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Abbott Laboratories kaletra
Percentage inhibition of HIV-1 RT by commercial herbal preparations (2.5 mg/mL). Herbal preparations with inhibitory activity above 70% were considered to be highly active. Percentage inhibition by positive controls: Combivir ® (0.5 mg/mL) and <t>Kaletra</t> ® (0.5 mg/mL) were 79.80 ± 0.12 and 62.50 ± 0.31 respectively.
Kaletra, supplied by Abbott Laboratories, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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kaletra - by Bioz Stars, 2021-09
86/100 stars

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1) Product Images from "In Vitro Antioxidant Properties, HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Effects of Traditional Herbal Preparations Sold in South Africa"

Article Title: In Vitro Antioxidant Properties, HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Effects of Traditional Herbal Preparations Sold in South Africa

Journal: Molecules

doi: 10.3390/molecules15106888

Percentage inhibition of HIV-1 RT by commercial herbal preparations (2.5 mg/mL). Herbal preparations with inhibitory activity above 70% were considered to be highly active. Percentage inhibition by positive controls: Combivir ® (0.5 mg/mL) and Kaletra ® (0.5 mg/mL) were 79.80 ± 0.12 and 62.50 ± 0.31 respectively.
Figure Legend Snippet: Percentage inhibition of HIV-1 RT by commercial herbal preparations (2.5 mg/mL). Herbal preparations with inhibitory activity above 70% were considered to be highly active. Percentage inhibition by positive controls: Combivir ® (0.5 mg/mL) and Kaletra ® (0.5 mg/mL) were 79.80 ± 0.12 and 62.50 ± 0.31 respectively.

Techniques Used: Inhibition, Activity Assay

2) Product Images from "Anti-Retroviral Protease Inhibitors Regulate Human Papillomavirus 16 Infection of Primary Oral and Cervical Epithelium"

Article Title: Anti-Retroviral Protease Inhibitors Regulate Human Papillomavirus 16 Infection of Primary Oral and Cervical Epithelium

Journal: Cancers

doi: 10.3390/cancers12092664

Immunofluorescence co-localization of BrdU-labeled genomes and L1 capsids of prog -HPV16. ( A ) Progeny HPV16 biosynthesized in Amprenavir treated gingiva tissues. ( B ) Prog -HPV16 biosynthesized in Kaletra treated gingiva tissues. ( C ) Prog -HPV16 biosynthesized in Amprenavir treated cervical tissues. ( D ) Prog -HPV16 biosynthesized in Kaletra treated cervical tissues. Right panels of ( A – D ): Immunofluorescence of α-V5/L1 capsid protein complexes that correlate with inhibition of infection. Prog -HPV16 [F#7] stocks biosynthesized in 22 d raft tissues was incubated with α-V5/L1 followed by infecting HaCaT monolayers and then imaging 6 h post-infection (compare with 6 h post-infection L1 staining pattern without α-V5 incubation, left panel). Pearson’s coefficients illustrating co-localization of BrdU labeled genome and L1 capsid protein are presented in the merged images. Data represent mean Pearson’s coefficient ± SD, calculated from 5 independent images.
Figure Legend Snippet: Immunofluorescence co-localization of BrdU-labeled genomes and L1 capsids of prog -HPV16. ( A ) Progeny HPV16 biosynthesized in Amprenavir treated gingiva tissues. ( B ) Prog -HPV16 biosynthesized in Kaletra treated gingiva tissues. ( C ) Prog -HPV16 biosynthesized in Amprenavir treated cervical tissues. ( D ) Prog -HPV16 biosynthesized in Kaletra treated cervical tissues. Right panels of ( A – D ): Immunofluorescence of α-V5/L1 capsid protein complexes that correlate with inhibition of infection. Prog -HPV16 [F#7] stocks biosynthesized in 22 d raft tissues was incubated with α-V5/L1 followed by infecting HaCaT monolayers and then imaging 6 h post-infection (compare with 6 h post-infection L1 staining pattern without α-V5 incubation, left panel). Pearson’s coefficients illustrating co-localization of BrdU labeled genome and L1 capsid protein are presented in the merged images. Data represent mean Pearson’s coefficient ± SD, calculated from 5 independent images.

Techniques Used: Immunofluorescence, Labeling, Inhibition, Infection, Incubation, Imaging, Staining

Extended culturing of Kaletra infected gingiva tissues determines progeny virus titers. ( A ) Raft tissues (day 18–24) infected with two virus doses modulates prog -HPV16 titers in a Kaletra concentration dependent manner. Grey bars: infected with 7.5 × 10 7 P -HPV16 virions; Black bars: infected with 1.5 × 10 8 P -HPV16 virions. ( B ) Infectivity of prog -HPV16 Optiprep [F#7] compared with P -HPV16 [F#7] (1 MOI), and infection inhibition using α-V5 and α-RG1 monoclonal antibodies. Infection results shown are average of three experiments and is presented as mean ± SD. p -values were calculated using two-tailed Student’s t -tests. Infectivity of prog -HPV16 were not significantly different compared with P -HPV16.
Figure Legend Snippet: Extended culturing of Kaletra infected gingiva tissues determines progeny virus titers. ( A ) Raft tissues (day 18–24) infected with two virus doses modulates prog -HPV16 titers in a Kaletra concentration dependent manner. Grey bars: infected with 7.5 × 10 7 P -HPV16 virions; Black bars: infected with 1.5 × 10 8 P -HPV16 virions. ( B ) Infectivity of prog -HPV16 Optiprep [F#7] compared with P -HPV16 [F#7] (1 MOI), and infection inhibition using α-V5 and α-RG1 monoclonal antibodies. Infection results shown are average of three experiments and is presented as mean ± SD. p -values were calculated using two-tailed Student’s t -tests. Infectivity of prog -HPV16 were not significantly different compared with P -HPV16.

Techniques Used: Infection, Concentration Assay, Inhibition, Two Tailed Test

Extended culturing of Kaletra treated HPV16 infected cervical tissues modulates progeny virus titers. ( A ) Raft tissues (day 18–24) infected with two virus doses modulates prog -HPV16 titers in a Kaletra concentration dependent manner. Grey bars: infected with 7.5 × 10 7 P -HPV16 virions; Black bars: infected with 1.5 × 10 8 P -HPV16 virions. ( B ) Infectivity of concentrated virus stocks isolated from raft tissues treated with Kaletra (3 µg/mL) compared with P -HPV16 (1 MOI in HaCaT cells), and infection inhibition using α-V5 and α-RG1 monoclonal antibodies. Infection results shown are average of three experiments and is presented as mean ± SD. p -values were calculated using two-tailed Student’s t -tests. Infectivity of prog -HPV16 were not significantly different compared with P -HPV16.
Figure Legend Snippet: Extended culturing of Kaletra treated HPV16 infected cervical tissues modulates progeny virus titers. ( A ) Raft tissues (day 18–24) infected with two virus doses modulates prog -HPV16 titers in a Kaletra concentration dependent manner. Grey bars: infected with 7.5 × 10 7 P -HPV16 virions; Black bars: infected with 1.5 × 10 8 P -HPV16 virions. ( B ) Infectivity of concentrated virus stocks isolated from raft tissues treated with Kaletra (3 µg/mL) compared with P -HPV16 (1 MOI in HaCaT cells), and infection inhibition using α-V5 and α-RG1 monoclonal antibodies. Infection results shown are average of three experiments and is presented as mean ± SD. p -values were calculated using two-tailed Student’s t -tests. Infectivity of prog -HPV16 were not significantly different compared with P -HPV16.

Techniques Used: Infection, Concentration Assay, Isolation, Inhibition, Two Tailed Test

Kaletra (9.8 µg/mL) treatment sensitizes primary cervical tissue to HPV16 infection. ( A ) Comparative expression of HPV16 E1^E4 transcripts in Kaletra (9.8 µg/mL) treated tissues compared with virus infected tissues not drug treated. ( B ) Inhibition of HPV16 infection using α-V5 and α-RG1 of tissues treated with Kaletra. Data were analyzed as mean ± SD. p -values were calculated using two-tailed Student’s t -tests. Comparisons are indicated as 0.001
Figure Legend Snippet: Kaletra (9.8 µg/mL) treatment sensitizes primary cervical tissue to HPV16 infection. ( A ) Comparative expression of HPV16 E1^E4 transcripts in Kaletra (9.8 µg/mL) treated tissues compared with virus infected tissues not drug treated. ( B ) Inhibition of HPV16 infection using α-V5 and α-RG1 of tissues treated with Kaletra. Data were analyzed as mean ± SD. p -values were calculated using two-tailed Student’s t -tests. Comparisons are indicated as 0.001

Techniques Used: Infection, Expressing, Inhibition, Two Tailed Test

Kaletra (9.8 µg/mL) treatment sensitizes primary gingiva tissue to HPV16 infection. ( A ) Comparative expression of HPV16 E1^E4 transcripts in Kaletra treated tissues compared with virus infected tissues not drug treated. Three P -HPV16 doses were used for infecting rafts as indicated. ( B ) Inhibition of virus infection of tissues using HPV16 pre-incubated with α-V5 and α-RG1. Data were analyzed as mean ± SD. p -values were calculated using two-tailed Student’s t -tests. Significance was based on pairwise Student’s t -test. Comparisons are indicated as 0.0001
Figure Legend Snippet: Kaletra (9.8 µg/mL) treatment sensitizes primary gingiva tissue to HPV16 infection. ( A ) Comparative expression of HPV16 E1^E4 transcripts in Kaletra treated tissues compared with virus infected tissues not drug treated. Three P -HPV16 doses were used for infecting rafts as indicated. ( B ) Inhibition of virus infection of tissues using HPV16 pre-incubated with α-V5 and α-RG1. Data were analyzed as mean ± SD. p -values were calculated using two-tailed Student’s t -tests. Significance was based on pairwise Student’s t -test. Comparisons are indicated as 0.0001

Techniques Used: Infection, Expressing, Inhibition, Incubation, Two Tailed Test

3) Product Images from "Delamanid Coadministered with Antiretroviral Drugs or Antituberculosis Drugs Shows No Clinically Relevant Drug-Drug Interactions in Healthy Subjects"

Article Title: Delamanid Coadministered with Antiretroviral Drugs or Antituberculosis Drugs Shows No Clinically Relevant Drug-Drug Interactions in Healthy Subjects

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.00509-16

Delamanid plasma concentration-time profiles alone or with coadministered drugs. DLM, delamanid; EFV, efavirenz; EMB, ethambutol; KAL, Kaletra (lopinavir/ritonavir); TDF, tenofovir.
Figure Legend Snippet: Delamanid plasma concentration-time profiles alone or with coadministered drugs. DLM, delamanid; EFV, efavirenz; EMB, ethambutol; KAL, Kaletra (lopinavir/ritonavir); TDF, tenofovir.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

4) Product Images from "In Vitro Antioxidant Properties, HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Effects of Traditional Herbal Preparations Sold in South Africa"

Article Title: In Vitro Antioxidant Properties, HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Effects of Traditional Herbal Preparations Sold in South Africa

Journal: Molecules

doi: 10.3390/molecules15106888

Percentage inhibition of HIV-1 RT by commercial herbal preparations (2.5 mg/mL). Herbal preparations with inhibitory activity above 70% were considered to be highly active. Percentage inhibition by positive controls: Combivir ® (0.5 mg/mL) and Kaletra ® (0.5 mg/mL) were 79.80 ± 0.12 and 62.50 ± 0.31 respectively.
Figure Legend Snippet: Percentage inhibition of HIV-1 RT by commercial herbal preparations (2.5 mg/mL). Herbal preparations with inhibitory activity above 70% were considered to be highly active. Percentage inhibition by positive controls: Combivir ® (0.5 mg/mL) and Kaletra ® (0.5 mg/mL) were 79.80 ± 0.12 and 62.50 ± 0.31 respectively.

Techniques Used: Inhibition, Activity Assay

5) Product Images from "Role of Chaperone Mediated Autophagy (CMA) in the Degradation of Misfolded N-CoR Protein in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Cells"

Article Title: Role of Chaperone Mediated Autophagy (CMA) in the Degradation of Misfolded N-CoR Protein in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Cells

Journal: PLoS ONE

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025268

Selective loss of N-CoR protein in NSCLC cells. A B, Level and integrity of full length N-CoR protein in various lung cancer cells was determined through western blotting assay. Level of β-actin was determined as experimental control. DMS-79 is derived from SCLC while rests of the cells are derived from NSCLC. B, Level of full length N-CoR protein in SAEC treated with nicotine for 48 hours in a dose dependent manner was determined. C, Level of N-CoR transcript in cell lines used in Figure 1 A B was quantified by real time PCR. The identity of cells used in figure 1A C is presented in Supporting Information S1 . D, Level of full length N-CoR protein in ten histologically confirmed human primary NSCLC cells was determined in western blotting assay with N-CoR antibody. The identity of human samples is presented in Supporting Information S1 . E and F, Level of intact N-CoR protein in H2170 cells treated with Kaletra (E) or genistein (F) was determined was determined in western blotting assay.
Figure Legend Snippet: Selective loss of N-CoR protein in NSCLC cells. A B, Level and integrity of full length N-CoR protein in various lung cancer cells was determined through western blotting assay. Level of β-actin was determined as experimental control. DMS-79 is derived from SCLC while rests of the cells are derived from NSCLC. B, Level of full length N-CoR protein in SAEC treated with nicotine for 48 hours in a dose dependent manner was determined. C, Level of N-CoR transcript in cell lines used in Figure 1 A B was quantified by real time PCR. The identity of cells used in figure 1A C is presented in Supporting Information S1 . D, Level of full length N-CoR protein in ten histologically confirmed human primary NSCLC cells was determined in western blotting assay with N-CoR antibody. The identity of human samples is presented in Supporting Information S1 . E and F, Level of intact N-CoR protein in H2170 cells treated with Kaletra (E) or genistein (F) was determined was determined in western blotting assay.

Techniques Used: Western Blot, Derivative Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

Loss of N-CoR in NSCLC cells is linked to misfolding. A, B C, Solubility (S)/insolubility (I) of N-CoR or β-actin in Kaletra (A) or genistein (B) treated H2170 cells, as well as in DMS-79 or SAEC cells (C), was determined by protein solubility assay. D, Subcellular distribution of N-CoR (red signal) in NSCLC (H2170, H1299, H358, H596, H650, H1869 and H1666) and SCLC (DMS-79) cells was determined by immunoflorescence assay performed with N-CoR antibody. DNA (blue signal) was stained with DAPI. E, Subcellular distribution of N-CoR in histologically confirmed human primary NSCLC tissue sections (panel 2–6) and normal human lung tissue section (panel 1) was determined by immunohistochemical (IHC) assay performed with N-CoR antibody. The brownish staining in the cytosol pinpointed by black arrow represents the N-CoR signal (panels 2–6). N-CoR staining in normal lung tissue section is visible as black dots overlapping the nucleus (panel 1). The second panel demonstrates a cross section that contains both cancer tissue (left half) and normal lung tissue (right half) side by side. F, Subcellular distribution of N-CoR and PDI in SAEC cells treated with vehicle or nicotine for 48 hours was determined by confocal microscopy.
Figure Legend Snippet: Loss of N-CoR in NSCLC cells is linked to misfolding. A, B C, Solubility (S)/insolubility (I) of N-CoR or β-actin in Kaletra (A) or genistein (B) treated H2170 cells, as well as in DMS-79 or SAEC cells (C), was determined by protein solubility assay. D, Subcellular distribution of N-CoR (red signal) in NSCLC (H2170, H1299, H358, H596, H650, H1869 and H1666) and SCLC (DMS-79) cells was determined by immunoflorescence assay performed with N-CoR antibody. DNA (blue signal) was stained with DAPI. E, Subcellular distribution of N-CoR in histologically confirmed human primary NSCLC tissue sections (panel 2–6) and normal human lung tissue section (panel 1) was determined by immunohistochemical (IHC) assay performed with N-CoR antibody. The brownish staining in the cytosol pinpointed by black arrow represents the N-CoR signal (panels 2–6). N-CoR staining in normal lung tissue section is visible as black dots overlapping the nucleus (panel 1). The second panel demonstrates a cross section that contains both cancer tissue (left half) and normal lung tissue (right half) side by side. F, Subcellular distribution of N-CoR and PDI in SAEC cells treated with vehicle or nicotine for 48 hours was determined by confocal microscopy.

Techniques Used: Solubility, Staining, Immunohistochemistry, Confocal Microscopy

N-CoR is a substrate of chaperone mediated autophagy (CMA). A, Column purified cytosolic extracts of H2170 cells was incubated with flag-tagged N-CoR ectopically expressed in 293T cells. N-CoR was immunoprecipitated with anti-flag antibody and proteins co-precipitated with N-CoR were resolved in SDS-PAGE, excised and their identity was determined by MS. B, The association between Flag-tagged N-CoR and Hsc70 was reconfirmed in co-immunoprecipitation assay performed essentially as described in legend of figure 4A . After detection of co-precipitated Hsc70 with Hsc70 antibody (upper panel), the membrane was re-probed with flag antibody to quantify the amount of precipitated N-CoR protein (lower panel). In “input” lanes, an aliquot of whole cell extract was loaded. C, Hsc70 was immunoprecipitated from the extracts of vehicle or 5 µM Kaletra treated H2170 cells and level of co-precipitated N-CoR was determined with N-CoR antibody (upper panel). The membrane was re-probed with Hsc70 antibody (lower panel). In “input” lanes, an aliquot of whole cell extract was loaded. D, N-CoR (red) and Hsc70 (green) distribution in H2170 cells was determined through immunoflorescence analysis using confocal microscopy. The intensity of yellow signals signifies the degree of co-localization of two proteins. DNA was labeled with DAPI (blue).
Figure Legend Snippet: N-CoR is a substrate of chaperone mediated autophagy (CMA). A, Column purified cytosolic extracts of H2170 cells was incubated with flag-tagged N-CoR ectopically expressed in 293T cells. N-CoR was immunoprecipitated with anti-flag antibody and proteins co-precipitated with N-CoR were resolved in SDS-PAGE, excised and their identity was determined by MS. B, The association between Flag-tagged N-CoR and Hsc70 was reconfirmed in co-immunoprecipitation assay performed essentially as described in legend of figure 4A . After detection of co-precipitated Hsc70 with Hsc70 antibody (upper panel), the membrane was re-probed with flag antibody to quantify the amount of precipitated N-CoR protein (lower panel). In “input” lanes, an aliquot of whole cell extract was loaded. C, Hsc70 was immunoprecipitated from the extracts of vehicle or 5 µM Kaletra treated H2170 cells and level of co-precipitated N-CoR was determined with N-CoR antibody (upper panel). The membrane was re-probed with Hsc70 antibody (lower panel). In “input” lanes, an aliquot of whole cell extract was loaded. D, N-CoR (red) and Hsc70 (green) distribution in H2170 cells was determined through immunoflorescence analysis using confocal microscopy. The intensity of yellow signals signifies the degree of co-localization of two proteins. DNA was labeled with DAPI (blue).

Techniques Used: Purification, Incubation, Immunoprecipitation, SDS Page, Mass Spectrometry, Co-Immunoprecipitation Assay, Confocal Microscopy, Labeling

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Article Title: Synthesis and Characterization of Impurities in the Production Process of Lopinavir
Article Snippet: Lopinavir is marketed by Abbott Laboratories under the brand name of Kaletra® with the combination of Ritonavir.

Mouse Assay:

Article Title: Designer Adiponectin Receptor Agonist Stabilizes Metabolic Function and Prevents Brain Injury Caused by HIV Protease Inhibitors
Article Snippet: .. Previous studies from our laboratory and others have clearly shown that exposure of mice to lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra®, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL), a protease inhibitor cocktail commonly used in clinical settings to manage HIV produces a severe metabolic derangement also associated with cognitive impairment ( ; ). ..

Article Title: The Effect of HIV Protease Inhibitors on Amyloid-? Peptide Degradation and Synthesis in Human Cells and Alzheimer's Disease Animal Model
Article Snippet: .. The APP-SCID mice received oral administration of nelfinavir (AG1343, 30 mg/kg/day, b.i.d.), co-formulated lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra® containing 200 mg lopinavir and 50 mg ritonavir in one tablet, ground to administer 200 mg/kg/day, b.i.d.), or vehicle ( n =3 per group). ..

Protease Inhibitor:

Article Title: Designer Adiponectin Receptor Agonist Stabilizes Metabolic Function and Prevents Brain Injury Caused by HIV Protease Inhibitors
Article Snippet: .. Previous studies from our laboratory and others have clearly shown that exposure of mice to lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra®, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL), a protease inhibitor cocktail commonly used in clinical settings to manage HIV produces a severe metabolic derangement also associated with cognitive impairment ( ; ). ..

Mass Spectrometry:

Article Title: In Vitro Antioxidant Properties, HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Effects of Traditional Herbal Preparations Sold in South Africa
Article Snippet: .. Ms. S. Khumalo (Social Counsellor UKZN-AIDS Programme) is thanked for providing the antiretroviral drugs; Combivir® (GlaxoSmithKline) and Kaletra® (Abbott) used as positive controls in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase assay. ..

Reverse Transcriptase Assay:

Article Title: In Vitro Antioxidant Properties, HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Effects of Traditional Herbal Preparations Sold in South Africa
Article Snippet: .. Ms. S. Khumalo (Social Counsellor UKZN-AIDS Programme) is thanked for providing the antiretroviral drugs; Combivir® (GlaxoSmithKline) and Kaletra® (Abbott) used as positive controls in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase assay. ..

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    Abbott Laboratories kaletra
    Percentage inhibition of HIV-1 RT by commercial herbal preparations (2.5 mg/mL). Herbal preparations with inhibitory activity above 70% were considered to be highly active. Percentage inhibition by positive controls: Combivir ® (0.5 mg/mL) and <t>Kaletra</t> ® (0.5 mg/mL) were 79.80 ± 0.12 and 62.50 ± 0.31 respectively.
    Kaletra, supplied by Abbott Laboratories, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/kaletra/product/Abbott Laboratories
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    kaletra - by Bioz Stars, 2021-09
    86/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

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    Percentage inhibition of HIV-1 RT by commercial herbal preparations (2.5 mg/mL). Herbal preparations with inhibitory activity above 70% were considered to be highly active. Percentage inhibition by positive controls: Combivir ® (0.5 mg/mL) and Kaletra ® (0.5 mg/mL) were 79.80 ± 0.12 and 62.50 ± 0.31 respectively.

    Journal: Molecules

    Article Title: In Vitro Antioxidant Properties, HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Effects of Traditional Herbal Preparations Sold in South Africa

    doi: 10.3390/molecules15106888

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Percentage inhibition of HIV-1 RT by commercial herbal preparations (2.5 mg/mL). Herbal preparations with inhibitory activity above 70% were considered to be highly active. Percentage inhibition by positive controls: Combivir ® (0.5 mg/mL) and Kaletra ® (0.5 mg/mL) were 79.80 ± 0.12 and 62.50 ± 0.31 respectively.

    Article Snippet: Ms. S. Khumalo (Social Counsellor UKZN-AIDS Programme) is thanked for providing the antiretroviral drugs; Combivir® (GlaxoSmithKline) and Kaletra® (Abbott) used as positive controls in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase assay.

    Techniques: Inhibition, Activity Assay

    Immunofluorescence co-localization of BrdU-labeled genomes and L1 capsids of prog -HPV16. ( A ) Progeny HPV16 biosynthesized in Amprenavir treated gingiva tissues. ( B ) Prog -HPV16 biosynthesized in Kaletra treated gingiva tissues. ( C ) Prog -HPV16 biosynthesized in Amprenavir treated cervical tissues. ( D ) Prog -HPV16 biosynthesized in Kaletra treated cervical tissues. Right panels of ( A – D ): Immunofluorescence of α-V5/L1 capsid protein complexes that correlate with inhibition of infection. Prog -HPV16 [F#7] stocks biosynthesized in 22 d raft tissues was incubated with α-V5/L1 followed by infecting HaCaT monolayers and then imaging 6 h post-infection (compare with 6 h post-infection L1 staining pattern without α-V5 incubation, left panel). Pearson’s coefficients illustrating co-localization of BrdU labeled genome and L1 capsid protein are presented in the merged images. Data represent mean Pearson’s coefficient ± SD, calculated from 5 independent images.

    Journal: Cancers

    Article Title: Anti-Retroviral Protease Inhibitors Regulate Human Papillomavirus 16 Infection of Primary Oral and Cervical Epithelium

    doi: 10.3390/cancers12092664

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Immunofluorescence co-localization of BrdU-labeled genomes and L1 capsids of prog -HPV16. ( A ) Progeny HPV16 biosynthesized in Amprenavir treated gingiva tissues. ( B ) Prog -HPV16 biosynthesized in Kaletra treated gingiva tissues. ( C ) Prog -HPV16 biosynthesized in Amprenavir treated cervical tissues. ( D ) Prog -HPV16 biosynthesized in Kaletra treated cervical tissues. Right panels of ( A – D ): Immunofluorescence of α-V5/L1 capsid protein complexes that correlate with inhibition of infection. Prog -HPV16 [F#7] stocks biosynthesized in 22 d raft tissues was incubated with α-V5/L1 followed by infecting HaCaT monolayers and then imaging 6 h post-infection (compare with 6 h post-infection L1 staining pattern without α-V5 incubation, left panel). Pearson’s coefficients illustrating co-localization of BrdU labeled genome and L1 capsid protein are presented in the merged images. Data represent mean Pearson’s coefficient ± SD, calculated from 5 independent images.

    Article Snippet: Kaletra® Treatment Also Induces De Novo Biosynthesis of Progeny Virions in Gingiva Tissues To confirm that our findings were not restricted to Amprenavir treatment, we utilized Kaletra (Lopinavir/ritonavir, Abbott Laboratories), a PI currently prescribed for HIV treatment.

    Techniques: Immunofluorescence, Labeling, Inhibition, Infection, Incubation, Imaging, Staining

    Extended culturing of Kaletra infected gingiva tissues determines progeny virus titers. ( A ) Raft tissues (day 18–24) infected with two virus doses modulates prog -HPV16 titers in a Kaletra concentration dependent manner. Grey bars: infected with 7.5 × 10 7 P -HPV16 virions; Black bars: infected with 1.5 × 10 8 P -HPV16 virions. ( B ) Infectivity of prog -HPV16 Optiprep [F#7] compared with P -HPV16 [F#7] (1 MOI), and infection inhibition using α-V5 and α-RG1 monoclonal antibodies. Infection results shown are average of three experiments and is presented as mean ± SD. p -values were calculated using two-tailed Student’s t -tests. Infectivity of prog -HPV16 were not significantly different compared with P -HPV16.

    Journal: Cancers

    Article Title: Anti-Retroviral Protease Inhibitors Regulate Human Papillomavirus 16 Infection of Primary Oral and Cervical Epithelium

    doi: 10.3390/cancers12092664

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Extended culturing of Kaletra infected gingiva tissues determines progeny virus titers. ( A ) Raft tissues (day 18–24) infected with two virus doses modulates prog -HPV16 titers in a Kaletra concentration dependent manner. Grey bars: infected with 7.5 × 10 7 P -HPV16 virions; Black bars: infected with 1.5 × 10 8 P -HPV16 virions. ( B ) Infectivity of prog -HPV16 Optiprep [F#7] compared with P -HPV16 [F#7] (1 MOI), and infection inhibition using α-V5 and α-RG1 monoclonal antibodies. Infection results shown are average of three experiments and is presented as mean ± SD. p -values were calculated using two-tailed Student’s t -tests. Infectivity of prog -HPV16 were not significantly different compared with P -HPV16.

    Article Snippet: Kaletra® Treatment Also Induces De Novo Biosynthesis of Progeny Virions in Gingiva Tissues To confirm that our findings were not restricted to Amprenavir treatment, we utilized Kaletra (Lopinavir/ritonavir, Abbott Laboratories), a PI currently prescribed for HIV treatment.

    Techniques: Infection, Concentration Assay, Inhibition, Two Tailed Test

    Extended culturing of Kaletra treated HPV16 infected cervical tissues modulates progeny virus titers. ( A ) Raft tissues (day 18–24) infected with two virus doses modulates prog -HPV16 titers in a Kaletra concentration dependent manner. Grey bars: infected with 7.5 × 10 7 P -HPV16 virions; Black bars: infected with 1.5 × 10 8 P -HPV16 virions. ( B ) Infectivity of concentrated virus stocks isolated from raft tissues treated with Kaletra (3 µg/mL) compared with P -HPV16 (1 MOI in HaCaT cells), and infection inhibition using α-V5 and α-RG1 monoclonal antibodies. Infection results shown are average of three experiments and is presented as mean ± SD. p -values were calculated using two-tailed Student’s t -tests. Infectivity of prog -HPV16 were not significantly different compared with P -HPV16.

    Journal: Cancers

    Article Title: Anti-Retroviral Protease Inhibitors Regulate Human Papillomavirus 16 Infection of Primary Oral and Cervical Epithelium

    doi: 10.3390/cancers12092664

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Extended culturing of Kaletra treated HPV16 infected cervical tissues modulates progeny virus titers. ( A ) Raft tissues (day 18–24) infected with two virus doses modulates prog -HPV16 titers in a Kaletra concentration dependent manner. Grey bars: infected with 7.5 × 10 7 P -HPV16 virions; Black bars: infected with 1.5 × 10 8 P -HPV16 virions. ( B ) Infectivity of concentrated virus stocks isolated from raft tissues treated with Kaletra (3 µg/mL) compared with P -HPV16 (1 MOI in HaCaT cells), and infection inhibition using α-V5 and α-RG1 monoclonal antibodies. Infection results shown are average of three experiments and is presented as mean ± SD. p -values were calculated using two-tailed Student’s t -tests. Infectivity of prog -HPV16 were not significantly different compared with P -HPV16.

    Article Snippet: Kaletra® Treatment Also Induces De Novo Biosynthesis of Progeny Virions in Gingiva Tissues To confirm that our findings were not restricted to Amprenavir treatment, we utilized Kaletra (Lopinavir/ritonavir, Abbott Laboratories), a PI currently prescribed for HIV treatment.

    Techniques: Infection, Concentration Assay, Isolation, Inhibition, Two Tailed Test

    Kaletra (9.8 µg/mL) treatment sensitizes primary cervical tissue to HPV16 infection. ( A ) Comparative expression of HPV16 E1^E4 transcripts in Kaletra (9.8 µg/mL) treated tissues compared with virus infected tissues not drug treated. ( B ) Inhibition of HPV16 infection using α-V5 and α-RG1 of tissues treated with Kaletra. Data were analyzed as mean ± SD. p -values were calculated using two-tailed Student’s t -tests. Comparisons are indicated as 0.001

    Journal: Cancers

    Article Title: Anti-Retroviral Protease Inhibitors Regulate Human Papillomavirus 16 Infection of Primary Oral and Cervical Epithelium

    doi: 10.3390/cancers12092664

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Kaletra (9.8 µg/mL) treatment sensitizes primary cervical tissue to HPV16 infection. ( A ) Comparative expression of HPV16 E1^E4 transcripts in Kaletra (9.8 µg/mL) treated tissues compared with virus infected tissues not drug treated. ( B ) Inhibition of HPV16 infection using α-V5 and α-RG1 of tissues treated with Kaletra. Data were analyzed as mean ± SD. p -values were calculated using two-tailed Student’s t -tests. Comparisons are indicated as 0.001

    Article Snippet: Kaletra® Treatment Also Induces De Novo Biosynthesis of Progeny Virions in Gingiva Tissues To confirm that our findings were not restricted to Amprenavir treatment, we utilized Kaletra (Lopinavir/ritonavir, Abbott Laboratories), a PI currently prescribed for HIV treatment.

    Techniques: Infection, Expressing, Inhibition, Two Tailed Test

    Kaletra (9.8 µg/mL) treatment sensitizes primary gingiva tissue to HPV16 infection. ( A ) Comparative expression of HPV16 E1^E4 transcripts in Kaletra treated tissues compared with virus infected tissues not drug treated. Three P -HPV16 doses were used for infecting rafts as indicated. ( B ) Inhibition of virus infection of tissues using HPV16 pre-incubated with α-V5 and α-RG1. Data were analyzed as mean ± SD. p -values were calculated using two-tailed Student’s t -tests. Significance was based on pairwise Student’s t -test. Comparisons are indicated as 0.0001

    Journal: Cancers

    Article Title: Anti-Retroviral Protease Inhibitors Regulate Human Papillomavirus 16 Infection of Primary Oral and Cervical Epithelium

    doi: 10.3390/cancers12092664

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Kaletra (9.8 µg/mL) treatment sensitizes primary gingiva tissue to HPV16 infection. ( A ) Comparative expression of HPV16 E1^E4 transcripts in Kaletra treated tissues compared with virus infected tissues not drug treated. Three P -HPV16 doses were used for infecting rafts as indicated. ( B ) Inhibition of virus infection of tissues using HPV16 pre-incubated with α-V5 and α-RG1. Data were analyzed as mean ± SD. p -values were calculated using two-tailed Student’s t -tests. Significance was based on pairwise Student’s t -test. Comparisons are indicated as 0.0001

    Article Snippet: Kaletra® Treatment Also Induces De Novo Biosynthesis of Progeny Virions in Gingiva Tissues To confirm that our findings were not restricted to Amprenavir treatment, we utilized Kaletra (Lopinavir/ritonavir, Abbott Laboratories), a PI currently prescribed for HIV treatment.

    Techniques: Infection, Expressing, Inhibition, Incubation, Two Tailed Test

    Delamanid plasma concentration-time profiles alone or with coadministered drugs. DLM, delamanid; EFV, efavirenz; EMB, ethambutol; KAL, Kaletra (lopinavir/ritonavir); TDF, tenofovir.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Delamanid Coadministered with Antiretroviral Drugs or Antituberculosis Drugs Shows No Clinically Relevant Drug-Drug Interactions in Healthy Subjects

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00509-16

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Delamanid plasma concentration-time profiles alone or with coadministered drugs. DLM, delamanid; EFV, efavirenz; EMB, ethambutol; KAL, Kaletra (lopinavir/ritonavir); TDF, tenofovir.

    Article Snippet: Tenofovir was supplied as commercially available Viread manufactured by Gilead Sciences, Inc. (Foster City, CA), and lopinavir/ritonavir was supplied as commercially available Kaletra manufactured by Abbott Laboratories (Abbott Park, IL).

    Techniques: Concentration Assay