, ONL-outer nuclear layer, IS- inner segments of photoreceptors.

    Article Snippet: We used the following primary antibodies: (i) for glial markers: mouse anti-S100β (1∶1000; Sigma-Aldrich, S2532), mouse anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP; 1∶300; Sigma-Aldrich, G6171), mouse anti-glutamine synthetase (GS; 1∶500; Millipore, MAB302), mouse anti-vimentin (1∶300; PROGEN Biotechnik GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany, VIM 3B4), (ii) for channel proteins: rabbit anti-TASK-1 (1∶200; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, SC-28635), rabbit anti TREK-2 (1∶500; Alomone), rabbit anti TASK-3 (1∶300; Alomone), mouse anti-Kir4.1 (1∶300; Sigma-Aldrich, WH0003766M1), rabbit anti-Kir4.1 (1∶200; Alomone, APC-035), rabbit anti-Kir6.1 (1∶200; Alomone, APC-105), rabbit anti-Kir6.1, -Kir6.2, and -SUR1 (1∶200; 1∶150; 1∶200 respectively; R.W.

    Techniques: Marker, Staining

    Western blotting show expression of both Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 K ATP channel pore-forming subunits in unstimulated and LPS/IFNγ-stimulated BV-2 cells (A, left) and microglial primary cultures (A, Right). Staining for the microglial cell membrane marker CD11b (B and E) and the K ATP channel subunits Kir 6.1 (C) or Kir 6.2 (F) showed colocalization in BV-2 microglia, indicating the expression of the K ATP channel at the cytoplasmic membrane (D and G, white arrows) . Control: unstimulated cells; L+I: cells stimulated with LPS and IFNγ. Scale bar = 30 μm.

    Journal: Journal of Neuroinflammation

    Article Title: Oral administration of the K ATP channel opener diazoxide ameliorates disease progression in a murine model of multiple sclerosis

    doi: 10.1186/1742-2094-8-149

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Western blotting show expression of both Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 K ATP channel pore-forming subunits in unstimulated and LPS/IFNγ-stimulated BV-2 cells (A, left) and microglial primary cultures (A, Right). Staining for the microglial cell membrane marker CD11b (B and E) and the K ATP channel subunits Kir 6.1 (C) or Kir 6.2 (F) showed colocalization in BV-2 microglia, indicating the expression of the K ATP channel at the cytoplasmic membrane (D and G, white arrows) . Control: unstimulated cells; L+I: cells stimulated with LPS and IFNγ. Scale bar = 30 μm.

    Article Snippet: After washing in Tris-buffered saline (TBS: 20 mM Tris, 0.15 M NaCl, pH 7.5) for 5 min, dipping in methanol for 10 s and drying in air, the membranes were incubated with the following primary antibodies overnight at 4°C: polyclonal rabbit anti-Kir 6.1 or polyclonal rabbit anti-Kir 6.2 (both 1:500, Alomone, Jerusalem, Israel), polyclonal rabbit anti-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (1:200, Millipore, Bedford, MA, USA), polyclonal rabbit anti-cyclooxygenase-2 (1:2000, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, St. Cruz, CA, USA) and monoclonal mouse anti-β-actin (1:50000, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) diluted in immunoblot buffer (TBS containing 0.05% Tween-20 and 5% non-fat dry milk).

    Techniques: Western Blot, Expressing, Staining, Marker

    Western blotting show expression of both Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 K ATP channel pore-forming subunits in unstimulated and LPS/IFNγ-stimulated BV-2 cells (A, left) and microglial primary cultures (A, Right). Staining for the microglial cell membrane marker CD11b (B and E) and the K ATP channel subunits Kir 6.1 (C) or Kir 6.2 (F) showed colocalization in BV-2 microglia, indicating the expression of the K ATP channel at the cytoplasmic membrane (D and G, white arrows) . Control: unstimulated cells; L+I: cells stimulated with LPS and IFNγ. Scale bar = 30 μm.

    Journal: Journal of Neuroinflammation

    Article Title: Oral administration of the K ATP channel opener diazoxide ameliorates disease progression in a murine model of multiple sclerosis

    doi: 10.1186/1742-2094-8-149

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Western blotting show expression of both Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 K ATP channel pore-forming subunits in unstimulated and LPS/IFNγ-stimulated BV-2 cells (A, left) and microglial primary cultures (A, Right). Staining for the microglial cell membrane marker CD11b (B and E) and the K ATP channel subunits Kir 6.1 (C) or Kir 6.2 (F) showed colocalization in BV-2 microglia, indicating the expression of the K ATP channel at the cytoplasmic membrane (D and G, white arrows) . Control: unstimulated cells; L+I: cells stimulated with LPS and IFNγ. Scale bar = 30 μm.

    Article Snippet: Cells were then incubated with primary antibodies anti-Kir6.1 and anti-Kir6.2 (1:300 dilution, Alomone, Jerusalem, Israel), anti-CD11b (1:500 dilution, Serotec, Oxford, England, UK) at 4°C overnight, followed by secondary antibodies Alexa ® 488 and 596 (1:500, Molecular Probes, Invitrogen, Eugene, OR, USA) for 1 h in blocking solution.

    Techniques: Western Blot, Expressing, Staining, Marker

    Confocal double immunofluorescence images of CD11b (red, A and D) and Kir6.2 (green, B and E) in spinal cord sections from healthy control mice (Ctrl) or MOG 35-55 EAE mice . A slight intensity was found for Kir6.2 in healthy section showing low localization of the K ATP Kir6.2 subunit in CD11b-positive cells (white arrows, C). However, higher intensity of Kir6.2 subunit in CD11b reactive cells showing a strong colocalization of both (white arrows, F) was observed. Western blotting for Kir6.2 in total protein homogenates from lumbar-sacral and thoracic-cervical regions of the spinal cord from non-immunized control animals (control, G) and EAE mice (EAE, G) show an increase in Kir6.2 expression in EAE mice. This increase is statistically significant in the thoracic-cervical level of the spinal cord (H). Results are shown as mean ± SEM. ** p < 0.01 between control and EAE. Scale bar = 30 μm.

    Journal: Journal of Neuroinflammation

    Article Title: Oral administration of the K ATP channel opener diazoxide ameliorates disease progression in a murine model of multiple sclerosis

    doi: 10.1186/1742-2094-8-149

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Confocal double immunofluorescence images of CD11b (red, A and D) and Kir6.2 (green, B and E) in spinal cord sections from healthy control mice (Ctrl) or MOG 35-55 EAE mice . A slight intensity was found for Kir6.2 in healthy section showing low localization of the K ATP Kir6.2 subunit in CD11b-positive cells (white arrows, C). However, higher intensity of Kir6.2 subunit in CD11b reactive cells showing a strong colocalization of both (white arrows, F) was observed. Western blotting for Kir6.2 in total protein homogenates from lumbar-sacral and thoracic-cervical regions of the spinal cord from non-immunized control animals (control, G) and EAE mice (EAE, G) show an increase in Kir6.2 expression in EAE mice. This increase is statistically significant in the thoracic-cervical level of the spinal cord (H). Results are shown as mean ± SEM. ** p < 0.01 between control and EAE. Scale bar = 30 μm.

    Article Snippet: Cells were then incubated with primary antibodies anti-Kir6.1 and anti-Kir6.2 (1:300 dilution, Alomone, Jerusalem, Israel), anti-CD11b (1:500 dilution, Serotec, Oxford, England, UK) at 4°C overnight, followed by secondary antibodies Alexa ® 488 and 596 (1:500, Molecular Probes, Invitrogen, Eugene, OR, USA) for 1 h in blocking solution.

    Techniques: Immunofluorescence, Western Blot, Expressing