interleukin 6  (Thermo Fisher)


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    Structured Review

    Thermo Fisher interleukin 6
    Effect of silybin coadministration with baicalein on CCl 4 -induced changes in serum liver enzyme activities (ALT, AST, and AKP), hepatic oxidative stress SOD, and inflammatory response (IL-1β, <t>IL-6,</t> and TNF-α levels) in rats. Values are mean ± SD, n = 6 in each group. ∗ P
    Interleukin 6, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 273 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 99 stars, based on 273 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    interleukin 6 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    99/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Baicalein Enhances the Oral Bioavailability and Hepatoprotective Effects of Silybin Through the Inhibition of Efflux Transporters BCRP and MRP2"

    Article Title: Baicalein Enhances the Oral Bioavailability and Hepatoprotective Effects of Silybin Through the Inhibition of Efflux Transporters BCRP and MRP2

    Journal: Frontiers in Pharmacology

    doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.01115

    Effect of silybin coadministration with baicalein on CCl 4 -induced changes in serum liver enzyme activities (ALT, AST, and AKP), hepatic oxidative stress SOD, and inflammatory response (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels) in rats. Values are mean ± SD, n = 6 in each group. ∗ P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of silybin coadministration with baicalein on CCl 4 -induced changes in serum liver enzyme activities (ALT, AST, and AKP), hepatic oxidative stress SOD, and inflammatory response (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels) in rats. Values are mean ± SD, n = 6 in each group. ∗ P

    Techniques Used: AST Assay, ALP Assay

    2) Product Images from "Scutellarin Enhances Antitumor Effects and Attenuates the Toxicity of Bleomycin in H22 Ascites Tumor-Bearing Mice"

    Article Title: Scutellarin Enhances Antitumor Effects and Attenuates the Toxicity of Bleomycin in H22 Ascites Tumor-Bearing Mice

    Journal: Frontiers in Pharmacology

    doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00615

    Effects of SCU, BLM, and their combination on cytokine production in lung tissues of H22 tumor-bearing mice. (A) The levels of TNF-α in lung tissues. (B) The levels of IL-6 in lung tissues. The data are shown as the mean ± SD. ( n = 8). # p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of SCU, BLM, and their combination on cytokine production in lung tissues of H22 tumor-bearing mice. (A) The levels of TNF-α in lung tissues. (B) The levels of IL-6 in lung tissues. The data are shown as the mean ± SD. ( n = 8). # p

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

    3) Product Images from "Role of CARD9 in inflammatory signal pathway of peritoneal macrophages in severe acute pancreatitis, et al. Role of CARD9 in inflammatory signal pathway of peritoneal macrophages in severe acute pancreatitis"

    Article Title: Role of CARD9 in inflammatory signal pathway of peritoneal macrophages in severe acute pancreatitis, et al. Role of CARD9 in inflammatory signal pathway of peritoneal macrophages in severe acute pancreatitis

    Journal: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine

    doi: 10.1111/jcmm.15559

    In vivo CARD9 siRNA alleviates pancreatitis severity and inhibits inflammatory cytokines in peritoneal macrophages. A, Histological examination of the pancreas in each group at the 12‐h time point (original magnification, 200×) and pathological scores for pancreatic tissue in each group. a: sham‐operation group; b: SAP group; c: siRNA group; d: sicontrol group. B, The level of TNF‐α, IL‐6 and IL‐1β in each group of peritoneal macrophages from SAP rats. #: SAP group vs siCARD9 group, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vivo CARD9 siRNA alleviates pancreatitis severity and inhibits inflammatory cytokines in peritoneal macrophages. A, Histological examination of the pancreas in each group at the 12‐h time point (original magnification, 200×) and pathological scores for pancreatic tissue in each group. a: sham‐operation group; b: SAP group; c: siRNA group; d: sicontrol group. B, The level of TNF‐α, IL‐6 and IL‐1β in each group of peritoneal macrophages from SAP rats. #: SAP group vs siCARD9 group, P

    Techniques Used: In Vivo

    In vitro CARD9 siRNA alleviates Inflammatory reactions in peritoneal macrophages. A, The level of TNF‐α, IL‐1β and IL‐6 in each group of peritoneal macrophages. B, Phosphorylation of NF‐κB and P38 in peritoneal macrophages from each group at the 3‐ and 6‐h time points. The molecular weight of the NF‐κBp65 and P38 bands were 65 kD and 43 kD. *: SAP group or SAP + sicontrol group vs Blank group, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vitro CARD9 siRNA alleviates Inflammatory reactions in peritoneal macrophages. A, The level of TNF‐α, IL‐1β and IL‐6 in each group of peritoneal macrophages. B, Phosphorylation of NF‐κB and P38 in peritoneal macrophages from each group at the 3‐ and 6‐h time points. The molecular weight of the NF‐κBp65 and P38 bands were 65 kD and 43 kD. *: SAP group or SAP + sicontrol group vs Blank group, P

    Techniques Used: In Vitro, Molecular Weight

    Activation of the TLR4 pathway by polyinosine and suppression of Card9 expression by the si‐Card9 adenovirus. A, The level of TNF‐α, IL‐1βand IL‐6 in cell culture medium from each group. B, mRNA and protein expression of CARD9 in each group. The molecular weight of the CARD9 bands was 62 kD. C, mRNA and protein expression of TLR4 in each group. The molecular weight of the TLR4 bands was 95 kD. D, Phosphorylation of NF‐κB and P38 in peritoneal macrophages from each group at the 6‐h time point. The molecular weight of the NF‐κBp65 and P38 bands were 65kD and 43 kD.*: SAP group or Poly or SAP + Poly group vs Blank group, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Activation of the TLR4 pathway by polyinosine and suppression of Card9 expression by the si‐Card9 adenovirus. A, The level of TNF‐α, IL‐1βand IL‐6 in cell culture medium from each group. B, mRNA and protein expression of CARD9 in each group. The molecular weight of the CARD9 bands was 62 kD. C, mRNA and protein expression of TLR4 in each group. The molecular weight of the TLR4 bands was 95 kD. D, Phosphorylation of NF‐κB and P38 in peritoneal macrophages from each group at the 6‐h time point. The molecular weight of the NF‐κBp65 and P38 bands were 65kD and 43 kD.*: SAP group or Poly or SAP + Poly group vs Blank group, P

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Expressing, Cell Culture, Molecular Weight

    4) Product Images from "Hepatoprotective Effect of Ugonin M, A Helminthostachyszeylanica Constituent, on Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice"

    Article Title: Hepatoprotective Effect of Ugonin M, A Helminthostachyszeylanica Constituent, on Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice

    Journal: Molecules : A Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry

    doi: 10.3390/molecules23102420

    Effects of Ugonin M on serum ( A ) tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α) , ( B ) interleukin (IL)-6, and ( C ) IL-1 β . Data are expressed as M ± SD; n = 6.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of Ugonin M on serum ( A ) tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α) , ( B ) interleukin (IL)-6, and ( C ) IL-1 β . Data are expressed as M ± SD; n = 6.

    Techniques Used:

    5) Product Images from "Personalized Kampo Medicine Facilitated Both Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Response and Clinical Benefits Induced by Personalized Peptide Vaccination for Advanced Esophageal Cancer"

    Article Title: Personalized Kampo Medicine Facilitated Both Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Response and Clinical Benefits Induced by Personalized Peptide Vaccination for Advanced Esophageal Cancer

    Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM

    doi: 10.1155/2016/5929525

    Biomarker study: analysis of biomarkers predictive of OS time using prevaccination samples. Results for IL-6 (a) and IL-8 (b) and the percentages of lymphocytes (c) are shown. Results of biomarker studies prognostic of OS time using postvaccination samples were shown as follows: IL-6 in (d), BAFF in (e), and neutrophil percentage in (f).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Biomarker study: analysis of biomarkers predictive of OS time using prevaccination samples. Results for IL-6 (a) and IL-8 (b) and the percentages of lymphocytes (c) are shown. Results of biomarker studies prognostic of OS time using postvaccination samples were shown as follows: IL-6 in (d), BAFF in (e), and neutrophil percentage in (f).

    Techniques Used: Biomarker Assay

    6) Product Images from "Lipopolysaccharide worsens the prognosis of experimental cerebral ischemia via interferon gamma-induced protein 10 recruit in the acute stage"

    Article Title: Lipopolysaccharide worsens the prognosis of experimental cerebral ischemia via interferon gamma-induced protein 10 recruit in the acute stage

    Journal: BMC Neuroscience

    doi: 10.1186/s12868-019-0547-z

    The levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β in the plasma and brain homogenates after systemic inflammatory challenges induced by LPS 4.5 h post-MCAO (n = 10). a IL-6 levels in plasma; b TNF-α levels in plasma; c IL-1β levels in plasma; d IL-6 levels in brain homogenates; e TNF-α levels in brain homogenates; f IL-1β levels in brain homogenates; g The mRNA expression of IL-6; h The mRNA expression of TNF-α; i The mRNA expression of IL-1β. (Three cytokines were measured by ELISA kit. Mean ± SEM values are shown. One-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni’s comparison.)
    Figure Legend Snippet: The levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β in the plasma and brain homogenates after systemic inflammatory challenges induced by LPS 4.5 h post-MCAO (n = 10). a IL-6 levels in plasma; b TNF-α levels in plasma; c IL-1β levels in plasma; d IL-6 levels in brain homogenates; e TNF-α levels in brain homogenates; f IL-1β levels in brain homogenates; g The mRNA expression of IL-6; h The mRNA expression of TNF-α; i The mRNA expression of IL-1β. (Three cytokines were measured by ELISA kit. Mean ± SEM values are shown. One-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni’s comparison.)

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    7) Product Images from "Urban air PM modifies differently immune defense responses against bacterial and viral infections in vitro"

    Article Title: Urban air PM modifies differently immune defense responses against bacterial and viral infections in vitro

    Journal: Environmental Research

    doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.110244

    IL-6 pro-inflammatory cytokine production was assessed after two-step submerged exposure. Co-cultured cells were first exposed to three doses (25, 50, 100μg/ml) of PM 2.5-1 and after 24 h, to three different Toll-like receptor ligands (TLR7/8, TLR3, TLR4) for another 24 h. Figure shows mean ± SEM, n = 3. Significance was assumed at p
    Figure Legend Snippet: IL-6 pro-inflammatory cytokine production was assessed after two-step submerged exposure. Co-cultured cells were first exposed to three doses (25, 50, 100μg/ml) of PM 2.5-1 and after 24 h, to three different Toll-like receptor ligands (TLR7/8, TLR3, TLR4) for another 24 h. Figure shows mean ± SEM, n = 3. Significance was assumed at p

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture

    8) Product Images from "Increased Responsiveness of Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells in Inflammation and Coagulation"

    Article Title: Increased Responsiveness of Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells in Inflammation and Coagulation

    Journal: Mediators of Inflammation

    doi: 10.1155/2009/146872

    (a) TF activity was measured in the indicated treatments. Data are presented as arbitrary units, which indicate fold-change above background TF levels and were generated from the mean of three separate experiments. (b) mRNA expressions of β -actin, IL-6, and TF are shown from HUVEC, HCAEC, and HMVEC incubated with IL-1 β (1000 pg/mL) in the absence or presence of BTE (40 μ g/mL) and RSV (40 μ M). The treatments of cell cultures were background control (lane 1), IL-1 β 1000 pg/mL (lane 2), IL-1 β + BTE (lane 3), IL-1 β + RSV (lane 4), BTE (lane 5), and RSV (lane 6). Results shown are from one representative experiment of two separate ones performed.
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) TF activity was measured in the indicated treatments. Data are presented as arbitrary units, which indicate fold-change above background TF levels and were generated from the mean of three separate experiments. (b) mRNA expressions of β -actin, IL-6, and TF are shown from HUVEC, HCAEC, and HMVEC incubated with IL-1 β (1000 pg/mL) in the absence or presence of BTE (40 μ g/mL) and RSV (40 μ M). The treatments of cell cultures were background control (lane 1), IL-1 β 1000 pg/mL (lane 2), IL-1 β + BTE (lane 3), IL-1 β + RSV (lane 4), BTE (lane 5), and RSV (lane 6). Results shown are from one representative experiment of two separate ones performed.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Generated, Incubation

    Dose dependent responses of HUVEC, HCAEC, and HMVEC to IL-1 β (0–2000 pg/mL) as measured by ELISA of released IL-6 protein levels from cell supernatants. Results are expressed as a mean of three separate experiments.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Dose dependent responses of HUVEC, HCAEC, and HMVEC to IL-1 β (0–2000 pg/mL) as measured by ELISA of released IL-6 protein levels from cell supernatants. Results are expressed as a mean of three separate experiments.

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Released IL-6 protein levels as measured by ELISA of supernatants from HUVEC, HCAEC, and HMVEC incubated with IL-1 β (1000 pg/mL) for 24 hours in the absence or presence of BTE (40 μ g/mL) and RSV (40 μ M). Data represent the mean ± SD of three separate experiments. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Released IL-6 protein levels as measured by ELISA of supernatants from HUVEC, HCAEC, and HMVEC incubated with IL-1 β (1000 pg/mL) for 24 hours in the absence or presence of BTE (40 μ g/mL) and RSV (40 μ M). Data represent the mean ± SD of three separate experiments. * P

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Incubation

    9) Product Images from "Erythropoietin and a hypoxia‐inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor (HIF‐PHDi) lowers FGF23 in a model of chronic kidney disease (CKD), et al. Erythropoietin and a hypoxia‐inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor (HIF‐PHDi) lowers FGF23 in a model of chronic kidney disease (CKD)"

    Article Title: Erythropoietin and a hypoxia‐inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor (HIF‐PHDi) lowers FGF23 in a model of chronic kidney disease (CKD), et al. Erythropoietin and a hypoxia‐inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor (HIF‐PHDi) lowers FGF23 in a model of chronic kidney disease (CKD)

    Journal: Physiological Reports

    doi: 10.14814/phy2.14434

    Iron utilization parameters and markers of renal fibrosis in CKD mice treated with ESAs. (a) Mice treated with FG‐4592 had markedly elevated serum EPO in both casein and CKD mice. (b) Bone marrow Erythroferrone (Erfe) expression was significantly elevated in both normal and CKD mice treated with FG‐4592. (c) Liver ferritin (Fth1) mRNA expression was reduced with FG‐4592 treatment in both casein and CKD groups. (d) Liver Bmp‐6 and (e) Hepcidin expression was decreased in both control and CKD mice with FG treatment, and was reduced in saline‐CKD mice compared to casein controls. (f) Liver IL‐6 trended toward being reduced with FG‐4592 treatment in normal and CKD mice. (g) Fibrosis marker Col1a1 was significantly elevated in CKD‐saline mice in both the EPO and FG cohorts; treatment with either EPO or FG‐4592 significantly reduced expression. (h) Similarly, Col3a1 was upregulated in CKD‐saline mice in both groups and was significantly reduced with ESA treatment ( n = 3–8 mice per group; * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Iron utilization parameters and markers of renal fibrosis in CKD mice treated with ESAs. (a) Mice treated with FG‐4592 had markedly elevated serum EPO in both casein and CKD mice. (b) Bone marrow Erythroferrone (Erfe) expression was significantly elevated in both normal and CKD mice treated with FG‐4592. (c) Liver ferritin (Fth1) mRNA expression was reduced with FG‐4592 treatment in both casein and CKD groups. (d) Liver Bmp‐6 and (e) Hepcidin expression was decreased in both control and CKD mice with FG treatment, and was reduced in saline‐CKD mice compared to casein controls. (f) Liver IL‐6 trended toward being reduced with FG‐4592 treatment in normal and CKD mice. (g) Fibrosis marker Col1a1 was significantly elevated in CKD‐saline mice in both the EPO and FG cohorts; treatment with either EPO or FG‐4592 significantly reduced expression. (h) Similarly, Col3a1 was upregulated in CKD‐saline mice in both groups and was significantly reduced with ESA treatment ( n = 3–8 mice per group; * p

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Expressing, Marker

    10) Product Images from "The Effect of Enriched Environment on the Outcome of Traumatic Brain Injury; A Behavioral, Proteomics, and Histological Study"

    Article Title: The Effect of Enriched Environment on the Outcome of Traumatic Brain Injury; A Behavioral, Proteomics, and Histological Study

    Journal: Frontiers in Neuroscience

    doi: 10.3389/fnins.2011.00042

    Protein markers in the AD, PFC, DHC, and the VHC of animals in the various experimental groups . Tissue extracts were prepared from dissected brain regions of NH-S, NH-I, and EEN-I rats. Tissue levels of selected protein markers were assayed using either RPPM or ELISA. The Y -axis intercept ( Y -cept) and pg/ml (IL-6 and IFNγ) indicate measured protein levels. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Protein markers in the AD, PFC, DHC, and the VHC of animals in the various experimental groups . Tissue extracts were prepared from dissected brain regions of NH-S, NH-I, and EEN-I rats. Tissue levels of selected protein markers were assayed using either RPPM or ELISA. The Y -axis intercept ( Y -cept) and pg/ml (IL-6 and IFNγ) indicate measured protein levels. * p

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    11) Product Images from "The Endothelin Receptor Antagonist Macitentan Improves Isosorbide-5-Mononitrate (ISMN) and Isosorbide Dinitrate (ISDN) Induced Endothelial Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, and Vascular Inflammation"

    Article Title: The Endothelin Receptor Antagonist Macitentan Improves Isosorbide-5-Mononitrate (ISMN) and Isosorbide Dinitrate (ISDN) Induced Endothelial Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, and Vascular Inflammation

    Journal: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity

    doi: 10.1155/2018/7845629

    Characterization of vascular mRNA expression within the inflammatory and ET receptor signaling pathways and protective effects of macitentan cotherapy in ISDN-treated mice. qRT-PCR was used to determine mRNA expression levels of Nox-2 (a), ECE-1 (b), MCP-1 (c), and IL-6 (d). Immunohistochemical staining for ET-1 in aortic paraffin sections (e). Arrows indicate ET-1-specific brown color. Representative images for 4 independent experiments. The data are mean ± SEM from 5 (a), 8-9 (b), 3 (c), and 3 (d) mice per group. ∗ p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Characterization of vascular mRNA expression within the inflammatory and ET receptor signaling pathways and protective effects of macitentan cotherapy in ISDN-treated mice. qRT-PCR was used to determine mRNA expression levels of Nox-2 (a), ECE-1 (b), MCP-1 (c), and IL-6 (d). Immunohistochemical staining for ET-1 in aortic paraffin sections (e). Arrows indicate ET-1-specific brown color. Representative images for 4 independent experiments. The data are mean ± SEM from 5 (a), 8-9 (b), 3 (c), and 3 (d) mice per group. ∗ p

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Mouse Assay, Quantitative RT-PCR, Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    Characterization of in vitro effects of organic nitrates on oxidative burst signals and inflammatory activity of cultured RAW 264.7 cell macrophages. The organic nitrates GTN, ISDN, and ISMN increased the ROS formation by cultured macrophages in response to phorbol ester (PDBu) as measured by L-012 ECL (a–c) and 3-nitrotyrosine immunostaining (d). Likewise, GTN, ISDN, and ISMN increased the release of the cytokine IL-6 by cultured macrophages as measured by immunoblotting (e–g). The data are mean ± SEM from at least eight different cell culture wells. ∗ p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Characterization of in vitro effects of organic nitrates on oxidative burst signals and inflammatory activity of cultured RAW 264.7 cell macrophages. The organic nitrates GTN, ISDN, and ISMN increased the ROS formation by cultured macrophages in response to phorbol ester (PDBu) as measured by L-012 ECL (a–c) and 3-nitrotyrosine immunostaining (d). Likewise, GTN, ISDN, and ISMN increased the release of the cytokine IL-6 by cultured macrophages as measured by immunoblotting (e–g). The data are mean ± SEM from at least eight different cell culture wells. ∗ p

    Techniques Used: In Vitro, Activity Assay, Cell Culture, Immunostaining

    12) Product Images from "A novel design of bioartificial kidneys with improved cell performance and haemocompatibility"

    Article Title: A novel design of bioartificial kidneys with improved cell performance and haemocompatibility

    Journal: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine

    doi: 10.1111/jcmm.12029

    Cytokine production. 25-HFM bioreactors were perfused with cell culture medium containing 10 μg/ml LPS (right-hand bars), or were perfused with normal cell culture medium not containing LPS (control). The levels of IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 were measured by ELISA and the bars (mean ± SD; n = 3) display the concentrations of these interleukins (the levels of IL-10 were always below the detection limit). The levels of IL-6 (white bars) and IL-8 (black bars) were not changed significantly after 24 hrs of LPS stimulation.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokine production. 25-HFM bioreactors were perfused with cell culture medium containing 10 μg/ml LPS (right-hand bars), or were perfused with normal cell culture medium not containing LPS (control). The levels of IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 were measured by ELISA and the bars (mean ± SD; n = 3) display the concentrations of these interleukins (the levels of IL-10 were always below the detection limit). The levels of IL-6 (white bars) and IL-8 (black bars) were not changed significantly after 24 hrs of LPS stimulation.

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    13) Product Images from "Neuroinflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide is exacerbated in mice genetically deficient in cyclooxygenase-2"

    Article Title: Neuroinflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide is exacerbated in mice genetically deficient in cyclooxygenase-2

    Journal: Journal of Neuroinflammation

    doi: 10.1186/1742-2094-5-17

    Effects of COX-2 deficiency on LPS-induced expression of cytokines and chemokines. Quantitative real time-PCR analysis of TNF-α (A), IL-6 (B), IL-1β (C), and CCL3/MIP-1α and CCL2/ MCP-1 (E) for COX-2 +/+ and COX-2 -/- mice 24 h after icv injection of LPS or vehicle. (D) ELISA-based quantification of IL-1β protein levels in the brain of COX-2 +/+ and COX-2 -/- mice 24 h after icv injection of LPS or vehicle. Data are presented as mean ± SEM ( n = 4-6). *** P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of COX-2 deficiency on LPS-induced expression of cytokines and chemokines. Quantitative real time-PCR analysis of TNF-α (A), IL-6 (B), IL-1β (C), and CCL3/MIP-1α and CCL2/ MCP-1 (E) for COX-2 +/+ and COX-2 -/- mice 24 h after icv injection of LPS or vehicle. (D) ELISA-based quantification of IL-1β protein levels in the brain of COX-2 +/+ and COX-2 -/- mice 24 h after icv injection of LPS or vehicle. Data are presented as mean ± SEM ( n = 4-6). *** P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Mouse Assay, Injection, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    14) Product Images from "CD47 Blockade Reduces Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury and Improves Survival in a Rat Liver Transplantation Model"

    Article Title: CD47 Blockade Reduces Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury and Improves Survival in a Rat Liver Transplantation Model

    Journal: Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society

    doi: 10.1002/lt.24059

    ELISA results for proinflammatory cytokines in the liver homogenate of the recipients. Concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α were significantly reduced in the CD47mAb400-treated group versus the IgG group. Data are shown as mean ± SEM.
    Figure Legend Snippet: ELISA results for proinflammatory cytokines in the liver homogenate of the recipients. Concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α were significantly reduced in the CD47mAb400-treated group versus the IgG group. Data are shown as mean ± SEM.

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    15) Product Images from "Post-Traumatic Caspase-3 Expression in the Adjacent Areas of Growth Plate Injury Site: A Morphological Study"

    Article Title: Post-Traumatic Caspase-3 Expression in the Adjacent Areas of Growth Plate Injury Site: A Morphological Study

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    doi: 10.3390/ijms140815767

    ( A ) ELISA: IL-6 levels, at time progression post injury, were quantified in experimental rats. Results are presented as the mean ± SEM. ANOVA and Bonferroni’s test were used to evaluate the significance of the results: * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) ELISA: IL-6 levels, at time progression post injury, were quantified in experimental rats. Results are presented as the mean ± SEM. ANOVA and Bonferroni’s test were used to evaluate the significance of the results: * p

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    16) Product Images from "miR‐34b‐5p inhibition attenuates lung inflammation and apoptosis in an LPS‐induced acute lung injury mouse model by targeting progranulin, et al. miR‐34b‐5p inhibition attenuates lung inflammation and apoptosis in an LPS‐induced acute lung injury mouse model by targeting progranulin"

    Article Title: miR‐34b‐5p inhibition attenuates lung inflammation and apoptosis in an LPS‐induced acute lung injury mouse model by targeting progranulin, et al. miR‐34b‐5p inhibition attenuates lung inflammation and apoptosis in an LPS‐induced acute lung injury mouse model by targeting progranulin

    Journal: Journal of Cellular Physiology

    doi: 10.1002/jcp.26274

    The protective effects of miR‐34b‐5p are dependent on PGRN. Mice were subjected to the miR‐34b‐5p antagomir after administration of Ad‐PGRN‐shRNA or the NC (Ad‐GFP) for 7 days. After 48 hr, the mice were administered with LPS by intratracheal injection for 24 hr. (a) Representative images of the lung lesions in the lung sections by HE staining. Scale bar = 50 µm, n = 4. (b) Quantitation of the lung injury scores in the different treatment groups. (c) The caspase‐3 activity of the lungs in the different treatment groups, n = 4. The levels of (d)IL‐1β, (e)TNF‐α, and (f) IL‐6 in the BALF were assessed by ELISA. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The protective effects of miR‐34b‐5p are dependent on PGRN. Mice were subjected to the miR‐34b‐5p antagomir after administration of Ad‐PGRN‐shRNA or the NC (Ad‐GFP) for 7 days. After 48 hr, the mice were administered with LPS by intratracheal injection for 24 hr. (a) Representative images of the lung lesions in the lung sections by HE staining. Scale bar = 50 µm, n = 4. (b) Quantitation of the lung injury scores in the different treatment groups. (c) The caspase‐3 activity of the lungs in the different treatment groups, n = 4. The levels of (d)IL‐1β, (e)TNF‐α, and (f) IL‐6 in the BALF were assessed by ELISA. * p

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, shRNA, Injection, Staining, Quantitation Assay, Activity Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    miR‐34b‐5p inhibition significantly decreases inflammatory mediator levels in the BALF and improves the survival ratio during ALI. Mice were subjected to LPS after administration of the miR‐34b‐5p antagomir or NC for 48 hr. (a) MPO in the lungs was assessed by ELISA. (b) The total number of BALF cells and neutrophils was determined with cytospin and a hemocytometer. (c) Lung W/D ratios. (d) The protein concentrations in the BALF were determined with BCA assays. The levels of (e) TNF‐α, (f) IL‐6, (g) IL‐1βin the BALF. (h) Mouse survival ( n = 10) was monitored at different times for 48 hr. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: miR‐34b‐5p inhibition significantly decreases inflammatory mediator levels in the BALF and improves the survival ratio during ALI. Mice were subjected to LPS after administration of the miR‐34b‐5p antagomir or NC for 48 hr. (a) MPO in the lungs was assessed by ELISA. (b) The total number of BALF cells and neutrophils was determined with cytospin and a hemocytometer. (c) Lung W/D ratios. (d) The protein concentrations in the BALF were determined with BCA assays. The levels of (e) TNF‐α, (f) IL‐6, (g) IL‐1βin the BALF. (h) Mouse survival ( n = 10) was monitored at different times for 48 hr. * p

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Mouse Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, BIA-KA

    The rescue experiment was performed to confirm the relationship between miR‐34b‐5p and PGRN in vitro. (a) RAW264.7 cells were co‐transfected with the miR‐34b‐5p inhibitor and siRNA‐PGRN, and the protein levels of PGRN were evaluated by Western blot, and β‐actin was used as a loading control. (b) Quantitation of the PGRN/β‐actin ratios in the co‐confected RAW264.7 cells. Inflammatory mediator alterations in RAW264.7 cells after siRNA and/or miR‐34b‐5p inhibitor co‐transfection in LPS conditions (100 ng/ml). (c) The cellular protein levels of phosphorylation of NF‐κB p65, NF‐κB p65, IL‐1β, IL‐6, and TNF‐α were evaluated by Western blot, and β‐actin was used as a loading control. Quantitation of (d) the p‐p65/β‐actin ratios, (e) IL‐6/β‐actin ratios, (f) IL‐1β/β‐actin, and (g) TNF‐α/β‐actin ratios. The cellular levels of (h) IL‐1β mRNA, (i) il‐6 mRNA, and (j) TNF‐α mRNA in cells were determined by RT‐PCR. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The rescue experiment was performed to confirm the relationship between miR‐34b‐5p and PGRN in vitro. (a) RAW264.7 cells were co‐transfected with the miR‐34b‐5p inhibitor and siRNA‐PGRN, and the protein levels of PGRN were evaluated by Western blot, and β‐actin was used as a loading control. (b) Quantitation of the PGRN/β‐actin ratios in the co‐confected RAW264.7 cells. Inflammatory mediator alterations in RAW264.7 cells after siRNA and/or miR‐34b‐5p inhibitor co‐transfection in LPS conditions (100 ng/ml). (c) The cellular protein levels of phosphorylation of NF‐κB p65, NF‐κB p65, IL‐1β, IL‐6, and TNF‐α were evaluated by Western blot, and β‐actin was used as a loading control. Quantitation of (d) the p‐p65/β‐actin ratios, (e) IL‐6/β‐actin ratios, (f) IL‐1β/β‐actin, and (g) TNF‐α/β‐actin ratios. The cellular levels of (h) IL‐1β mRNA, (i) il‐6 mRNA, and (j) TNF‐α mRNA in cells were determined by RT‐PCR. * p

    Techniques Used: In Vitro, Transfection, Western Blot, Quantitation Assay, Cotransfection, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

    17) Product Images from "Chinese Herbal Preparation Xuebijing Potently Inhibits Inflammasome Activation in Hepatocytes and Ameliorates Mouse Liver Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury"

    Article Title: Chinese Herbal Preparation Xuebijing Potently Inhibits Inflammasome Activation in Hepatocytes and Ameliorates Mouse Liver Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0131436

    XBJ treatment ameliorated hepatic injury in lip-clod-treated mice. Lip-clod-treated B6 mice were either sham operated (sham group) or subjected to 90 minutes of partial warm ischemia, followed by 6 hours of reperfusion. XBJ (2 ml/kg iv) was given either before ischemia (before group) or after initiation of reperfusion (after group), while the same volume of normal saline was administered in the vehicle group. Serum and liver samples were harvested (n = 3-6/group). Hepatocellular function was analyzed by (A and B) liver histology (representative H E staining; Original magnifications, 200×magnification) and (C) serum ALT and AST levels. (D) Western blot analysis of BCL-2, BCL-XL and cleaved-caspase-3 in IRI liver lobes. Representative blots from at least three mice for each time point were shown. (E) qRT-PCR detection of CXCL-1, CXCL-10, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-a. Data were normalized to HPRT gene expression and expressed as fold increase above the sham group of lip-PBS-treated mice (set as 1). Data were expressed as mean±SEM. *P
    Figure Legend Snippet: XBJ treatment ameliorated hepatic injury in lip-clod-treated mice. Lip-clod-treated B6 mice were either sham operated (sham group) or subjected to 90 minutes of partial warm ischemia, followed by 6 hours of reperfusion. XBJ (2 ml/kg iv) was given either before ischemia (before group) or after initiation of reperfusion (after group), while the same volume of normal saline was administered in the vehicle group. Serum and liver samples were harvested (n = 3-6/group). Hepatocellular function was analyzed by (A and B) liver histology (representative H E staining; Original magnifications, 200×magnification) and (C) serum ALT and AST levels. (D) Western blot analysis of BCL-2, BCL-XL and cleaved-caspase-3 in IRI liver lobes. Representative blots from at least three mice for each time point were shown. (E) qRT-PCR detection of CXCL-1, CXCL-10, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-a. Data were normalized to HPRT gene expression and expressed as fold increase above the sham group of lip-PBS-treated mice (set as 1). Data were expressed as mean±SEM. *P

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Staining, AST Assay, Western Blot, Quantitative RT-PCR, Expressing

    XBJ prevented H 2 O 2 -induced hepatocyte injury. (A-C) Hepatocytes were treated with increasing concentrations of XBJ (5, 10, 20 and 40 μl/ml) for 1 hour, and then subjected to H 2 O 2 (200μM) for 5 hours. (A) LDH levels in the supernatant of cultured hepatocytes. (B) Cell lysates were analyzed for the protein expression of BCL-2, BCL-XL and cleaved caspase-3 by Western blot. (C) qRT-PCR detection of CXCL-1, CXCL-10, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in hepatocytes. Data were normalized to HPRT gene expression and expressed as fold increase above the H 2 O 2 200uM and 0 μl/ml XBJ treatment group (set as 1). (D-E) Hepatocytes were treated with H 2 O 2 (200uM) for 5 hours. XBJ (20ul/ml) were added before H 2 O 2 treatment for 2,1 or 0 hours or after H2O2 treatment for 1 hour. (D) LDH levels in the supernatant of cultured hepatocytes. (E) Cell lysates were analyzed for the protein expression of BCL-2, BCL-XL and cleaved caspase-3 by Western blot. (F) qRT-PCR detection of CXCL-1, CXCL-10, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-a in hepatocytes. Data were normalized to HPRT gene expression and expressed as fold increase above the H 2 O 2 200uM and 0 μl/ml XBJ treatment group (control group, set as 1). Data were expressed as mean±SEM.*P
    Figure Legend Snippet: XBJ prevented H 2 O 2 -induced hepatocyte injury. (A-C) Hepatocytes were treated with increasing concentrations of XBJ (5, 10, 20 and 40 μl/ml) for 1 hour, and then subjected to H 2 O 2 (200μM) for 5 hours. (A) LDH levels in the supernatant of cultured hepatocytes. (B) Cell lysates were analyzed for the protein expression of BCL-2, BCL-XL and cleaved caspase-3 by Western blot. (C) qRT-PCR detection of CXCL-1, CXCL-10, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in hepatocytes. Data were normalized to HPRT gene expression and expressed as fold increase above the H 2 O 2 200uM and 0 μl/ml XBJ treatment group (set as 1). (D-E) Hepatocytes were treated with H 2 O 2 (200uM) for 5 hours. XBJ (20ul/ml) were added before H 2 O 2 treatment for 2,1 or 0 hours or after H2O2 treatment for 1 hour. (D) LDH levels in the supernatant of cultured hepatocytes. (E) Cell lysates were analyzed for the protein expression of BCL-2, BCL-XL and cleaved caspase-3 by Western blot. (F) qRT-PCR detection of CXCL-1, CXCL-10, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-a in hepatocytes. Data were normalized to HPRT gene expression and expressed as fold increase above the H 2 O 2 200uM and 0 μl/ml XBJ treatment group (control group, set as 1). Data were expressed as mean±SEM.*P

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Expressing, Western Blot, Quantitative RT-PCR

    XBJ significantly ameliorated inflammation in mouse livers that have undergone IRI. B6 mice were either sham operated (sham group) or subjected to 90 minutes of partial warm ischemia, followed by 6 hours of reperfusion. XBJ (2 ml/kg iv) was given either before ischemia (before group) or after initiation of reperfusion (after group), while the same volume of normal saline was administered in the vehicle group. Serum and liver samples were harvested (n = 3-6/group). (A) qRT-PCR detection of CXCL-1, CXCL-10, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-a. Data were normalized to HPRT gene expression and expressed as fold increase above the sham group (set as 1). (B) ELISA detection of MCP-1, IL-6 and TNF-α. Accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages after administration of XBJ was analyzed by (C) Ly-6G (neutrophils), (D) CD68 (macrophages) immunohistochemical staining (Original magnifications, 200×magnification) and (E) MPO levels in IRI liver lobes. (F) ROS was detected using the fluorescent probe DCFH-DA. Data were expressed as mean±SEM. *P
    Figure Legend Snippet: XBJ significantly ameliorated inflammation in mouse livers that have undergone IRI. B6 mice were either sham operated (sham group) or subjected to 90 minutes of partial warm ischemia, followed by 6 hours of reperfusion. XBJ (2 ml/kg iv) was given either before ischemia (before group) or after initiation of reperfusion (after group), while the same volume of normal saline was administered in the vehicle group. Serum and liver samples were harvested (n = 3-6/group). (A) qRT-PCR detection of CXCL-1, CXCL-10, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-a. Data were normalized to HPRT gene expression and expressed as fold increase above the sham group (set as 1). (B) ELISA detection of MCP-1, IL-6 and TNF-α. Accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages after administration of XBJ was analyzed by (C) Ly-6G (neutrophils), (D) CD68 (macrophages) immunohistochemical staining (Original magnifications, 200×magnification) and (E) MPO levels in IRI liver lobes. (F) ROS was detected using the fluorescent probe DCFH-DA. Data were expressed as mean±SEM. *P

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Quantitative RT-PCR, Expressing, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    18) Product Images from "The Psychophysiological Regulation of Pacing Behaviour and Performance Fatigability During Long-Distance Running with Locomotor Muscle Fatigue and Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Highly Trained Runners"

    Article Title: The Psychophysiological Regulation of Pacing Behaviour and Performance Fatigability During Long-Distance Running with Locomotor Muscle Fatigue and Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Highly Trained Runners

    Journal: Sports Medicine - Open

    doi: 10.1186/s40798-018-0143-2

    Differential responses in haematological markers of muscle damage, muscle metabolic strain, and endocrinological stress response. Panels show: a = blood leucocyte count; b = blood neutrophil count; c = blood cortisol concentration; d = blood interleukin-6 concentration. Note: blood interleukin-6 concentrations violated the assumption of normal distribution and thus non-parametric ANOVA after aligned rank transformation was conducted. Despite a significant interaction effect, simple main treatment effects did not reach significance. Abbreviations: # = main time effect; = main group effect; % = time × group interaction effect; $ = simple (main) time effect for intervention trials; § = simple (main) time effect for control trials; * = simple (main) trial effect; ITT = intervention time trial; CTT = control time trial; DJ = drop-jump protocol; CTRL = control; RE = running economy
    Figure Legend Snippet: Differential responses in haematological markers of muscle damage, muscle metabolic strain, and endocrinological stress response. Panels show: a = blood leucocyte count; b = blood neutrophil count; c = blood cortisol concentration; d = blood interleukin-6 concentration. Note: blood interleukin-6 concentrations violated the assumption of normal distribution and thus non-parametric ANOVA after aligned rank transformation was conducted. Despite a significant interaction effect, simple main treatment effects did not reach significance. Abbreviations: # = main time effect; = main group effect; % = time × group interaction effect; $ = simple (main) time effect for intervention trials; § = simple (main) time effect for control trials; * = simple (main) trial effect; ITT = intervention time trial; CTT = control time trial; DJ = drop-jump protocol; CTRL = control; RE = running economy

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Transformation Assay

    19) Product Images from "Therapeutic Fluorescent Hybrid Nanoparticles for Traceable Delivery of Glucocorticoids to Inflammatory Sites"

    Article Title: Therapeutic Fluorescent Hybrid Nanoparticles for Traceable Delivery of Glucocorticoids to Inflammatory Sites

    Journal: Theranostics

    doi: 10.7150/thno.28324

    In vitro characterisation of BMP-IOH-NPs. (A) Features of BMP-IOH-NPs. Left : scheme illustrating the chemical composition [ZrO] 2+ [(BMP) 0.996 (DUT) 0.004 ] 2- and aqueous synthesis; middle : electron microscopy image illustrating a particle size of 31 ± 10 nm; right : zeta potential in mV and its dependence on pH. (B-C) In vitro uptake of BMP-IOH-NPs by mouse alveolar MH-S macrophages analysed at different times of incubation by (B) confocal fluorescence microscopy with orthogonal projections (red: BMP-IOH-NPs, blue: nucleic stain (DAPI); scale bar 20 µm) and by (C) electron microscopy (scale bar 2 µm). Internalisation is detectable as early as 10 min of incubation and the NP load increased continuously over 24 h (arrows). (D) Efficacy of the BMP-IOH-NP in comparison to the control drugs BMP or Dexa (each 1×10 -5 - 1×10 -9 M of the active substance) on LPS-stimulated MH-S cells assessed by measurement of IL-6 level in the cell supernatant after 48 h of treatment. The anti-inflammatory effect of BMP-IOH-NPs on MH-S cells was dose dependent and comparable to that of Dexa and BMP, confirming efficient release of the drug from the NPs. Red lines show the mean IL-6 level in the non-treated LPS-stimulated cells. (E) Metabolic activity of MH-S murine macrophages after cultivation for 2, 24, 48, and 72 h with BMP-IOH-NPs or with corresponding volumes of PBS. Measurements were performed in triplicates; error bars correspond to standard deviation.
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vitro characterisation of BMP-IOH-NPs. (A) Features of BMP-IOH-NPs. Left : scheme illustrating the chemical composition [ZrO] 2+ [(BMP) 0.996 (DUT) 0.004 ] 2- and aqueous synthesis; middle : electron microscopy image illustrating a particle size of 31 ± 10 nm; right : zeta potential in mV and its dependence on pH. (B-C) In vitro uptake of BMP-IOH-NPs by mouse alveolar MH-S macrophages analysed at different times of incubation by (B) confocal fluorescence microscopy with orthogonal projections (red: BMP-IOH-NPs, blue: nucleic stain (DAPI); scale bar 20 µm) and by (C) electron microscopy (scale bar 2 µm). Internalisation is detectable as early as 10 min of incubation and the NP load increased continuously over 24 h (arrows). (D) Efficacy of the BMP-IOH-NP in comparison to the control drugs BMP or Dexa (each 1×10 -5 - 1×10 -9 M of the active substance) on LPS-stimulated MH-S cells assessed by measurement of IL-6 level in the cell supernatant after 48 h of treatment. The anti-inflammatory effect of BMP-IOH-NPs on MH-S cells was dose dependent and comparable to that of Dexa and BMP, confirming efficient release of the drug from the NPs. Red lines show the mean IL-6 level in the non-treated LPS-stimulated cells. (E) Metabolic activity of MH-S murine macrophages after cultivation for 2, 24, 48, and 72 h with BMP-IOH-NPs or with corresponding volumes of PBS. Measurements were performed in triplicates; error bars correspond to standard deviation.

    Techniques Used: In Vitro, Electron Microscopy, Incubation, Fluorescence, Microscopy, Staining, Activity Assay, Standard Deviation

    20) Product Images from "Gelatin versus its two major degradation products, prolyl‐hydroxyproline and glycine, as supportive therapy in experimental colitis in mice, et al. Gelatin versus its two major degradation products, prolyl‐hydroxyproline and glycine, as supportive therapy in experimental colitis in mice"

    Article Title: Gelatin versus its two major degradation products, prolyl‐hydroxyproline and glycine, as supportive therapy in experimental colitis in mice, et al. Gelatin versus its two major degradation products, prolyl‐hydroxyproline and glycine, as supportive therapy in experimental colitis in mice

    Journal: Food Science & Nutrition

    doi: 10.1002/fsn3.639

    Levels of (a)  IL ‐1β, (b)  IL ‐6 and (c)  TNF ‐α in colon tissues from mice in different groups. Each point represents a single sample, with significance marked as ** p 
    Figure Legend Snippet: Levels of (a) IL ‐1β, (b) IL ‐6 and (c) TNF ‐α in colon tissues from mice in different groups. Each point represents a single sample, with significance marked as ** p 

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

    Levels of (a)  IL ‐1β, (b)  IL ‐6 and (c)  TNF ‐α in serum from mice in different groups. Each point represents a single sample, with significance marked as ** p 
    Figure Legend Snippet: Levels of (a) IL ‐1β, (b) IL ‐6 and (c) TNF ‐α in serum from mice in different groups. Each point represents a single sample, with significance marked as ** p 

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

    21) Product Images from "Small Extracellular Vesicles Released from Ovarian Cancer Spheroids in Response to Cisplatin Promote the Pro-Tumorigenic Activity of Mesenchymal Stem Cells"

    Article Title: Small Extracellular Vesicles Released from Ovarian Cancer Spheroids in Response to Cisplatin Promote the Pro-Tumorigenic Activity of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    doi: 10.3390/ijms20204972

    Secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) from BM-MSCs after stimulation with sEV-OCS or sEV-OCS-Cis. ( A – C ) Secretion levels of ( A ) IL-6, ( B ) IL-8, and ( C ) VEGFA of BM-MSCs stimulated with sEV-OCS or sEV-OCS-Cis measured by multiplex fluorescent bead-based immunoassay analysis. BM-MSCs cell-cultured media (CM) was harvested 24 hours post-stimulation with sEV-OCS (CM MCS -sEV-OCS) or sEV-OCS-Cis (CM MCS -sEV-OCS-Cis). CM of BM-MSCs without sEV stimulation (CM MCS -non-sEV) was used as control. Results are mean ± SEM of n = 3. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal–Wallis test followed by the Mann–Whitney test. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) from BM-MSCs after stimulation with sEV-OCS or sEV-OCS-Cis. ( A – C ) Secretion levels of ( A ) IL-6, ( B ) IL-8, and ( C ) VEGFA of BM-MSCs stimulated with sEV-OCS or sEV-OCS-Cis measured by multiplex fluorescent bead-based immunoassay analysis. BM-MSCs cell-cultured media (CM) was harvested 24 hours post-stimulation with sEV-OCS (CM MCS -sEV-OCS) or sEV-OCS-Cis (CM MCS -sEV-OCS-Cis). CM of BM-MSCs without sEV stimulation (CM MCS -non-sEV) was used as control. Results are mean ± SEM of n = 3. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal–Wallis test followed by the Mann–Whitney test. * p

    Techniques Used: Multiplex Assay, Bead-based Assay, Cell Culture, MANN-WHITNEY

    22) Product Images from "Improved the biocompatibility of cancellous bone with compound physicochemical decellularization process"

    Article Title: Improved the biocompatibility of cancellous bone with compound physicochemical decellularization process

    Journal: Regenerative Biomaterials

    doi: 10.1093/rb/rbaa024

    The NO and Cytokine profiles (IL-2, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ) of PM direct and separate cultured with scaffolds for 48 h, which show that CB induced NO, IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-α production significantly, but DCB inhibited the secretion of these three cytokines and NO significantly ( a P
    Figure Legend Snippet: The NO and Cytokine profiles (IL-2, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ) of PM direct and separate cultured with scaffolds for 48 h, which show that CB induced NO, IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-α production significantly, but DCB inhibited the secretion of these three cytokines and NO significantly ( a P

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture

    23) Product Images from "Oral Administration of Ginseng Ameliorates Cyclosporine-Induced Pancreatic Injury in an Experimental Mouse Model"

    Article Title: Oral Administration of Ginseng Ameliorates Cyclosporine-Induced Pancreatic Injury in an Experimental Mouse Model

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072685

    Effect of KRG on pancreatic macrophage infiltration in CsA-induced pancreatic injury. (A) Immunohistochemistry for F4/80, a macrophage marker, on pancreatic islets from the experimental groups. Weak immunoreactivity for F4/80 was found in the groups treated with VH alone or with VH plus KRG. However, the intensity of F4/80 staining increased in the CsA-only group, but this increase was attenuated in the CsA plus K0.2 or K0.4 groups. (B) Quantitative analysis of F4/80-positive islet cells in the experimental groups. The numbers of F4/80-positive islet cells were reduced significantly in the CsA plus K0.2 or K0.4 groups compared with the CsA-only group. (C) Quantitative analysis of iNOS, IL-6 and IL-17 using immunoblotting of whole pancreatic tissues from the experimental groups. The expression levels of these factors were significantly increased in the CsA-only group, but these increases were markedly attenuated by KRG cotreatment. (D) Representative photomicrographs showing double labeling for insulin (red) and iNOS or IL-6 or IL-17 (gray) in pancreatic cells in the same tissue sections from the experimental groups. As in whole pancreatic tissues, quantitative analysis results showed that the immunoreactivities of iNOS, IL-6 and IL-17 were increased in the CsA group, but these increases were decreased markedly by KRG cotreatment. Values are means ± SE ( n = 10). Relative optical densities of bands in each lane were normalized with each β-actin band from the same gel. Magnifications×400. # P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of KRG on pancreatic macrophage infiltration in CsA-induced pancreatic injury. (A) Immunohistochemistry for F4/80, a macrophage marker, on pancreatic islets from the experimental groups. Weak immunoreactivity for F4/80 was found in the groups treated with VH alone or with VH plus KRG. However, the intensity of F4/80 staining increased in the CsA-only group, but this increase was attenuated in the CsA plus K0.2 or K0.4 groups. (B) Quantitative analysis of F4/80-positive islet cells in the experimental groups. The numbers of F4/80-positive islet cells were reduced significantly in the CsA plus K0.2 or K0.4 groups compared with the CsA-only group. (C) Quantitative analysis of iNOS, IL-6 and IL-17 using immunoblotting of whole pancreatic tissues from the experimental groups. The expression levels of these factors were significantly increased in the CsA-only group, but these increases were markedly attenuated by KRG cotreatment. (D) Representative photomicrographs showing double labeling for insulin (red) and iNOS or IL-6 or IL-17 (gray) in pancreatic cells in the same tissue sections from the experimental groups. As in whole pancreatic tissues, quantitative analysis results showed that the immunoreactivities of iNOS, IL-6 and IL-17 were increased in the CsA group, but these increases were decreased markedly by KRG cotreatment. Values are means ± SE ( n = 10). Relative optical densities of bands in each lane were normalized with each β-actin band from the same gel. Magnifications×400. # P

    Techniques Used: Immunohistochemistry, Marker, Staining, Expressing, Labeling

    24) Product Images from "Synthesis and Characterization of a Dipalmitoylated Lipopeptide Derived from Paralogous Lipoproteins of Mycoplasma pneumoniae ▿ ▿ †"

    Article Title: Synthesis and Characterization of a Dipalmitoylated Lipopeptide Derived from Paralogous Lipoproteins of Mycoplasma pneumoniae ▿ ▿ †

    Journal:

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.00141-07

    Cytokine-inducing activity of MPPL-1. A total of 1 × 10 5 THP-1 cells were stimulated for 12 h with the concentrations of MPPL-1, FSL-1, and MALP-2 indicated. Then the amounts of IL-8 (A) and IL-6 (B) released into the media were determined by
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokine-inducing activity of MPPL-1. A total of 1 × 10 5 THP-1 cells were stimulated for 12 h with the concentrations of MPPL-1, FSL-1, and MALP-2 indicated. Then the amounts of IL-8 (A) and IL-6 (B) released into the media were determined by

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay

    Antagonistic effect of MPPL-1. (A) A total of 1 × 10 5 THP-1 cells were stimulated for 12 h with 1 or 10 nM FSL-1 in the presence or absence of 1 μM MPPL-1. Then the amounts of IL-6 released into the media were determined by ELISA. The
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antagonistic effect of MPPL-1. (A) A total of 1 × 10 5 THP-1 cells were stimulated for 12 h with 1 or 10 nM FSL-1 in the presence or absence of 1 μM MPPL-1. Then the amounts of IL-6 released into the media were determined by ELISA. The

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    25) Product Images from "Estrogen deficiency does not decrease the in vitro osteogenic potential of rat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells"

    Article Title: Estrogen deficiency does not decrease the in vitro osteogenic potential of rat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Journal: Age

    doi: 10.1007/s11357-014-9647-y

    Boxplots of protein release (ELISA), expressed as ratio with total protein ( n = 3 replicates): a OPG/RANKL, b IL-1β, c IL-6, and d TGF-β1. a Interaction of “culture medium” and “experimental time”
    Figure Legend Snippet: Boxplots of protein release (ELISA), expressed as ratio with total protein ( n = 3 replicates): a OPG/RANKL, b IL-1β, c IL-6, and d TGF-β1. a Interaction of “culture medium” and “experimental time”

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    26) Product Images from "Mechanical ventilation modulates TLR4 and IRAK-3 in a non-infectious, ventilator-induced lung injury model"

    Article Title: Mechanical ventilation modulates TLR4 and IRAK-3 in a non-infectious, ventilator-induced lung injury model

    Journal: Respiratory Research

    doi: 10.1186/1465-9921-11-27

    A) Fold changes of TNF-α and IL6 mRNA levels in the lungs of healthy rats after 4 hours of spontaneous breathing (non-ventilated), and on mechanical ventilation with 6 ml/kg (low V T ), 20 ml/kg (high V T ) . Bars represent the median of six rats per group. *p = 0.025 when compared to low V T ; **p = 0.033 when compared to spontaneous breathing animals. B and C) Effects of 4 hours of spontaneous breathing in non-ventilated, anesthetized animals and of 4 hours of mechanical ventilation with low V T (B) and high V T ( C ) on systemic protein levels of TNF-α and IL-6. Bars represent the mean values of 6 rats per group.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A) Fold changes of TNF-α and IL6 mRNA levels in the lungs of healthy rats after 4 hours of spontaneous breathing (non-ventilated), and on mechanical ventilation with 6 ml/kg (low V T ), 20 ml/kg (high V T ) . Bars represent the median of six rats per group. *p = 0.025 when compared to low V T ; **p = 0.033 when compared to spontaneous breathing animals. B and C) Effects of 4 hours of spontaneous breathing in non-ventilated, anesthetized animals and of 4 hours of mechanical ventilation with low V T (B) and high V T ( C ) on systemic protein levels of TNF-α and IL-6. Bars represent the mean values of 6 rats per group.

    Techniques Used:

    Proposed TLR/NF-κB signaling pathway activation in a non-infectious, high VT mechanical ventilation experimental model . Overdistension induced by high VT mechanical ventilation produces endogenous ligands that are able to activate TLR-4 receptors. Subsequent activation of downstream intracellular adapter proteins, enhanced by the down-regulation of IRAK3 expression, leads to the degradation of Iκβα and activation of NF-κB, which gives rise to the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Abbreviations: TLR-4: Toll-like receptor-4; IRAK: Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase; IκBα: Inhibitory kappa B alpha; NF-κB: Nuclear factor kappa B; IL-6: Interleukin-6; TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha. TRAF: Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor; VT: tidal volume.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Proposed TLR/NF-κB signaling pathway activation in a non-infectious, high VT mechanical ventilation experimental model . Overdistension induced by high VT mechanical ventilation produces endogenous ligands that are able to activate TLR-4 receptors. Subsequent activation of downstream intracellular adapter proteins, enhanced by the down-regulation of IRAK3 expression, leads to the degradation of Iκβα and activation of NF-κB, which gives rise to the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Abbreviations: TLR-4: Toll-like receptor-4; IRAK: Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase; IκBα: Inhibitory kappa B alpha; NF-κB: Nuclear factor kappa B; IL-6: Interleukin-6; TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha. TRAF: Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor; VT: tidal volume.

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Expressing

    27) Product Images from "Acetaminophen attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive impairment through antioxidant activity"

    Article Title: Acetaminophen attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive impairment through antioxidant activity

    Journal: Journal of Neuroinflammation

    doi: 10.1186/s12974-016-0781-6

    APAP attenuated the accumulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by LPS in the mouse hippocampus. Levels of IL-1β ( a ), IL-6 ( b ) and TNF-α ( c ) in samples of the hippocampus 6 h after LPS administration. IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were increased by LPS, and APAP reversed the accumulation of those pro-inflammation cytokines. Data are expressed as the mean ± SE ( n = 5, 6) *** P
    Figure Legend Snippet: APAP attenuated the accumulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by LPS in the mouse hippocampus. Levels of IL-1β ( a ), IL-6 ( b ) and TNF-α ( c ) in samples of the hippocampus 6 h after LPS administration. IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were increased by LPS, and APAP reversed the accumulation of those pro-inflammation cytokines. Data are expressed as the mean ± SE ( n = 5, 6) *** P

    Techniques Used:

    28) Product Images from "Modulation of the immune response by Fonsecaea pedrosoi morphotypes in the course of experimental chromoblastomycosis and their role on inflammatory response chronicity"

    Article Title: Modulation of the immune response by Fonsecaea pedrosoi morphotypes in the course of experimental chromoblastomycosis and their role on inflammatory response chronicity

    Journal: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005461

    Quantification of F . pedrosoi fungal cells in the tissue and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the course of murine CBM. Fungal cells were counted on twenty fields chosen at random in histopathological slides with the aid of a counting reticle (A-D). In all groups muriform cells (red arrows) could be identified after 15 days after infection. At the same time, hyphal fragments (brown arrow) were also present in animals infected either with hyphae (FH) (B) or muriform cells (MC) (C). Few conidia (black arrow) are observed after 15 days of infection in animals infected with F . pedrosoi conidia (FC) (A). Cell counts were expressed as cells per mm 2 of injured tissue. 1000x magnification (A-D). After 15 days of infection, high levels of TNF-α (E), IL-1β (F), IL-6 (G) and MCP-1 (H) were observed in groups with higher numbers of hyphae and muriform cells in the tissue. Cytokine production was measured by ELISA from homogenized footpad tissue. *P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantification of F . pedrosoi fungal cells in the tissue and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the course of murine CBM. Fungal cells were counted on twenty fields chosen at random in histopathological slides with the aid of a counting reticle (A-D). In all groups muriform cells (red arrows) could be identified after 15 days after infection. At the same time, hyphal fragments (brown arrow) were also present in animals infected either with hyphae (FH) (B) or muriform cells (MC) (C). Few conidia (black arrow) are observed after 15 days of infection in animals infected with F . pedrosoi conidia (FC) (A). Cell counts were expressed as cells per mm 2 of injured tissue. 1000x magnification (A-D). After 15 days of infection, high levels of TNF-α (E), IL-1β (F), IL-6 (G) and MCP-1 (H) were observed in groups with higher numbers of hyphae and muriform cells in the tissue. Cytokine production was measured by ELISA from homogenized footpad tissue. *P

    Techniques Used: Infection, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    In vitro cytokine and chemokine production. The production of cytokines and chemokines by macrophage in conidia (FC) or muriform cell (MC) co-culture supernatants was assessed by ELISA (A-E). NO 2 concentration in culture supernatants was used as an indicator of NO generation and measured using Griess reagent (F). High levels of TNF-α (A), IL-1β (B) and IL-6 (C) were observed in co-culture with muriform cells, but not with conidia. To assess IL-1β production after 24 hours, peritoneal macrophages required LPS co-stimulation (B). Muriform cells also induced higher levels of MCP-1 after 48h when compared to macrophages infected with conidia (E). Production of IL-12 (D) and NO 2 (F) was strongly inhibited by muriform cells. **P
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vitro cytokine and chemokine production. The production of cytokines and chemokines by macrophage in conidia (FC) or muriform cell (MC) co-culture supernatants was assessed by ELISA (A-E). NO 2 concentration in culture supernatants was used as an indicator of NO generation and measured using Griess reagent (F). High levels of TNF-α (A), IL-1β (B) and IL-6 (C) were observed in co-culture with muriform cells, but not with conidia. To assess IL-1β production after 24 hours, peritoneal macrophages required LPS co-stimulation (B). Muriform cells also induced higher levels of MCP-1 after 48h when compared to macrophages infected with conidia (E). Production of IL-12 (D) and NO 2 (F) was strongly inhibited by muriform cells. **P

    Techniques Used: In Vitro, Co-Culture Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Concentration Assay, Infection

    29) Product Images from "RIP3 deficiency ameliorates inflammatory response in mice infected with influenza H7N9 virus infection"

    Article Title: RIP3 deficiency ameliorates inflammatory response in mice infected with influenza H7N9 virus infection

    Journal: Oncotarget

    doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.16016

    Pulmonary inflammation is alleviative following H7N9 virus infection in RIP3−/− mice A . H E sections through bronchioles showing edema, infiltration with inflammatory cells, and alveolar collapses. Images shown are representative of 6 mice per genotype per time point collected from three independent experiments. Scale bar indicates 100μm. B . IL-1β, IL-6, RANTES and MIP-1 secreted in BALF were detected by using ELISA. C . IFN-α and IFN-γ expression of lung tissues were measured by qPCR. Data collected from three independent experiments was shown as mean±SEM. (* p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Pulmonary inflammation is alleviative following H7N9 virus infection in RIP3−/− mice A . H E sections through bronchioles showing edema, infiltration with inflammatory cells, and alveolar collapses. Images shown are representative of 6 mice per genotype per time point collected from three independent experiments. Scale bar indicates 100μm. B . IL-1β, IL-6, RANTES and MIP-1 secreted in BALF were detected by using ELISA. C . IFN-α and IFN-γ expression of lung tissues were measured by qPCR. Data collected from three independent experiments was shown as mean±SEM. (* p

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    30) Product Images from "Schisandra Chinensis Lignans Suppresses the Production of Inflammatory Mediators Regulated by NF-κB, AP-1, and IRF3 in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells"

    Article Title: Schisandra Chinensis Lignans Suppresses the Production of Inflammatory Mediators Regulated by NF-κB, AP-1, and IRF3 in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells

    Journal: Molecules

    doi: 10.3390/molecules23123319

    Effect of SCL on the production of cytokines and chemokines in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The cells were plated in 24-wells and incubate for 12 h, and then the macrophages were pre-treated with different concentrations of SCL for 1 h and then stimulated with or without LPS (1 μg/mL) for 24 h. IL-1β ( A ), IL-6 ( B ), TNF-α ( C ), MCP-1 ( D ), Rantes ( E ), and MIP-1α ( F ) concentrations in the cell culture medium were measured by ELISA. Values given are the mean ± SEM of 4 independent experiments; ** p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of SCL on the production of cytokines and chemokines in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The cells were plated in 24-wells and incubate for 12 h, and then the macrophages were pre-treated with different concentrations of SCL for 1 h and then stimulated with or without LPS (1 μg/mL) for 24 h. IL-1β ( A ), IL-6 ( B ), TNF-α ( C ), MCP-1 ( D ), Rantes ( E ), and MIP-1α ( F ) concentrations in the cell culture medium were measured by ELISA. Values given are the mean ± SEM of 4 independent experiments; ** p

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    31) Product Images from "Increased Susceptibility to Vaginal Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission in Pig-tailed Macaques Coinfected With Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis"

    Article Title: Increased Susceptibility to Vaginal Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission in Pig-tailed Macaques Coinfected With Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis

    Journal: The Journal of Infectious Diseases

    doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu240

    Median per-subject levels of cervicovaginal (mucosal) cytokines. Analytes measured from available samples of 7 sexually transmitted infection (STI)–positive and 5 control macaques. Median levels of the inflammatory markers interleukin 6 (IL-6;
    Figure Legend Snippet: Median per-subject levels of cervicovaginal (mucosal) cytokines. Analytes measured from available samples of 7 sexually transmitted infection (STI)–positive and 5 control macaques. Median levels of the inflammatory markers interleukin 6 (IL-6;

    Techniques Used: Infection

    32) Product Images from "FTY720 inhibits tubulointerstitial inflammation in albumin overload-induced nephropathy of rats via the Sphk1 pathway"

    Article Title: FTY720 inhibits tubulointerstitial inflammation in albumin overload-induced nephropathy of rats via the Sphk1 pathway

    Journal: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica

    doi: 10.1038/aps.2014.100

    Effect of FTY720 on inflammatory cytokines, including monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage-related TNF-α and IL-6, arginase-1 and IL-10, in the three groups. (A) Western blot analysis of MCP-1 and M1 and M2 macrophage-related cytokines; β-actin was used as a control. (B) Quantitative analysis of protein expression of MCP-1 and macrophage-related cytokines. (C) Expression of MCP-1 and macrophage-related cytokines mRNA; β-actin was used as a control. Values are presented as the mean±SEM. n =6. b P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of FTY720 on inflammatory cytokines, including monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage-related TNF-α and IL-6, arginase-1 and IL-10, in the three groups. (A) Western blot analysis of MCP-1 and M1 and M2 macrophage-related cytokines; β-actin was used as a control. (B) Quantitative analysis of protein expression of MCP-1 and macrophage-related cytokines. (C) Expression of MCP-1 and macrophage-related cytokines mRNA; β-actin was used as a control. Values are presented as the mean±SEM. n =6. b P

    Techniques Used: Western Blot, Expressing

    33) Product Images from "Mnn10 Maintains Pathogenicity in Candida albicans by Extending α-1,6-Mannose Backbone to Evade Host Dectin-1 Mediated Antifungal Immunity"

    Article Title: Mnn10 Maintains Pathogenicity in Candida albicans by Extending α-1,6-Mannose Backbone to Evade Host Dectin-1 Mediated Antifungal Immunity

    Journal: PLoS Pathogens

    doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005617

    α-1,6-mannose backbone inhibition in C . albicans yeasts, but not hyphae, could induce an increased immune responses. (A and B) Thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages were stimulated with UV-inactivated SN152, mnn10Δ/Δ :: MNN10 and mnn10Δ/Δ yeasts (MOI = 5) (A) or hyphae (MOI = 1) (B) for the indicated times. The nuclear extracts (top panel) and total cell lysates (lower panel) were subjected to immunoblotting analysis with the indicated antibodies of NF-κB signaling. (C and D) Thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages were challenged with UV-inactivated SN152, mnn10Δ/Δ :: MNN10 and mnn10Δ/Δ yeasts (MOI = 5) (C) or hyphae (MOI = 1) (D) for the indicated times. The total cell lysates were subjected to immunoblotting with the indicated antibodies of MAPK signaling. Numbers between blots indicate activity (Act) of phosphorylation of MAPK or NF-κB pathways, as measured by densitometry. (E) ELISA results for cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and IL-12p40 in cell supernatants of thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages, which were stimulated with the indicated C . albicans yeasts (MOI = 5) for 6 h. Usti, unstimulated. Data are means ± SD of triplicates from one representative experiment of three. Usti, unstimulated. *, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: α-1,6-mannose backbone inhibition in C . albicans yeasts, but not hyphae, could induce an increased immune responses. (A and B) Thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages were stimulated with UV-inactivated SN152, mnn10Δ/Δ :: MNN10 and mnn10Δ/Δ yeasts (MOI = 5) (A) or hyphae (MOI = 1) (B) for the indicated times. The nuclear extracts (top panel) and total cell lysates (lower panel) were subjected to immunoblotting analysis with the indicated antibodies of NF-κB signaling. (C and D) Thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages were challenged with UV-inactivated SN152, mnn10Δ/Δ :: MNN10 and mnn10Δ/Δ yeasts (MOI = 5) (C) or hyphae (MOI = 1) (D) for the indicated times. The total cell lysates were subjected to immunoblotting with the indicated antibodies of MAPK signaling. Numbers between blots indicate activity (Act) of phosphorylation of MAPK or NF-κB pathways, as measured by densitometry. (E) ELISA results for cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and IL-12p40 in cell supernatants of thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages, which were stimulated with the indicated C . albicans yeasts (MOI = 5) for 6 h. Usti, unstimulated. Data are means ± SD of triplicates from one representative experiment of three. Usti, unstimulated. *, P

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Activity Assay, Activated Clotting Time Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Mnn10 is required for C . albicans systemic infection. C57BL/6 mice were infected with 5×10 5 CFU SN152, mnn10Δ/Δ :: MNN10 or mnn10Δ/Δ strain in 200 μl sterile saline via lateral tail vein. (A) Survival of C57BL/6 mice infected with the indicated strains was monitored for over 30 days (n = 10 per group). Data are representative of three independent experiments. (B) Quantification of the fungal burden in kidney tissues of C57BL/6 mice (n = 6 per group) infected with indicated C . albicans strains at day 2 and day 5. Data are representative of three independent experiments. (C) Representative H E (for the inflammatory cells influx and the extent of tissue necrosis) and PAS (for C . albicans ) staining of kidneys from C57BL/6 mice infected with indicated strains at day 2 and 5. Arrows indicate C . albicans filaments in the tissues. Magnification = 200 ×. (D) ELISA assays for IL-6, GM-CSF, IFN-γ and IL-17 in homogenized kidneys from C57BL/6 mice infected with indicated C . albicans at day 5 (n = 8 per group). The cytokine levels were normalized to burden of infection in each individually kidney as fg/g tissue/CFU. Data are means ± SD and are representative of three independent experiments. (E) The cellular inflammation in the kidneys of SN152 or mnn10Δ/Δ infected mice. SSC high CD11b + Ly-6C + Ly-6G + neutrophils and SSC high CD11b + Ly-6C + Ly-6G - monocytes in the kidneys were detected at Day 3 and Day 5 by flow cytometry. Data are representative images of five mice. *, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Mnn10 is required for C . albicans systemic infection. C57BL/6 mice were infected with 5×10 5 CFU SN152, mnn10Δ/Δ :: MNN10 or mnn10Δ/Δ strain in 200 μl sterile saline via lateral tail vein. (A) Survival of C57BL/6 mice infected with the indicated strains was monitored for over 30 days (n = 10 per group). Data are representative of three independent experiments. (B) Quantification of the fungal burden in kidney tissues of C57BL/6 mice (n = 6 per group) infected with indicated C . albicans strains at day 2 and day 5. Data are representative of three independent experiments. (C) Representative H E (for the inflammatory cells influx and the extent of tissue necrosis) and PAS (for C . albicans ) staining of kidneys from C57BL/6 mice infected with indicated strains at day 2 and 5. Arrows indicate C . albicans filaments in the tissues. Magnification = 200 ×. (D) ELISA assays for IL-6, GM-CSF, IFN-γ and IL-17 in homogenized kidneys from C57BL/6 mice infected with indicated C . albicans at day 5 (n = 8 per group). The cytokine levels were normalized to burden of infection in each individually kidney as fg/g tissue/CFU. Data are means ± SD and are representative of three independent experiments. (E) The cellular inflammation in the kidneys of SN152 or mnn10Δ/Δ infected mice. SSC high CD11b + Ly-6C + Ly-6G + neutrophils and SSC high CD11b + Ly-6C + Ly-6G - monocytes in the kidneys were detected at Day 3 and Day 5 by flow cytometry. Data are representative images of five mice. *, P

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay, Staining, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry

    Inflammatory responses, stimulated by C . albicans mnn10 mutant, were Dectin-1 dependent. (A) Thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from wild-type or Dectin-1-deficient mice were stimulated with UV-inactivated C . albicans yeast SN152, mnn10Δ/Δ :: MNN10 or mnn10Δ/Δ (MOI = 5) for 30 minutes. The total cell lysates were then analyzed by immunoblotting with the indicated antibodies. Numbers between blots indicate activity (Act) of phosphorylation of MAPK or NF-κB pathways, as measured by densitometry. (B) Thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from wild-type or Dectin-1-deficient mice were stimulated with the UV-inactivated C . albicans yeasts (MOI = 5) for 6 h. The amount of TNF-α and IL-6 in supernatants was determined by ELISA. Data are means ± SD of triplicates. (C) ELISA assays for IFN-γ and IL-17 in homogenized kidney from infected Dectin-1-deficient mice at day 5 (n = 6 per group). (D) Survival of Dectin-1-deficient mice infected with 5×10 5 CFU C . albicans of SN152 or mnn10Δ/Δ strain (n = 8 per group). (E and F) The kidneys fungal burden of Dectin-1-deficient mice (E) or Dectin-2-deficient mice (F) infected with 3×10 5 C . albicans at day 5. (G) Wild-type, TLR2-, and TLR4-deficient thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages were stimulated with UV-inactivated SN152 or mnn10Δ/Δ strain of C . albicans yeast cells (MOI = 5) for 30 min for preparing cell lysates. Samples were subjected to immunoblotting analysis using indicated antibodies. (H) Thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from wild-type or Dectin-2-deficient mice were stimulated with the UV-inactivated C . albicans hyphae (MOI = 1) for 6 h. The amount of TNF-α and IL-6 in supernatants was determined using ELISA. Data shown are representative of three independent experiments. Usti, unstimulated. *, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inflammatory responses, stimulated by C . albicans mnn10 mutant, were Dectin-1 dependent. (A) Thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from wild-type or Dectin-1-deficient mice were stimulated with UV-inactivated C . albicans yeast SN152, mnn10Δ/Δ :: MNN10 or mnn10Δ/Δ (MOI = 5) for 30 minutes. The total cell lysates were then analyzed by immunoblotting with the indicated antibodies. Numbers between blots indicate activity (Act) of phosphorylation of MAPK or NF-κB pathways, as measured by densitometry. (B) Thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from wild-type or Dectin-1-deficient mice were stimulated with the UV-inactivated C . albicans yeasts (MOI = 5) for 6 h. The amount of TNF-α and IL-6 in supernatants was determined by ELISA. Data are means ± SD of triplicates. (C) ELISA assays for IFN-γ and IL-17 in homogenized kidney from infected Dectin-1-deficient mice at day 5 (n = 6 per group). (D) Survival of Dectin-1-deficient mice infected with 5×10 5 CFU C . albicans of SN152 or mnn10Δ/Δ strain (n = 8 per group). (E and F) The kidneys fungal burden of Dectin-1-deficient mice (E) or Dectin-2-deficient mice (F) infected with 3×10 5 C . albicans at day 5. (G) Wild-type, TLR2-, and TLR4-deficient thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages were stimulated with UV-inactivated SN152 or mnn10Δ/Δ strain of C . albicans yeast cells (MOI = 5) for 30 min for preparing cell lysates. Samples were subjected to immunoblotting analysis using indicated antibodies. (H) Thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from wild-type or Dectin-2-deficient mice were stimulated with the UV-inactivated C . albicans hyphae (MOI = 1) for 6 h. The amount of TNF-α and IL-6 in supernatants was determined using ELISA. Data shown are representative of three independent experiments. Usti, unstimulated. *, P

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Mouse Assay, Activity Assay, Activated Clotting Time Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Infection

    34) Product Images from "Puerarin inhibits vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation induced by fine particulate matter via suppressing of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway"

    Article Title: Puerarin inhibits vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation induced by fine particulate matter via suppressing of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway

    Journal: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    doi: 10.1186/s12906-018-2206-9

    Effect of puerarin on the levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in VSMCs. Cells were pre-treated with puerarin at different concentrations (0, 12.5, 25, 50 μM) or p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 (20 μM) for 1 h and followed by the addition of 200 mg/L PM2.5 for 24 h. a IL-6 level was measured by ELISA. b TNF-α level was measured by ELISA. c SOD level was assayed by colorimetric assay kit. d MDA level was assayed by colorimetric assay kit. The results are presented as mean ± SEM. n = 3. Compared to the untreated cells, * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of puerarin on the levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in VSMCs. Cells were pre-treated with puerarin at different concentrations (0, 12.5, 25, 50 μM) or p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 (20 μM) for 1 h and followed by the addition of 200 mg/L PM2.5 for 24 h. a IL-6 level was measured by ELISA. b TNF-α level was measured by ELISA. c SOD level was assayed by colorimetric assay kit. d MDA level was assayed by colorimetric assay kit. The results are presented as mean ± SEM. n = 3. Compared to the untreated cells, * P

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Colorimetric Assay, Multiple Displacement Amplification

    35) Product Images from "Loss of MiR-223 Duplex (5p and 3p) Aggravates Myocardial Depression and Mortality in Polymicrobial Sepsis"

    Article Title: Loss of MiR-223 Duplex (5p and 3p) Aggravates Myocardial Depression and Mortality in Polymicrobial Sepsis

    Journal: Biochimica et biophysica acta

    doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2014.01.012

    Absence of miR-223 duplex aggravates sepsis-induced myocardial inflammation and neutrophil infiltration. The levels of TNF-α (A) , IL-1β (B) and IL-6 (C) were measured in heart homogenates using ELISA kits (* P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Absence of miR-223 duplex aggravates sepsis-induced myocardial inflammation and neutrophil infiltration. The levels of TNF-α (A) , IL-1β (B) and IL-6 (C) were measured in heart homogenates using ELISA kits (* P

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Injection of Sema3A protein re-captures the pro-inflammatory consequence of miR-223*-KO in mice following severe CLP surgery. WT male mice were pre-treated with either mouse Sema3A protein or IgG1 control protein at a dosage of 25 µg/kg body weight 1h before severe CLP surgery. Inflammatory cytokines TNF-α (A/C) and IL-6 (B/D) in peritoneal fluid (A/B) and heart homogenates (C/D) collected 6 h after CLP were determined by ELISA. (* P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Injection of Sema3A protein re-captures the pro-inflammatory consequence of miR-223*-KO in mice following severe CLP surgery. WT male mice were pre-treated with either mouse Sema3A protein or IgG1 control protein at a dosage of 25 µg/kg body weight 1h before severe CLP surgery. Inflammatory cytokines TNF-α (A/C) and IL-6 (B/D) in peritoneal fluid (A/B) and heart homogenates (C/D) collected 6 h after CLP were determined by ELISA. (* P

    Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Sema3A is a target of miR-223* and STAT3 is a target of miR-223 in the mouse heart. (A) A scheme of pre-miR-223 structure and miR-223-5p (miR-223*) binding to the 3’-UTR of Sema3A as well as miR-223-3p (miR-223) binding to 3’-UTRs of STAT3 and IL-6. (B) Reciprocal expression of miR-223/STAT3 and miR-223*/Sema3A was determined in (B) WT and KO mouse hearts (* P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Sema3A is a target of miR-223* and STAT3 is a target of miR-223 in the mouse heart. (A) A scheme of pre-miR-223 structure and miR-223-5p (miR-223*) binding to the 3’-UTR of Sema3A as well as miR-223-3p (miR-223) binding to 3’-UTRs of STAT3 and IL-6. (B) Reciprocal expression of miR-223/STAT3 and miR-223*/Sema3A was determined in (B) WT and KO mouse hearts (* P

    Techniques Used: Binding Assay, Expressing

    Knockout of miR-223 exacerbates the peritoneal and the systemic inflammation in mice following severe CLP surgery. The levels of TNF-α (A), IL-6 (C) and IL-1β (E) were assessed in peritoneal fluid of mice 6 h after CLP. The serum levels of TNF-α (B), IL-6 (D) and IL-1β (F) were measured in mice at 6 h post-CLP (* P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Knockout of miR-223 exacerbates the peritoneal and the systemic inflammation in mice following severe CLP surgery. The levels of TNF-α (A), IL-6 (C) and IL-1β (E) were assessed in peritoneal fluid of mice 6 h after CLP. The serum levels of TNF-α (B), IL-6 (D) and IL-1β (F) were measured in mice at 6 h post-CLP (* P

    Techniques Used: Knock-Out, Mouse Assay

    36) Product Images from "Polydatin Protects Rat Liver against Ethanol-Induced Injury: Involvement of CYP2E1/ROS/Nrf2 and TLR4/NF-κB p65 Pathway"

    Article Title: Polydatin Protects Rat Liver against Ethanol-Induced Injury: Involvement of CYP2E1/ROS/Nrf2 and TLR4/NF-κB p65 Pathway

    Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM

    doi: 10.1155/2017/7953850

    Effect of PD on inflammatory cytokines of TNF- α , IL-1 β , and IL-6 in liver. (a) TNF- α , (b) IL-1 β , and (c) IL-6. Values were presented as the mean ± SD. ## p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of PD on inflammatory cytokines of TNF- α , IL-1 β , and IL-6 in liver. (a) TNF- α , (b) IL-1 β , and (c) IL-6. Values were presented as the mean ± SD. ## p

    Techniques Used:

    37) Product Images from "Expression of adiponectin receptors in human and rat intervertebral disc cells and changes in receptor expression during disc degeneration using a rat tail temporary static compression model"

    Article Title: Expression of adiponectin receptors in human and rat intervertebral disc cells and changes in receptor expression during disc degeneration using a rat tail temporary static compression model

    Journal: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research

    doi: 10.1186/s13018-016-0481-z

    mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in rat NP and AF cells. A : control group without IL-1β and adiponectin; B : IL-1β group treated with IL-1β (0.2 μg/ml) only; C : IL-1β+Ad (0.1) group treated with both IL-1β (0.2 μg/ml) and adiponectin (0.1 μg/ml); and D : IL-1β+Ad (1.0) group treated with both IL-1β (0.2 μg/ml) and adiponectin (1.0 μg/ml)
    Figure Legend Snippet: mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in rat NP and AF cells. A : control group without IL-1β and adiponectin; B : IL-1β group treated with IL-1β (0.2 μg/ml) only; C : IL-1β+Ad (0.1) group treated with both IL-1β (0.2 μg/ml) and adiponectin (0.1 μg/ml); and D : IL-1β+Ad (1.0) group treated with both IL-1β (0.2 μg/ml) and adiponectin (1.0 μg/ml)

    Techniques Used: Expressing

    38) Product Images from "Sex- and Dose-Specific Effects of Maternal Bisphenol A Exposure on Pancreatic Islets of First- and Second-Generation Adult Mice Offspring"

    Article Title: Sex- and Dose-Specific Effects of Maternal Bisphenol A Exposure on Pancreatic Islets of First- and Second-Generation Adult Mice Offspring

    Journal: Environmental Health Perspectives

    doi: 10.1289/EHP1674

    IL6, MCP1 levels in ( A–B ) F1 and ( C–D ) F2 adult male offspring. Note: IL6, interleukin 6; MCPm: monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Cytokine levels for each sample were normalized to total protein concentration. Data are individual litter data (one animal per litter) with mean superimposed. Data were analyzed by Dunnett’s test performed on log-transformed data, where required (F1 IL6, MCP1; F2 IL6).  p -Values are relative to Control.
    Figure Legend Snippet: IL6, MCP1 levels in ( A–B ) F1 and ( C–D ) F2 adult male offspring. Note: IL6, interleukin 6; MCPm: monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Cytokine levels for each sample were normalized to total protein concentration. Data are individual litter data (one animal per litter) with mean superimposed. Data were analyzed by Dunnett’s test performed on log-transformed data, where required (F1 IL6, MCP1; F2 IL6). p -Values are relative to Control.

    Techniques Used: Protein Concentration, Transformation Assay

    39) Product Images from "Virus-Like Particles Are a Superior Platform for Presenting M2e Epitopes to Prime Humoral and Cellular Immunity against Influenza Virus"

    Article Title: Virus-Like Particles Are a Superior Platform for Presenting M2e Epitopes to Prime Humoral and Cellular Immunity against Influenza Virus

    Journal: Vaccines

    doi: 10.3390/vaccines6040066

    VLP is superior to protein in priming acute innate immune responses in vivo at the injection site. Balb/c mice ( n = 3) were i.p. injected with 200 μL of PBS, 10 μg 5xM2e VLP, or 25 μg 5xM2e protein. The levels of cytokine and chemokine were determined in sera and peritoneal exudates collected at the indicated times. The levels of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ) and chemokines (MCP-1, RANTES) in serum ( a ) and Peritoneal exudates ( b ). ( c – j ) Different phenotypic innate immune cells were determined in the cells collected from peritoneal exudates at 24 h post injection using flow cytometry. PRO: 5xM2e proteins, VLP: 5xM2e VLP. The statistical significance was confirmed by one-way ANOVA and Dunnett’s multiple comparison test. Error bars indicate the means ± SEM of concentrations from individual animals. *; p
    Figure Legend Snippet: VLP is superior to protein in priming acute innate immune responses in vivo at the injection site. Balb/c mice ( n = 3) were i.p. injected with 200 μL of PBS, 10 μg 5xM2e VLP, or 25 μg 5xM2e protein. The levels of cytokine and chemokine were determined in sera and peritoneal exudates collected at the indicated times. The levels of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ) and chemokines (MCP-1, RANTES) in serum ( a ) and Peritoneal exudates ( b ). ( c – j ) Different phenotypic innate immune cells were determined in the cells collected from peritoneal exudates at 24 h post injection using flow cytometry. PRO: 5xM2e proteins, VLP: 5xM2e VLP. The statistical significance was confirmed by one-way ANOVA and Dunnett’s multiple comparison test. Error bars indicate the means ± SEM of concentrations from individual animals. *; p

    Techniques Used: In Vivo, Injection, Mouse Assay, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry

    VLP effectively stimulates BMDCs in vitro to secrete cytokines. BMDCs were stimulated with M2e5x, M1 VLP, or protein (0.3, 1, 5 μg/mL) for 24 h. ( a – c ) The levels of cytokines ( a ) TNF-α, ( b ) IL-6, ( c ) IFN-γ were determined in the culture supernatants by ELISA assay. Un: Medium only, P: proteins, V: VLP. The statistical significance was confirmed by one-way ANOVA and Dunnett’s multiple comparison test. Error bars indicate the means ± SEM of concentrations from individual animals. *; p
    Figure Legend Snippet: VLP effectively stimulates BMDCs in vitro to secrete cytokines. BMDCs were stimulated with M2e5x, M1 VLP, or protein (0.3, 1, 5 μg/mL) for 24 h. ( a – c ) The levels of cytokines ( a ) TNF-α, ( b ) IL-6, ( c ) IFN-γ were determined in the culture supernatants by ELISA assay. Un: Medium only, P: proteins, V: VLP. The statistical significance was confirmed by one-way ANOVA and Dunnett’s multiple comparison test. Error bars indicate the means ± SEM of concentrations from individual animals. *; p

    Techniques Used: In Vitro, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    40) Product Images from "STAT1-deficient Mice are Resistant to CLP-induced Septic Shock"

    Article Title: STAT1-deficient Mice are Resistant to CLP-induced Septic Shock

    Journal: Shock (Augusta, Ga.)

    doi: 10.1097/SHK.0b013e318265a2ab

    Plasma and peritoneal lavage IL-6 and MIP-2 concentrations in control and TYK2-deficient mice. C57BL/10SnJ (control) and B10.D1-H2q/SgJ (TYK2-defiicent) mice were resuscitated with lactated Ringer’s plus Primaxin (25 mg/kg) immediately after CLP.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Plasma and peritoneal lavage IL-6 and MIP-2 concentrations in control and TYK2-deficient mice. C57BL/10SnJ (control) and B10.D1-H2q/SgJ (TYK2-defiicent) mice were resuscitated with lactated Ringer’s plus Primaxin (25 mg/kg) immediately after CLP.

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

    Plasma and peritoneal lavage IL-6, MIP-2, CXCL10 and IFNα concentrations in wild type and STAT1 knockout (STAT1KO) mice at 18 hours after CLP. Mice were resuscitated with lactated Ringer’s solution alone (-Primaxin) or with lactated Ringer’s
    Figure Legend Snippet: Plasma and peritoneal lavage IL-6, MIP-2, CXCL10 and IFNα concentrations in wild type and STAT1 knockout (STAT1KO) mice at 18 hours after CLP. Mice were resuscitated with lactated Ringer’s solution alone (-Primaxin) or with lactated Ringer’s

    Techniques Used: Knock-Out, Mouse Assay

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    Article Snippet: .. Measurement of Secreted Interleukin-6 and Prostacyclin Metabolite 6-Keto PGF1α IL-6 from cell culture supernatants was measured and analyzed by human IL-6 ELISA from BioSource International (Camarillo, California, USA) according to manufacturer's instructions. .. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) 6-keto PGF1α (Cayman diagnostica, Michigan, USA) was used to measure the concentration of nonenzymatically converted metabolite of prostacyclin or PGI2 in cell culture supernatants with competitive EIA according to the instructions of the manufacturer.

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    Concentration Assay:

    Article Title: Hepatoprotective Effect of Ugonin M, A Helminthostachyszeylanica Constituent, on Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice
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    Recombinant:

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    Cell Culture:

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    Sandwich ELISA:

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    Thermo Fisher gene exp il6 hs00174131 m1
    Canagliflozin suppresses IL-1β-stimulated MCP-1 and <t>IL-6</t> mRNA expression, without altering cell surface adhesion molecule levels in HAECs. HAECs were stimulated with ( a , b ) IL-1β (10ng/ml) for 6 h or ( c , d , e ) IL-1β (5 ng/ml) for 4 h following preincubation in the presence or absence of A769662 (30 min, 100 μmol/l) or canagliflozin (15 min, 10 μmol/l). ( a ) MCP-1 or ( b ) IL-6 mRNA levels were analysed by qPCR and cell surface levels of ( c ) E-selectin, ( d ) ICAM-1 or ( e ) VCAM-1 were assessed by flow cytometry. Data shown represents (a, b) % IL-1β-stimulated mRNA expression normalised to TBP from four independent experiments or ( c , d , e ) % positively stained HAECs from three independent experiments. ***p
    Gene Exp Il6 Hs00174131 M1, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 69 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    corning life sciences il 6 elisa
    6-TG inhibits PLpro-enhanced extracellular ISG15 signaling and production of <t>IL-6</t> from PBMCs. A. HEK293T cells were transfected and treated with 6-TG, as indicated. Total cell lysates were prepared and cell culture supernatants were collected 48 hours post-transfection. The upper panel shows a FLAG-ISG15 immunoblot analysis of cell lysates and the lower panel shows a FLAG-ISG15 immunoblot of an anti-FLAG immunoprecipitation of the cell culture supernatants. B. HEK293T cells were plated in the lower chamber of a transwell plate and transfected with plasmids expressing FLAG-ISG15, the ISG15 E1/E2/E3 enzymes, and PLpro, as indicated. 6-TG (0.5 µM) was added to the cells at the time of transfection. PMBCs were added to the upper chamber of the transwell plate; supernatants were collected from the upper chamber 24 hours post-transfection and assayed for IL-6 by <t>ELISA.</t> Significance was assessed by ordinary one-way ANOVA comparison to treatment with 6-TG alone. Asterisks indicate p-values: ****
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    Thermo Fisher malondialdehyde secretion
    Effects of capric acid treatment on cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative stress in IPEC-J2 cells. ( a ) Glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulphide (GSSG) concentrations were analysed. ( b ) Intracellular H 2 O 2 levels were measured. Fluorescence was measured by the Amplex Red method. ( c ) the <t>malondialdehyde</t> (MDA) level was measured by ELISA. Error bars indicate the standard error of the mean ( n = 3). A p-value of
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    Canagliflozin suppresses IL-1β-stimulated MCP-1 and IL-6 mRNA expression, without altering cell surface adhesion molecule levels in HAECs. HAECs were stimulated with ( a , b ) IL-1β (10ng/ml) for 6 h or ( c , d , e ) IL-1β (5 ng/ml) for 4 h following preincubation in the presence or absence of A769662 (30 min, 100 μmol/l) or canagliflozin (15 min, 10 μmol/l). ( a ) MCP-1 or ( b ) IL-6 mRNA levels were analysed by qPCR and cell surface levels of ( c ) E-selectin, ( d ) ICAM-1 or ( e ) VCAM-1 were assessed by flow cytometry. Data shown represents (a, b) % IL-1β-stimulated mRNA expression normalised to TBP from four independent experiments or ( c , d , e ) % positively stained HAECs from three independent experiments. ***p

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Canagliflozin inhibits interleukin-1β-stimulated cytokine and chemokine secretion in vascular endothelial cells by AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent and -independent mechanisms

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-23420-4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Canagliflozin suppresses IL-1β-stimulated MCP-1 and IL-6 mRNA expression, without altering cell surface adhesion molecule levels in HAECs. HAECs were stimulated with ( a , b ) IL-1β (10ng/ml) for 6 h or ( c , d , e ) IL-1β (5 ng/ml) for 4 h following preincubation in the presence or absence of A769662 (30 min, 100 μmol/l) or canagliflozin (15 min, 10 μmol/l). ( a ) MCP-1 or ( b ) IL-6 mRNA levels were analysed by qPCR and cell surface levels of ( c ) E-selectin, ( d ) ICAM-1 or ( e ) VCAM-1 were assessed by flow cytometry. Data shown represents (a, b) % IL-1β-stimulated mRNA expression normalised to TBP from four independent experiments or ( c , d , e ) % positively stained HAECs from three independent experiments. ***p

    Article Snippet: Gene expression was normalized to TATA binding protein (TBP) using QPCR master mix (Applied Biosystems) and the following TaqMan® Gene Expression Assays (Applied Biosystems): TBP (Hs00427620_m1), SLC5A1 (SGLT1, Hs01573793_m1), SLC5A2 (SGLT2, Hs00894642_m1), IL6 (Hs00174131_m1) and CCL2 (MCP-1, Hs00234140_m1).

    Techniques: Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Staining

    Canagliflozin inhibits IL-1β-stimulated MCP-1 and IL-6 secretion in human endothelial cells. ( a , c ) HUVECs were stimulated with IL-1β (10 ng/ml) for ( a ) 6 h or ( c ) 24 h following preincubation in the presence or absence of canagliflozin (10 μmol/l, 15 min), dapagliflozin (1 μmol/l, 15 min), empagliflozin (1 μmol/l, 15 min) or A769662 (100 μmol/l, 30 min) and conditioned medium collected. ( b ) HAECs were infected with 100 pfu/cell Ad.null or Ad.AMPK-DN for 24 h and preincubated in the presence or absence of canagliflozin (10 μmol/l, 15 min) or A769662 (100 μmol/l, 30 min) prior to stimulation with IL-1β (10 ng/ml) for 6 h and conditioned medium collected. ( a , b ) MCP-1, ( a ) IL-6 or ( c ) endothelin-1 levels were assayed in conditioned medium by ELISA. Data shown represents the % IL-1β-stimulated MCP-1, IL-6 or endothelin-1 secretion from ( a , c ) three ( b ) four (Ad.null) or five (Ad.AMPK-DN) independent experiments. *p

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Canagliflozin inhibits interleukin-1β-stimulated cytokine and chemokine secretion in vascular endothelial cells by AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent and -independent mechanisms

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-23420-4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Canagliflozin inhibits IL-1β-stimulated MCP-1 and IL-6 secretion in human endothelial cells. ( a , c ) HUVECs were stimulated with IL-1β (10 ng/ml) for ( a ) 6 h or ( c ) 24 h following preincubation in the presence or absence of canagliflozin (10 μmol/l, 15 min), dapagliflozin (1 μmol/l, 15 min), empagliflozin (1 μmol/l, 15 min) or A769662 (100 μmol/l, 30 min) and conditioned medium collected. ( b ) HAECs were infected with 100 pfu/cell Ad.null or Ad.AMPK-DN for 24 h and preincubated in the presence or absence of canagliflozin (10 μmol/l, 15 min) or A769662 (100 μmol/l, 30 min) prior to stimulation with IL-1β (10 ng/ml) for 6 h and conditioned medium collected. ( a , b ) MCP-1, ( a ) IL-6 or ( c ) endothelin-1 levels were assayed in conditioned medium by ELISA. Data shown represents the % IL-1β-stimulated MCP-1, IL-6 or endothelin-1 secretion from ( a , c ) three ( b ) four (Ad.null) or five (Ad.AMPK-DN) independent experiments. *p

    Article Snippet: Gene expression was normalized to TATA binding protein (TBP) using QPCR master mix (Applied Biosystems) and the following TaqMan® Gene Expression Assays (Applied Biosystems): TBP (Hs00427620_m1), SLC5A1 (SGLT1, Hs01573793_m1), SLC5A2 (SGLT2, Hs00894642_m1), IL6 (Hs00174131_m1) and CCL2 (MCP-1, Hs00234140_m1).

    Techniques: Infection, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    IL-22BP protein and mRNA levels in monocyte-derived DCs. (A) (Upper left) Diagram showing exons with the primer-binding positions for IL22RA2 variant discrimination strategy. (Lower left) Expression of IL22RA2v1, v2 , and v3 in moDC after 6 days of culture in differentiation medium (DM) ± AM580, a retinoic acid receptor agonist, by RT-PCR. IL22RA2v2 expression vector was used as positive control for IL22RA2v2 expression. (Upper right) Expression of IL22RA2 variants in moDC following 6 days of culture in DM ± AM580 by RT-qPCR using the isoform-specific primers indicated in the left diagram (mean ± SEM; n = 3) relative to the housekeeping gene GAPDH . (B) Effect of different maturation stimuli (CpG and LPS + IFN-γ or Poly I:C) on IL22RA2, IL12B , and IL6 expression in moDC after 6 days of culture in DM by RT-qPCR using Taqman probes relative to the housekeeping gene ACTB . Extent of maturation is represented as percentage of CD83 + fluorescence by flow cytometry. Data showing representative experiment of 3 performed. (C) IL-22BP secretion by moDC cultured in DM detected by ELISA corresponds to IL22RA2 mRNA expression levels analyzed by RT-qPCR using Taqman probes and both increase over the cultivation period (mean ± SEM, n = 2). (D) Cell lysates (CL) of moDCs and conditioned media (CM) were harvested after 6 days in DM ± AM580 and immunoblotted for detection of IL-22BP (IL-22BP antibody 1) using tubulin as a loading control, IL22RA2 mRNA expression relative to the mean of the housekeeping genes GAPDH and ACTB .

    Journal: Frontiers in Immunology

    Article Title: Long Interleukin-22 Binding Protein Isoform-1 Is an Intracellular Activator of the Unfolded Protein Response

    doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.02934

    Figure Lengend Snippet: IL-22BP protein and mRNA levels in monocyte-derived DCs. (A) (Upper left) Diagram showing exons with the primer-binding positions for IL22RA2 variant discrimination strategy. (Lower left) Expression of IL22RA2v1, v2 , and v3 in moDC after 6 days of culture in differentiation medium (DM) ± AM580, a retinoic acid receptor agonist, by RT-PCR. IL22RA2v2 expression vector was used as positive control for IL22RA2v2 expression. (Upper right) Expression of IL22RA2 variants in moDC following 6 days of culture in DM ± AM580 by RT-qPCR using the isoform-specific primers indicated in the left diagram (mean ± SEM; n = 3) relative to the housekeeping gene GAPDH . (B) Effect of different maturation stimuli (CpG and LPS + IFN-γ or Poly I:C) on IL22RA2, IL12B , and IL6 expression in moDC after 6 days of culture in DM by RT-qPCR using Taqman probes relative to the housekeeping gene ACTB . Extent of maturation is represented as percentage of CD83 + fluorescence by flow cytometry. Data showing representative experiment of 3 performed. (C) IL-22BP secretion by moDC cultured in DM detected by ELISA corresponds to IL22RA2 mRNA expression levels analyzed by RT-qPCR using Taqman probes and both increase over the cultivation period (mean ± SEM, n = 2). (D) Cell lysates (CL) of moDCs and conditioned media (CM) were harvested after 6 days in DM ± AM580 and immunoblotted for detection of IL-22BP (IL-22BP antibody 1) using tubulin as a loading control, IL22RA2 mRNA expression relative to the mean of the housekeeping genes GAPDH and ACTB .

    Article Snippet: Predesigned TaqMan assays for IL22RA2 (Hs00364814_m1), IL12B (Hs01011519_m1), IL6 (Hs00174131_m1) and ACTB (Hs99999903_m1) were from Thermo Fisher Scientific.

    Techniques: Derivative Assay, Binding Assay, Variant Assay, Expressing, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Plasmid Preparation, Positive Control, Quantitative RT-PCR, Fluorescence, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Cell Culture, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    6-TG inhibits PLpro-enhanced extracellular ISG15 signaling and production of IL-6 from PBMCs. A. HEK293T cells were transfected and treated with 6-TG, as indicated. Total cell lysates were prepared and cell culture supernatants were collected 48 hours post-transfection. The upper panel shows a FLAG-ISG15 immunoblot analysis of cell lysates and the lower panel shows a FLAG-ISG15 immunoblot of an anti-FLAG immunoprecipitation of the cell culture supernatants. B. HEK293T cells were plated in the lower chamber of a transwell plate and transfected with plasmids expressing FLAG-ISG15, the ISG15 E1/E2/E3 enzymes, and PLpro, as indicated. 6-TG (0.5 µM) was added to the cells at the time of transfection. PMBCs were added to the upper chamber of the transwell plate; supernatants were collected from the upper chamber 24 hours post-transfection and assayed for IL-6 by ELISA. Significance was assessed by ordinary one-way ANOVA comparison to treatment with 6-TG alone. Asterisks indicate p-values: ****

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: 6-Thioguanine blocks SARS-CoV-2 replication by inhibition of PLpro protease activities

    doi: 10.1101/2020.07.01.183020

    Figure Lengend Snippet: 6-TG inhibits PLpro-enhanced extracellular ISG15 signaling and production of IL-6 from PBMCs. A. HEK293T cells were transfected and treated with 6-TG, as indicated. Total cell lysates were prepared and cell culture supernatants were collected 48 hours post-transfection. The upper panel shows a FLAG-ISG15 immunoblot analysis of cell lysates and the lower panel shows a FLAG-ISG15 immunoblot of an anti-FLAG immunoprecipitation of the cell culture supernatants. B. HEK293T cells were plated in the lower chamber of a transwell plate and transfected with plasmids expressing FLAG-ISG15, the ISG15 E1/E2/E3 enzymes, and PLpro, as indicated. 6-TG (0.5 µM) was added to the cells at the time of transfection. PMBCs were added to the upper chamber of the transwell plate; supernatants were collected from the upper chamber 24 hours post-transfection and assayed for IL-6 by ELISA. Significance was assessed by ordinary one-way ANOVA comparison to treatment with 6-TG alone. Asterisks indicate p-values: ****

    Article Snippet: Cell culture supernatants were collected from the upper transwell chamber and assayed for IL-6 production by IL-6 ELISA according to the manufacturer’s protocol. (Thermo Scientific).

    Techniques: Transfection, Cell Culture, Immunoprecipitation, Expressing, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Effects of capric acid treatment on cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative stress in IPEC-J2 cells. ( a ) Glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulphide (GSSG) concentrations were analysed. ( b ) Intracellular H 2 O 2 levels were measured. Fluorescence was measured by the Amplex Red method. ( c ) the malondialdehyde (MDA) level was measured by ELISA. Error bars indicate the standard error of the mean ( n = 3). A p-value of

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Function of capric acid in cyclophosphamide-induced intestinal inflammation, oxidative stress, and barrier function in pigs

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-16561-5

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of capric acid treatment on cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative stress in IPEC-J2 cells. ( a ) Glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulphide (GSSG) concentrations were analysed. ( b ) Intracellular H 2 O 2 levels were measured. Fluorescence was measured by the Amplex Red method. ( c ) the malondialdehyde (MDA) level was measured by ELISA. Error bars indicate the standard error of the mean ( n = 3). A p-value of

    Article Snippet: The levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and malondialdehyde secretion were determined using Porcine-specific Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Kits (Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

    Techniques: Fluorescence, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay