hmgb1  (Chondrex inc)


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    Structured Review

    Chondrex inc hmgb1
    <t>HMGB1,</t> RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.
    Hmgb1, supplied by Chondrex inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 40 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/hmgb1/product/Chondrex inc
    Average 86 stars, based on 40 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    hmgb1 - by Bioz Stars, 2022-08
    86/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Topical Glycyrrhizin Is Therapeutic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis"

    Article Title: Topical Glycyrrhizin Is Therapeutic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis

    Journal: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics

    doi: 10.1089/jop.2017.0094

    HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.
    Figure Legend Snippet: HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    2) Product Images from "Topical Glycyrrhizin Is Therapeutic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis"

    Article Title: Topical Glycyrrhizin Is Therapeutic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis

    Journal: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics

    doi: 10.1089/jop.2017.0094

    HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.
    Figure Legend Snippet: HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    3) Product Images from "Airborne Particulates Affect Corneal Homeostasis and Immunity"

    Article Title: Airborne Particulates Affect Corneal Homeostasis and Immunity

    Journal: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

    doi: 10.1167/iovs.61.4.23

    Effects of PM 2.5 on inflammatory molecules in 3D HCET cultures. RT-PCR shows significant change in mRNA expression for HMGB1 ( A ), IL-1β ( B ), and CXCL2 ( C ) after PM 2.5 exposure. Data were analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PM 2.5 on inflammatory molecules in 3D HCET cultures. RT-PCR shows significant change in mRNA expression for HMGB1 ( A ), IL-1β ( B ), and CXCL2 ( C ) after PM 2.5 exposure. Data were analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P

    Techniques Used: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Effects of PM 2.5 exposure on proinflammatory and oxidative stress molecules in MCEC. RT-PCR shows significantly increased mRNA expression only for HMGB1 ( A ), TLR2 ( B ), IL-1β ( C ), GR1 ( F ), GPX1 ( G ), GPX2 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) at 25 µg/mL PM 2.5 . All molecules ( A – I ) were significantly increased at 100 µg/mL PM 2.5 when compared with media controls. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PM 2.5 exposure on proinflammatory and oxidative stress molecules in MCEC. RT-PCR shows significantly increased mRNA expression only for HMGB1 ( A ), TLR2 ( B ), IL-1β ( C ), GR1 ( F ), GPX1 ( G ), GPX2 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) at 25 µg/mL PM 2.5 . All molecules ( A – I ) were significantly increased at 100 µg/mL PM 2.5 when compared with media controls. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P

    Techniques Used: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Effects of PM 2.5 and PA infection on inflammation and oxidative stress markers in vivo. RT-PCR showed significantly reduced mRNA expression for HMGB1 in PA infected versus uninfected groups ( A ). Increased mRNA levels for TLR2 ( B ), TLR4 ( C ), IL-1β ( D ), CXCL2 ( E ), HO1 ( F ), GPX2 ( G ), GR1 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) were observed in PA infected groups. In addition, PM 2.5 elevated mRNA levels of TLR4 ( C ) in uninfected eyes. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM. ( n = 5 per group at a time). * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PM 2.5 and PA infection on inflammation and oxidative stress markers in vivo. RT-PCR showed significantly reduced mRNA expression for HMGB1 in PA infected versus uninfected groups ( A ). Increased mRNA levels for TLR2 ( B ), TLR4 ( C ), IL-1β ( D ), CXCL2 ( E ), HO1 ( F ), GPX2 ( G ), GR1 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) were observed in PA infected groups. In addition, PM 2.5 elevated mRNA levels of TLR4 ( C ) in uninfected eyes. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM. ( n = 5 per group at a time). * P

    Techniques Used: Infection, In Vivo, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Protein levels of proinflammatory markers—HMGB1 ( A ) and TLR4 ( B , C )—and oxidative stress marker—GR1 ( D ) in vivo. ELISA showed significantly Increased HMGB1 levels ( A ) in PM 2.5 +PA versus PBS+PA. No difference was seen in uninfected normal ( N ) versus PM 2.5 exposed corneas. Western blot analysis shows increased TLR4 levels (not significantly different) in PBS+PA and PM 2.5 +PA exposed groups. ELISA showed protein levels of GR1 ( D ) were unchanged across groups. Data was analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM ( n = 5 per time). * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Protein levels of proinflammatory markers—HMGB1 ( A ) and TLR4 ( B , C )—and oxidative stress marker—GR1 ( D ) in vivo. ELISA showed significantly Increased HMGB1 levels ( A ) in PM 2.5 +PA versus PBS+PA. No difference was seen in uninfected normal ( N ) versus PM 2.5 exposed corneas. Western blot analysis shows increased TLR4 levels (not significantly different) in PBS+PA and PM 2.5 +PA exposed groups. ELISA showed protein levels of GR1 ( D ) were unchanged across groups. Data was analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM ( n = 5 per time). * P

    Techniques Used: Marker, In Vivo, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Western Blot

    4) Product Images from "Topical Glycyrrhizin Is Therapeutic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis"

    Article Title: Topical Glycyrrhizin Is Therapeutic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis

    Journal: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics

    doi: 10.1089/jop.2017.0094

    HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.
    Figure Legend Snippet: HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    5) Product Images from "Topical Glycyrrhizin Is Therapeutic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis"

    Article Title: Topical Glycyrrhizin Is Therapeutic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis

    Journal: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics

    doi: 10.1089/jop.2017.0094

    HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.
    Figure Legend Snippet: HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    6) Product Images from "HMGB1 amplifies ILC2-induced type-2 inflammation and airway smooth muscle remodelling"

    Article Title: HMGB1 amplifies ILC2-induced type-2 inflammation and airway smooth muscle remodelling

    Journal: PLoS Pathogens

    doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1008651

    Anti-HMGB1 diminishes type-2 inflammation and ASM growth in neonatal IRF7 -/- mice. IRF7 -/- mice were inoculated with PVM as described in Fig 2 , and treated with anti-HMGB1 or anti-IL-33 as described in S3 Fig . (a) HMGB1 and (b) IL-33 protein expression in BALF. (c) ILC2 numbers in lung. (d) IL-13 protein expression in BALF. (e) ASM area. (f) TGF-β1 expression by ASM cells. Data are representative of n = 2 experiments with 4–8 mice in each group and are presented as box-and-whisker plots showing quartiles (boxes) and range (whiskers). Data were analysed by t-test; *, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Anti-HMGB1 diminishes type-2 inflammation and ASM growth in neonatal IRF7 -/- mice. IRF7 -/- mice were inoculated with PVM as described in Fig 2 , and treated with anti-HMGB1 or anti-IL-33 as described in S3 Fig . (a) HMGB1 and (b) IL-33 protein expression in BALF. (c) ILC2 numbers in lung. (d) IL-13 protein expression in BALF. (e) ASM area. (f) TGF-β1 expression by ASM cells. Data are representative of n = 2 experiments with 4–8 mice in each group and are presented as box-and-whisker plots showing quartiles (boxes) and range (whiskers). Data were analysed by t-test; *, P

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Expressing, Whisker Assay

    IRF7 deficiency impairs antiviral immunity, heightening tissue damage and alarmin release. WT (IRF7 +/+ , closed circle) and IRF7 -/- mice (open circle) were inoculated with PVM or vehicle at postnatal day 7 and samples collected at 3, 7, 10 and 14 days post infection (dpi). (a) Quantification of PVM+ airway epithelial cells (AECs). (b) IFN-α protein expression in BALF. (c) Ly6G+ neutrophils in lung sections. (d) Oedema. (e) AEC sloughing as a proportion of basement membrane (BM) length. (f) IL-33 and (g) HMGB1 protein expression in BALF. (h) Representative micrograph (x1000 magnification) of HMGB1immunoreactivity at 7 dpi (left panel) and quantification of cytoplasmic HMGB1 in AECs (right panel). Bars, 5 μm. (i) Electrophoretic mobility of lung homogenate loaded onto a 12% SDS-PA gel, and revealed by western blotting using polyclonal antibody against HMGB1 in PVM-infected WT (+/+) and IRF7 -/- (-/-) mice at 10 dpi (top). Quantification of band intensity (bottom). Data are representative of n = 2 experiments with 4–8 mice in each group and are presented as mean ± SEM (a-g) or scatter plot (i). Data were analysed by Two-way ANOVA with Tukey post hoc test (a-g) or T-test (i); *, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: IRF7 deficiency impairs antiviral immunity, heightening tissue damage and alarmin release. WT (IRF7 +/+ , closed circle) and IRF7 -/- mice (open circle) were inoculated with PVM or vehicle at postnatal day 7 and samples collected at 3, 7, 10 and 14 days post infection (dpi). (a) Quantification of PVM+ airway epithelial cells (AECs). (b) IFN-α protein expression in BALF. (c) Ly6G+ neutrophils in lung sections. (d) Oedema. (e) AEC sloughing as a proportion of basement membrane (BM) length. (f) IL-33 and (g) HMGB1 protein expression in BALF. (h) Representative micrograph (x1000 magnification) of HMGB1immunoreactivity at 7 dpi (left panel) and quantification of cytoplasmic HMGB1 in AECs (right panel). Bars, 5 μm. (i) Electrophoretic mobility of lung homogenate loaded onto a 12% SDS-PA gel, and revealed by western blotting using polyclonal antibody against HMGB1 in PVM-infected WT (+/+) and IRF7 -/- (-/-) mice at 10 dpi (top). Quantification of band intensity (bottom). Data are representative of n = 2 experiments with 4–8 mice in each group and are presented as mean ± SEM (a-g) or scatter plot (i). Data were analysed by Two-way ANOVA with Tukey post hoc test (a-g) or T-test (i); *, P

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Infection, Expressing, Western Blot

    Activated ILC2s induce ASM proliferation in vitro in an HMGB1-dependent manner. (a-b) Primary ASM cells were isolated from naïve WT neonatal mice and cultured with ILC2s (purified from the lungs of IRF7 -/- mice at 10 dpi) in the presence of various stimuli as indicated. (a) ASM proliferation (indicated by decreasing median fluorescence intensity (MFI)), IL-13, active TGFβ and HMGB1 concentration in the culture supernatant. * Compared to ASM cells cultured in the absence of ILC2s or cytokine stimulation. (b) ASM proliferation in response to IL-13 (3 ng/ml), disulphide HMGB1 (30 ng/ml), or a non-oxidisable mutant HMGB1 (30 ng/ml). * Compared to IL-13-stimulated ASM cells with disulphide-HMGB1-stimulated ASM cells or disulphide-HMGB1-stimulated ASM cells with non-oxidisable mutant HMGB1-stimulated ASM cells as indicated. (c) HMGB1 protein expression in the supernatant of ASM cells cultured in the presence of IL-33 or IL-13 as indicated. (d) Representative micrograph (x1000 magnification) of HMGB1 immunoreactivity (red) in the lung at 10 dpi, arrows indicate expression by ASM cells. Bar, 5 μm. Quantification of HMGB1 expression by ASM cells. For panel a-d, data are representative of one experiment, performed twice with similar results. For panel e, data are representative of n = 2 experiments with four to eight neonates in each group. Data are presented as box-and-whisker plots showing quartiles (boxes) and range (whiskers; a-d) or as mean ± SEM (e [right]). Data were analysed by One-way ANOVA with Dunnett post hoc test (a-d) or Two-way ANOVA with Tukey post hoc test (e ([right]; *, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Activated ILC2s induce ASM proliferation in vitro in an HMGB1-dependent manner. (a-b) Primary ASM cells were isolated from naïve WT neonatal mice and cultured with ILC2s (purified from the lungs of IRF7 -/- mice at 10 dpi) in the presence of various stimuli as indicated. (a) ASM proliferation (indicated by decreasing median fluorescence intensity (MFI)), IL-13, active TGFβ and HMGB1 concentration in the culture supernatant. * Compared to ASM cells cultured in the absence of ILC2s or cytokine stimulation. (b) ASM proliferation in response to IL-13 (3 ng/ml), disulphide HMGB1 (30 ng/ml), or a non-oxidisable mutant HMGB1 (30 ng/ml). * Compared to IL-13-stimulated ASM cells with disulphide-HMGB1-stimulated ASM cells or disulphide-HMGB1-stimulated ASM cells with non-oxidisable mutant HMGB1-stimulated ASM cells as indicated. (c) HMGB1 protein expression in the supernatant of ASM cells cultured in the presence of IL-33 or IL-13 as indicated. (d) Representative micrograph (x1000 magnification) of HMGB1 immunoreactivity (red) in the lung at 10 dpi, arrows indicate expression by ASM cells. Bar, 5 μm. Quantification of HMGB1 expression by ASM cells. For panel a-d, data are representative of one experiment, performed twice with similar results. For panel e, data are representative of n = 2 experiments with four to eight neonates in each group. Data are presented as box-and-whisker plots showing quartiles (boxes) and range (whiskers; a-d) or as mean ± SEM (e [right]). Data were analysed by One-way ANOVA with Dunnett post hoc test (a-d) or Two-way ANOVA with Tukey post hoc test (e ([right]; *, P

    Techniques Used: In Vitro, Isolation, Mouse Assay, Cell Culture, Purification, Fluorescence, Concentration Assay, Mutagenesis, Expressing, Whisker Assay

    HMGB1/RAGE axis amplifies ILC2 type-2 cytokine production and contributes to ASM growth in vivo . (a [left]) Lung ILC2s were purified from IRF7 -/- mice at 10 dpi and cultured with IL-2 for 4 days. Representative micrograph (x1000 magnification) of HMGB1 expression (red) in IL-33 stimulated ILC2s. Bar, 5 μm. (a [right]) HMGB1 levels in the culture supernatant after a 4 day culture +/- IL-33 (3 ng/ml) and +/- sIL-13Rα2 (5 μg/ml) as indicated. (b) IL-13 and HMGB1 protein expression by ILC2s. (c) RAGE expression detected by flow cytometry in lung ILC2s. (d) IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13 protein expression by lung ILC2s purified from IRF7 -/- mice cultured in IL-2 +/- difulphide-HMGB1 (30 ng/ml) or non-oxidisable mutant HMGB1 (30 ng/ml) as indicated. * Compared to IL-2-stimulated ILC2s. (e) Lung ILC2s purified from 4C13R IRF7 -/- mice were cultured in IL-2 +/- IL-33, and treated with anti-HMGB1 (Clone 2G7, 5 μg/ml), TLR4 antagonist (LPS-RS 1 μg/ml) and RAGE antagonist (FPS-ZMI; 300 nM) as indicated. DsRed (IL-13) intensity was quantified by flow cytometry. * Compared to IL-2/IL-33-stimulated ILC2s. (f) IL-5 and IL-9 production by ILC2s, treated as described in panel e. (g-m) IRF7 -/- mice were inoculated with PVM as described in Fig 2 , and treated daily from 3–10 dpi with a RAGE antagonist (FPS-ZM1). (g) IL-33 and (h) HMGB1 protein expression in BALF. (i) Lung ILC2s, (j) IL-5 protein in BALF, (k) Eosinophils in BALF, (l) ASM area, and (m) Quantification of TGF-β1 expression by ASM cells. For panel a-f, data are representative of one experiment, performed twice with similar results. For panel g-m, data are representative of n = 2 experiments with 4–9 mice in each group and are presented as box-and-whisker plots showing quartiles (boxes) and range (whiskers; a [right], d, g-m) or as mean ± SEM (b) or as scatter plot (e [right]-f). Data were analysed by One-way ANOVA with Dunnett post hoc test (a, d, e [right]-f) or T-test (g-m); *, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: HMGB1/RAGE axis amplifies ILC2 type-2 cytokine production and contributes to ASM growth in vivo . (a [left]) Lung ILC2s were purified from IRF7 -/- mice at 10 dpi and cultured with IL-2 for 4 days. Representative micrograph (x1000 magnification) of HMGB1 expression (red) in IL-33 stimulated ILC2s. Bar, 5 μm. (a [right]) HMGB1 levels in the culture supernatant after a 4 day culture +/- IL-33 (3 ng/ml) and +/- sIL-13Rα2 (5 μg/ml) as indicated. (b) IL-13 and HMGB1 protein expression by ILC2s. (c) RAGE expression detected by flow cytometry in lung ILC2s. (d) IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13 protein expression by lung ILC2s purified from IRF7 -/- mice cultured in IL-2 +/- difulphide-HMGB1 (30 ng/ml) or non-oxidisable mutant HMGB1 (30 ng/ml) as indicated. * Compared to IL-2-stimulated ILC2s. (e) Lung ILC2s purified from 4C13R IRF7 -/- mice were cultured in IL-2 +/- IL-33, and treated with anti-HMGB1 (Clone 2G7, 5 μg/ml), TLR4 antagonist (LPS-RS 1 μg/ml) and RAGE antagonist (FPS-ZMI; 300 nM) as indicated. DsRed (IL-13) intensity was quantified by flow cytometry. * Compared to IL-2/IL-33-stimulated ILC2s. (f) IL-5 and IL-9 production by ILC2s, treated as described in panel e. (g-m) IRF7 -/- mice were inoculated with PVM as described in Fig 2 , and treated daily from 3–10 dpi with a RAGE antagonist (FPS-ZM1). (g) IL-33 and (h) HMGB1 protein expression in BALF. (i) Lung ILC2s, (j) IL-5 protein in BALF, (k) Eosinophils in BALF, (l) ASM area, and (m) Quantification of TGF-β1 expression by ASM cells. For panel a-f, data are representative of one experiment, performed twice with similar results. For panel g-m, data are representative of n = 2 experiments with 4–9 mice in each group and are presented as box-and-whisker plots showing quartiles (boxes) and range (whiskers; a [right], d, g-m) or as mean ± SEM (b) or as scatter plot (e [right]-f). Data were analysed by One-way ANOVA with Dunnett post hoc test (a, d, e [right]-f) or T-test (g-m); *, P

    Techniques Used: In Vivo, Purification, Mouse Assay, Cell Culture, Expressing, Flow Cytometry, Mutagenesis, Whisker Assay

    Secondary Pneumovirus infection promotes an asthma-like pathology in IRF7-deficienct mice. WT (IRF7 +/+ ) and IRF7 -/- mice were inoculated with PVM at postnatal day 7 and re-infected 6 weeks later. Samples were collected prior to re-infection (t = 0) and at 3, 7 and 21 dpi. (a) Representative micrograph (x400 magnification) of α-smooth muscle actin immunoreactivity (red) in the lung at 7 dpi and ASM area quantification. Bars, 20 μm. (b) AHR at 30 mg/ml of methacholine. (c) IL-13 protein levels in BALF. (d) Total eosinophil numbers in BALF. (e) Mucus-producing airway epithelial cells (AECs). (f) IL-33 (left) and HMGB1 (right) protein expression in BALF at 3 dpi. Data are representative of n = 2 experiments with 4–9 mice in each group and are presented as mean ± SEM (a ([right], b—e) or as box-and-whisker plots showing quartiles (boxes) and range (whiskers; f). Data were analyzed by Two-way ANOVA with Tukey post hoc test (a ([right], b—e) or One-way ANOVA with Dunnett post hoc test (f); *, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Secondary Pneumovirus infection promotes an asthma-like pathology in IRF7-deficienct mice. WT (IRF7 +/+ ) and IRF7 -/- mice were inoculated with PVM at postnatal day 7 and re-infected 6 weeks later. Samples were collected prior to re-infection (t = 0) and at 3, 7 and 21 dpi. (a) Representative micrograph (x400 magnification) of α-smooth muscle actin immunoreactivity (red) in the lung at 7 dpi and ASM area quantification. Bars, 20 μm. (b) AHR at 30 mg/ml of methacholine. (c) IL-13 protein levels in BALF. (d) Total eosinophil numbers in BALF. (e) Mucus-producing airway epithelial cells (AECs). (f) IL-33 (left) and HMGB1 (right) protein expression in BALF at 3 dpi. Data are representative of n = 2 experiments with 4–9 mice in each group and are presented as mean ± SEM (a ([right], b—e) or as box-and-whisker plots showing quartiles (boxes) and range (whiskers; f). Data were analyzed by Two-way ANOVA with Tukey post hoc test (a ([right], b—e) or One-way ANOVA with Dunnett post hoc test (f); *, P

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay, Expressing, Whisker Assay

    7) Product Images from "Topical Glycyrrhizin Is Therapeutic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis"

    Article Title: Topical Glycyrrhizin Is Therapeutic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis

    Journal: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics

    doi: 10.1089/jop.2017.0094

    HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.
    Figure Legend Snippet: HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    8) Product Images from "Airborne Particulates Affect Corneal Homeostasis and Immunity"

    Article Title: Airborne Particulates Affect Corneal Homeostasis and Immunity

    Journal: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

    doi: 10.1167/iovs.61.4.23

    Effects of PM 2.5 on inflammatory molecules in 3D HCET cultures. RT-PCR shows significant change in mRNA expression for HMGB1 ( A ), IL-1β ( B ), and CXCL2 ( C ) after PM 2.5 exposure. Data were analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PM 2.5 on inflammatory molecules in 3D HCET cultures. RT-PCR shows significant change in mRNA expression for HMGB1 ( A ), IL-1β ( B ), and CXCL2 ( C ) after PM 2.5 exposure. Data were analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P

    Techniques Used: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Effects of PM 2.5 exposure on proinflammatory and oxidative stress molecules in MCEC. RT-PCR shows significantly increased mRNA expression only for HMGB1 ( A ), TLR2 ( B ), IL-1β ( C ), GR1 ( F ), GPX1 ( G ), GPX2 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) at 25 µg/mL PM 2.5 . All molecules ( A – I ) were significantly increased at 100 µg/mL PM 2.5 when compared with media controls. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PM 2.5 exposure on proinflammatory and oxidative stress molecules in MCEC. RT-PCR shows significantly increased mRNA expression only for HMGB1 ( A ), TLR2 ( B ), IL-1β ( C ), GR1 ( F ), GPX1 ( G ), GPX2 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) at 25 µg/mL PM 2.5 . All molecules ( A – I ) were significantly increased at 100 µg/mL PM 2.5 when compared with media controls. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P

    Techniques Used: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Effects of PM 2.5 and PA infection on inflammation and oxidative stress markers in vivo. RT-PCR showed significantly reduced mRNA expression for HMGB1 in PA infected versus uninfected groups ( A ). Increased mRNA levels for TLR2 ( B ), TLR4 ( C ), IL-1β ( D ), CXCL2 ( E ), HO1 ( F ), GPX2 ( G ), GR1 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) were observed in PA infected groups. In addition, PM 2.5 elevated mRNA levels of TLR4 ( C ) in uninfected eyes. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM. ( n = 5 per group at a time). * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PM 2.5 and PA infection on inflammation and oxidative stress markers in vivo. RT-PCR showed significantly reduced mRNA expression for HMGB1 in PA infected versus uninfected groups ( A ). Increased mRNA levels for TLR2 ( B ), TLR4 ( C ), IL-1β ( D ), CXCL2 ( E ), HO1 ( F ), GPX2 ( G ), GR1 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) were observed in PA infected groups. In addition, PM 2.5 elevated mRNA levels of TLR4 ( C ) in uninfected eyes. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM. ( n = 5 per group at a time). * P

    Techniques Used: Infection, In Vivo, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Protein levels of proinflammatory markers—HMGB1 ( A ) and TLR4 ( B , C )—and oxidative stress marker—GR1 ( D ) in vivo. ELISA showed significantly Increased HMGB1 levels ( A ) in PM 2.5 +PA versus PBS+PA. No difference was seen in uninfected normal ( N ) versus PM 2.5 exposed corneas. Western blot analysis shows increased TLR4 levels (not significantly different) in PBS+PA and PM 2.5 +PA exposed groups. ELISA showed protein levels of GR1 ( D ) were unchanged across groups. Data was analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM ( n = 5 per time). * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Protein levels of proinflammatory markers—HMGB1 ( A ) and TLR4 ( B , C )—and oxidative stress marker—GR1 ( D ) in vivo. ELISA showed significantly Increased HMGB1 levels ( A ) in PM 2.5 +PA versus PBS+PA. No difference was seen in uninfected normal ( N ) versus PM 2.5 exposed corneas. Western blot analysis shows increased TLR4 levels (not significantly different) in PBS+PA and PM 2.5 +PA exposed groups. ELISA showed protein levels of GR1 ( D ) were unchanged across groups. Data was analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM ( n = 5 per time). * P

    Techniques Used: Marker, In Vivo, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Western Blot

    9) Product Images from "Topical Glycyrrhizin Is Therapeutic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis"

    Article Title: Topical Glycyrrhizin Is Therapeutic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis

    Journal: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics

    doi: 10.1089/jop.2017.0094

    HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.
    Figure Legend Snippet: HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    10) Product Images from "Airborne Particulates Affect Corneal Homeostasis and Immunity"

    Article Title: Airborne Particulates Affect Corneal Homeostasis and Immunity

    Journal: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

    doi: 10.1167/iovs.61.4.23

    Effects of PM 2.5 on inflammatory molecules in 3D HCET cultures. RT-PCR shows significant change in mRNA expression for HMGB1 ( A ), IL-1β ( B ), and CXCL2 ( C ) after PM 2.5 exposure. Data were analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PM 2.5 on inflammatory molecules in 3D HCET cultures. RT-PCR shows significant change in mRNA expression for HMGB1 ( A ), IL-1β ( B ), and CXCL2 ( C ) after PM 2.5 exposure. Data were analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P

    Techniques Used: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Effects of PM 2.5 exposure on proinflammatory and oxidative stress molecules in MCEC. RT-PCR shows significantly increased mRNA expression only for HMGB1 ( A ), TLR2 ( B ), IL-1β ( C ), GR1 ( F ), GPX1 ( G ), GPX2 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) at 25 µg/mL PM 2.5 . All molecules ( A – I ) were significantly increased at 100 µg/mL PM 2.5 when compared with media controls. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PM 2.5 exposure on proinflammatory and oxidative stress molecules in MCEC. RT-PCR shows significantly increased mRNA expression only for HMGB1 ( A ), TLR2 ( B ), IL-1β ( C ), GR1 ( F ), GPX1 ( G ), GPX2 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) at 25 µg/mL PM 2.5 . All molecules ( A – I ) were significantly increased at 100 µg/mL PM 2.5 when compared with media controls. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P

    Techniques Used: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Effects of PM 2.5 and PA infection on inflammation and oxidative stress markers in vivo. RT-PCR showed significantly reduced mRNA expression for HMGB1 in PA infected versus uninfected groups ( A ). Increased mRNA levels for TLR2 ( B ), TLR4 ( C ), IL-1β ( D ), CXCL2 ( E ), HO1 ( F ), GPX2 ( G ), GR1 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) were observed in PA infected groups. In addition, PM 2.5 elevated mRNA levels of TLR4 ( C ) in uninfected eyes. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM. ( n = 5 per group at a time). * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PM 2.5 and PA infection on inflammation and oxidative stress markers in vivo. RT-PCR showed significantly reduced mRNA expression for HMGB1 in PA infected versus uninfected groups ( A ). Increased mRNA levels for TLR2 ( B ), TLR4 ( C ), IL-1β ( D ), CXCL2 ( E ), HO1 ( F ), GPX2 ( G ), GR1 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) were observed in PA infected groups. In addition, PM 2.5 elevated mRNA levels of TLR4 ( C ) in uninfected eyes. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM. ( n = 5 per group at a time). * P

    Techniques Used: Infection, In Vivo, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Protein levels of proinflammatory markers—HMGB1 ( A ) and TLR4 ( B , C )—and oxidative stress marker—GR1 ( D ) in vivo. ELISA showed significantly Increased HMGB1 levels ( A ) in PM 2.5 +PA versus PBS+PA. No difference was seen in uninfected normal ( N ) versus PM 2.5 exposed corneas. Western blot analysis shows increased TLR4 levels (not significantly different) in PBS+PA and PM 2.5 +PA exposed groups. ELISA showed protein levels of GR1 ( D ) were unchanged across groups. Data was analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM ( n = 5 per time). * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Protein levels of proinflammatory markers—HMGB1 ( A ) and TLR4 ( B , C )—and oxidative stress marker—GR1 ( D ) in vivo. ELISA showed significantly Increased HMGB1 levels ( A ) in PM 2.5 +PA versus PBS+PA. No difference was seen in uninfected normal ( N ) versus PM 2.5 exposed corneas. Western blot analysis shows increased TLR4 levels (not significantly different) in PBS+PA and PM 2.5 +PA exposed groups. ELISA showed protein levels of GR1 ( D ) were unchanged across groups. Data was analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM ( n = 5 per time). * P

    Techniques Used: Marker, In Vivo, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Western Blot

    11) Product Images from "Topical Glycyrrhizin Is Therapeutic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis"

    Article Title: Topical Glycyrrhizin Is Therapeutic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis

    Journal: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics

    doi: 10.1089/jop.2017.0094

    HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.
    Figure Legend Snippet: HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    12) Product Images from "Topical Glycyrrhizin Is Therapeutic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis"

    Article Title: Topical Glycyrrhizin Is Therapeutic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis

    Journal: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics

    doi: 10.1089/jop.2017.0094

    HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.
    Figure Legend Snippet: HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    13) Product Images from "The Absence of Interferon-β Promotor Stimulator-1 (IPS-1) Predisposes to Bronchiolitis and Asthma-like Pathology in Response to Pneumoviral Infection in Mice"

    Article Title: The Absence of Interferon-β Promotor Stimulator-1 (IPS-1) Predisposes to Bronchiolitis and Asthma-like Pathology in Response to Pneumoviral Infection in Mice

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-02564-9

    Absence of IPS-1 predisposes towards alarmin release and type-2 inflammation during acute viral infection. ( a ) Left panel: representative micrograph (40x magnification) of HMGB1 immunostaining. Right panel: Cytoplasmic AEC expression of HMGB1. ( b ) HMGB1 protein expression in BALF. ( c ) IL-33 protein expression in BALF. ( d ) Number of ILC2s in lung at 10 dpi (gated on Lin − , CD25 + , ST2 + , CD90.2 + ). ( e ) IL-13 protein expression in BALF. ( f ) IL-5 protein expression in BALF. ( g ) Eosinophil number in BALF. Vehicle treated control mice were sacrificed on day 7 of life (i.e. 0 dpi). Experiments were performed twice with 5 to 7 mice per group. Data are mean and the standard error of the mean. * , ** , *** , ****Denotes significance between WT and IPS-1 −/− infected mice. #,##,### Denotes significance between infected and vehicle treated IPS-1 −/− mice. Detection limits are denoted by a red dotted line.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Absence of IPS-1 predisposes towards alarmin release and type-2 inflammation during acute viral infection. ( a ) Left panel: representative micrograph (40x magnification) of HMGB1 immunostaining. Right panel: Cytoplasmic AEC expression of HMGB1. ( b ) HMGB1 protein expression in BALF. ( c ) IL-33 protein expression in BALF. ( d ) Number of ILC2s in lung at 10 dpi (gated on Lin − , CD25 + , ST2 + , CD90.2 + ). ( e ) IL-13 protein expression in BALF. ( f ) IL-5 protein expression in BALF. ( g ) Eosinophil number in BALF. Vehicle treated control mice were sacrificed on day 7 of life (i.e. 0 dpi). Experiments were performed twice with 5 to 7 mice per group. Data are mean and the standard error of the mean. * , ** , *** , ****Denotes significance between WT and IPS-1 −/− infected mice. #,##,### Denotes significance between infected and vehicle treated IPS-1 −/− mice. Detection limits are denoted by a red dotted line.

    Techniques Used: Infection, Immunostaining, Expressing, Mouse Assay

    Viral challenge of IPS-1 −/− mice induces a mild Th2 phenotype. ( a ) Study design, 1 week old neonatal WT or IPS-1 −/− mice were infected with 2 pfu in early life or vehicle diluent and were reinfected with 100 pfu or vehicle diluent 6 weeks post primary infection. Mice were euthanised at 7 days post reinfection. ( b ) Eosinophil and lymphocyte numbers in BALF. ( c ) IL-5 protein expression in BALF. ( d ) IL-13 protein expression in BALF. ( e ) Left panel: representative micrograph (40x magnification) of HMGB1 immunostaining. Right panel: Cytoplasmic AEC expression of HMGB1. ( f ) HMGB1 protein expression in BALF. ( g ) IL-33 protein expression in BALF. Vehicle control mice are denoted as Veh/Veh. Experiments were performed twice with 5 to 7 mice per group. Data are mean and the standard error of the mean. * , ** , *** , ****Denotes significance between WT and IPS-1 −/− infected mice. #,##,### Denotes significance between infected and vehicle IPS-1 −/− mice. †,††,††† Denotes significance between vehicle and infected WT mice. Detection limits are denoted by a red dotted line.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Viral challenge of IPS-1 −/− mice induces a mild Th2 phenotype. ( a ) Study design, 1 week old neonatal WT or IPS-1 −/− mice were infected with 2 pfu in early life or vehicle diluent and were reinfected with 100 pfu or vehicle diluent 6 weeks post primary infection. Mice were euthanised at 7 days post reinfection. ( b ) Eosinophil and lymphocyte numbers in BALF. ( c ) IL-5 protein expression in BALF. ( d ) IL-13 protein expression in BALF. ( e ) Left panel: representative micrograph (40x magnification) of HMGB1 immunostaining. Right panel: Cytoplasmic AEC expression of HMGB1. ( f ) HMGB1 protein expression in BALF. ( g ) IL-33 protein expression in BALF. Vehicle control mice are denoted as Veh/Veh. Experiments were performed twice with 5 to 7 mice per group. Data are mean and the standard error of the mean. * , ** , *** , ****Denotes significance between WT and IPS-1 −/− infected mice. #,##,### Denotes significance between infected and vehicle IPS-1 −/− mice. †,††,††† Denotes significance between vehicle and infected WT mice. Detection limits are denoted by a red dotted line.

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Infection, Expressing, Immunostaining

    14) Product Images from "Topical Glycyrrhizin Is Therapeutic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis"

    Article Title: Topical Glycyrrhizin Is Therapeutic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis

    Journal: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics

    doi: 10.1089/jop.2017.0094

    HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.
    Figure Legend Snippet: HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    15) Product Images from "Topical Glycyrrhizin Is Therapeutic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis"

    Article Title: Topical Glycyrrhizin Is Therapeutic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis

    Journal: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics

    doi: 10.1089/jop.2017.0094

    HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.
    Figure Legend Snippet: HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    16) Product Images from "Cooling and Sterile Inflammation in an Oxygen-Glucose-Deprivation/Reperfusion Injury Model in BV-2 Microglia"

    Article Title: Cooling and Sterile Inflammation in an Oxygen-Glucose-Deprivation/Reperfusion Injury Model in BV-2 Microglia

    Journal: Mediators of Inflammation

    doi: 10.1155/2021/8906561

    Western blot analysis analyzing extracellular proteins and DAMPs. (a) HMGB1, (b) Hsp70, (c) CIRBP, and (d) RBM3 presented as x -fold change relative to Normoxia 37°C control and (e) representative immunoblots at respective timepoints. Cells were exposed to 2 h and 6 h of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD, 0.2% O 2 in glucose/serum-free medium) and incubated at 37°C or cooled 1 h after experimental start to 33.5°C. Data from at least 3 individual experiments are presented as mean ± SD. Statistical analysis was conducted using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey posttest; ∗ p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Western blot analysis analyzing extracellular proteins and DAMPs. (a) HMGB1, (b) Hsp70, (c) CIRBP, and (d) RBM3 presented as x -fold change relative to Normoxia 37°C control and (e) representative immunoblots at respective timepoints. Cells were exposed to 2 h and 6 h of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD, 0.2% O 2 in glucose/serum-free medium) and incubated at 37°C or cooled 1 h after experimental start to 33.5°C. Data from at least 3 individual experiments are presented as mean ± SD. Statistical analysis was conducted using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey posttest; ∗ p

    Techniques Used: Western Blot, Incubation

    17) Product Images from "Topical Glycyrrhizin Is Therapeutic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis"

    Article Title: Topical Glycyrrhizin Is Therapeutic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis

    Journal: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics

    doi: 10.1089/jop.2017.0094

    HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.
    Figure Legend Snippet: HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    18) Product Images from "Topical Glycyrrhizin Is Therapeutic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis"

    Article Title: Topical Glycyrrhizin Is Therapeutic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis

    Journal: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics

    doi: 10.1089/jop.2017.0094

    HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.
    Figure Legend Snippet: HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    19) Product Images from "Immunogenic cell death due to a new photodynamic therapy (PDT) with glycoconjugated chlorin (G-chlorin)"

    Article Title: Immunogenic cell death due to a new photodynamic therapy (PDT) with glycoconjugated chlorin (G-chlorin)

    Journal: Oncotarget

    doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.9725

    Vaccination A. Knockdown of CRT or HMGB1 by using short interfering RNA (siRNA). CT26 cells were transiently transfected with siRNAs against CRT or HMGB1. CRT or HMGB1 protein expression was analyzed by western blotting at 48 hours after transfection. B, C. CT26 cells treated in vitro with G-chlorin-PDT were inoculated subcutaneously into BALB/c mice. After 7 days, mice were re-challenged with live CT26 cells. The percentages of tumor-free mice were pooled. Each group comprised ten mice. Significance was determined by the log-rank statistic. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Vaccination A. Knockdown of CRT or HMGB1 by using short interfering RNA (siRNA). CT26 cells were transiently transfected with siRNAs against CRT or HMGB1. CRT or HMGB1 protein expression was analyzed by western blotting at 48 hours after transfection. B, C. CT26 cells treated in vitro with G-chlorin-PDT were inoculated subcutaneously into BALB/c mice. After 7 days, mice were re-challenged with live CT26 cells. The percentages of tumor-free mice were pooled. Each group comprised ten mice. Significance was determined by the log-rank statistic. * P

    Techniques Used: Small Interfering RNA, Transfection, Expressing, Western Blot, In Vitro, Mouse Assay

    Expression of CRT and HMGB1 by PDT CT26, HT29, or HCT116 cells were loaded with G-chlorin for 4 hours and then irradiated with 16 J/cm 2 of 660-nm LED light. CT26, HT29, and HCT116 cells were incubated with 1 μM mitoxantrone (MTX) as a positive control. CRT or HMGB1 protein expression was measured by western blotting at 4 hours after treatment.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Expression of CRT and HMGB1 by PDT CT26, HT29, or HCT116 cells were loaded with G-chlorin for 4 hours and then irradiated with 16 J/cm 2 of 660-nm LED light. CT26, HT29, and HCT116 cells were incubated with 1 μM mitoxantrone (MTX) as a positive control. CRT or HMGB1 protein expression was measured by western blotting at 4 hours after treatment.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Irradiation, Incubation, Positive Control, Western Blot

    Translocation of CRT and HMGB1 by PDT CT26 cells were loaded with G-chlorin for 4 hours and irradiated with 16 J/cm 2 of 660-nm LED light. Translocation of CRT and HMGB1 was assessed by immunofluorescence staining at 4 hours after treatment with PDT with G-chlorin. Images were obtained using confocal microscopy (original magnification ×1000; scale bar = 10 μm). Data are means of three independent experiments ± SD. ( A. CRT, B. HMGB1)
    Figure Legend Snippet: Translocation of CRT and HMGB1 by PDT CT26 cells were loaded with G-chlorin for 4 hours and irradiated with 16 J/cm 2 of 660-nm LED light. Translocation of CRT and HMGB1 was assessed by immunofluorescence staining at 4 hours after treatment with PDT with G-chlorin. Images were obtained using confocal microscopy (original magnification ×1000; scale bar = 10 μm). Data are means of three independent experiments ± SD. ( A. CRT, B. HMGB1)

    Techniques Used: Translocation Assay, Irradiation, Immunofluorescence, Staining, Confocal Microscopy

    Immunohistochemistry of allograft tumors CT26 cells were inoculated into the dorsal skin of mice. Tumor-bearing mice were intravenously injected with 1.25 μmol/kg G-chlorin and, after 4 hours, were illuminated with 660-nm LED light (15 J/cm 2 ). The tumors were excised and fixed in formalin for immunohistochemical examination at 3 hours after treatment with PDT plus G-chlorin. Representative immunohistochemical findings for lesions in the tumors of the control and PDT-treated mice (Panel A. original magnification ×400; scale bar = 50 μm). CRT B. and HMGB1 C. labeling indices in tumors. Data are the mean ± SD. Significance was determined by Welch's t -test. ** P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Immunohistochemistry of allograft tumors CT26 cells were inoculated into the dorsal skin of mice. Tumor-bearing mice were intravenously injected with 1.25 μmol/kg G-chlorin and, after 4 hours, were illuminated with 660-nm LED light (15 J/cm 2 ). The tumors were excised and fixed in formalin for immunohistochemical examination at 3 hours after treatment with PDT plus G-chlorin. Representative immunohistochemical findings for lesions in the tumors of the control and PDT-treated mice (Panel A. original magnification ×400; scale bar = 50 μm). CRT B. and HMGB1 C. labeling indices in tumors. Data are the mean ± SD. Significance was determined by Welch's t -test. ** P

    Techniques Used: Immunohistochemistry, Mouse Assay, Injection, Labeling

    20) Product Images from "Airborne Particulates Affect Corneal Homeostasis and Immunity"

    Article Title: Airborne Particulates Affect Corneal Homeostasis and Immunity

    Journal: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

    doi: 10.1167/iovs.61.4.23

    Effects of PM 2.5 on inflammatory molecules in 3D HCET cultures. RT-PCR shows significant change in mRNA expression for HMGB1 ( A ), IL-1β ( B ), and CXCL2 ( C ) after PM 2.5 exposure. Data were analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PM 2.5 on inflammatory molecules in 3D HCET cultures. RT-PCR shows significant change in mRNA expression for HMGB1 ( A ), IL-1β ( B ), and CXCL2 ( C ) after PM 2.5 exposure. Data were analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P

    Techniques Used: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Effects of PM 2.5 exposure on proinflammatory and oxidative stress molecules in MCEC. RT-PCR shows significantly increased mRNA expression only for HMGB1 ( A ), TLR2 ( B ), IL-1β ( C ), GR1 ( F ), GPX1 ( G ), GPX2 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) at 25 µg/mL PM 2.5 . All molecules ( A – I ) were significantly increased at 100 µg/mL PM 2.5 when compared with media controls. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PM 2.5 exposure on proinflammatory and oxidative stress molecules in MCEC. RT-PCR shows significantly increased mRNA expression only for HMGB1 ( A ), TLR2 ( B ), IL-1β ( C ), GR1 ( F ), GPX1 ( G ), GPX2 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) at 25 µg/mL PM 2.5 . All molecules ( A – I ) were significantly increased at 100 µg/mL PM 2.5 when compared with media controls. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P

    Techniques Used: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Effects of PM 2.5 and PA infection on inflammation and oxidative stress markers in vivo. RT-PCR showed significantly reduced mRNA expression for HMGB1 in PA infected versus uninfected groups ( A ). Increased mRNA levels for TLR2 ( B ), TLR4 ( C ), IL-1β ( D ), CXCL2 ( E ), HO1 ( F ), GPX2 ( G ), GR1 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) were observed in PA infected groups. In addition, PM 2.5 elevated mRNA levels of TLR4 ( C ) in uninfected eyes. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM. ( n = 5 per group at a time). * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PM 2.5 and PA infection on inflammation and oxidative stress markers in vivo. RT-PCR showed significantly reduced mRNA expression for HMGB1 in PA infected versus uninfected groups ( A ). Increased mRNA levels for TLR2 ( B ), TLR4 ( C ), IL-1β ( D ), CXCL2 ( E ), HO1 ( F ), GPX2 ( G ), GR1 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) were observed in PA infected groups. In addition, PM 2.5 elevated mRNA levels of TLR4 ( C ) in uninfected eyes. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM. ( n = 5 per group at a time). * P

    Techniques Used: Infection, In Vivo, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Protein levels of proinflammatory markers—HMGB1 ( A ) and TLR4 ( B , C )—and oxidative stress marker—GR1 ( D ) in vivo. ELISA showed significantly Increased HMGB1 levels ( A ) in PM 2.5 +PA versus PBS+PA. No difference was seen in uninfected normal ( N ) versus PM 2.5 exposed corneas. Western blot analysis shows increased TLR4 levels (not significantly different) in PBS+PA and PM 2.5 +PA exposed groups. ELISA showed protein levels of GR1 ( D ) were unchanged across groups. Data was analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM ( n = 5 per time). * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Protein levels of proinflammatory markers—HMGB1 ( A ) and TLR4 ( B , C )—and oxidative stress marker—GR1 ( D ) in vivo. ELISA showed significantly Increased HMGB1 levels ( A ) in PM 2.5 +PA versus PBS+PA. No difference was seen in uninfected normal ( N ) versus PM 2.5 exposed corneas. Western blot analysis shows increased TLR4 levels (not significantly different) in PBS+PA and PM 2.5 +PA exposed groups. ELISA showed protein levels of GR1 ( D ) were unchanged across groups. Data was analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM ( n = 5 per time). * P

    Techniques Used: Marker, In Vivo, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Western Blot

    21) Product Images from "Airborne Particulates Affect Corneal Homeostasis and Immunity"

    Article Title: Airborne Particulates Affect Corneal Homeostasis and Immunity

    Journal: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

    doi: 10.1167/iovs.61.4.23

    Effects of PM 2.5 on inflammatory molecules in 3D HCET cultures. RT-PCR shows significant change in mRNA expression for HMGB1 ( A ), IL-1β ( B ), and CXCL2 ( C ) after PM 2.5 exposure. Data were analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PM 2.5 on inflammatory molecules in 3D HCET cultures. RT-PCR shows significant change in mRNA expression for HMGB1 ( A ), IL-1β ( B ), and CXCL2 ( C ) after PM 2.5 exposure. Data were analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P

    Techniques Used: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Effects of PM 2.5 exposure on proinflammatory and oxidative stress molecules in MCEC. RT-PCR shows significantly increased mRNA expression only for HMGB1 ( A ), TLR2 ( B ), IL-1β ( C ), GR1 ( F ), GPX1 ( G ), GPX2 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) at 25 µg/mL PM 2.5 . All molecules ( A – I ) were significantly increased at 100 µg/mL PM 2.5 when compared with media controls. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PM 2.5 exposure on proinflammatory and oxidative stress molecules in MCEC. RT-PCR shows significantly increased mRNA expression only for HMGB1 ( A ), TLR2 ( B ), IL-1β ( C ), GR1 ( F ), GPX1 ( G ), GPX2 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) at 25 µg/mL PM 2.5 . All molecules ( A – I ) were significantly increased at 100 µg/mL PM 2.5 when compared with media controls. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P

    Techniques Used: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Effects of PM 2.5 and PA infection on inflammation and oxidative stress markers in vivo. RT-PCR showed significantly reduced mRNA expression for HMGB1 in PA infected versus uninfected groups ( A ). Increased mRNA levels for TLR2 ( B ), TLR4 ( C ), IL-1β ( D ), CXCL2 ( E ), HO1 ( F ), GPX2 ( G ), GR1 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) were observed in PA infected groups. In addition, PM 2.5 elevated mRNA levels of TLR4 ( C ) in uninfected eyes. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM. ( n = 5 per group at a time). * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PM 2.5 and PA infection on inflammation and oxidative stress markers in vivo. RT-PCR showed significantly reduced mRNA expression for HMGB1 in PA infected versus uninfected groups ( A ). Increased mRNA levels for TLR2 ( B ), TLR4 ( C ), IL-1β ( D ), CXCL2 ( E ), HO1 ( F ), GPX2 ( G ), GR1 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) were observed in PA infected groups. In addition, PM 2.5 elevated mRNA levels of TLR4 ( C ) in uninfected eyes. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM. ( n = 5 per group at a time). * P

    Techniques Used: Infection, In Vivo, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Protein levels of proinflammatory markers—HMGB1 ( A ) and TLR4 ( B , C )—and oxidative stress marker—GR1 ( D ) in vivo. ELISA showed significantly Increased HMGB1 levels ( A ) in PM 2.5 +PA versus PBS+PA. No difference was seen in uninfected normal ( N ) versus PM 2.5 exposed corneas. Western blot analysis shows increased TLR4 levels (not significantly different) in PBS+PA and PM 2.5 +PA exposed groups. ELISA showed protein levels of GR1 ( D ) were unchanged across groups. Data was analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM ( n = 5 per time). * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Protein levels of proinflammatory markers—HMGB1 ( A ) and TLR4 ( B , C )—and oxidative stress marker—GR1 ( D ) in vivo. ELISA showed significantly Increased HMGB1 levels ( A ) in PM 2.5 +PA versus PBS+PA. No difference was seen in uninfected normal ( N ) versus PM 2.5 exposed corneas. Western blot analysis shows increased TLR4 levels (not significantly different) in PBS+PA and PM 2.5 +PA exposed groups. ELISA showed protein levels of GR1 ( D ) were unchanged across groups. Data was analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM ( n = 5 per time). * P

    Techniques Used: Marker, In Vivo, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Western Blot

    22) Product Images from "Topical Glycyrrhizin Is Therapeutic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis"

    Article Title: Topical Glycyrrhizin Is Therapeutic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis

    Journal: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics

    doi: 10.1089/jop.2017.0094

    HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.
    Figure Legend Snippet: HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    23) Product Images from "Airborne Particulates Affect Corneal Homeostasis and Immunity"

    Article Title: Airborne Particulates Affect Corneal Homeostasis and Immunity

    Journal: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

    doi: 10.1167/iovs.61.4.23

    Effects of PM 2.5 on inflammatory molecules in 3D HCET cultures. RT-PCR shows significant change in mRNA expression for HMGB1 ( A ), IL-1β ( B ), and CXCL2 ( C ) after PM 2.5 exposure. Data were analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PM 2.5 on inflammatory molecules in 3D HCET cultures. RT-PCR shows significant change in mRNA expression for HMGB1 ( A ), IL-1β ( B ), and CXCL2 ( C ) after PM 2.5 exposure. Data were analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P

    Techniques Used: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Effects of PM 2.5 exposure on proinflammatory and oxidative stress molecules in MCEC. RT-PCR shows significantly increased mRNA expression only for HMGB1 ( A ), TLR2 ( B ), IL-1β ( C ), GR1 ( F ), GPX1 ( G ), GPX2 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) at 25 µg/mL PM 2.5 . All molecules ( A – I ) were significantly increased at 100 µg/mL PM 2.5 when compared with media controls. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PM 2.5 exposure on proinflammatory and oxidative stress molecules in MCEC. RT-PCR shows significantly increased mRNA expression only for HMGB1 ( A ), TLR2 ( B ), IL-1β ( C ), GR1 ( F ), GPX1 ( G ), GPX2 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) at 25 µg/mL PM 2.5 . All molecules ( A – I ) were significantly increased at 100 µg/mL PM 2.5 when compared with media controls. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P

    Techniques Used: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Effects of PM 2.5 and PA infection on inflammation and oxidative stress markers in vivo. RT-PCR showed significantly reduced mRNA expression for HMGB1 in PA infected versus uninfected groups ( A ). Increased mRNA levels for TLR2 ( B ), TLR4 ( C ), IL-1β ( D ), CXCL2 ( E ), HO1 ( F ), GPX2 ( G ), GR1 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) were observed in PA infected groups. In addition, PM 2.5 elevated mRNA levels of TLR4 ( C ) in uninfected eyes. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM. ( n = 5 per group at a time). * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PM 2.5 and PA infection on inflammation and oxidative stress markers in vivo. RT-PCR showed significantly reduced mRNA expression for HMGB1 in PA infected versus uninfected groups ( A ). Increased mRNA levels for TLR2 ( B ), TLR4 ( C ), IL-1β ( D ), CXCL2 ( E ), HO1 ( F ), GPX2 ( G ), GR1 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) were observed in PA infected groups. In addition, PM 2.5 elevated mRNA levels of TLR4 ( C ) in uninfected eyes. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM. ( n = 5 per group at a time). * P

    Techniques Used: Infection, In Vivo, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Protein levels of proinflammatory markers—HMGB1 ( A ) and TLR4 ( B , C )—and oxidative stress marker—GR1 ( D ) in vivo. ELISA showed significantly Increased HMGB1 levels ( A ) in PM 2.5 +PA versus PBS+PA. No difference was seen in uninfected normal ( N ) versus PM 2.5 exposed corneas. Western blot analysis shows increased TLR4 levels (not significantly different) in PBS+PA and PM 2.5 +PA exposed groups. ELISA showed protein levels of GR1 ( D ) were unchanged across groups. Data was analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM ( n = 5 per time). * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Protein levels of proinflammatory markers—HMGB1 ( A ) and TLR4 ( B , C )—and oxidative stress marker—GR1 ( D ) in vivo. ELISA showed significantly Increased HMGB1 levels ( A ) in PM 2.5 +PA versus PBS+PA. No difference was seen in uninfected normal ( N ) versus PM 2.5 exposed corneas. Western blot analysis shows increased TLR4 levels (not significantly different) in PBS+PA and PM 2.5 +PA exposed groups. ELISA showed protein levels of GR1 ( D ) were unchanged across groups. Data was analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM ( n = 5 per time). * P

    Techniques Used: Marker, In Vivo, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Western Blot

    24) Product Images from "Airborne Particulates Affect Corneal Homeostasis and Immunity"

    Article Title: Airborne Particulates Affect Corneal Homeostasis and Immunity

    Journal: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

    doi: 10.1167/iovs.61.4.23

    Effects of PM 2.5 on inflammatory molecules in 3D HCET cultures. RT-PCR shows significant change in mRNA expression for HMGB1 ( A ), IL-1β ( B ), and CXCL2 ( C ) after PM 2.5 exposure. Data were analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PM 2.5 on inflammatory molecules in 3D HCET cultures. RT-PCR shows significant change in mRNA expression for HMGB1 ( A ), IL-1β ( B ), and CXCL2 ( C ) after PM 2.5 exposure. Data were analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P

    Techniques Used: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Effects of PM 2.5 exposure on proinflammatory and oxidative stress molecules in MCEC. RT-PCR shows significantly increased mRNA expression only for HMGB1 ( A ), TLR2 ( B ), IL-1β ( C ), GR1 ( F ), GPX1 ( G ), GPX2 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) at 25 µg/mL PM 2.5 . All molecules ( A – I ) were significantly increased at 100 µg/mL PM 2.5 when compared with media controls. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PM 2.5 exposure on proinflammatory and oxidative stress molecules in MCEC. RT-PCR shows significantly increased mRNA expression only for HMGB1 ( A ), TLR2 ( B ), IL-1β ( C ), GR1 ( F ), GPX1 ( G ), GPX2 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) at 25 µg/mL PM 2.5 . All molecules ( A – I ) were significantly increased at 100 µg/mL PM 2.5 when compared with media controls. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P

    Techniques Used: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Effects of PM 2.5 and PA infection on inflammation and oxidative stress markers in vivo. RT-PCR showed significantly reduced mRNA expression for HMGB1 in PA infected versus uninfected groups ( A ). Increased mRNA levels for TLR2 ( B ), TLR4 ( C ), IL-1β ( D ), CXCL2 ( E ), HO1 ( F ), GPX2 ( G ), GR1 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) were observed in PA infected groups. In addition, PM 2.5 elevated mRNA levels of TLR4 ( C ) in uninfected eyes. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM. ( n = 5 per group at a time). * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PM 2.5 and PA infection on inflammation and oxidative stress markers in vivo. RT-PCR showed significantly reduced mRNA expression for HMGB1 in PA infected versus uninfected groups ( A ). Increased mRNA levels for TLR2 ( B ), TLR4 ( C ), IL-1β ( D ), CXCL2 ( E ), HO1 ( F ), GPX2 ( G ), GR1 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) were observed in PA infected groups. In addition, PM 2.5 elevated mRNA levels of TLR4 ( C ) in uninfected eyes. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM. ( n = 5 per group at a time). * P

    Techniques Used: Infection, In Vivo, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Protein levels of proinflammatory markers—HMGB1 ( A ) and TLR4 ( B , C )—and oxidative stress marker—GR1 ( D ) in vivo. ELISA showed significantly Increased HMGB1 levels ( A ) in PM 2.5 +PA versus PBS+PA. No difference was seen in uninfected normal ( N ) versus PM 2.5 exposed corneas. Western blot analysis shows increased TLR4 levels (not significantly different) in PBS+PA and PM 2.5 +PA exposed groups. ELISA showed protein levels of GR1 ( D ) were unchanged across groups. Data was analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM ( n = 5 per time). * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Protein levels of proinflammatory markers—HMGB1 ( A ) and TLR4 ( B , C )—and oxidative stress marker—GR1 ( D ) in vivo. ELISA showed significantly Increased HMGB1 levels ( A ) in PM 2.5 +PA versus PBS+PA. No difference was seen in uninfected normal ( N ) versus PM 2.5 exposed corneas. Western blot analysis shows increased TLR4 levels (not significantly different) in PBS+PA and PM 2.5 +PA exposed groups. ELISA showed protein levels of GR1 ( D ) were unchanged across groups. Data was analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM ( n = 5 per time). * P

    Techniques Used: Marker, In Vivo, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Western Blot

    25) Product Images from "Topical Glycyrrhizin Is Therapeutic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis"

    Article Title: Topical Glycyrrhizin Is Therapeutic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis

    Journal: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics

    doi: 10.1089/jop.2017.0094

    HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.
    Figure Legend Snippet: HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    26) Product Images from "The Absence of Interferon-β Promotor Stimulator-1 (IPS-1) Predisposes to Bronchiolitis and Asthma-like Pathology in Response to Pneumoviral Infection in Mice"

    Article Title: The Absence of Interferon-β Promotor Stimulator-1 (IPS-1) Predisposes to Bronchiolitis and Asthma-like Pathology in Response to Pneumoviral Infection in Mice

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-02564-9

    Absence of IPS-1 predisposes towards alarmin release and type-2 inflammation during acute viral infection. ( a ) Left panel: representative micrograph (40x magnification) of HMGB1 immunostaining. Right panel: Cytoplasmic AEC expression of HMGB1. ( b ) HMGB1 protein expression in BALF. ( c ) IL-33 protein expression in BALF. ( d ) Number of ILC2s in lung at 10 dpi (gated on Lin − , CD25 + , ST2 + , CD90.2 + ). ( e ) IL-13 protein expression in BALF. ( f ) IL-5 protein expression in BALF. ( g ) Eosinophil number in BALF. Vehicle treated control mice were sacrificed on day 7 of life (i.e. 0 dpi). Experiments were performed twice with 5 to 7 mice per group. Data are mean and the standard error of the mean. * , ** , *** , ****Denotes significance between WT and IPS-1 −/− infected mice. #,##,### Denotes significance between infected and vehicle treated IPS-1 −/− mice. Detection limits are denoted by a red dotted line.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Absence of IPS-1 predisposes towards alarmin release and type-2 inflammation during acute viral infection. ( a ) Left panel: representative micrograph (40x magnification) of HMGB1 immunostaining. Right panel: Cytoplasmic AEC expression of HMGB1. ( b ) HMGB1 protein expression in BALF. ( c ) IL-33 protein expression in BALF. ( d ) Number of ILC2s in lung at 10 dpi (gated on Lin − , CD25 + , ST2 + , CD90.2 + ). ( e ) IL-13 protein expression in BALF. ( f ) IL-5 protein expression in BALF. ( g ) Eosinophil number in BALF. Vehicle treated control mice were sacrificed on day 7 of life (i.e. 0 dpi). Experiments were performed twice with 5 to 7 mice per group. Data are mean and the standard error of the mean. * , ** , *** , ****Denotes significance between WT and IPS-1 −/− infected mice. #,##,### Denotes significance between infected and vehicle treated IPS-1 −/− mice. Detection limits are denoted by a red dotted line.

    Techniques Used: Infection, Immunostaining, Expressing, Mouse Assay

    Viral challenge of IPS-1 −/− mice induces a mild Th2 phenotype. ( a ) Study design, 1 week old neonatal WT or IPS-1 −/− mice were infected with 2 pfu in early life or vehicle diluent and were reinfected with 100 pfu or vehicle diluent 6 weeks post primary infection. Mice were euthanised at 7 days post reinfection. ( b ) Eosinophil and lymphocyte numbers in BALF. ( c ) IL-5 protein expression in BALF. ( d ) IL-13 protein expression in BALF. ( e ) Left panel: representative micrograph (40x magnification) of HMGB1 immunostaining. Right panel: Cytoplasmic AEC expression of HMGB1. ( f ) HMGB1 protein expression in BALF. ( g ) IL-33 protein expression in BALF. Vehicle control mice are denoted as Veh/Veh. Experiments were performed twice with 5 to 7 mice per group. Data are mean and the standard error of the mean. * , ** , *** , ****Denotes significance between WT and IPS-1 −/− infected mice. #,##,### Denotes significance between infected and vehicle IPS-1 −/− mice. †,††,††† Denotes significance between vehicle and infected WT mice. Detection limits are denoted by a red dotted line.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Viral challenge of IPS-1 −/− mice induces a mild Th2 phenotype. ( a ) Study design, 1 week old neonatal WT or IPS-1 −/− mice were infected with 2 pfu in early life or vehicle diluent and were reinfected with 100 pfu or vehicle diluent 6 weeks post primary infection. Mice were euthanised at 7 days post reinfection. ( b ) Eosinophil and lymphocyte numbers in BALF. ( c ) IL-5 protein expression in BALF. ( d ) IL-13 protein expression in BALF. ( e ) Left panel: representative micrograph (40x magnification) of HMGB1 immunostaining. Right panel: Cytoplasmic AEC expression of HMGB1. ( f ) HMGB1 protein expression in BALF. ( g ) IL-33 protein expression in BALF. Vehicle control mice are denoted as Veh/Veh. Experiments were performed twice with 5 to 7 mice per group. Data are mean and the standard error of the mean. * , ** , *** , ****Denotes significance between WT and IPS-1 −/− infected mice. #,##,### Denotes significance between infected and vehicle IPS-1 −/− mice. †,††,††† Denotes significance between vehicle and infected WT mice. Detection limits are denoted by a red dotted line.

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Infection, Expressing, Immunostaining

    27) Product Images from "Airborne Particulates Affect Corneal Homeostasis and Immunity"

    Article Title: Airborne Particulates Affect Corneal Homeostasis and Immunity

    Journal: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

    doi: 10.1167/iovs.61.4.23

    Effects of PM 2.5 on inflammatory molecules in 3D HCET cultures. RT-PCR shows significant change in mRNA expression for HMGB1 ( A ), IL-1β ( B ), and CXCL2 ( C ) after PM 2.5 exposure. Data were analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PM 2.5 on inflammatory molecules in 3D HCET cultures. RT-PCR shows significant change in mRNA expression for HMGB1 ( A ), IL-1β ( B ), and CXCL2 ( C ) after PM 2.5 exposure. Data were analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P

    Techniques Used: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Effects of PM 2.5 exposure on proinflammatory and oxidative stress molecules in MCEC. RT-PCR shows significantly increased mRNA expression only for HMGB1 ( A ), TLR2 ( B ), IL-1β ( C ), GR1 ( F ), GPX1 ( G ), GPX2 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) at 25 µg/mL PM 2.5 . All molecules ( A – I ) were significantly increased at 100 µg/mL PM 2.5 when compared with media controls. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PM 2.5 exposure on proinflammatory and oxidative stress molecules in MCEC. RT-PCR shows significantly increased mRNA expression only for HMGB1 ( A ), TLR2 ( B ), IL-1β ( C ), GR1 ( F ), GPX1 ( G ), GPX2 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) at 25 µg/mL PM 2.5 . All molecules ( A – I ) were significantly increased at 100 µg/mL PM 2.5 when compared with media controls. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P

    Techniques Used: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Effects of PM 2.5 and PA infection on inflammation and oxidative stress markers in vivo. RT-PCR showed significantly reduced mRNA expression for HMGB1 in PA infected versus uninfected groups ( A ). Increased mRNA levels for TLR2 ( B ), TLR4 ( C ), IL-1β ( D ), CXCL2 ( E ), HO1 ( F ), GPX2 ( G ), GR1 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) were observed in PA infected groups. In addition, PM 2.5 elevated mRNA levels of TLR4 ( C ) in uninfected eyes. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM. ( n = 5 per group at a time). * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PM 2.5 and PA infection on inflammation and oxidative stress markers in vivo. RT-PCR showed significantly reduced mRNA expression for HMGB1 in PA infected versus uninfected groups ( A ). Increased mRNA levels for TLR2 ( B ), TLR4 ( C ), IL-1β ( D ), CXCL2 ( E ), HO1 ( F ), GPX2 ( G ), GR1 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) were observed in PA infected groups. In addition, PM 2.5 elevated mRNA levels of TLR4 ( C ) in uninfected eyes. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM. ( n = 5 per group at a time). * P

    Techniques Used: Infection, In Vivo, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Protein levels of proinflammatory markers—HMGB1 ( A ) and TLR4 ( B , C )—and oxidative stress marker—GR1 ( D ) in vivo. ELISA showed significantly Increased HMGB1 levels ( A ) in PM 2.5 +PA versus PBS+PA. No difference was seen in uninfected normal ( N ) versus PM 2.5 exposed corneas. Western blot analysis shows increased TLR4 levels (not significantly different) in PBS+PA and PM 2.5 +PA exposed groups. ELISA showed protein levels of GR1 ( D ) were unchanged across groups. Data was analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM ( n = 5 per time). * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Protein levels of proinflammatory markers—HMGB1 ( A ) and TLR4 ( B , C )—and oxidative stress marker—GR1 ( D ) in vivo. ELISA showed significantly Increased HMGB1 levels ( A ) in PM 2.5 +PA versus PBS+PA. No difference was seen in uninfected normal ( N ) versus PM 2.5 exposed corneas. Western blot analysis shows increased TLR4 levels (not significantly different) in PBS+PA and PM 2.5 +PA exposed groups. ELISA showed protein levels of GR1 ( D ) were unchanged across groups. Data was analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM ( n = 5 per time). * P

    Techniques Used: Marker, In Vivo, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Western Blot

    28) Product Images from "Airborne Particulates Affect Corneal Homeostasis and Immunity"

    Article Title: Airborne Particulates Affect Corneal Homeostasis and Immunity

    Journal: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

    doi: 10.1167/iovs.61.4.23

    Effects of PM 2.5 on inflammatory molecules in 3D HCET cultures. RT-PCR shows significant change in mRNA expression for HMGB1 ( A ), IL-1β ( B ), and CXCL2 ( C ) after PM 2.5 exposure. Data were analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PM 2.5 on inflammatory molecules in 3D HCET cultures. RT-PCR shows significant change in mRNA expression for HMGB1 ( A ), IL-1β ( B ), and CXCL2 ( C ) after PM 2.5 exposure. Data were analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P

    Techniques Used: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Effects of PM 2.5 exposure on proinflammatory and oxidative stress molecules in MCEC. RT-PCR shows significantly increased mRNA expression only for HMGB1 ( A ), TLR2 ( B ), IL-1β ( C ), GR1 ( F ), GPX1 ( G ), GPX2 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) at 25 µg/mL PM 2.5 . All molecules ( A – I ) were significantly increased at 100 µg/mL PM 2.5 when compared with media controls. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PM 2.5 exposure on proinflammatory and oxidative stress molecules in MCEC. RT-PCR shows significantly increased mRNA expression only for HMGB1 ( A ), TLR2 ( B ), IL-1β ( C ), GR1 ( F ), GPX1 ( G ), GPX2 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) at 25 µg/mL PM 2.5 . All molecules ( A – I ) were significantly increased at 100 µg/mL PM 2.5 when compared with media controls. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P

    Techniques Used: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Effects of PM 2.5 and PA infection on inflammation and oxidative stress markers in vivo. RT-PCR showed significantly reduced mRNA expression for HMGB1 in PA infected versus uninfected groups ( A ). Increased mRNA levels for TLR2 ( B ), TLR4 ( C ), IL-1β ( D ), CXCL2 ( E ), HO1 ( F ), GPX2 ( G ), GR1 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) were observed in PA infected groups. In addition, PM 2.5 elevated mRNA levels of TLR4 ( C ) in uninfected eyes. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM. ( n = 5 per group at a time). * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PM 2.5 and PA infection on inflammation and oxidative stress markers in vivo. RT-PCR showed significantly reduced mRNA expression for HMGB1 in PA infected versus uninfected groups ( A ). Increased mRNA levels for TLR2 ( B ), TLR4 ( C ), IL-1β ( D ), CXCL2 ( E ), HO1 ( F ), GPX2 ( G ), GR1 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) were observed in PA infected groups. In addition, PM 2.5 elevated mRNA levels of TLR4 ( C ) in uninfected eyes. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM. ( n = 5 per group at a time). * P

    Techniques Used: Infection, In Vivo, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Protein levels of proinflammatory markers—HMGB1 ( A ) and TLR4 ( B , C )—and oxidative stress marker—GR1 ( D ) in vivo. ELISA showed significantly Increased HMGB1 levels ( A ) in PM 2.5 +PA versus PBS+PA. No difference was seen in uninfected normal ( N ) versus PM 2.5 exposed corneas. Western blot analysis shows increased TLR4 levels (not significantly different) in PBS+PA and PM 2.5 +PA exposed groups. ELISA showed protein levels of GR1 ( D ) were unchanged across groups. Data was analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM ( n = 5 per time). * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Protein levels of proinflammatory markers—HMGB1 ( A ) and TLR4 ( B , C )—and oxidative stress marker—GR1 ( D ) in vivo. ELISA showed significantly Increased HMGB1 levels ( A ) in PM 2.5 +PA versus PBS+PA. No difference was seen in uninfected normal ( N ) versus PM 2.5 exposed corneas. Western blot analysis shows increased TLR4 levels (not significantly different) in PBS+PA and PM 2.5 +PA exposed groups. ELISA showed protein levels of GR1 ( D ) were unchanged across groups. Data was analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM ( n = 5 per time). * P

    Techniques Used: Marker, In Vivo, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Western Blot

    29) Product Images from "Airborne Particulates Affect Corneal Homeostasis and Immunity"

    Article Title: Airborne Particulates Affect Corneal Homeostasis and Immunity

    Journal: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

    doi: 10.1167/iovs.61.4.23

    Effects of PM 2.5 on inflammatory molecules in 3D HCET cultures. RT-PCR shows significant change in mRNA expression for HMGB1 ( A ), IL-1β ( B ), and CXCL2 ( C ) after PM 2.5 exposure. Data were analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PM 2.5 on inflammatory molecules in 3D HCET cultures. RT-PCR shows significant change in mRNA expression for HMGB1 ( A ), IL-1β ( B ), and CXCL2 ( C ) after PM 2.5 exposure. Data were analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P

    Techniques Used: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Effects of PM 2.5 exposure on proinflammatory and oxidative stress molecules in MCEC. RT-PCR shows significantly increased mRNA expression only for HMGB1 ( A ), TLR2 ( B ), IL-1β ( C ), GR1 ( F ), GPX1 ( G ), GPX2 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) at 25 µg/mL PM 2.5 . All molecules ( A – I ) were significantly increased at 100 µg/mL PM 2.5 when compared with media controls. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PM 2.5 exposure on proinflammatory and oxidative stress molecules in MCEC. RT-PCR shows significantly increased mRNA expression only for HMGB1 ( A ), TLR2 ( B ), IL-1β ( C ), GR1 ( F ), GPX1 ( G ), GPX2 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) at 25 µg/mL PM 2.5 . All molecules ( A – I ) were significantly increased at 100 µg/mL PM 2.5 when compared with media controls. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P

    Techniques Used: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Effects of PM 2.5 and PA infection on inflammation and oxidative stress markers in vivo. RT-PCR showed significantly reduced mRNA expression for HMGB1 in PA infected versus uninfected groups ( A ). Increased mRNA levels for TLR2 ( B ), TLR4 ( C ), IL-1β ( D ), CXCL2 ( E ), HO1 ( F ), GPX2 ( G ), GR1 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) were observed in PA infected groups. In addition, PM 2.5 elevated mRNA levels of TLR4 ( C ) in uninfected eyes. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM. ( n = 5 per group at a time). * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PM 2.5 and PA infection on inflammation and oxidative stress markers in vivo. RT-PCR showed significantly reduced mRNA expression for HMGB1 in PA infected versus uninfected groups ( A ). Increased mRNA levels for TLR2 ( B ), TLR4 ( C ), IL-1β ( D ), CXCL2 ( E ), HO1 ( F ), GPX2 ( G ), GR1 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) were observed in PA infected groups. In addition, PM 2.5 elevated mRNA levels of TLR4 ( C ) in uninfected eyes. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM. ( n = 5 per group at a time). * P

    Techniques Used: Infection, In Vivo, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Protein levels of proinflammatory markers—HMGB1 ( A ) and TLR4 ( B , C )—and oxidative stress marker—GR1 ( D ) in vivo. ELISA showed significantly Increased HMGB1 levels ( A ) in PM 2.5 +PA versus PBS+PA. No difference was seen in uninfected normal ( N ) versus PM 2.5 exposed corneas. Western blot analysis shows increased TLR4 levels (not significantly different) in PBS+PA and PM 2.5 +PA exposed groups. ELISA showed protein levels of GR1 ( D ) were unchanged across groups. Data was analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM ( n = 5 per time). * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Protein levels of proinflammatory markers—HMGB1 ( A ) and TLR4 ( B , C )—and oxidative stress marker—GR1 ( D ) in vivo. ELISA showed significantly Increased HMGB1 levels ( A ) in PM 2.5 +PA versus PBS+PA. No difference was seen in uninfected normal ( N ) versus PM 2.5 exposed corneas. Western blot analysis shows increased TLR4 levels (not significantly different) in PBS+PA and PM 2.5 +PA exposed groups. ELISA showed protein levels of GR1 ( D ) were unchanged across groups. Data was analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM ( n = 5 per time). * P

    Techniques Used: Marker, In Vivo, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Western Blot

    30) Product Images from "Topical Glycyrrhizin Is Therapeutic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis"

    Article Title: Topical Glycyrrhizin Is Therapeutic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis

    Journal: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics

    doi: 10.1089/jop.2017.0094

    HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.
    Figure Legend Snippet: HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    31) Product Images from "Topical Glycyrrhizin Is Therapeutic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis"

    Article Title: Topical Glycyrrhizin Is Therapeutic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis

    Journal: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics

    doi: 10.1089/jop.2017.0094

    HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.
    Figure Legend Snippet: HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

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    Chondrex inc hmgb1
    <t>HMGB1,</t> RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.
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    hmgb1 - by Bioz Stars, 2022-08
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    Chondrex inc bovine hmgb 1
    CVA increased IL-1β, CXCL-1, CXCL-2, and CXCL-3 production. a Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of <t>HMGB-1</t> ( n = 4 per group) and cytokine bead array of IL-1α ( n = 3 per group) in the supernatant of cultured primary keratinocytes 10 h after initiation of stimulation with 300 μM of OA or CVA. b Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of Il1β , Cxcl1 , Cxcl2, and Cxcl3 in the epidermis of wild-type mice 6 h after topical application of ethanol (control) (n = 10) or 15 mM of OA (n = 13) or CVA ( n = 14). c , d Wild-type and Elovl6 −/− mice received intradermal and intraperitoneal administration of PBS ( n = 10 and 12, respectively), an IL-1 receptor antagonist ( n = 9 and 8, respectively), or a CXCR-2 antagonist ( n = 5 and 4, respectively) daily for 9 days, from the beginning on the day of tape stripping. The skin was then analyzed for epidermal thickness by histology (hematoxylin and eosin staining) ( c ) and the number of neutrophils (Ly6G) and macrophages (F4/80) by immunohistochemical studies ( d ) on day 9. e A proposed signal pathway from mechanical damage onto the skin to inflammation. Error bars indicate SD; * P
    Bovine Hmgb 1, supplied by Chondrex inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/bovine hmgb 1/product/Chondrex inc
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    HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.

    Journal: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics

    Article Title: Topical Glycyrrhizin Is Therapeutic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis

    doi: 10.1089/jop.2017.0094

    Figure Lengend Snippet: HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, and TNF-α ELISA: GLY topical treatment (6 h p.i.). Corneal protein levels of HMGB1 (A) , RAGE (B) , TLR4 (C), and TNF-α (D) were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days p.i. after GLY versus PBS topical treatment. No difference in protein levels was seen between groups for normal uninfected (N) cornea (A–D) . All data are mean ± SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; SEM, standard error of the mean.

    Article Snippet: Xiang K., Cheng L., Luo Z., et al. Glycyrrhizin suppresses the expressions of HMGB1 and relieves the severity of traumatic pancreatitis in rats .

    Techniques: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Effects of PM 2.5 on inflammatory molecules in 3D HCET cultures. RT-PCR shows significant change in mRNA expression for HMGB1 ( A ), IL-1β ( B ), and CXCL2 ( C ) after PM 2.5 exposure. Data were analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P

    Journal: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

    Article Title: Airborne Particulates Affect Corneal Homeostasis and Immunity

    doi: 10.1167/iovs.61.4.23

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of PM 2.5 on inflammatory molecules in 3D HCET cultures. RT-PCR shows significant change in mRNA expression for HMGB1 ( A ), IL-1β ( B ), and CXCL2 ( C ) after PM 2.5 exposure. Data were analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P

    Article Snippet: However, oxidative stress is believed to regulate the translocation, release, and activity of HMGB1.

    Techniques: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Effects of PM 2.5 exposure on proinflammatory and oxidative stress molecules in MCEC. RT-PCR shows significantly increased mRNA expression only for HMGB1 ( A ), TLR2 ( B ), IL-1β ( C ), GR1 ( F ), GPX1 ( G ), GPX2 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) at 25 µg/mL PM 2.5 . All molecules ( A – I ) were significantly increased at 100 µg/mL PM 2.5 when compared with media controls. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P

    Journal: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

    Article Title: Airborne Particulates Affect Corneal Homeostasis and Immunity

    doi: 10.1167/iovs.61.4.23

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of PM 2.5 exposure on proinflammatory and oxidative stress molecules in MCEC. RT-PCR shows significantly increased mRNA expression only for HMGB1 ( A ), TLR2 ( B ), IL-1β ( C ), GR1 ( F ), GPX1 ( G ), GPX2 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) at 25 µg/mL PM 2.5 . All molecules ( A – I ) were significantly increased at 100 µg/mL PM 2.5 when compared with media controls. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments. * P

    Article Snippet: However, oxidative stress is believed to regulate the translocation, release, and activity of HMGB1.

    Techniques: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Effects of PM 2.5 and PA infection on inflammation and oxidative stress markers in vivo. RT-PCR showed significantly reduced mRNA expression for HMGB1 in PA infected versus uninfected groups ( A ). Increased mRNA levels for TLR2 ( B ), TLR4 ( C ), IL-1β ( D ), CXCL2 ( E ), HO1 ( F ), GPX2 ( G ), GR1 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) were observed in PA infected groups. In addition, PM 2.5 elevated mRNA levels of TLR4 ( C ) in uninfected eyes. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM. ( n = 5 per group at a time). * P

    Journal: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

    Article Title: Airborne Particulates Affect Corneal Homeostasis and Immunity

    doi: 10.1167/iovs.61.4.23

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of PM 2.5 and PA infection on inflammation and oxidative stress markers in vivo. RT-PCR showed significantly reduced mRNA expression for HMGB1 in PA infected versus uninfected groups ( A ). Increased mRNA levels for TLR2 ( B ), TLR4 ( C ), IL-1β ( D ), CXCL2 ( E ), HO1 ( F ), GPX2 ( G ), GR1 ( H ), and SOD2 ( I ) were observed in PA infected groups. In addition, PM 2.5 elevated mRNA levels of TLR4 ( C ) in uninfected eyes. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and expressed as the mean ± SEM. ( n = 5 per group at a time). * P

    Article Snippet: However, oxidative stress is believed to regulate the translocation, release, and activity of HMGB1.

    Techniques: Infection, In Vivo, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Protein levels of proinflammatory markers—HMGB1 ( A ) and TLR4 ( B , C )—and oxidative stress marker—GR1 ( D ) in vivo. ELISA showed significantly Increased HMGB1 levels ( A ) in PM 2.5 +PA versus PBS+PA. No difference was seen in uninfected normal ( N ) versus PM 2.5 exposed corneas. Western blot analysis shows increased TLR4 levels (not significantly different) in PBS+PA and PM 2.5 +PA exposed groups. ELISA showed protein levels of GR1 ( D ) were unchanged across groups. Data was analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM ( n = 5 per time). * P

    Journal: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

    Article Title: Airborne Particulates Affect Corneal Homeostasis and Immunity

    doi: 10.1167/iovs.61.4.23

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Protein levels of proinflammatory markers—HMGB1 ( A ) and TLR4 ( B , C )—and oxidative stress marker—GR1 ( D ) in vivo. ELISA showed significantly Increased HMGB1 levels ( A ) in PM 2.5 +PA versus PBS+PA. No difference was seen in uninfected normal ( N ) versus PM 2.5 exposed corneas. Western blot analysis shows increased TLR4 levels (not significantly different) in PBS+PA and PM 2.5 +PA exposed groups. ELISA showed protein levels of GR1 ( D ) were unchanged across groups. Data was analyzed using the Student's t -test and expressed as the mean ± SEM ( n = 5 per time). * P

    Article Snippet: However, oxidative stress is believed to regulate the translocation, release, and activity of HMGB1.

    Techniques: Marker, In Vivo, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Western Blot

    CVA increased IL-1β, CXCL-1, CXCL-2, and CXCL-3 production. a Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of HMGB-1 ( n = 4 per group) and cytokine bead array of IL-1α ( n = 3 per group) in the supernatant of cultured primary keratinocytes 10 h after initiation of stimulation with 300 μM of OA or CVA. b Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of Il1β , Cxcl1 , Cxcl2, and Cxcl3 in the epidermis of wild-type mice 6 h after topical application of ethanol (control) (n = 10) or 15 mM of OA (n = 13) or CVA ( n = 14). c , d Wild-type and Elovl6 −/− mice received intradermal and intraperitoneal administration of PBS ( n = 10 and 12, respectively), an IL-1 receptor antagonist ( n = 9 and 8, respectively), or a CXCR-2 antagonist ( n = 5 and 4, respectively) daily for 9 days, from the beginning on the day of tape stripping. The skin was then analyzed for epidermal thickness by histology (hematoxylin and eosin staining) ( c ) and the number of neutrophils (Ly6G) and macrophages (F4/80) by immunohistochemical studies ( d ) on day 9. e A proposed signal pathway from mechanical damage onto the skin to inflammation. Error bars indicate SD; * P

    Journal: Cell Death & Disease

    Article Title: Elovl6 regulates mechanical damage-induced keratinocyte death and skin inflammation

    doi: 10.1038/s41419-018-1226-1

    Figure Lengend Snippet: CVA increased IL-1β, CXCL-1, CXCL-2, and CXCL-3 production. a Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of HMGB-1 ( n = 4 per group) and cytokine bead array of IL-1α ( n = 3 per group) in the supernatant of cultured primary keratinocytes 10 h after initiation of stimulation with 300 μM of OA or CVA. b Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of Il1β , Cxcl1 , Cxcl2, and Cxcl3 in the epidermis of wild-type mice 6 h after topical application of ethanol (control) (n = 10) or 15 mM of OA (n = 13) or CVA ( n = 14). c , d Wild-type and Elovl6 −/− mice received intradermal and intraperitoneal administration of PBS ( n = 10 and 12, respectively), an IL-1 receptor antagonist ( n = 9 and 8, respectively), or a CXCR-2 antagonist ( n = 5 and 4, respectively) daily for 9 days, from the beginning on the day of tape stripping. The skin was then analyzed for epidermal thickness by histology (hematoxylin and eosin staining) ( c ) and the number of neutrophils (Ly6G) and macrophages (F4/80) by immunohistochemical studies ( d ) on day 9. e A proposed signal pathway from mechanical damage onto the skin to inflammation. Error bars indicate SD; * P

    Article Snippet: For stimulation of keratinocytes in vitro, primary keratinocytes were stimulated with 500 ng/ml of bovine HMGB-1 or mouse IL-1α.

    Techniques: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Cell Culture, Quantitative RT-PCR, Mouse Assay, Stripping Membranes, Staining, Immunohistochemistry