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Abbott Laboratories isoflurane
Blocking GABA A receptors in the pontine reticular nucleus, oral part (PnO) caused a concentration-dependent change in three phenotypes of wakefulness. Asterisks indicate a significant difference from control (0 mM bicuculline). A ) to schematize a microdialysis probe in the PnO. The probe was perfused with Ringer’s or Ringer’s containing one concentration of bicuculline, and acetylcholine (ACh) was collected from the outlet tubing. The dialysis membrane is drawn to scale (1 mm length and 0.24 mm diameter). The concentration of bicuculline accounted for 87% of the variance in ACh release. Data are from 3 mice per concentration for a total of 18 mice. B, dialysis administration of bicuculline to the PnO decreased respiratory rate. The concentration of bicuculline accounted for 76% of the variance in rate of breathing. Data are from 3 mice per concentration, for a total of 18 mice. C , bicuculline administered to the PnO increased time to righting after cessation of <t>isoflurane</t> delivery. The concentration of bicuculline accounted for 76% of the variance in anesthesia recovery time. Data are from 3 mice per concentration, for a total of 12 mice.
Isoflurane, supplied by Abbott Laboratories, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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Images

1) Product Images from "GABAA receptors in the pontine reticular formation of C57BL/6J mouse modulate neurochemical, electrographic, and behavioral phenotypes of wakefulness"

Article Title: GABAA receptors in the pontine reticular formation of C57BL/6J mouse modulate neurochemical, electrographic, and behavioral phenotypes of wakefulness

Journal: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1119-10.2010

Blocking GABA A receptors in the pontine reticular nucleus, oral part (PnO) caused a concentration-dependent change in three phenotypes of wakefulness. Asterisks indicate a significant difference from control (0 mM bicuculline). A ) to schematize a microdialysis probe in the PnO. The probe was perfused with Ringer’s or Ringer’s containing one concentration of bicuculline, and acetylcholine (ACh) was collected from the outlet tubing. The dialysis membrane is drawn to scale (1 mm length and 0.24 mm diameter). The concentration of bicuculline accounted for 87% of the variance in ACh release. Data are from 3 mice per concentration for a total of 18 mice. B, dialysis administration of bicuculline to the PnO decreased respiratory rate. The concentration of bicuculline accounted for 76% of the variance in rate of breathing. Data are from 3 mice per concentration, for a total of 18 mice. C , bicuculline administered to the PnO increased time to righting after cessation of isoflurane delivery. The concentration of bicuculline accounted for 76% of the variance in anesthesia recovery time. Data are from 3 mice per concentration, for a total of 12 mice.
Figure Legend Snippet: Blocking GABA A receptors in the pontine reticular nucleus, oral part (PnO) caused a concentration-dependent change in three phenotypes of wakefulness. Asterisks indicate a significant difference from control (0 mM bicuculline). A ) to schematize a microdialysis probe in the PnO. The probe was perfused with Ringer’s or Ringer’s containing one concentration of bicuculline, and acetylcholine (ACh) was collected from the outlet tubing. The dialysis membrane is drawn to scale (1 mm length and 0.24 mm diameter). The concentration of bicuculline accounted for 87% of the variance in ACh release. Data are from 3 mice per concentration for a total of 18 mice. B, dialysis administration of bicuculline to the PnO decreased respiratory rate. The concentration of bicuculline accounted for 76% of the variance in rate of breathing. Data are from 3 mice per concentration, for a total of 18 mice. C , bicuculline administered to the PnO increased time to righting after cessation of isoflurane delivery. The concentration of bicuculline accounted for 76% of the variance in anesthesia recovery time. Data are from 3 mice per concentration, for a total of 12 mice.

Techniques Used: Blocking Assay, Concentration Assay, Mouse Assay

2) Product Images from "Differential Inhibition of Neuronal Sodium Channel Subtypes by the General Anesthetic Isoflurane"

Article Title: Differential Inhibition of Neuronal Sodium Channel Subtypes by the General Anesthetic Isoflurane

Journal: The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

doi: 10.1124/jpet.118.254938

Effect of isoflurane on recovery from fast inactivation. Isoflurane at 0.58 mM (1.9 MAC) significantly slowed recovery from fast inactivation. (A–C) Representative traces recorded in the absence (CTL, left) or presence of 0.58 mM isoflurane (ISO, right) for Na v 1.1 (A), Na v 1.2 (B), and Na v 1.6 (C). Currents were evoked by a paired-pulse protocol in which the time between the two 5-millisecond pulses (to 0 mV) was varied from 1 to 200 milliseconds. Holding potentials (V h ) were −100 mV (upper trace) or −70 mV (lower trace). (D–F) Normalized peak current (Pulse2/Pulse1) plotted against duration of the interpulse interval for a V h of −100 mV (left) or −70 mV (right) for Na v 1.1 (D), Na v 1.2 (E), and Na v 1.6 (F). (G–I) Time constant ( τ ) for recovery from inactivation determined from monoexponential fits of data from individual cells in the absence (CTL) or presence of isoflurane from a holding potential of −100 mV ( n = 6) or −70 mV ( n = 6). Data are presented as means ± S.D. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of isoflurane on recovery from fast inactivation. Isoflurane at 0.58 mM (1.9 MAC) significantly slowed recovery from fast inactivation. (A–C) Representative traces recorded in the absence (CTL, left) or presence of 0.58 mM isoflurane (ISO, right) for Na v 1.1 (A), Na v 1.2 (B), and Na v 1.6 (C). Currents were evoked by a paired-pulse protocol in which the time between the two 5-millisecond pulses (to 0 mV) was varied from 1 to 200 milliseconds. Holding potentials (V h ) were −100 mV (upper trace) or −70 mV (lower trace). (D–F) Normalized peak current (Pulse2/Pulse1) plotted against duration of the interpulse interval for a V h of −100 mV (left) or −70 mV (right) for Na v 1.1 (D), Na v 1.2 (E), and Na v 1.6 (F). (G–I) Time constant ( τ ) for recovery from inactivation determined from monoexponential fits of data from individual cells in the absence (CTL) or presence of isoflurane from a holding potential of −100 mV ( n = 6) or −70 mV ( n = 6). Data are presented as means ± S.D. * P

Techniques Used:

Concentration-dependent effects of isoflurane on Na v subtypes. IC 50 values for isoflurane inhibition of Na v subtypes from holding potentials of −70 mV or V 1/2inact . (A–C) Data for concentration-dependent inhibition of peak I Na by isoflurane were well fitted to a Hill equation with significant voltage-dependent inhibition ( P
Figure Legend Snippet: Concentration-dependent effects of isoflurane on Na v subtypes. IC 50 values for isoflurane inhibition of Na v subtypes from holding potentials of −70 mV or V 1/2inact . (A–C) Data for concentration-dependent inhibition of peak I Na by isoflurane were well fitted to a Hill equation with significant voltage-dependent inhibition ( P

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Inhibition

Effects of isoflurane on steady-state fast inactivation of neuronal Na v subtypes. Isoflurane (0.48 mM; 1.6 MAC) shifted the voltage of half-maximal inactivation (V 1/2inact ) in the hyperpolarizing direction for all three isoforms ( n = 6 for Na v 1.1 and Na v 1.2; n = 5 for Na v 1.6; P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of isoflurane on steady-state fast inactivation of neuronal Na v subtypes. Isoflurane (0.48 mM; 1.6 MAC) shifted the voltage of half-maximal inactivation (V 1/2inact ) in the hyperpolarizing direction for all three isoforms ( n = 6 for Na v 1.1 and Na v 1.2; n = 5 for Na v 1.6; P

Techniques Used:

Simulated effects of isoflurane on action potentials and synaptic transmission mediated by Na v 1.1, Na v 1.2, or Na v 1.6. Channel gating kinetics were temperature corrected to 37°C. (A) Effects of isoflurane (ISO) on single AP morphology evoked by 0.15 nA for 10 milliseconds. (B) Effects of isoflurane on half-width and amplitude of single APs mediated by Na v 1.1, Na v 1.2, or Na v 1.6. (C) Effects of isoflurane on AP trains evoked by a larger stimulus of 0.5 nA for 250 milliseconds. (D) Effects of isoflurane on AP frequency mediated by Na v 1.1, Na v 1.2, or Na v ). (F) Simulated effects of isoflurane on postsynaptic EPSCs mediated by Na v 1.1, Na v 1.2, or Na v 1.6.
Figure Legend Snippet: Simulated effects of isoflurane on action potentials and synaptic transmission mediated by Na v 1.1, Na v 1.2, or Na v 1.6. Channel gating kinetics were temperature corrected to 37°C. (A) Effects of isoflurane (ISO) on single AP morphology evoked by 0.15 nA for 10 milliseconds. (B) Effects of isoflurane on half-width and amplitude of single APs mediated by Na v 1.1, Na v 1.2, or Na v 1.6. (C) Effects of isoflurane on AP trains evoked by a larger stimulus of 0.5 nA for 250 milliseconds. (D) Effects of isoflurane on AP frequency mediated by Na v 1.1, Na v 1.2, or Na v ). (F) Simulated effects of isoflurane on postsynaptic EPSCs mediated by Na v 1.1, Na v 1.2, or Na v 1.6.

Techniques Used: Transmission Assay

Inhibition of peak Na + current ( I Na ) during wash-in and washout of isoflurane. Effect of 0.49 mM (1.6 MAC) isoflurane with an alternating pulse protocol to elicit peak I Na by a prepulse to −110 mV, −70 mV, or V 1/2inact (voltage of half-maximal inactivation) ( n = 6). V 1/2inact was determined for each individual cell prior to control recording. (A) Representative traces for Na v 1.1 for the control (black traces) or isoflurane (ISO; colored traces). No inhibition was observed for Na v 1.1 from a holding potential (V h ) of −110 or −70 mV. (B) Representative traces for Na v 1.2 for the control or isoflurane. (C) Representative traces for Na v 1.6 for the control or isoflurane. (D–F) Inhibition by isoflurane of Na v subtypes. Data are expressed as means ± S.D.
Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibition of peak Na + current ( I Na ) during wash-in and washout of isoflurane. Effect of 0.49 mM (1.6 MAC) isoflurane with an alternating pulse protocol to elicit peak I Na by a prepulse to −110 mV, −70 mV, or V 1/2inact (voltage of half-maximal inactivation) ( n = 6). V 1/2inact was determined for each individual cell prior to control recording. (A) Representative traces for Na v 1.1 for the control (black traces) or isoflurane (ISO; colored traces). No inhibition was observed for Na v 1.1 from a holding potential (V h ) of −110 or −70 mV. (B) Representative traces for Na v 1.2 for the control or isoflurane. (C) Representative traces for Na v 1.6 for the control or isoflurane. (D–F) Inhibition by isoflurane of Na v subtypes. Data are expressed as means ± S.D.

Techniques Used: Inhibition

Inhibition of peak Na + current ( I Na ) by isoflurane. From a holding potential (V h ) of −110 mV, isoflurane (0.49 ± 0.03 mM; ∼1.6 MAC) inhibited peak I Na of Na v 1.2 and Na v 1.6, but not of Na v 1.1. From a holding potential of −70 mV, isoflurane inhibited peak I Na of Na v 1.2 and Na v 1.6, but not of Na v 1.1. From a holding potential of V 1/2inact (voltage of half-maximal inactivation), isoflurane inhibited peak I Na of Na v 1.1, Na v 1.2, and Na v 1.6 with similar efficacy ( P > 0.05 by ANOVA). Data are expressed as means ± S.D. ( n = 5 to 6). * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibition of peak Na + current ( I Na ) by isoflurane. From a holding potential (V h ) of −110 mV, isoflurane (0.49 ± 0.03 mM; ∼1.6 MAC) inhibited peak I Na of Na v 1.2 and Na v 1.6, but not of Na v 1.1. From a holding potential of −70 mV, isoflurane inhibited peak I Na of Na v 1.2 and Na v 1.6, but not of Na v 1.1. From a holding potential of V 1/2inact (voltage of half-maximal inactivation), isoflurane inhibited peak I Na of Na v 1.1, Na v 1.2, and Na v 1.6 with similar efficacy ( P > 0.05 by ANOVA). Data are expressed as means ± S.D. ( n = 5 to 6). * P

Techniques Used: Inhibition

Simulation of Na + currents mediated by Na v 1.1, Na v 1.2, or Na v 1.6. (A–C) Representative I Na for each neuronal Na v subtype. Simulation of Hodgkin-Huxley model Na + channel gating by NMODL. Currents at 24°C (left) were similar to I Na recorded experimentally and the currents at 37°C (right) were corrected. The electrophysiological parameters of Na v at 24°C were based on empirical data obtained from recordings. Temperature correction of Na v was based on the kinetic model of m 3 h, where Q 10 = 2.34 for m and Q 10 ). (D–F) Simulated activation curves for Na v 1.1 (D), Na v 1.2 (E), and Na v 1.6 (F) in the absence (CTL; black traces) or presence (ISO; colored traces) of isoflurane. The simulated currents at both 24°C and 37°C are shown. (G–I) Simulated inactivation curves for Na v 1.1 (G), Na v 1.2 (H), and Na v 1.6 (I) in the absence (black traces) or presence (colored traces) of isoflurane. The simulated currents at both 24°C and 37°C are shown. CTL, control; ISO, isoflurane.
Figure Legend Snippet: Simulation of Na + currents mediated by Na v 1.1, Na v 1.2, or Na v 1.6. (A–C) Representative I Na for each neuronal Na v subtype. Simulation of Hodgkin-Huxley model Na + channel gating by NMODL. Currents at 24°C (left) were similar to I Na recorded experimentally and the currents at 37°C (right) were corrected. The electrophysiological parameters of Na v at 24°C were based on empirical data obtained from recordings. Temperature correction of Na v was based on the kinetic model of m 3 h, where Q 10 = 2.34 for m and Q 10 ). (D–F) Simulated activation curves for Na v 1.1 (D), Na v 1.2 (E), and Na v 1.6 (F) in the absence (CTL; black traces) or presence (ISO; colored traces) of isoflurane. The simulated currents at both 24°C and 37°C are shown. (G–I) Simulated inactivation curves for Na v 1.1 (G), Na v 1.2 (H), and Na v 1.6 (I) in the absence (black traces) or presence (colored traces) of isoflurane. The simulated currents at both 24°C and 37°C are shown. CTL, control; ISO, isoflurane.

Techniques Used: Activation Assay

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Article Title: Intragroup competition predicts individual foraging specialisation in a group‐living mammal
Article Snippet: Individual mongooses were trapped using Tomahawk live traps (Tomahawk Live Trap Co., Tomahawk, Wisconsin, USA) and vibrissa samples were hand plucked under anaesthetic (isoflurane, Abbot Laboratories) as part of routine trapping (see Jordan et al . for details of trapping procedure).

Computed Tomography:

Article Title: Enzamin ameliorates adipose tissue inflammation with impaired adipocytokine expression and insulin resistance in db/db mice
Article Snippet: .. Body fat composition analysis Body fat composition was estimated by computed tomography (CT) analysis in mice that were anaesthetised with forane (Isoflurane; Abbott Japan) and then scanned using a LaTheta (LCT-200) experimental animal CT system (Hitachi-Aloka Medical)( ) . .. Contiguous 1-mm slice images between L1 and L5 were used for quantitative assessment employing LaTheta software (version 3·40).

Mouse Assay:

Article Title: Enzamin ameliorates adipose tissue inflammation with impaired adipocytokine expression and insulin resistance in db/db mice
Article Snippet: .. Body fat composition analysis Body fat composition was estimated by computed tomography (CT) analysis in mice that were anaesthetised with forane (Isoflurane; Abbott Japan) and then scanned using a LaTheta (LCT-200) experimental animal CT system (Hitachi-Aloka Medical)( ) . .. Contiguous 1-mm slice images between L1 and L5 were used for quantitative assessment employing LaTheta software (version 3·40).

Sampling:

Article Title: A novel, clinically relevant use of a piglet model to study the effects of anesthetics on the developing brain
Article Snippet: .. The femoral artery was catheterized to ensure continuous blood pressure measurement and facilitate blood sampling for the assessment of acid–base status, blood gases, and electrolytes hourly throughout the procedure using the iSTAT blood analysis system. (Abbott Point of Care, Princeton, NJ, USA). ..

Flow Cytometry:

Article Title: Prostate cancer cell malignancy via modulation of HIF-1α pathway with isoflurane and propofol alone and in combination
Article Snippet: .. The chamber was connected to calibrated flow meters and an in-line vaporiser used to deliver the desired composition (Datex gas monitor, Helsinki, Finland) of isoflurane (0.5–2.0%) (Abbott Laboratories, Maidenhead, UK) in 21% oxygen and 5% CO2 balanced with nitrogen (BOC, Guildford, UK). ..

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    Abbott Laboratories isoflurane
    Static μPET/CT images of [ 68 Ga]-AAZTA-MG in CCK+/− tumour xenograft-bearing BALB/c nude mice 30 ( a , d ), 45 ( b , e ) and 60 ( c , f ) min p.i.; coronal slices ( a , b , c ) and 3D volume rendered images ( d , e , f ). (supine position; injected dose ~5 MBq; anaesthesia: 2 % <t>isoflurane;</t> scan duration: 10-min PET scan followed by 30-min CT scan)
    Isoflurane, supplied by Abbott Laboratories, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/isoflurane/product/Abbott Laboratories
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    isoflurane - by Bioz Stars, 2021-04
    86/100 stars
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    Static μPET/CT images of [ 68 Ga]-AAZTA-MG in CCK+/− tumour xenograft-bearing BALB/c nude mice 30 ( a , d ), 45 ( b , e ) and 60 ( c , f ) min p.i.; coronal slices ( a , b , c ) and 3D volume rendered images ( d , e , f ). (supine position; injected dose ~5 MBq; anaesthesia: 2 % isoflurane; scan duration: 10-min PET scan followed by 30-min CT scan)

    Journal: EJNMMI Research

    Article Title: Influence of a novel, versatile bifunctional chelator on theranostic properties of a minigastrin analogue

    doi: 10.1186/s13550-015-0154-7

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Static μPET/CT images of [ 68 Ga]-AAZTA-MG in CCK+/− tumour xenograft-bearing BALB/c nude mice 30 ( a , d ), 45 ( b , e ) and 60 ( c , f ) min p.i.; coronal slices ( a , b , c ) and 3D volume rendered images ( d , e , f ). (supine position; injected dose ~5 MBq; anaesthesia: 2 % isoflurane; scan duration: 10-min PET scan followed by 30-min CT scan)

    Article Snippet: Mice were subsequently anaesthetized with isoflurane (FORANE, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA; 2 % flow rate) and were kept under anaesthesia during the imaging process.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Injection, Positron Emission Tomography, Computed Tomography

    Effect of acute HDM dosing. Naïve male C57bl/6 mice were anaesthetised (4 % isoflurane in oxygen for 3 min) and challenged with i.t. saline or HDM. 2, 6, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after challenge the lungs were lavaged and BALF eosinophil ( a ), neutrophil ( b ), lymphocyte ( c ) and total white cells ( d ) numbers were determined. Data ( n = 6) expressed as mean cell numbers (10 3 /ml) ± S.E.M. * p

    Journal: Respiratory Research

    Article Title: CD4+ and CD8+ T cells play a central role in a HDM driven model of allergic asthma

    doi: 10.1186/s12931-016-0359-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of acute HDM dosing. Naïve male C57bl/6 mice were anaesthetised (4 % isoflurane in oxygen for 3 min) and challenged with i.t. saline or HDM. 2, 6, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after challenge the lungs were lavaged and BALF eosinophil ( a ), neutrophil ( b ), lymphocyte ( c ) and total white cells ( d ) numbers were determined. Data ( n = 6) expressed as mean cell numbers (10 3 /ml) ± S.E.M. * p

    Article Snippet: Effect of acute house dust mite WT mice, TLR2, TLR4, Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 KO mice were anaesthetised (4 % Isoflurane in oxygen for 3 min, Abbott Laboratories, UK) and challenged with vehicle (saline) or HDM extract (25 μg, intratracheally – selected from a previous dose response study).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Concentration response curves and EC 50 values for female WT and KO mice for fear to tone. The female WT EC 50 (0.43 ± 0.06% isoflurane) did not differ from the female KO EC 50 (0.43 ± 0.06% isoflurane).

    Journal: Anesthesia and analgesia

    Article Title: GABAA Receptor Alpha 4 Subunit Knockout Mice Are Resistant to the Amnestic Effect of Isoflurane

    doi: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e3181bf6ae6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Concentration response curves and EC 50 values for female WT and KO mice for fear to tone. The female WT EC 50 (0.43 ± 0.06% isoflurane) did not differ from the female KO EC 50 (0.43 ± 0.06% isoflurane).

    Article Snippet: Controlled concentrations of halothane (Halocarbon Laboratories, River Edge, NJ) or isoflurane (Abbot Laboratories, North Chicago, IL) were delivered to the testing chambers by means of agent-specific vaporizers.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay, Mouse Assay

    For isoflurane-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR), the EC 50 for WT (0.73 ± 0.02) and KO (0.74 ± 0.02) mice did not differ. The MAC value also did not differ between WT and KO (WT EC 50 =1.45 ± 0.03 vs. KO=1.37 ± 0.03).

    Journal: Anesthesia and analgesia

    Article Title: GABAA Receptor Alpha 4 Subunit Knockout Mice Are Resistant to the Amnestic Effect of Isoflurane

    doi: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e3181bf6ae6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: For isoflurane-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR), the EC 50 for WT (0.73 ± 0.02) and KO (0.74 ± 0.02) mice did not differ. The MAC value also did not differ between WT and KO (WT EC 50 =1.45 ± 0.03 vs. KO=1.37 ± 0.03).

    Article Snippet: Controlled concentrations of halothane (Halocarbon Laboratories, River Edge, NJ) or isoflurane (Abbot Laboratories, North Chicago, IL) were delivered to the testing chambers by means of agent-specific vaporizers.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    The dose response curve and EC 50 values for female WT and KO mice for fear to context. There was a statistically significant shift between the EC 50 for female WT mice (0.082 ± 0.03% isoflurane) and the EC 50 for female KO mice (0.28 ± 0.03%

    Journal: Anesthesia and analgesia

    Article Title: GABAA Receptor Alpha 4 Subunit Knockout Mice Are Resistant to the Amnestic Effect of Isoflurane

    doi: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e3181bf6ae6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The dose response curve and EC 50 values for female WT and KO mice for fear to context. There was a statistically significant shift between the EC 50 for female WT mice (0.082 ± 0.03% isoflurane) and the EC 50 for female KO mice (0.28 ± 0.03%

    Article Snippet: Controlled concentrations of halothane (Halocarbon Laboratories, River Edge, NJ) or isoflurane (Abbot Laboratories, North Chicago, IL) were delivered to the testing chambers by means of agent-specific vaporizers.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    The dose response curves and EC 50 values for context freezing for male WT mice and male KO mice. There was no statistical difference between the mice (0.16 ± 0.05% isoflurane) versus male KO mice (0.14 ± 0.03% isoflurane). However, male

    Journal: Anesthesia and analgesia

    Article Title: GABAA Receptor Alpha 4 Subunit Knockout Mice Are Resistant to the Amnestic Effect of Isoflurane

    doi: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e3181bf6ae6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The dose response curves and EC 50 values for context freezing for male WT mice and male KO mice. There was no statistical difference between the mice (0.16 ± 0.05% isoflurane) versus male KO mice (0.14 ± 0.03% isoflurane). However, male

    Article Snippet: Controlled concentrations of halothane (Halocarbon Laboratories, River Edge, NJ) or isoflurane (Abbot Laboratories, North Chicago, IL) were delivered to the testing chambers by means of agent-specific vaporizers.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    When freezing was equated between male WT and KO by increasing the number of shocks during training from 3 to 6, there was a reliable effect of genotype on context freezing scores at the EC 50 value for context conditioning in WT male mice, 0.16% isoflurane,

    Journal: Anesthesia and analgesia

    Article Title: GABAA Receptor Alpha 4 Subunit Knockout Mice Are Resistant to the Amnestic Effect of Isoflurane

    doi: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e3181bf6ae6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: When freezing was equated between male WT and KO by increasing the number of shocks during training from 3 to 6, there was a reliable effect of genotype on context freezing scores at the EC 50 value for context conditioning in WT male mice, 0.16% isoflurane,

    Article Snippet: Controlled concentrations of halothane (Halocarbon Laboratories, River Edge, NJ) or isoflurane (Abbot Laboratories, North Chicago, IL) were delivered to the testing chambers by means of agent-specific vaporizers.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Concentration response curves and the EC 50 values for male WT and KO mice for fear to tone. Male WT mice did not differ form KO mice on their EC 50 values (0.52 ± 0.08% isoflurane vs. 0.42 ± 0.06% isoflurane).

    Journal: Anesthesia and analgesia

    Article Title: GABAA Receptor Alpha 4 Subunit Knockout Mice Are Resistant to the Amnestic Effect of Isoflurane

    doi: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e3181bf6ae6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Concentration response curves and the EC 50 values for male WT and KO mice for fear to tone. Male WT mice did not differ form KO mice on their EC 50 values (0.52 ± 0.08% isoflurane vs. 0.42 ± 0.06% isoflurane).

    Article Snippet: Controlled concentrations of halothane (Halocarbon Laboratories, River Edge, NJ) or isoflurane (Abbot Laboratories, North Chicago, IL) were delivered to the testing chambers by means of agent-specific vaporizers.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay, Mouse Assay

    Logan and UGA plots for SCH23390. (a) Logan plots for the striatum (STR) and frontal cortex (FC) of SCH23390 data in representative pigs anesthetized with isoflurane (iso) or propofol (prop). Note the upward curvature characteristic of an irreversible tracer. (b) UGA plots of the same data.

    Journal: BioMed Research International

    Article Title: Effects of Anesthesia and Species on the Uptake or Binding of Radioligands In Vivo in the G?ttingen Minipig

    doi: 10.1155/2013/808713

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Logan and UGA plots for SCH23390. (a) Logan plots for the striatum (STR) and frontal cortex (FC) of SCH23390 data in representative pigs anesthetized with isoflurane (iso) or propofol (prop). Note the upward curvature characteristic of an irreversible tracer. (b) UGA plots of the same data.

    Article Snippet: The minipigs were intubated, and anesthesia maintained at either 3.7–4.0 mg/kg/h propofol (propofol, 10 mg/mL, IV, B. Braun, Frederiksberg, Denmark) (N = 6) or 2.0–2.1% isoflurane (Forene, 100%, Abbott, Solna, Sweden) (N = 6).

    Techniques:

    Time activity curves (TACs) and Logan plots for yohimbine. (a) Averaged yohimbine TACs for a region of high binding (thalamus) and a region of lower binding (striatum) in pigs (data corrected for amount of injected activity per kg body weight) for comparison of isoflurane and propofol anesthesia. (b) Logan plots of yohimbine thalamus data for 2 representative pigs, one anesthetized with isoflurane (filled circles), and one anesthetized with propofol (open circles). Note the straightness of the fitted line.

    Journal: BioMed Research International

    Article Title: Effects of Anesthesia and Species on the Uptake or Binding of Radioligands In Vivo in the G?ttingen Minipig

    doi: 10.1155/2013/808713

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Time activity curves (TACs) and Logan plots for yohimbine. (a) Averaged yohimbine TACs for a region of high binding (thalamus) and a region of lower binding (striatum) in pigs (data corrected for amount of injected activity per kg body weight) for comparison of isoflurane and propofol anesthesia. (b) Logan plots of yohimbine thalamus data for 2 representative pigs, one anesthetized with isoflurane (filled circles), and one anesthetized with propofol (open circles). Note the straightness of the fitted line.

    Article Snippet: The minipigs were intubated, and anesthesia maintained at either 3.7–4.0 mg/kg/h propofol (propofol, 10 mg/mL, IV, B. Braun, Frederiksberg, Denmark) (N = 6) or 2.0–2.1% isoflurane (Forene, 100%, Abbott, Solna, Sweden) (N = 6).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Binding Assay, Injection

    Time Activity Curves (TACs) for SCH23390. (a) SCH23390 TACs (corrected for amount of injected activity per kg of body weight) for striatum and cerebellum in isoflurane- and propofol-anesthetized pigs. (b) For comparison, TACs (corrected for injected activity per kg of body weight) in a representative isoflurane-anesthetized pig and a representative isoflurane-anesthetized monkey (data directly taken from an earlier published study [ 8 ]).

    Journal: BioMed Research International

    Article Title: Effects of Anesthesia and Species on the Uptake or Binding of Radioligands In Vivo in the G?ttingen Minipig

    doi: 10.1155/2013/808713

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Time Activity Curves (TACs) for SCH23390. (a) SCH23390 TACs (corrected for amount of injected activity per kg of body weight) for striatum and cerebellum in isoflurane- and propofol-anesthetized pigs. (b) For comparison, TACs (corrected for injected activity per kg of body weight) in a representative isoflurane-anesthetized pig and a representative isoflurane-anesthetized monkey (data directly taken from an earlier published study [ 8 ]).

    Article Snippet: The minipigs were intubated, and anesthesia maintained at either 3.7–4.0 mg/kg/h propofol (propofol, 10 mg/mL, IV, B. Braun, Frederiksberg, Denmark) (N = 6) or 2.0–2.1% isoflurane (Forene, 100%, Abbott, Solna, Sweden) (N = 6).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Injection