hinfi  (New England Biolabs)


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    HinfI
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    HinfI 25 000 units
    Catalog Number:
    R0155L
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    Category:
    Restriction Enzymes
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    25 000 units
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    Structured Review

    New England Biolabs hinfi
    HinfI
    HinfI 25 000 units
    https://www.bioz.com/result/hinfi/product/New England Biolabs
    Average 97 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    hinfi - by Bioz Stars, 2021-07
    97/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Trypanosoma brucei UMSBP2 is a single-stranded telomeric DNA binding protein essential for chromosome end protection"

    Article Title: Trypanosoma brucei UMSBP2 is a single-stranded telomeric DNA binding protein essential for chromosome end protection

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gky597

    TbUMSBP2 knockdown altered the amount of single stranded telomeric DNA. DNA samples (1 μg) of uninduced cells (−) and cells at day 3 post TbUMSBP2 RNAi induction (+), were digested with HinfI and AluI restriction endonucleases and analyzed by in-gel hybridization to C-probe (AACCCT) 3 or G-probe (AGGGTT) 3 , first under native conditions ( A ) and then re-hybridized again to the same probes after denaturation ( B ), as described under ‘Materials and Methods’. ( C and D ) the histograms represent the relative amounts of native signal (corresponding to single-stranded telomeric DNA) normalized to the denatured (total) signals. The uninduced control samples were set as 1.
    Figure Legend Snippet: TbUMSBP2 knockdown altered the amount of single stranded telomeric DNA. DNA samples (1 μg) of uninduced cells (−) and cells at day 3 post TbUMSBP2 RNAi induction (+), were digested with HinfI and AluI restriction endonucleases and analyzed by in-gel hybridization to C-probe (AACCCT) 3 or G-probe (AGGGTT) 3 , first under native conditions ( A ) and then re-hybridized again to the same probes after denaturation ( B ), as described under ‘Materials and Methods’. ( C and D ) the histograms represent the relative amounts of native signal (corresponding to single-stranded telomeric DNA) normalized to the denatured (total) signals. The uninduced control samples were set as 1.

    Techniques Used: Hybridization

    TbUMSBP2 knockdown decreased G-overhangs and increased C-overhangs and telomeric circles. Equal amounts of DNA samples (5 μg), prepared from uninduced cells (−Tet) and cells at 3 days post TbUMSBP2 RNAi induction (+Tet), were digested with HinfI and analyzed in duplicates by neutral-neutral 2D gel electrophoresis. ( A ) The gels were dried and hybridized in-gel under native assay conditions with a radioactively labeled C-probe, (AACCCT) 3 , or G-probe, (AGGGTT) 3 , to detect single-stranded G-rich or C-rich telomeric repeats, respectively. ( B ) The DNA was subsequently denatured in situ and re-hybridized to the same probes to detect both single- and double-stranded telomeric repeats. Note that after denaturation the hybridization signal was stronger; much shorter exposure was sufficient to visualize the dsDNA and thus ssDNA appears weaker or disappeared. ( C ) A shorter exposure of the gels in (B), showing comparable amounts of telomeric DNA. Schemes on the right illustrate the different arches of telomeric DNA observed by hybridization to native or denatured DNA, following ( 62 , 63 ). Indicated are G- and C- overhangs associated with linear dsDNA, ssDNA (SS-G and SS-C), telomere circles (t-circles) and a subset of t-circles containing gaps in the G-strand and single stranded regions of the C-strand (termed here as C-circles).
    Figure Legend Snippet: TbUMSBP2 knockdown decreased G-overhangs and increased C-overhangs and telomeric circles. Equal amounts of DNA samples (5 μg), prepared from uninduced cells (−Tet) and cells at 3 days post TbUMSBP2 RNAi induction (+Tet), were digested with HinfI and analyzed in duplicates by neutral-neutral 2D gel electrophoresis. ( A ) The gels were dried and hybridized in-gel under native assay conditions with a radioactively labeled C-probe, (AACCCT) 3 , or G-probe, (AGGGTT) 3 , to detect single-stranded G-rich or C-rich telomeric repeats, respectively. ( B ) The DNA was subsequently denatured in situ and re-hybridized to the same probes to detect both single- and double-stranded telomeric repeats. Note that after denaturation the hybridization signal was stronger; much shorter exposure was sufficient to visualize the dsDNA and thus ssDNA appears weaker or disappeared. ( C ) A shorter exposure of the gels in (B), showing comparable amounts of telomeric DNA. Schemes on the right illustrate the different arches of telomeric DNA observed by hybridization to native or denatured DNA, following ( 62 , 63 ). Indicated are G- and C- overhangs associated with linear dsDNA, ssDNA (SS-G and SS-C), telomere circles (t-circles) and a subset of t-circles containing gaps in the G-strand and single stranded regions of the C-strand (termed here as C-circles).

    Techniques Used: Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis, Electrophoresis, Labeling, In Situ, Hybridization

    2) Product Images from "Transformation-induced stress at telomeres is counteracted through changes in the telomeric proteome including SAMHD1"

    Article Title: Transformation-induced stress at telomeres is counteracted through changes in the telomeric proteome including SAMHD1

    Journal: Life Science Alliance

    doi: 10.26508/lsa.201800121

    Co-depletion of TRF1 and SAMHD1 does not lead to rapid telomere shortening. (A) TRF analysis of genomic DNA prepared from HeLa cells transfected with indicated pSuper plasmids. Genomic DNA was digested overnight with HinfI and RsaI and fractionated on an agarose gel. (B) Phi29-dependent telomeric circles (T-circles) amplification assay. Genomic DNA prepared from HeLa cells transfected with indicated pSuper plasmids was digested overnight with HinfI and RsaI, and 0.75 μg of DNA was used for phi29-dependent amplification reaction. Genomic DNA from U2OS cell line was used as a positive control. Arrows indicate T-circle amplification products.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Co-depletion of TRF1 and SAMHD1 does not lead to rapid telomere shortening. (A) TRF analysis of genomic DNA prepared from HeLa cells transfected with indicated pSuper plasmids. Genomic DNA was digested overnight with HinfI and RsaI and fractionated on an agarose gel. (B) Phi29-dependent telomeric circles (T-circles) amplification assay. Genomic DNA prepared from HeLa cells transfected with indicated pSuper plasmids was digested overnight with HinfI and RsaI, and 0.75 μg of DNA was used for phi29-dependent amplification reaction. Genomic DNA from U2OS cell line was used as a positive control. Arrows indicate T-circle amplification products.

    Techniques Used: Transfection, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Amplification, Positive Control

    3) Product Images from "Discovery of DNA methylation markers in cervical cancer using relaxation ranking"

    Article Title: Discovery of DNA methylation markers in cervical cancer using relaxation ranking

    Journal: BMC Medical Genomics

    doi: 10.1186/1755-8794-1-57

    Representative COBRA on 3 gene promoters ( SST , AUTS2 and SYCP3 ) . A: schematic representation of of the restriction enzyme sites in the virtual hypermethylated BSP nucleotide sequence after bisulfite treatment.(B: BstUI , T: TaqI and H: HinfI ). Bars represent CG site and arrow is TSS (retrieved from Ensembl). B: Result of COBRA analysis of BSP products of tumour samples (T1-T10) and 5 normal cervices (N1-N5), in vitro methylated DNA as a positive control (IV) and leukocyte DNA as a negative (unmethylated) control (L); lane B is water blank.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Representative COBRA on 3 gene promoters ( SST , AUTS2 and SYCP3 ) . A: schematic representation of of the restriction enzyme sites in the virtual hypermethylated BSP nucleotide sequence after bisulfite treatment.(B: BstUI , T: TaqI and H: HinfI ). Bars represent CG site and arrow is TSS (retrieved from Ensembl). B: Result of COBRA analysis of BSP products of tumour samples (T1-T10) and 5 normal cervices (N1-N5), in vitro methylated DNA as a positive control (IV) and leukocyte DNA as a negative (unmethylated) control (L); lane B is water blank.

    Techniques Used: Combined Bisulfite Restriction Analysis Assay, Sequencing, In Vitro, Methylation, Positive Control

    4) Product Images from "Trypanosoma brucei UMSBP2 is a single-stranded telomeric DNA binding protein essential for chromosome end protection"

    Article Title: Trypanosoma brucei UMSBP2 is a single-stranded telomeric DNA binding protein essential for chromosome end protection

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gky597

    TbUMSBP2 knockdown altered the amount of single stranded telomeric DNA. DNA samples (1 μg) of uninduced cells (−) and cells at day 3 post TbUMSBP2 RNAi induction (+), were digested with HinfI and AluI restriction endonucleases and analyzed by in-gel hybridization to C-probe (AACCCT) 3 or G-probe (AGGGTT) 3 , first under native conditions ( A ) and then re-hybridized again to the same probes after denaturation ( B ), as described under ‘Materials and Methods’. ( C and D ) the histograms represent the relative amounts of native signal (corresponding to single-stranded telomeric DNA) normalized to the denatured (total) signals. The uninduced control samples were set as 1.
    Figure Legend Snippet: TbUMSBP2 knockdown altered the amount of single stranded telomeric DNA. DNA samples (1 μg) of uninduced cells (−) and cells at day 3 post TbUMSBP2 RNAi induction (+), were digested with HinfI and AluI restriction endonucleases and analyzed by in-gel hybridization to C-probe (AACCCT) 3 or G-probe (AGGGTT) 3 , first under native conditions ( A ) and then re-hybridized again to the same probes after denaturation ( B ), as described under ‘Materials and Methods’. ( C and D ) the histograms represent the relative amounts of native signal (corresponding to single-stranded telomeric DNA) normalized to the denatured (total) signals. The uninduced control samples were set as 1.

    Techniques Used: Hybridization

    TbUMSBP2 knockdown decreased G-overhangs and increased C-overhangs and telomeric circles. Equal amounts of DNA samples (5 μg), prepared from uninduced cells (−Tet) and cells at 3 days post TbUMSBP2 RNAi induction (+Tet), were digested with HinfI and analyzed in duplicates by neutral-neutral 2D gel electrophoresis. ( A ) The gels were dried and hybridized in-gel under native assay conditions with a radioactively labeled C-probe, (AACCCT) 3 , or G-probe, (AGGGTT) 3 , to detect single-stranded G-rich or C-rich telomeric repeats, respectively. ( B ) The DNA was subsequently denatured in situ and re-hybridized to the same probes to detect both single- and double-stranded telomeric repeats. Note that after denaturation the hybridization signal was stronger; much shorter exposure was sufficient to visualize the dsDNA and thus ssDNA appears weaker or disappeared. ( C ). Indicated are G- and C- overhangs associated with linear dsDNA, ssDNA (SS-G and SS-C), telomere circles (t-circles) and a subset of t-circles containing gaps in the G-strand and single stranded regions of the C-strand (termed here as C-circles).
    Figure Legend Snippet: TbUMSBP2 knockdown decreased G-overhangs and increased C-overhangs and telomeric circles. Equal amounts of DNA samples (5 μg), prepared from uninduced cells (−Tet) and cells at 3 days post TbUMSBP2 RNAi induction (+Tet), were digested with HinfI and analyzed in duplicates by neutral-neutral 2D gel electrophoresis. ( A ) The gels were dried and hybridized in-gel under native assay conditions with a radioactively labeled C-probe, (AACCCT) 3 , or G-probe, (AGGGTT) 3 , to detect single-stranded G-rich or C-rich telomeric repeats, respectively. ( B ) The DNA was subsequently denatured in situ and re-hybridized to the same probes to detect both single- and double-stranded telomeric repeats. Note that after denaturation the hybridization signal was stronger; much shorter exposure was sufficient to visualize the dsDNA and thus ssDNA appears weaker or disappeared. ( C ). Indicated are G- and C- overhangs associated with linear dsDNA, ssDNA (SS-G and SS-C), telomere circles (t-circles) and a subset of t-circles containing gaps in the G-strand and single stranded regions of the C-strand (termed here as C-circles).

    Techniques Used: Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis, Electrophoresis, Labeling, In Situ, Hybridization

    5) Product Images from "WRN Controls Formation of Extrachromosomal Telomeric Circles and Is Required for TRF2ΔB-Mediated Telomere Shortening ▿-Mediated Telomere Shortening ▿ †"

    Article Title: WRN Controls Formation of Extrachromosomal Telomeric Circles and Is Required for TRF2ΔB-Mediated Telomere Shortening ▿-Mediated Telomere Shortening ▿ †

    Journal: Molecular and Cellular Biology

    doi: 10.1128/MCB.01364-07

    Telomeric circles are present in telomerase-positive WS fibroblasts in the absence of TRF2 ΔB . DNA isolated from normal (A) and WS (C) fibroblasts transduced with lentiviruses expressing the indicated proteins was digested with HinfI and RsaI, separated by size and shape, blotted, and probed with a telomeric (CCCTAA) repeat probe. Arrows indicate arcs of telomeric DNA circles. Circularized λ × HindIII DNA fragments were used as molecular size markers (the 23- and 4.4-kb fragments have one cos end and do not circularize). Samples shown in panels A and C were run and processed in parallel under the same hybridization and washing conditions. (B) DNA isolated from ALT fibroblasts was separated by 2DGE and probed with a telomeric (CCCTAA) 4 probe. The data shown are representative of at least three independent experiments. The approximate level of telomeric circles (expressed as a percentage of the total telomeric DNA) present in each sample was estimated (see Fig. S4 in the supplemental material) and is shown in the upper right corner of each panel. The samples shown in each panel were blotted, hybridized, washed, and analyzed simultaneously.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Telomeric circles are present in telomerase-positive WS fibroblasts in the absence of TRF2 ΔB . DNA isolated from normal (A) and WS (C) fibroblasts transduced with lentiviruses expressing the indicated proteins was digested with HinfI and RsaI, separated by size and shape, blotted, and probed with a telomeric (CCCTAA) repeat probe. Arrows indicate arcs of telomeric DNA circles. Circularized λ × HindIII DNA fragments were used as molecular size markers (the 23- and 4.4-kb fragments have one cos end and do not circularize). Samples shown in panels A and C were run and processed in parallel under the same hybridization and washing conditions. (B) DNA isolated from ALT fibroblasts was separated by 2DGE and probed with a telomeric (CCCTAA) 4 probe. The data shown are representative of at least three independent experiments. The approximate level of telomeric circles (expressed as a percentage of the total telomeric DNA) present in each sample was estimated (see Fig. S4 in the supplemental material) and is shown in the upper right corner of each panel. The samples shown in each panel were blotted, hybridized, washed, and analyzed simultaneously.

    Techniques Used: Isolation, Transduction, Expressing, Hybridization

    TRF2 ΔB -induced cell senescence, TIFs, and telomere shortening are reconstituted in WS fibroblasts genetically complemented with wild-type WRN but not enzymatically deficient WRN variants. (A) Expression of wild-type and mutant forms of WRN in WS cells. WS cells were infected with lentiviruses for the expression wild-type, helicase-deficient, exonuclease-deficient, and helicase- and exonuclease-deficient forms of WRN and cultured for 2 weeks. The parental and genetically complemented cells lines were then transduced with a control virus or a virus for the expression of Flag-TRF2 ΔB or Flag-TRF2. Analysis of protein expression was performed by preparation of nuclear extracts, followed by Western blotting with anti-WRN (top panel), antitubulin (middle panel), and anti-Flag (bottom panel) antibodies. (B) Detection of SA-βgal activity. Telomerase-positive WS fibroblasts transduced with the indicated lentiviruses were cultured for 8 days, fixed, and stained for SA-βgal. Five hundred cells of each line were analyzed in duplicate plates. Each bar represents the mean ± the standard deviation of three independent experiments ( n = 3) carried out in duplicate. WT, wild type. (C) Detection of 53BP1 and TRF1 in WS fibroblasts consecutively transduced with lentiviruses expressing the indicated proteins with antibodies against 53BP1 (green) and TRF1 (red) 1 day after the second transduction. For the quantitation of 53BP1 foci and 53BP1 and TRF1 colocalization, see Fig. S1 in the supplemental material. (D) The parental and genetically complemented cell lines were transduced with control lentivirus (lanes 1 and 4) and lentiviruses for the expression of Flag-TRF2 ΔB (lanes 2 and 5) or Flag-TRF2 (lanes 3 and 6). Cells were harvested 8 days after lentivirus transduction, and genomic DNA was isolated and digested with HinfI and RsaI. Equal amounts (2 μg) of digested genomic DNA were separated by electrophoresis on a 0.8% agarose gel, followed by Southern blot analysis with a radiolabeled (TTAGGG) 3 probe. Southern blot analyses were performed on three independent samples of WS cells transduced with lentiviruses expressing the indicated proteins. The telomeric signal was normalized to the H1.1 gene probe for all lanes (see Fig. S2 in the supplemental material), and the normalized values ± standard deviations, expressed as the telomeric signal relative to the vector control for each cell line, from three independent experiments ( n = 3) are shown below the blots.
    Figure Legend Snippet: TRF2 ΔB -induced cell senescence, TIFs, and telomere shortening are reconstituted in WS fibroblasts genetically complemented with wild-type WRN but not enzymatically deficient WRN variants. (A) Expression of wild-type and mutant forms of WRN in WS cells. WS cells were infected with lentiviruses for the expression wild-type, helicase-deficient, exonuclease-deficient, and helicase- and exonuclease-deficient forms of WRN and cultured for 2 weeks. The parental and genetically complemented cells lines were then transduced with a control virus or a virus for the expression of Flag-TRF2 ΔB or Flag-TRF2. Analysis of protein expression was performed by preparation of nuclear extracts, followed by Western blotting with anti-WRN (top panel), antitubulin (middle panel), and anti-Flag (bottom panel) antibodies. (B) Detection of SA-βgal activity. Telomerase-positive WS fibroblasts transduced with the indicated lentiviruses were cultured for 8 days, fixed, and stained for SA-βgal. Five hundred cells of each line were analyzed in duplicate plates. Each bar represents the mean ± the standard deviation of three independent experiments ( n = 3) carried out in duplicate. WT, wild type. (C) Detection of 53BP1 and TRF1 in WS fibroblasts consecutively transduced with lentiviruses expressing the indicated proteins with antibodies against 53BP1 (green) and TRF1 (red) 1 day after the second transduction. For the quantitation of 53BP1 foci and 53BP1 and TRF1 colocalization, see Fig. S1 in the supplemental material. (D) The parental and genetically complemented cell lines were transduced with control lentivirus (lanes 1 and 4) and lentiviruses for the expression of Flag-TRF2 ΔB (lanes 2 and 5) or Flag-TRF2 (lanes 3 and 6). Cells were harvested 8 days after lentivirus transduction, and genomic DNA was isolated and digested with HinfI and RsaI. Equal amounts (2 μg) of digested genomic DNA were separated by electrophoresis on a 0.8% agarose gel, followed by Southern blot analysis with a radiolabeled (TTAGGG) 3 probe. Southern blot analyses were performed on three independent samples of WS cells transduced with lentiviruses expressing the indicated proteins. The telomeric signal was normalized to the H1.1 gene probe for all lanes (see Fig. S2 in the supplemental material), and the normalized values ± standard deviations, expressed as the telomeric signal relative to the vector control for each cell line, from three independent experiments ( n = 3) are shown below the blots.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Mutagenesis, Infection, Cell Culture, Transduction, Western Blot, Activity Assay, Staining, Standard Deviation, Quantitation Assay, Isolation, Electrophoresis, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Southern Blot, Plasmid Preparation

    TRF2 ΔB induces telomere shortening in normal but not WS fibroblasts. Normal and WS fibroblasts expressing Flag-TRF2 ΔB (lanes 2, 5, 9, and 11) and Flag-TRF2 (lanes 3 and 6), along with normal and WS fibroblasts transduced with control viruses (lanes 1, 4, 8, and 10), were harvested 8 days after lentivirus transduction. Equal amounts of genomic DNA digested with HinfI and RsaI were separated by electrophoresis on a 0.8% agarose gel and analyzed by Southern blotting with a radiolabeled (TTAGGG) 3 probe. The molecular mass standards shown on right side were generated by digestion of lambda DNA with restriction endonuclease HindIII. Southern blot analyses were performed on three independent samples of normal and WS cells transduced with lentiviruses expressing the indicated proteins. The telomeric signal was normalized to the H1.1 gene probe for all lanes (see Fig. S2 in the supplemental material), and the normalized values ± standard deviations, expressed as the telomeric signal relative to the vector control for each cell line, from three independent experiments ( n = 3) are shown below the blots.
    Figure Legend Snippet: TRF2 ΔB induces telomere shortening in normal but not WS fibroblasts. Normal and WS fibroblasts expressing Flag-TRF2 ΔB (lanes 2, 5, 9, and 11) and Flag-TRF2 (lanes 3 and 6), along with normal and WS fibroblasts transduced with control viruses (lanes 1, 4, 8, and 10), were harvested 8 days after lentivirus transduction. Equal amounts of genomic DNA digested with HinfI and RsaI were separated by electrophoresis on a 0.8% agarose gel and analyzed by Southern blotting with a radiolabeled (TTAGGG) 3 probe. The molecular mass standards shown on right side were generated by digestion of lambda DNA with restriction endonuclease HindIII. Southern blot analyses were performed on three independent samples of normal and WS cells transduced with lentiviruses expressing the indicated proteins. The telomeric signal was normalized to the H1.1 gene probe for all lanes (see Fig. S2 in the supplemental material), and the normalized values ± standard deviations, expressed as the telomeric signal relative to the vector control for each cell line, from three independent experiments ( n = 3) are shown below the blots.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Transduction, Electrophoresis, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Southern Blot, Generated, Lambda DNA Preparation, Plasmid Preparation

    Expression of wild-type WRN but not enzymatically deficient WRN variants in WS fibroblasts leads to a reduction in telomeric circles, which are reformed upon the overexpression of TRF2 ΔB . (A) DNA isolated from WS fibroblasts transduced with a vector control lentivirus or a lentivirus expressing WRN was digested with HinfI and RsaI, separated by 2DGE, blotted, and probed with a telomeric (CCCTAA) 4 probe. (B) DNA isolated from WS fibroblasts transduced with a lentivirus expressing a WRN variant lacking either exonuclease or helicase activity was digested with HinfI and RsaI, separated by 2DGE, blotted, and probed with a telomeric (CCCTAA) 4 probe. Arrows show arcs of telomeric DNA circles. (C) DNA isolated from WRN-complemented WS fibroblasts was transduced with a control lentivirus or a lentivirus expressing TRF2 ΔB , digested with HinfI and RsaI, separated by 2DGE, and probed with a telomeric (CCCTAA) 4 probe. The samples shown in each panel were run and processed in parallel under the same hybridization and washing conditions. The approximate level of telomeric circles present in each sample (expressed as a percentage of the total telomeric DNA) was estimated (see Fig. S4 in the supplemental material) and is shown in the upper right corner of each panel. The samples shown in each panel were blotted, hybridized, washed, and analyzed simultaneously.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Expression of wild-type WRN but not enzymatically deficient WRN variants in WS fibroblasts leads to a reduction in telomeric circles, which are reformed upon the overexpression of TRF2 ΔB . (A) DNA isolated from WS fibroblasts transduced with a vector control lentivirus or a lentivirus expressing WRN was digested with HinfI and RsaI, separated by 2DGE, blotted, and probed with a telomeric (CCCTAA) 4 probe. (B) DNA isolated from WS fibroblasts transduced with a lentivirus expressing a WRN variant lacking either exonuclease or helicase activity was digested with HinfI and RsaI, separated by 2DGE, blotted, and probed with a telomeric (CCCTAA) 4 probe. Arrows show arcs of telomeric DNA circles. (C) DNA isolated from WRN-complemented WS fibroblasts was transduced with a control lentivirus or a lentivirus expressing TRF2 ΔB , digested with HinfI and RsaI, separated by 2DGE, and probed with a telomeric (CCCTAA) 4 probe. The samples shown in each panel were run and processed in parallel under the same hybridization and washing conditions. The approximate level of telomeric circles present in each sample (expressed as a percentage of the total telomeric DNA) was estimated (see Fig. S4 in the supplemental material) and is shown in the upper right corner of each panel. The samples shown in each panel were blotted, hybridized, washed, and analyzed simultaneously.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Over Expression, Isolation, Transduction, Plasmid Preparation, Variant Assay, Activity Assay, Hybridization

    6) Product Images from "The Caulobacter crescentus DNA-(adenine-N6)-methyltransferase CcrM methylates DNA in a distributive manner"

    Article Title: The Caulobacter crescentus DNA-(adenine-N6)-methyltransferase CcrM methylates DNA in a distributive manner

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gkr768

    Various substrates used for studying CcrM processivity. ( A ) Substrate used by Berdis et al. ( 14 ) to study CcrM processivity, referred to as N 6 60/66-mer. Two GANTC target sites are present, hemimethylated on the upper strand. HindII target sites (GTYRAC) coupled to CcrM target sites were used to screen for methylation on the lower strand. However, only one of the two HindII sites is present, making it impossible to probe the methylation state of the second site. ( B ) The distribution of GANTC sequences (shown as HinfI target sequences) throughout the pUC19 plasmid. The position of each sequence is indicated relative to the plasmid's replication origin. The vector contains a single NdeI target site, which was used in conjunction with HinfI for vector linearization, to facilitate viewing of the progression toward fully methylated state. ( C ) 129-mer substrate containing two CcrM target sites. The expected size of the fragments obtained after HinfI digestion of completely unmethylated, partially methylated and fully methylated substrates are indicated. ( D ) 129-mer_HM substrate used to probe CcrM activity over hemimethylated GANTC sites. A M.TaqI methylation site (TCGA), as well as a HincII restriction site (GTYRAC) were linked to the GANTC site. M.TaqI-established methylation occurs as shown earlier, creating two GANTC sites hemimethylated on the lower strand. CcrM-catalyzed methylation of the upper strand was probed through protection from HincII digestion, which is blocked by hemimethylation.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Various substrates used for studying CcrM processivity. ( A ) Substrate used by Berdis et al. ( 14 ) to study CcrM processivity, referred to as N 6 60/66-mer. Two GANTC target sites are present, hemimethylated on the upper strand. HindII target sites (GTYRAC) coupled to CcrM target sites were used to screen for methylation on the lower strand. However, only one of the two HindII sites is present, making it impossible to probe the methylation state of the second site. ( B ) The distribution of GANTC sequences (shown as HinfI target sequences) throughout the pUC19 plasmid. The position of each sequence is indicated relative to the plasmid's replication origin. The vector contains a single NdeI target site, which was used in conjunction with HinfI for vector linearization, to facilitate viewing of the progression toward fully methylated state. ( C ) 129-mer substrate containing two CcrM target sites. The expected size of the fragments obtained after HinfI digestion of completely unmethylated, partially methylated and fully methylated substrates are indicated. ( D ) 129-mer_HM substrate used to probe CcrM activity over hemimethylated GANTC sites. A M.TaqI methylation site (TCGA), as well as a HincII restriction site (GTYRAC) were linked to the GANTC site. M.TaqI-established methylation occurs as shown earlier, creating two GANTC sites hemimethylated on the lower strand. CcrM-catalyzed methylation of the upper strand was probed through protection from HincII digestion, which is blocked by hemimethylation.

    Techniques Used: Methylation, Plasmid Preparation, Sequencing, Activity Assay

    CcrM processivity assayed using pUC19 ( Figure 1 B) as substrate. A double digestion with HinfI and NdeI was performed to assess the methylation state of the plasmid. pUC19 plasmid linearized by NdeI digestion was used as a control (lane marked C). A large number of incompletely methylated intermediates are formed throughout the duration of the experiment, supporting the conclusion that CcrM is a distributive, rather than a processive methyltransferase. The marker lane (lane marked M) contains the GeneRuler molecular weight marker, provided by Fermentas. The sizes of the major bands are indicated on the left.
    Figure Legend Snippet: CcrM processivity assayed using pUC19 ( Figure 1 B) as substrate. A double digestion with HinfI and NdeI was performed to assess the methylation state of the plasmid. pUC19 plasmid linearized by NdeI digestion was used as a control (lane marked C). A large number of incompletely methylated intermediates are formed throughout the duration of the experiment, supporting the conclusion that CcrM is a distributive, rather than a processive methyltransferase. The marker lane (lane marked M) contains the GeneRuler molecular weight marker, provided by Fermentas. The sizes of the major bands are indicated on the left.

    Techniques Used: Methylation, Plasmid Preparation, Marker, Molecular Weight

    CcrM processivity assays using the 129-mer DNA as substrate ( Figure 2 C) and conducted in the absence ( A ) and with the addition ( B ) of competitor DNA. The expected running distance of partially protected intermediates is indicated on the right by asterisk. Undigested 129-mer DNA was used as control, indicating the expected running distance of fully protected DNA. The marker lane (indicated by M) contained PCR marker provided by New England Biolabs. The sizes of the bands are indicated on the left. ( A ) Initially all of the DNA is efficiently digested by HinfI (time point 0.1 min). Increasing protection from HinfI digestion is established over time, with nearly complete protection being achieved after 120 min. The 96 bp intermediate is present in large amounts, as well as low levels of the 54 bp intermediate, indicating distributive methylation by CcrM, as well as a preference for one target sequence over the other. ( B ) Competitor DNA is added after 3 min (indicated by the arrow). The protection state of the 129-mer substrate remains the same after supplementation with competitor, suggesting dissociation of CcrM from incompletely methylated DNA. The weak band appearing in the last lanes at low molecular weights corresponds to the 23-mer competitor which has become methylated and, thereby, protected against HinfI cleavage.
    Figure Legend Snippet: CcrM processivity assays using the 129-mer DNA as substrate ( Figure 2 C) and conducted in the absence ( A ) and with the addition ( B ) of competitor DNA. The expected running distance of partially protected intermediates is indicated on the right by asterisk. Undigested 129-mer DNA was used as control, indicating the expected running distance of fully protected DNA. The marker lane (indicated by M) contained PCR marker provided by New England Biolabs. The sizes of the bands are indicated on the left. ( A ) Initially all of the DNA is efficiently digested by HinfI (time point 0.1 min). Increasing protection from HinfI digestion is established over time, with nearly complete protection being achieved after 120 min. The 96 bp intermediate is present in large amounts, as well as low levels of the 54 bp intermediate, indicating distributive methylation by CcrM, as well as a preference for one target sequence over the other. ( B ) Competitor DNA is added after 3 min (indicated by the arrow). The protection state of the 129-mer substrate remains the same after supplementation with competitor, suggesting dissociation of CcrM from incompletely methylated DNA. The weak band appearing in the last lanes at low molecular weights corresponds to the 23-mer competitor which has become methylated and, thereby, protected against HinfI cleavage.

    Techniques Used: Marker, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Methylation, Sequencing

    7) Product Images from "Ligation of high-melting-temperature 'clamp' sequence extends the scanning range of rare point-mutational analysis by constant denaturant capillary electrophoresis (CDCE) to most of the human genome"

    Article Title: Ligation of high-melting-temperature 'clamp' sequence extends the scanning range of rare point-mutational analysis by constant denaturant capillary electrophoresis (CDCE) to most of the human genome

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    doi:

    Restriction digestion by AhdI and HinfI generates the human HPRT target (cDNA bp 222–318) with a natural clamp (cDNA bp 141–217). Restriction digestion by ApoI, followed by ligation of a GC-base-rich clamp to the ApoI restriction end ( HPRT cDNA bp 218–221), generates the target with a ligated clamp. The filled bars indicate the positions of the PCR primers (P3, L1 and P1). The solid and dotted lines represent the melting profiles of the target wild-type with the natural and ligated clamps, respectively. These profiles were constructed using WinMelt™ 2.0 (Medprobe, Norway).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Restriction digestion by AhdI and HinfI generates the human HPRT target (cDNA bp 222–318) with a natural clamp (cDNA bp 141–217). Restriction digestion by ApoI, followed by ligation of a GC-base-rich clamp to the ApoI restriction end ( HPRT cDNA bp 218–221), generates the target with a ligated clamp. The filled bars indicate the positions of the PCR primers (P3, L1 and P1). The solid and dotted lines represent the melting profiles of the target wild-type with the natural and ligated clamps, respectively. These profiles were constructed using WinMelt™ 2.0 (Medprobe, Norway).

    Techniques Used: Ligation, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Construct

    Flow diagram of rare point-mutational analysis by CDCE/hifiPCR: natural versus ligated clamp. The copy numbers of the wild-type and of a mutant added at an initial fraction of 5 × 10 –5 are shown after each step. Restriction digestion by BstNI and DraI liberates the HPRT target-embedded fragment of 438 bp from genomic DNA. The lines in this fragment indicate the positions of the G to A transition and of the G to T transversion carried by the internal standards of the 438 bp PCR fragment and of the HPRT Munich cells, respectively. The restriction-recognition sites of AhdI, ApoI and HinfI are also indicated by the lines. The open and filled bars indicate the positions of the probes (Probe 1 and Probe 2) used for target isolation and of the PCR primers (P3 and P1), respectively.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Flow diagram of rare point-mutational analysis by CDCE/hifiPCR: natural versus ligated clamp. The copy numbers of the wild-type and of a mutant added at an initial fraction of 5 × 10 –5 are shown after each step. Restriction digestion by BstNI and DraI liberates the HPRT target-embedded fragment of 438 bp from genomic DNA. The lines in this fragment indicate the positions of the G to A transition and of the G to T transversion carried by the internal standards of the 438 bp PCR fragment and of the HPRT Munich cells, respectively. The restriction-recognition sites of AhdI, ApoI and HinfI are also indicated by the lines. The open and filled bars indicate the positions of the probes (Probe 1 and Probe 2) used for target isolation and of the PCR primers (P3 and P1), respectively.

    Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry, Mutagenesis, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Isolation

    8) Product Images from "Telomere damage induces internal loops that generate telomeric circles"

    Article Title: Telomere damage induces internal loops that generate telomeric circles

    Journal: bioRxiv

    doi: 10.1101/2020.01.29.924951

    A two-step procedure for the purification of mammalian telomeres A. Top: agarose gel showing the separation of the large telomeric repeat fragments from the bulk DNA in a sucrose gradient. Genomic DNA (~2.5 mg) from SV40-MEFs was digested with HinfI and MspI. The digested DNA was separated by centrifugation on a sucrose gradient. Seven fractions were collected and an aliquot (~1/500) of each fraction was loaded on an agarose gel. Bottom: the gel was blotted onto a membrane and hybridized with a TTAGGG repeats probe to verify that telomeric repeats remained in the high molecular weight (HMW) fractions. B. Left: agarose gel showing the separation of the large telomeric repeat fragments from the remaining non-telomeric DNA, in the second purification round. The HMW DNA, contained in the last four fractions of the sucrose gradient described in (A), was recovered and digested with RsaI, AluI, MboI, HinfI, MspI, HphI and MnlI. The digested DNA was separated on a preparative agarose gel and the DNA migrating in the area above 5 kb was extracted from the gel. The image shows an aliquot (~1/100) of the digested DNA, separated on an agarose gel. Right: the gel was blotted onto a membrane and hybridized with a TTAGGG repeats probe to verify that telomeric repeats remained in the HMW area. C. Dot blot analysis showing the enrichment of telomeric repeats. The indicated amounts of DNA from each enrichment step were spotted on a membrane and hybridized either with a probe recognizing the long interspersed BamHI repeats or TTAGGG repeats. The amount of TTAGGG repeat signal/ng was quantified and reported relative to the signal/ng value in the initial, non-enriched DNA. D. Single molecule analysis showing the enrichment of the telomeric repeats. The DNA was combed onto silanized coverslips, denatured in situ and labeled sequentially with an antibody against single-stranded DNA and a Cy3-labeled (TTAGGG) 3 PNA probe.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A two-step procedure for the purification of mammalian telomeres A. Top: agarose gel showing the separation of the large telomeric repeat fragments from the bulk DNA in a sucrose gradient. Genomic DNA (~2.5 mg) from SV40-MEFs was digested with HinfI and MspI. The digested DNA was separated by centrifugation on a sucrose gradient. Seven fractions were collected and an aliquot (~1/500) of each fraction was loaded on an agarose gel. Bottom: the gel was blotted onto a membrane and hybridized with a TTAGGG repeats probe to verify that telomeric repeats remained in the high molecular weight (HMW) fractions. B. Left: agarose gel showing the separation of the large telomeric repeat fragments from the remaining non-telomeric DNA, in the second purification round. The HMW DNA, contained in the last four fractions of the sucrose gradient described in (A), was recovered and digested with RsaI, AluI, MboI, HinfI, MspI, HphI and MnlI. The digested DNA was separated on a preparative agarose gel and the DNA migrating in the area above 5 kb was extracted from the gel. The image shows an aliquot (~1/100) of the digested DNA, separated on an agarose gel. Right: the gel was blotted onto a membrane and hybridized with a TTAGGG repeats probe to verify that telomeric repeats remained in the HMW area. C. Dot blot analysis showing the enrichment of telomeric repeats. The indicated amounts of DNA from each enrichment step were spotted on a membrane and hybridized either with a probe recognizing the long interspersed BamHI repeats or TTAGGG repeats. The amount of TTAGGG repeat signal/ng was quantified and reported relative to the signal/ng value in the initial, non-enriched DNA. D. Single molecule analysis showing the enrichment of the telomeric repeats. The DNA was combed onto silanized coverslips, denatured in situ and labeled sequentially with an antibody against single-stranded DNA and a Cy3-labeled (TTAGGG) 3 PNA probe.

    Techniques Used: Purification, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Centrifugation, Molecular Weight, Dot Blot, In Situ, Labeling

    9) Product Images from "Functional Analysis of the M.HpyAIV DNA Methyltransferase of Helicobacter pylori ▿"

    Article Title: Functional Analysis of the M.HpyAIV DNA Methyltransferase of Helicobacter pylori ▿

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    doi: 10.1128/JB.00108-07

    Purified M.HpyAIV protects a GANTC-containing DNA fragment from HinfI digestion. Increasing concentrations of M.HpyAIV protein incubated with a 778-bp PCR fragment containing one GANTC site and S -adenosylmethionine. HinfI digestion of the GANTC-containing DNA fragment resulted in two fragments of 540 bp and 238 bp. The increased amount of undigested PCR products as a consequence of an increased M.HpyAIV concentration illustrates the in vitro capability of M.HpyAIV to protect GANTC sites from digestion in a concentration-dependent manner. L, ladder (samples in duplicate with increasing amounts of M.HpyAIV added [0, 200, 400, 800, and 1,200 nM]); UC, uncut control.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Purified M.HpyAIV protects a GANTC-containing DNA fragment from HinfI digestion. Increasing concentrations of M.HpyAIV protein incubated with a 778-bp PCR fragment containing one GANTC site and S -adenosylmethionine. HinfI digestion of the GANTC-containing DNA fragment resulted in two fragments of 540 bp and 238 bp. The increased amount of undigested PCR products as a consequence of an increased M.HpyAIV concentration illustrates the in vitro capability of M.HpyAIV to protect GANTC sites from digestion in a concentration-dependent manner. L, ladder (samples in duplicate with increasing amounts of M.HpyAIV added [0, 200, 400, 800, and 1,200 nM]); UC, uncut control.

    Techniques Used: Purification, Incubation, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Concentration Assay, In Vitro

    10) Product Images from "WRN Controls Formation of Extrachromosomal Telomeric Circles and Is Required for TRF2ΔB-Mediated Telomere Shortening ▿-Mediated Telomere Shortening ▿ †"

    Article Title: WRN Controls Formation of Extrachromosomal Telomeric Circles and Is Required for TRF2ΔB-Mediated Telomere Shortening ▿-Mediated Telomere Shortening ▿ †

    Journal: Molecular and Cellular Biology

    doi: 10.1128/MCB.01364-07

    Telomeric circles are present in telomerase-positive WS fibroblasts in the absence of TRF2 ΔB . DNA isolated from normal (A) and WS (C) fibroblasts transduced with lentiviruses expressing the indicated proteins was digested with HinfI and RsaI, separated by size and shape, blotted, and probed with a telomeric (CCCTAA) repeat probe. Arrows indicate arcs of telomeric DNA circles. Circularized λ × HindIII DNA fragments were used as molecular size markers (the 23- and 4.4-kb fragments have one cos end and do not circularize). Samples shown in panels A and C were run and processed in parallel under the same hybridization and washing conditions. (B) DNA isolated from ALT fibroblasts was separated by 2DGE and probed with a telomeric (CCCTAA) 4 probe. The data shown are representative of at least three independent experiments. The approximate level of telomeric circles (expressed as a percentage of the total telomeric DNA) present in each sample was estimated (see Fig. S4 in the supplemental material) and is shown in the upper right corner of each panel. The samples shown in each panel were blotted, hybridized, washed, and analyzed simultaneously.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Telomeric circles are present in telomerase-positive WS fibroblasts in the absence of TRF2 ΔB . DNA isolated from normal (A) and WS (C) fibroblasts transduced with lentiviruses expressing the indicated proteins was digested with HinfI and RsaI, separated by size and shape, blotted, and probed with a telomeric (CCCTAA) repeat probe. Arrows indicate arcs of telomeric DNA circles. Circularized λ × HindIII DNA fragments were used as molecular size markers (the 23- and 4.4-kb fragments have one cos end and do not circularize). Samples shown in panels A and C were run and processed in parallel under the same hybridization and washing conditions. (B) DNA isolated from ALT fibroblasts was separated by 2DGE and probed with a telomeric (CCCTAA) 4 probe. The data shown are representative of at least three independent experiments. The approximate level of telomeric circles (expressed as a percentage of the total telomeric DNA) present in each sample was estimated (see Fig. S4 in the supplemental material) and is shown in the upper right corner of each panel. The samples shown in each panel were blotted, hybridized, washed, and analyzed simultaneously.

    Techniques Used: Isolation, Transduction, Expressing, Hybridization

    TRF2 ΔB -induced cell senescence, TIFs, and telomere shortening are reconstituted in WS fibroblasts genetically complemented with wild-type WRN but not enzymatically deficient WRN variants. (A) Expression of wild-type and mutant forms of WRN in WS cells. WS cells were infected with lentiviruses for the expression wild-type, helicase-deficient, exonuclease-deficient, and helicase- and exonuclease-deficient forms of WRN and cultured for 2 weeks. The parental and genetically complemented cells lines were then transduced with a control virus or a virus for the expression of Flag-TRF2 ΔB or Flag-TRF2. Analysis of protein expression was performed by preparation of nuclear extracts, followed by Western blotting with anti-WRN (top panel), antitubulin (middle panel), and anti-Flag (bottom panel) antibodies. (B) Detection of SA-βgal activity. Telomerase-positive WS fibroblasts transduced with the indicated lentiviruses were cultured for 8 days, fixed, and stained for SA-βgal. Five hundred cells of each line were analyzed in duplicate plates. Each bar represents the mean ± the standard deviation of three independent experiments ( n = 3) carried out in duplicate. WT, wild type. (C) Detection of 53BP1 and TRF1 in WS fibroblasts consecutively transduced with lentiviruses expressing the indicated proteins with antibodies against 53BP1 (green) and TRF1 (red) 1 day after the second transduction. For the quantitation of 53BP1 foci and 53BP1 and TRF1 colocalization, see Fig. S1 in the supplemental material. (D) The parental and genetically complemented cell lines were transduced with control lentivirus (lanes 1 and 4) and lentiviruses for the expression of Flag-TRF2 ΔB (lanes 2 and 5) or Flag-TRF2 (lanes 3 and 6). Cells were harvested 8 days after lentivirus transduction, and genomic DNA was isolated and digested with HinfI and RsaI. Equal amounts (2 μg) of digested genomic DNA were separated by electrophoresis on a 0.8% agarose gel, followed by Southern blot analysis with a radiolabeled (TTAGGG) 3 probe. Southern blot analyses were performed on three independent samples of WS cells transduced with lentiviruses expressing the indicated proteins. The telomeric signal was normalized to the H1.1 gene probe for all lanes (see Fig. S2 in the supplemental material), and the normalized values ± standard deviations, expressed as the telomeric signal relative to the vector control for each cell line, from three independent experiments ( n = 3) are shown below the blots.
    Figure Legend Snippet: TRF2 ΔB -induced cell senescence, TIFs, and telomere shortening are reconstituted in WS fibroblasts genetically complemented with wild-type WRN but not enzymatically deficient WRN variants. (A) Expression of wild-type and mutant forms of WRN in WS cells. WS cells were infected with lentiviruses for the expression wild-type, helicase-deficient, exonuclease-deficient, and helicase- and exonuclease-deficient forms of WRN and cultured for 2 weeks. The parental and genetically complemented cells lines were then transduced with a control virus or a virus for the expression of Flag-TRF2 ΔB or Flag-TRF2. Analysis of protein expression was performed by preparation of nuclear extracts, followed by Western blotting with anti-WRN (top panel), antitubulin (middle panel), and anti-Flag (bottom panel) antibodies. (B) Detection of SA-βgal activity. Telomerase-positive WS fibroblasts transduced with the indicated lentiviruses were cultured for 8 days, fixed, and stained for SA-βgal. Five hundred cells of each line were analyzed in duplicate plates. Each bar represents the mean ± the standard deviation of three independent experiments ( n = 3) carried out in duplicate. WT, wild type. (C) Detection of 53BP1 and TRF1 in WS fibroblasts consecutively transduced with lentiviruses expressing the indicated proteins with antibodies against 53BP1 (green) and TRF1 (red) 1 day after the second transduction. For the quantitation of 53BP1 foci and 53BP1 and TRF1 colocalization, see Fig. S1 in the supplemental material. (D) The parental and genetically complemented cell lines were transduced with control lentivirus (lanes 1 and 4) and lentiviruses for the expression of Flag-TRF2 ΔB (lanes 2 and 5) or Flag-TRF2 (lanes 3 and 6). Cells were harvested 8 days after lentivirus transduction, and genomic DNA was isolated and digested with HinfI and RsaI. Equal amounts (2 μg) of digested genomic DNA were separated by electrophoresis on a 0.8% agarose gel, followed by Southern blot analysis with a radiolabeled (TTAGGG) 3 probe. Southern blot analyses were performed on three independent samples of WS cells transduced with lentiviruses expressing the indicated proteins. The telomeric signal was normalized to the H1.1 gene probe for all lanes (see Fig. S2 in the supplemental material), and the normalized values ± standard deviations, expressed as the telomeric signal relative to the vector control for each cell line, from three independent experiments ( n = 3) are shown below the blots.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Mutagenesis, Infection, Cell Culture, Transduction, Western Blot, Activity Assay, Staining, Standard Deviation, Quantitation Assay, Isolation, Electrophoresis, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Southern Blot, Plasmid Preparation

    TRF2 ΔB induces telomere shortening in normal but not WS fibroblasts. Normal and WS fibroblasts expressing Flag-TRF2 ΔB (lanes 2, 5, 9, and 11) and Flag-TRF2 (lanes 3 and 6), along with normal and WS fibroblasts transduced with control viruses (lanes 1, 4, 8, and 10), were harvested 8 days after lentivirus transduction. Equal amounts of genomic DNA digested with HinfI and RsaI were separated by electrophoresis on a 0.8% agarose gel and analyzed by Southern blotting with a radiolabeled (TTAGGG) 3 probe. The molecular mass standards shown on right side were generated by digestion of lambda DNA with restriction endonuclease HindIII. Southern blot analyses were performed on three independent samples of normal and WS cells transduced with lentiviruses expressing the indicated proteins. The telomeric signal was normalized to the H1.1 gene probe for all lanes (see Fig. S2 in the supplemental material), and the normalized values ± standard deviations, expressed as the telomeric signal relative to the vector control for each cell line, from three independent experiments ( n = 3) are shown below the blots.
    Figure Legend Snippet: TRF2 ΔB induces telomere shortening in normal but not WS fibroblasts. Normal and WS fibroblasts expressing Flag-TRF2 ΔB (lanes 2, 5, 9, and 11) and Flag-TRF2 (lanes 3 and 6), along with normal and WS fibroblasts transduced with control viruses (lanes 1, 4, 8, and 10), were harvested 8 days after lentivirus transduction. Equal amounts of genomic DNA digested with HinfI and RsaI were separated by electrophoresis on a 0.8% agarose gel and analyzed by Southern blotting with a radiolabeled (TTAGGG) 3 probe. The molecular mass standards shown on right side were generated by digestion of lambda DNA with restriction endonuclease HindIII. Southern blot analyses were performed on three independent samples of normal and WS cells transduced with lentiviruses expressing the indicated proteins. The telomeric signal was normalized to the H1.1 gene probe for all lanes (see Fig. S2 in the supplemental material), and the normalized values ± standard deviations, expressed as the telomeric signal relative to the vector control for each cell line, from three independent experiments ( n = 3) are shown below the blots.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Transduction, Electrophoresis, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Southern Blot, Generated, Lambda DNA Preparation, Plasmid Preparation

    Expression of wild-type WRN but not enzymatically deficient WRN variants in WS fibroblasts leads to a reduction in telomeric circles, which are reformed upon the overexpression of TRF2 ΔB . (A) DNA isolated from WS fibroblasts transduced with a vector control lentivirus or a lentivirus expressing WRN was digested with HinfI and RsaI, separated by 2DGE, blotted, and probed with a telomeric (CCCTAA) 4 probe. (B) DNA isolated from WS fibroblasts transduced with a lentivirus expressing a WRN variant lacking either exonuclease or helicase activity was digested with HinfI and RsaI, separated by 2DGE, blotted, and probed with a telomeric (CCCTAA) 4 probe. Arrows show arcs of telomeric DNA circles. (C) DNA isolated from WRN-complemented WS fibroblasts was transduced with a control lentivirus or a lentivirus expressing TRF2 ΔB , digested with HinfI and RsaI, separated by 2DGE, and probed with a telomeric (CCCTAA) 4 probe. The samples shown in each panel were run and processed in parallel under the same hybridization and washing conditions. The approximate level of telomeric circles present in each sample (expressed as a percentage of the total telomeric DNA) was estimated (see Fig. S4 in the supplemental material) and is shown in the upper right corner of each panel. The samples shown in each panel were blotted, hybridized, washed, and analyzed simultaneously.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Expression of wild-type WRN but not enzymatically deficient WRN variants in WS fibroblasts leads to a reduction in telomeric circles, which are reformed upon the overexpression of TRF2 ΔB . (A) DNA isolated from WS fibroblasts transduced with a vector control lentivirus or a lentivirus expressing WRN was digested with HinfI and RsaI, separated by 2DGE, blotted, and probed with a telomeric (CCCTAA) 4 probe. (B) DNA isolated from WS fibroblasts transduced with a lentivirus expressing a WRN variant lacking either exonuclease or helicase activity was digested with HinfI and RsaI, separated by 2DGE, blotted, and probed with a telomeric (CCCTAA) 4 probe. Arrows show arcs of telomeric DNA circles. (C) DNA isolated from WRN-complemented WS fibroblasts was transduced with a control lentivirus or a lentivirus expressing TRF2 ΔB , digested with HinfI and RsaI, separated by 2DGE, and probed with a telomeric (CCCTAA) 4 probe. The samples shown in each panel were run and processed in parallel under the same hybridization and washing conditions. The approximate level of telomeric circles present in each sample (expressed as a percentage of the total telomeric DNA) was estimated (see Fig. S4 in the supplemental material) and is shown in the upper right corner of each panel. The samples shown in each panel were blotted, hybridized, washed, and analyzed simultaneously.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Over Expression, Isolation, Transduction, Plasmid Preparation, Variant Assay, Activity Assay, Hybridization

    11) Product Images from "Trypanosoma brucei UMSBP2 is a single-stranded telomeric DNA binding protein essential for chromosome end protection"

    Article Title: Trypanosoma brucei UMSBP2 is a single-stranded telomeric DNA binding protein essential for chromosome end protection

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gky597

    TbUMSBP2 knockdown altered the amount of single stranded telomeric DNA. DNA samples (1 μg) of uninduced cells (−) and cells at day 3 post TbUMSBP2 RNAi induction (+), were digested with HinfI and AluI restriction endonucleases and analyzed by in-gel hybridization to C-probe (AACCCT) 3 or G-probe (AGGGTT) 3 , first under native conditions ( A ) and then re-hybridized again to the same probes after denaturation ( B ), as described under ‘Materials and Methods’. ( C and D ) the histograms represent the relative amounts of native signal (corresponding to single-stranded telomeric DNA) normalized to the denatured (total) signals. The uninduced control samples were set as 1.
    Figure Legend Snippet: TbUMSBP2 knockdown altered the amount of single stranded telomeric DNA. DNA samples (1 μg) of uninduced cells (−) and cells at day 3 post TbUMSBP2 RNAi induction (+), were digested with HinfI and AluI restriction endonucleases and analyzed by in-gel hybridization to C-probe (AACCCT) 3 or G-probe (AGGGTT) 3 , first under native conditions ( A ) and then re-hybridized again to the same probes after denaturation ( B ), as described under ‘Materials and Methods’. ( C and D ) the histograms represent the relative amounts of native signal (corresponding to single-stranded telomeric DNA) normalized to the denatured (total) signals. The uninduced control samples were set as 1.

    Techniques Used: Hybridization

    TbUMSBP2 knockdown decreased G-overhangs and increased C-overhangs and telomeric circles. Equal amounts of DNA samples (5 μg), prepared from uninduced cells (−Tet) and cells at 3 days post TbUMSBP2 RNAi induction (+Tet), were digested with HinfI and analyzed in duplicates by neutral-neutral 2D gel electrophoresis. ( A ) The gels were dried and hybridized in-gel under native assay conditions with a radioactively labeled C-probe, (AACCCT) 3 , or G-probe, (AGGGTT) 3 , to detect single-stranded G-rich or C-rich telomeric repeats, respectively. ( B ) The DNA was subsequently denatured in situ and re-hybridized to the same probes to detect both single- and double-stranded telomeric repeats. Note that after denaturation the hybridization signal was stronger; much shorter exposure was sufficient to visualize the dsDNA and thus ssDNA appears weaker or disappeared. ( C ). Indicated are G- and C- overhangs associated with linear dsDNA, ssDNA (SS-G and SS-C), telomere circles (t-circles) and a subset of t-circles containing gaps in the G-strand and single stranded regions of the C-strand (termed here as C-circles).
    Figure Legend Snippet: TbUMSBP2 knockdown decreased G-overhangs and increased C-overhangs and telomeric circles. Equal amounts of DNA samples (5 μg), prepared from uninduced cells (−Tet) and cells at 3 days post TbUMSBP2 RNAi induction (+Tet), were digested with HinfI and analyzed in duplicates by neutral-neutral 2D gel electrophoresis. ( A ) The gels were dried and hybridized in-gel under native assay conditions with a radioactively labeled C-probe, (AACCCT) 3 , or G-probe, (AGGGTT) 3 , to detect single-stranded G-rich or C-rich telomeric repeats, respectively. ( B ) The DNA was subsequently denatured in situ and re-hybridized to the same probes to detect both single- and double-stranded telomeric repeats. Note that after denaturation the hybridization signal was stronger; much shorter exposure was sufficient to visualize the dsDNA and thus ssDNA appears weaker or disappeared. ( C ). Indicated are G- and C- overhangs associated with linear dsDNA, ssDNA (SS-G and SS-C), telomere circles (t-circles) and a subset of t-circles containing gaps in the G-strand and single stranded regions of the C-strand (termed here as C-circles).

    Techniques Used: Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis, Electrophoresis, Labeling, In Situ, Hybridization

    12) Product Images from "Telomere damage induces internal loops that generate telomeric circles"

    Article Title: Telomere damage induces internal loops that generate telomeric circles

    Journal: Nature Communications

    doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-19139-4

    A two-step procedure for the purification of mammalian telomeres. a Top: agarose gel showing the separation of the large telomeric repeat fragments from the bulk genomic DNA in a sucrose gradient. Genomic DNA (∼2.5 mg) from SV40LT-immortalized MEFs was digested with HinfI and MspI. The digested DNA was separated by centrifugation on a sucrose gradient. Seven fractions were collected and an aliquot (∼1/500) of each fraction was loaded on an agarose gel. Bottom: the gel was blotted onto a membrane and hybridized with a TTAGGG repeats probe to verify that telomeric repeats remained in the high molecular weight (HMW) fractions. Source data are provided as a Source Data File. b Left: agarose gel showing the separation of the large telomeric repeat fragments from the remaining non-telomeric DNA, in the second purification round. The HMW DNA, contained in the last four fractions of the sucrose gradient described in (a), was recovered and digested with RsaI, AluI, MboI, HinfI, MspI, HphI, and MnlI. The digested DNA was separated on a preparative agarose gel and the DNA migrating in the area above 5 kb was extracted from the gel. The image shows an aliquot (∼1/100) of the digested DNA, separated on an agarose gel. Right: the gel was blotted onto a membrane and hybridized with a TTAGGG repeats probe to verify that telomeric repeats remained in the HMW area. Source data are provided as a Source Data File. c Dot blot analysis showing the enrichment of telomeric repeats. The indicated amounts of DNA from each enrichment step were spotted on a membrane and hybridized either with a probe recognizing the long interspersed L1 repeats or TTAGGG repeats. The amount of TTAGGG repeat signal/ng was quantified and reported relative to the signal/ng value in the initial, non-enriched DNA. Source data are provided as a Source Data File. d Single-molecule analysis showing the enrichment of the telomeric repeats. The DNA was combed onto silanized coverslips, denatured in situ and labeled sequentially with an antibody against single-stranded DNA and a Cy3-labeled (TTAGGG) 3 PNA probe.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A two-step procedure for the purification of mammalian telomeres. a Top: agarose gel showing the separation of the large telomeric repeat fragments from the bulk genomic DNA in a sucrose gradient. Genomic DNA (∼2.5 mg) from SV40LT-immortalized MEFs was digested with HinfI and MspI. The digested DNA was separated by centrifugation on a sucrose gradient. Seven fractions were collected and an aliquot (∼1/500) of each fraction was loaded on an agarose gel. Bottom: the gel was blotted onto a membrane and hybridized with a TTAGGG repeats probe to verify that telomeric repeats remained in the high molecular weight (HMW) fractions. Source data are provided as a Source Data File. b Left: agarose gel showing the separation of the large telomeric repeat fragments from the remaining non-telomeric DNA, in the second purification round. The HMW DNA, contained in the last four fractions of the sucrose gradient described in (a), was recovered and digested with RsaI, AluI, MboI, HinfI, MspI, HphI, and MnlI. The digested DNA was separated on a preparative agarose gel and the DNA migrating in the area above 5 kb was extracted from the gel. The image shows an aliquot (∼1/100) of the digested DNA, separated on an agarose gel. Right: the gel was blotted onto a membrane and hybridized with a TTAGGG repeats probe to verify that telomeric repeats remained in the HMW area. Source data are provided as a Source Data File. c Dot blot analysis showing the enrichment of telomeric repeats. The indicated amounts of DNA from each enrichment step were spotted on a membrane and hybridized either with a probe recognizing the long interspersed L1 repeats or TTAGGG repeats. The amount of TTAGGG repeat signal/ng was quantified and reported relative to the signal/ng value in the initial, non-enriched DNA. Source data are provided as a Source Data File. d Single-molecule analysis showing the enrichment of the telomeric repeats. The DNA was combed onto silanized coverslips, denatured in situ and labeled sequentially with an antibody against single-stranded DNA and a Cy3-labeled (TTAGGG) 3 PNA probe.

    Techniques Used: Purification, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Centrifugation, Molecular Weight, Dot Blot, In Situ, Labeling

    13) Product Images from "Expression and Differentiation between OCT4A and Its Pseudogenes in Human ESCs and Differentiated Adult Somatic Cells"

    Article Title: Expression and Differentiation between OCT4A and Its Pseudogenes in Human ESCs and Differentiated Adult Somatic Cells

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089546

    Schematic representation of restriction sites in 646-PCR amplicon. Specific restriction sites were used to distinguish between embryonic OCT4A transcript and different pseudogenes. Red arrows show restriction sites. ApaI restriction site is present only in embryonic OCT4A and can be used to distinguish embryonic form from all six pseudogenes; after restriction, a 146 bp and 500 bp long fragments are produced. HinfI digestion results in several smaller fragments among which the 434 bp fragment is specific only for OCT4-pg1. BglI digests only OCT4-pg3 into two fragments of 412 bp and 232 bp. XhoI does not digest OCT4-pg4.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic representation of restriction sites in 646-PCR amplicon. Specific restriction sites were used to distinguish between embryonic OCT4A transcript and different pseudogenes. Red arrows show restriction sites. ApaI restriction site is present only in embryonic OCT4A and can be used to distinguish embryonic form from all six pseudogenes; after restriction, a 146 bp and 500 bp long fragments are produced. HinfI digestion results in several smaller fragments among which the 434 bp fragment is specific only for OCT4-pg1. BglI digests only OCT4-pg3 into two fragments of 412 bp and 232 bp. XhoI does not digest OCT4-pg4.

    Techniques Used: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Produced

    14) Product Images from "Telomeric DNA in ALT Cells Is Characterized by Free Telomeric Circles and Heterogeneous t-Loops"

    Article Title: Telomeric DNA in ALT Cells Is Characterized by Free Telomeric Circles and Heterogeneous t-Loops

    Journal: Molecular and Cellular Biology

    doi: 10.1128/MCB.24.22.9948-9957.2004

    Telomere measurement, telomerase activity, and telomere isolation in GM847, GM847-Tert, and VA13 cells. (A) Total DNA (10 μg) was digested with HinfI/HaeIII and separated by PFGE, and the telomeric material was detected by in-gel hybridization with a [γ- 32 P](CCCTAA) 6 probe. The signal was detected using a PhosphorImager. (B) Telomerase activity as determined by TRAP assay. IC refers to the internal PCR control. (C) Total DNA content and relative telomeric DNA abundance in GM847 psoralen photo-cross-linked fractions following genomic DNA digestion with MboI/AluI and fractionation over an A-15m Bio-Gel column. DNA content (solid line, scale on left) as determined by optical density at 260 nm (OD 260). Telomeric signal intensity (dotted line, scale on right) determined by quantitation of slot blot shown in panel D. (D) Slot blot analysis of selected fractions from the column elution shown in panel C. DNA (50 ng) was applied to a nylon membrane, probed with [γ- 32 P](CCCTAA) 6 , and detected by PhosphorImager. Controls included buffer alone (TE), the pRST5 plasmid containing 96 (TTAGGG) repeats, Bluescript (pBS) cloning vector lacking telomeric repeats, undigested GM847 genomic DNA, and MboI/AluI-digested GM847 genomic DNA.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Telomere measurement, telomerase activity, and telomere isolation in GM847, GM847-Tert, and VA13 cells. (A) Total DNA (10 μg) was digested with HinfI/HaeIII and separated by PFGE, and the telomeric material was detected by in-gel hybridization with a [γ- 32 P](CCCTAA) 6 probe. The signal was detected using a PhosphorImager. (B) Telomerase activity as determined by TRAP assay. IC refers to the internal PCR control. (C) Total DNA content and relative telomeric DNA abundance in GM847 psoralen photo-cross-linked fractions following genomic DNA digestion with MboI/AluI and fractionation over an A-15m Bio-Gel column. DNA content (solid line, scale on left) as determined by optical density at 260 nm (OD 260). Telomeric signal intensity (dotted line, scale on right) determined by quantitation of slot blot shown in panel D. (D) Slot blot analysis of selected fractions from the column elution shown in panel C. DNA (50 ng) was applied to a nylon membrane, probed with [γ- 32 P](CCCTAA) 6 , and detected by PhosphorImager. Controls included buffer alone (TE), the pRST5 plasmid containing 96 (TTAGGG) repeats, Bluescript (pBS) cloning vector lacking telomeric repeats, undigested GM847 genomic DNA, and MboI/AluI-digested GM847 genomic DNA.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Isolation, Hybridization, TRAP Assay, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Fractionation, Quantitation Assay, Dot Blot, Plasmid Preparation, Clone Assay

    2D PFGE of TRFs from ALT and non-ALT cells. Total DNA (20 μg) was digested with HinfI/HaeIII and then separated by 2D PFGE. Telomeric material was detected by in-gel hybridization with a [γ- 32 P](CCCTAA) 6 probe and was visualized using a PhosphorImager. The black and white arrows indicate linear- and circular-form DNA, respectively.
    Figure Legend Snippet: 2D PFGE of TRFs from ALT and non-ALT cells. Total DNA (20 μg) was digested with HinfI/HaeIII and then separated by 2D PFGE. Telomeric material was detected by in-gel hybridization with a [γ- 32 P](CCCTAA) 6 probe and was visualized using a PhosphorImager. The black and white arrows indicate linear- and circular-form DNA, respectively.

    Techniques Used: Hybridization

    15) Product Images from "Transformation-induced stress at telomeres is counteracted through changes in the telomeric proteome including SAMHD1"

    Article Title: Transformation-induced stress at telomeres is counteracted through changes in the telomeric proteome including SAMHD1

    Journal: Life Science Alliance

    doi: 10.26508/lsa.201800121

    Co-depletion of TRF1 and SAMHD1 does not lead to rapid telomere shortening. (A) TRF analysis of genomic DNA prepared from HeLa cells transfected with indicated pSuper plasmids. Genomic DNA was digested overnight with HinfI and RsaI and fractionated on an agarose gel. (B) Phi29-dependent telomeric circles (T-circles) amplification assay. Genomic DNA prepared from HeLa cells transfected with indicated pSuper plasmids was digested overnight with HinfI and RsaI, and 0.75 μg of DNA was used for phi29-dependent amplification reaction. Genomic DNA from U2OS cell line was used as a positive control. Arrows indicate T-circle amplification products.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Co-depletion of TRF1 and SAMHD1 does not lead to rapid telomere shortening. (A) TRF analysis of genomic DNA prepared from HeLa cells transfected with indicated pSuper plasmids. Genomic DNA was digested overnight with HinfI and RsaI and fractionated on an agarose gel. (B) Phi29-dependent telomeric circles (T-circles) amplification assay. Genomic DNA prepared from HeLa cells transfected with indicated pSuper plasmids was digested overnight with HinfI and RsaI, and 0.75 μg of DNA was used for phi29-dependent amplification reaction. Genomic DNA from U2OS cell line was used as a positive control. Arrows indicate T-circle amplification products.

    Techniques Used: Transfection, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Amplification, Positive Control

    16) Product Images from "Trypanosoma brucei UMSBP2 is a single-stranded telomeric DNA binding protein essential for chromosome end protection"

    Article Title: Trypanosoma brucei UMSBP2 is a single-stranded telomeric DNA binding protein essential for chromosome end protection

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gky597

    TbUMSBP2 knockdown altered the amount of single stranded telomeric DNA. DNA samples (1 μg) of uninduced cells (−) and cells at day 3 post TbUMSBP2 RNAi induction (+), were digested with HinfI and AluI restriction endonucleases and analyzed by in-gel hybridization to C-probe (AACCCT) 3 or G-probe (AGGGTT) 3 , first under native conditions ( A ) and then re-hybridized again to the same probes after denaturation ( B ), as described under ‘Materials and Methods’. ( C and D ) the histograms represent the relative amounts of native signal (corresponding to single-stranded telomeric DNA) normalized to the denatured (total) signals. The uninduced control samples were set as 1.
    Figure Legend Snippet: TbUMSBP2 knockdown altered the amount of single stranded telomeric DNA. DNA samples (1 μg) of uninduced cells (−) and cells at day 3 post TbUMSBP2 RNAi induction (+), were digested with HinfI and AluI restriction endonucleases and analyzed by in-gel hybridization to C-probe (AACCCT) 3 or G-probe (AGGGTT) 3 , first under native conditions ( A ) and then re-hybridized again to the same probes after denaturation ( B ), as described under ‘Materials and Methods’. ( C and D ) the histograms represent the relative amounts of native signal (corresponding to single-stranded telomeric DNA) normalized to the denatured (total) signals. The uninduced control samples were set as 1.

    Techniques Used: Hybridization

    TbUMSBP2 knockdown decreased G-overhangs and increased C-overhangs and telomeric circles. Equal amounts of DNA samples (5 μg), prepared from uninduced cells (−Tet) and cells at 3 days post TbUMSBP2 RNAi induction (+Tet), were digested with HinfI and analyzed in duplicates by neutral-neutral 2D gel electrophoresis. ( A ) The gels were dried and hybridized in-gel under native assay conditions with a radioactively labeled C-probe, (AACCCT) 3 , or G-probe, (AGGGTT) 3 , to detect single-stranded G-rich or C-rich telomeric repeats, respectively. ( B ) The DNA was subsequently denatured in situ and re-hybridized to the same probes to detect both single- and double-stranded telomeric repeats. Note that after denaturation the hybridization signal was stronger; much shorter exposure was sufficient to visualize the dsDNA and thus ssDNA appears weaker or disappeared. ( C ) A shorter exposure of the gels in (B), showing comparable amounts of telomeric DNA. Schemes on the right illustrate the different arches of telomeric DNA observed by hybridization to native or denatured DNA, following ( 62 , 63 ). Indicated are G- and C- overhangs associated with linear dsDNA, ssDNA (SS-G and SS-C), telomere circles (t-circles) and a subset of t-circles containing gaps in the G-strand and single stranded regions of the C-strand (termed here as C-circles).
    Figure Legend Snippet: TbUMSBP2 knockdown decreased G-overhangs and increased C-overhangs and telomeric circles. Equal amounts of DNA samples (5 μg), prepared from uninduced cells (−Tet) and cells at 3 days post TbUMSBP2 RNAi induction (+Tet), were digested with HinfI and analyzed in duplicates by neutral-neutral 2D gel electrophoresis. ( A ) The gels were dried and hybridized in-gel under native assay conditions with a radioactively labeled C-probe, (AACCCT) 3 , or G-probe, (AGGGTT) 3 , to detect single-stranded G-rich or C-rich telomeric repeats, respectively. ( B ) The DNA was subsequently denatured in situ and re-hybridized to the same probes to detect both single- and double-stranded telomeric repeats. Note that after denaturation the hybridization signal was stronger; much shorter exposure was sufficient to visualize the dsDNA and thus ssDNA appears weaker or disappeared. ( C ) A shorter exposure of the gels in (B), showing comparable amounts of telomeric DNA. Schemes on the right illustrate the different arches of telomeric DNA observed by hybridization to native or denatured DNA, following ( 62 , 63 ). Indicated are G- and C- overhangs associated with linear dsDNA, ssDNA (SS-G and SS-C), telomere circles (t-circles) and a subset of t-circles containing gaps in the G-strand and single stranded regions of the C-strand (termed here as C-circles).

    Techniques Used: Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis, Electrophoresis, Labeling, In Situ, Hybridization

    17) Product Images from "Activation of innate anti-viral immune response genes in symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia"

    Article Title: Activation of innate anti-viral immune response genes in symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Journal: Genes and immunity

    doi: 10.1038/gene.2012.40

    a. Combined bisulfite restriction analysis of LINE-1 in symptomatic BPH TURP samples, asymptomatic BPH, and donors. Lane 1 is a 100 base pair (bp) molecular weight marker (mwm), lane 2 is the calibrator, lanes 3–5 are symptomatic BPH TURP samples, lanes 6–8 are asymptomatic BPH, lanes 9–11 are donor and lane 12 is undigested PCR product. DNA samples were bisulfite treated, subjected to Line1 PCR and subsequent digestion with HinfI. The undigested top band at 450bp represents unmethylated DNA whereas the digestion products at 275bp and 180bp indicate methylated DNA. b. Quantification of the percent methylation compared to the calibrator of 11 symptomatic BPH from TURP, 10 asymptomatic BPH and 9 donors. Data is represented as a box and whisker plot. A statistically significant difference exists between symptomatic BPH and donors groups (p = 0.040, Mann Whitney), whereas there is no statistically significant difference between symptomatic BPH and asymptomatic BPH. c. APOBEC3G real time PCR results for symptomatic BPH, asymptomatic BPH, and donor samples. The Mann-Whitney rank-sum test was used to determine the statistically significant p value of 0.011 between symptomatic BPH and donors and the t-test was used to determine the statistically significant difference between symptomatic BPH and donors (p = 0.043).
    Figure Legend Snippet: a. Combined bisulfite restriction analysis of LINE-1 in symptomatic BPH TURP samples, asymptomatic BPH, and donors. Lane 1 is a 100 base pair (bp) molecular weight marker (mwm), lane 2 is the calibrator, lanes 3–5 are symptomatic BPH TURP samples, lanes 6–8 are asymptomatic BPH, lanes 9–11 are donor and lane 12 is undigested PCR product. DNA samples were bisulfite treated, subjected to Line1 PCR and subsequent digestion with HinfI. The undigested top band at 450bp represents unmethylated DNA whereas the digestion products at 275bp and 180bp indicate methylated DNA. b. Quantification of the percent methylation compared to the calibrator of 11 symptomatic BPH from TURP, 10 asymptomatic BPH and 9 donors. Data is represented as a box and whisker plot. A statistically significant difference exists between symptomatic BPH and donors groups (p = 0.040, Mann Whitney), whereas there is no statistically significant difference between symptomatic BPH and asymptomatic BPH. c. APOBEC3G real time PCR results for symptomatic BPH, asymptomatic BPH, and donor samples. The Mann-Whitney rank-sum test was used to determine the statistically significant p value of 0.011 between symptomatic BPH and donors and the t-test was used to determine the statistically significant difference between symptomatic BPH and donors (p = 0.043).

    Techniques Used: Molecular Weight, Marker, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Methylation, Whisker Assay, MANN-WHITNEY, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    18) Product Images from "GyrA ser83 and ParC trp106 Mutations in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Isolated from Typhoid Fever Patients in Tertiary Care Hospital"

    Article Title: GyrA ser83 and ParC trp106 Mutations in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Isolated from Typhoid Fever Patients in Tertiary Care Hospital

    Journal: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research : JCDR

    doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2016/17677.8153

    Representative RFLP electrophoretic gel showing the gyrA PCR product digested with HinfI.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Representative RFLP electrophoretic gel showing the gyrA PCR product digested with HinfI.

    Techniques Used: Polymerase Chain Reaction

    19) Product Images from "Telomere damage induces internal loops that generate telomeric circles"

    Article Title: Telomere damage induces internal loops that generate telomeric circles

    Journal: Nature Communications

    doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-19139-4

    A two-step procedure for the purification of mammalian telomeres. a Top: agarose gel showing the separation of the large telomeric repeat fragments from the bulk genomic DNA in a sucrose gradient. Genomic DNA (∼2.5 mg) from SV40LT-immortalized MEFs was digested with HinfI and MspI. The digested DNA was separated by centrifugation on a sucrose gradient. Seven fractions were collected and an aliquot (∼1/500) of each fraction was loaded on an agarose gel. Bottom: the gel was blotted onto a membrane and hybridized with a TTAGGG repeats probe to verify that telomeric repeats remained in the high molecular weight (HMW) fractions. Source data are provided as a Source Data File. b Left: agarose gel showing the separation of the large telomeric repeat fragments from the remaining non-telomeric DNA, in the second purification round. The HMW DNA, contained in the last four fractions of the sucrose gradient described in (a), was recovered and digested with RsaI, AluI, MboI, HinfI, MspI, HphI, and MnlI. The digested DNA was separated on a preparative agarose gel and the DNA migrating in the area above 5 kb was extracted from the gel. The image shows an aliquot (∼1/100) of the digested DNA, separated on an agarose gel. Right: the gel was blotted onto a membrane and hybridized with a TTAGGG repeats probe to verify that telomeric repeats remained in the HMW area. Source data are provided as a Source Data File. c Dot blot analysis showing the enrichment of telomeric repeats. The indicated amounts of DNA from each enrichment step were spotted on a membrane and hybridized either with a probe recognizing the long interspersed L1 repeats or TTAGGG repeats. The amount of TTAGGG repeat signal/ng was quantified and reported relative to the signal/ng value in the initial, non-enriched DNA. Source data are provided as a Source Data File. d Single-molecule analysis showing the enrichment of the telomeric repeats. The DNA was combed onto silanized coverslips, denatured in situ and labeled sequentially with an antibody against single-stranded DNA and a Cy3-labeled (TTAGGG) 3 PNA probe.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A two-step procedure for the purification of mammalian telomeres. a Top: agarose gel showing the separation of the large telomeric repeat fragments from the bulk genomic DNA in a sucrose gradient. Genomic DNA (∼2.5 mg) from SV40LT-immortalized MEFs was digested with HinfI and MspI. The digested DNA was separated by centrifugation on a sucrose gradient. Seven fractions were collected and an aliquot (∼1/500) of each fraction was loaded on an agarose gel. Bottom: the gel was blotted onto a membrane and hybridized with a TTAGGG repeats probe to verify that telomeric repeats remained in the high molecular weight (HMW) fractions. Source data are provided as a Source Data File. b Left: agarose gel showing the separation of the large telomeric repeat fragments from the remaining non-telomeric DNA, in the second purification round. The HMW DNA, contained in the last four fractions of the sucrose gradient described in (a), was recovered and digested with RsaI, AluI, MboI, HinfI, MspI, HphI, and MnlI. The digested DNA was separated on a preparative agarose gel and the DNA migrating in the area above 5 kb was extracted from the gel. The image shows an aliquot (∼1/100) of the digested DNA, separated on an agarose gel. Right: the gel was blotted onto a membrane and hybridized with a TTAGGG repeats probe to verify that telomeric repeats remained in the HMW area. Source data are provided as a Source Data File. c Dot blot analysis showing the enrichment of telomeric repeats. The indicated amounts of DNA from each enrichment step were spotted on a membrane and hybridized either with a probe recognizing the long interspersed L1 repeats or TTAGGG repeats. The amount of TTAGGG repeat signal/ng was quantified and reported relative to the signal/ng value in the initial, non-enriched DNA. Source data are provided as a Source Data File. d Single-molecule analysis showing the enrichment of the telomeric repeats. The DNA was combed onto silanized coverslips, denatured in situ and labeled sequentially with an antibody against single-stranded DNA and a Cy3-labeled (TTAGGG) 3 PNA probe.

    Techniques Used: Purification, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Centrifugation, Molecular Weight, Dot Blot, In Situ, Labeling

    20) Product Images from "The DNA end-binding protein Ku associates with human telomeres primarily via protein-protein interactions"

    Article Title: The DNA end-binding protein Ku associates with human telomeres primarily via protein-protein interactions

    Journal: bioRxiv

    doi: 10.1101/2019.12.11.873422

    Myc-Ku80 α5 mutant or Myc-Ku80 DEB expression compromises cell viability but does not lead to telomere shortening or t-circle formation in short term cultures. (A) Representative Southern blot analysis to measure telomere lengths of indicated cell lines uninduced or induced to express Myc-Ku80 transgenes. Empty vector cell line transfected with scrambled (scr) or Ku80 siRNA was used as positive and negative controls. KD indicates siRNA-mediated knockdown. Telomere Southern blots were quantified via TeloTool software and the red dot in each lane denotes mean telomere length. Additional representative experiment included in Supplemental Figure S3 (B) Same as A except telomere lengths of indicated cell lines uninduced or induced to express Myc-Ku70 transgenes. Additional representative experiment included in Supplemental Figure S3 (C) 2D gel electrophoresis of HinfI/RsaI digested genomic DNA prepared from indicated cell lines that were subjected to either Ku70 or Ku80 knockdown. U2OS control cell line showing t-circles (D) Analysis of cell viability by Annexin V staining of indicated cell lines expressing Myc-Ku80 or Myc-Ku70 transgenes. Empty vector cell line transfected with scrambled (scr) or Ku70 or Ku80 siRNA was used as controls.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Myc-Ku80 α5 mutant or Myc-Ku80 DEB expression compromises cell viability but does not lead to telomere shortening or t-circle formation in short term cultures. (A) Representative Southern blot analysis to measure telomere lengths of indicated cell lines uninduced or induced to express Myc-Ku80 transgenes. Empty vector cell line transfected with scrambled (scr) or Ku80 siRNA was used as positive and negative controls. KD indicates siRNA-mediated knockdown. Telomere Southern blots were quantified via TeloTool software and the red dot in each lane denotes mean telomere length. Additional representative experiment included in Supplemental Figure S3 (B) Same as A except telomere lengths of indicated cell lines uninduced or induced to express Myc-Ku70 transgenes. Additional representative experiment included in Supplemental Figure S3 (C) 2D gel electrophoresis of HinfI/RsaI digested genomic DNA prepared from indicated cell lines that were subjected to either Ku70 or Ku80 knockdown. U2OS control cell line showing t-circles (D) Analysis of cell viability by Annexin V staining of indicated cell lines expressing Myc-Ku80 or Myc-Ku70 transgenes. Empty vector cell line transfected with scrambled (scr) or Ku70 or Ku80 siRNA was used as controls.

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Expressing, Southern Blot, Plasmid Preparation, Transfection, Software, Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis, Electrophoresis, Staining

    21) Product Images from "Detection of circular telomeric DNA without 2-D gel electrophoresis"

    Article Title: Detection of circular telomeric DNA without 2-D gel electrophoresis

    Journal: DNA and cell biology

    doi: 10.1089/dna.2008.0741

    Klenow treatment prior to Bal31 incubation preserves the telomeric signal. Bal31 degradation of 10 μg of RsaI/HinfI-digested genomic DNA from VA-13 cells resulted in a faint signal after (TTAGGG) 4 hybridization. A Klenow fill-in reaction prior
    Figure Legend Snippet: Klenow treatment prior to Bal31 incubation preserves the telomeric signal. Bal31 degradation of 10 μg of RsaI/HinfI-digested genomic DNA from VA-13 cells resulted in a faint signal after (TTAGGG) 4 hybridization. A Klenow fill-in reaction prior

    Techniques Used: Incubation, Hybridization

    Klenwow/Bal31 treatment does not generate a product from linear telomeric DNA. After digesting 40μg of genomic DNA with RsaI and HinfI a biotin-labeled C-rich oligo was annealed to the 3′single-stranded overhang. Pulling down oligo-bound
    Figure Legend Snippet: Klenwow/Bal31 treatment does not generate a product from linear telomeric DNA. After digesting 40μg of genomic DNA with RsaI and HinfI a biotin-labeled C-rich oligo was annealed to the 3′single-stranded overhang. Pulling down oligo-bound

    Techniques Used: Labeling

    The Klenow/Bal31 treatment of ALT cell DNA generates molecules that run as a single arc in 2D gel electrophoresis. 20 μg of RsaI/HinfI-digested genomic DNA from telomerase-positive SW39 (upper part of the figure) and VA13 ALT cells (lower part
    Figure Legend Snippet: The Klenow/Bal31 treatment of ALT cell DNA generates molecules that run as a single arc in 2D gel electrophoresis. 20 μg of RsaI/HinfI-digested genomic DNA from telomerase-positive SW39 (upper part of the figure) and VA13 ALT cells (lower part

    Techniques Used: Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis, Electrophoresis

    22) Product Images from "Loss of imprinting of insulin-like growth factor 2 is associated with increased risk of lymph node metastasis and gastric corpus cancer"

    Article Title: Loss of imprinting of insulin-like growth factor 2 is associated with increased risk of lymph node metastasis and gastric corpus cancer

    Journal: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research : CR

    doi: 10.1186/1756-9966-28-125

    Imprinting analysis of IGF2 in gastric cancer . DNA (G1) and RT-PCR (G3) amplification using primers P1 and P3 and DNA amplification by PCR with primers P2 and P3 (G2) represented 1.4 kb, 1.12 kb and 292 bp respectively (see details in methods section). G1, G2 and G3 are PCR products of the same normal tissue. ApaI- and HinfI-digested normal tissue DNA PCR (Gn) from primers P2 and P3 displayed two bands of 256 and 231 bp indicating heterozygosity. The digested nested PCR product from primers P2 and P3 using the 1.12 kb RT-PCR product as a template showed monoallelic expression of IGF2 in normal (Rn1, Rn2) and biallelic expression in tumor (Rt1, Rt2) tissues.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Imprinting analysis of IGF2 in gastric cancer . DNA (G1) and RT-PCR (G3) amplification using primers P1 and P3 and DNA amplification by PCR with primers P2 and P3 (G2) represented 1.4 kb, 1.12 kb and 292 bp respectively (see details in methods section). G1, G2 and G3 are PCR products of the same normal tissue. ApaI- and HinfI-digested normal tissue DNA PCR (Gn) from primers P2 and P3 displayed two bands of 256 and 231 bp indicating heterozygosity. The digested nested PCR product from primers P2 and P3 using the 1.12 kb RT-PCR product as a template showed monoallelic expression of IGF2 in normal (Rn1, Rn2) and biallelic expression in tumor (Rt1, Rt2) tissues.

    Techniques Used: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Nested PCR, Expressing

    23) Product Images from "Detection of circular telomeric DNA without 2-D gel electrophoresis"

    Article Title: Detection of circular telomeric DNA without 2-D gel electrophoresis

    Journal: DNA and cell biology

    doi: 10.1089/dna.2008.0741

    Klenow treatment prior to Bal31 incubation preserves the telomeric signal. Bal31 degradation of 10 μg of RsaI/HinfI-digested genomic DNA from VA-13 cells resulted in a faint signal after (TTAGGG) 4 hybridization. A Klenow fill-in reaction prior
    Figure Legend Snippet: Klenow treatment prior to Bal31 incubation preserves the telomeric signal. Bal31 degradation of 10 μg of RsaI/HinfI-digested genomic DNA from VA-13 cells resulted in a faint signal after (TTAGGG) 4 hybridization. A Klenow fill-in reaction prior

    Techniques Used: Incubation, Hybridization

    Klenwow/Bal31 treatment does not generate a product from linear telomeric DNA. After digesting 40μg of genomic DNA with RsaI and HinfI a biotin-labeled C-rich oligo was annealed to the 3′single-stranded overhang. Pulling down oligo-bound
    Figure Legend Snippet: Klenwow/Bal31 treatment does not generate a product from linear telomeric DNA. After digesting 40μg of genomic DNA with RsaI and HinfI a biotin-labeled C-rich oligo was annealed to the 3′single-stranded overhang. Pulling down oligo-bound

    Techniques Used: Labeling

    The Klenow/Bal31 treatment of ALT cell DNA generates molecules that run as a single arc in 2D gel electrophoresis. 20 μg of RsaI/HinfI-digested genomic DNA from telomerase-positive SW39 (upper part of the figure) and VA13 ALT cells (lower part
    Figure Legend Snippet: The Klenow/Bal31 treatment of ALT cell DNA generates molecules that run as a single arc in 2D gel electrophoresis. 20 μg of RsaI/HinfI-digested genomic DNA from telomerase-positive SW39 (upper part of the figure) and VA13 ALT cells (lower part

    Techniques Used: Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis, Electrophoresis

    24) Product Images from "Telomere length regulation and transcriptional silencing in KU80-deficient Trypanosoma brucei"

    Article Title: Telomere length regulation and transcriptional silencing in KU80-deficient Trypanosoma brucei

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gkh991

    Telomere shortening in Δ tb KU80 trypanosomes. Genomic DNA from wild-type cells, tb KU80 single allele knockout cells ( tb KU80 +/− ), tb KU80-deficient cells (Δ tb KU80) and from a tb KU80-deficient cell line, which expressed an ectopic copy of GFP– tb KU80 (Δ tb KU80 + GFP– tb KU80) was prepared every other week for a period of 8 weeks. The DNA was digested with AluI, HinfI and RsaI, and separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, Southern-blotted and probed with a radiolabeled telomeric (TTAGGG) 27 probe. Distinguishable bands of Δ tb KU80 telomeric DNA were used to estimate telomere shortening rates during 8 weeks.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Telomere shortening in Δ tb KU80 trypanosomes. Genomic DNA from wild-type cells, tb KU80 single allele knockout cells ( tb KU80 +/− ), tb KU80-deficient cells (Δ tb KU80) and from a tb KU80-deficient cell line, which expressed an ectopic copy of GFP– tb KU80 (Δ tb KU80 + GFP– tb KU80) was prepared every other week for a period of 8 weeks. The DNA was digested with AluI, HinfI and RsaI, and separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, Southern-blotted and probed with a radiolabeled telomeric (TTAGGG) 27 probe. Distinguishable bands of Δ tb KU80 telomeric DNA were used to estimate telomere shortening rates during 8 weeks.

    Techniques Used: Knock-Out, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

    25) Product Images from "Efficient mouse genome engineering by CRISPR-EZ (CRISPR RNP Electroporation of Zygotes) technology"

    Article Title: Efficient mouse genome engineering by CRISPR-EZ (CRISPR RNP Electroporation of Zygotes) technology

    Journal: Nature protocols

    doi: 10.1038/nprot.2018.012

    Optimization of CRISPR-EZ conditions for editing efficiency and embryo viability. (a) A diagram illustrates the NHEJ and HDR editing strategies for exon 1 of the Tyr gene. A successful NHEJ editing ablates a HinfI site and disrupts T yr gene function. A successful HDR editing replaces the HinfI site with an EcoRI site, introducing a frameshift mutation that abolishes Tyr gene function. (b) Representative RFLP results of Tyr edited mice indicate successful NHEJ editing (top) and HDR editing (bottom). (c) Since bi-allelic Tyr deficiency causes albinism in edited mice, the extent of albinism correlates the extent of Tyr editing that disrupts the genes function. Coat color (left) and viability (right) of C57B/6J edited mice generated from 2, 4, 6 or 8 pulse CRISPR-EZ conditions. Viability is defined as the percentage of live animals born out of total embryos transferred. The 6-pulse condition maximizes editing efficiency while minimally impacting pup viability. (d) Comparison of editing efficiency between C57B/6J and C57B/6N mouse strain using 2 or 6-pulse electroporation conditions. The 6-pulse CRISPR-EZ condition is equally effective in both strains. (e-i) Representative images are shown for the coat color of edited mice from experiments shown in (b-d). All animal procedures were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of UC Davis.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Optimization of CRISPR-EZ conditions for editing efficiency and embryo viability. (a) A diagram illustrates the NHEJ and HDR editing strategies for exon 1 of the Tyr gene. A successful NHEJ editing ablates a HinfI site and disrupts T yr gene function. A successful HDR editing replaces the HinfI site with an EcoRI site, introducing a frameshift mutation that abolishes Tyr gene function. (b) Representative RFLP results of Tyr edited mice indicate successful NHEJ editing (top) and HDR editing (bottom). (c) Since bi-allelic Tyr deficiency causes albinism in edited mice, the extent of albinism correlates the extent of Tyr editing that disrupts the genes function. Coat color (left) and viability (right) of C57B/6J edited mice generated from 2, 4, 6 or 8 pulse CRISPR-EZ conditions. Viability is defined as the percentage of live animals born out of total embryos transferred. The 6-pulse condition maximizes editing efficiency while minimally impacting pup viability. (d) Comparison of editing efficiency between C57B/6J and C57B/6N mouse strain using 2 or 6-pulse electroporation conditions. The 6-pulse CRISPR-EZ condition is equally effective in both strains. (e-i) Representative images are shown for the coat color of edited mice from experiments shown in (b-d). All animal procedures were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of UC Davis.

    Techniques Used: CRISPR, Non-Homologous End Joining, Mutagenesis, Mouse Assay, Generated, Electroporation

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    Article Title: Trypanosoma brucei UMSBP2 is a single-stranded telomeric DNA binding protein essential for chromosome end protection
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    BAC Assay:

    Article Title: The central exons of the human MUC2 and MUC6 mucins are highly repetitive and variable in sequence between individuals
    Article Snippet: Purification of Hinf I digested MUC2 PTS-TR2 fragment Hinf I is known to cut on either side of the MUC2 PTS-TR2 domain . .. Total BAC DNA was digested with Hinf I (New England Biolabs) overnight at 37 °C according to supplier instructions. .. The 7 kb band of digested BAC DNA was gel purified from a 0.7% TAE agarose gel, without UV exposure or DNA stain, using the Nucleo Spin Gel Purification kit (Macherey-Nagel) according to supplier recommendations for low concentration DNA.

    Incubation:

    Article Title: WRN Controls Formation of Extrachromosomal Telomeric Circles and Is Required for TRF2ΔB-Mediated Telomere Shortening ▿-Mediated Telomere Shortening ▿ †
    Article Snippet: Median telomere restriction fragment length was estimated by comparing the median of the distribution of telomere values within each lane with the migration of a DNA standard. .. Genomic DNA was digested with HinfI and RsaI and incubated with buffer and either exonuclease I (NEB) or S1 nuclease (Promega) for 12 h or 30 min, respectively. ..

    Combined Bisulfite Restriction Analysis Assay:

    Article Title: Discovery of DNA methylation markers in cervical cancer using relaxation ranking
    Article Snippet: PCR primers for amplification of specific targets sequences are listed in Additional file . .. COBRA was performed directly on the BSP products as described by Xiong et al. [ ]. using digestions with BstUI , Taq1 and/or HinfI according the manufacture's protocol (New England Biolabs Inc., Beverly, MA). .. For sequence analysis, the BSP products were purified (Qiagen, Westburg, Leusden, the Netherlands) and subjected to direct sequencing (BaseClear, Leiden, the Netherlands).

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    New England Biolabs hinf i
    Schematic presentation of the assembled sequence for RP13-870H17 produced from PacBio SMRT and Sanger sequencing. ( a ) The RP13-870H17 assembly from SMRT sequencing results of whole <t>BAC</t> clone (NG-6867) and <t>Hinf</t> I MUC2 PTS-TR2 fragment sequence (NG-7351) assembled with Sanger sequencing. ( b ) Schematic picture of MUC6 and MUC2 gene organization showing the gene orientation and exon and intron distribution. ( c,d ) Resulting protein domain organization for MUC6 and MUC2. VWD = von Willebrand like domain type D, VWC = von Willebrand like domain type C, CK = C -terminal cystine knot.
    Hinf I, supplied by New England Biolabs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Schematic presentation of the assembled sequence for RP13-870H17 produced from PacBio SMRT and Sanger sequencing. ( a ) The RP13-870H17 assembly from SMRT sequencing results of whole BAC clone (NG-6867) and Hinf I MUC2 PTS-TR2 fragment sequence (NG-7351) assembled with Sanger sequencing. ( b ) Schematic picture of MUC6 and MUC2 gene organization showing the gene orientation and exon and intron distribution. ( c,d ) Resulting protein domain organization for MUC6 and MUC2. VWD = von Willebrand like domain type D, VWC = von Willebrand like domain type C, CK = C -terminal cystine knot.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: The central exons of the human MUC2 and MUC6 mucins are highly repetitive and variable in sequence between individuals

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-35499-w

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Schematic presentation of the assembled sequence for RP13-870H17 produced from PacBio SMRT and Sanger sequencing. ( a ) The RP13-870H17 assembly from SMRT sequencing results of whole BAC clone (NG-6867) and Hinf I MUC2 PTS-TR2 fragment sequence (NG-7351) assembled with Sanger sequencing. ( b ) Schematic picture of MUC6 and MUC2 gene organization showing the gene orientation and exon and intron distribution. ( c,d ) Resulting protein domain organization for MUC6 and MUC2. VWD = von Willebrand like domain type D, VWC = von Willebrand like domain type C, CK = C -terminal cystine knot.

    Article Snippet: Total BAC DNA was digested with Hinf I (New England Biolabs) overnight at 37 °C according to supplier instructions.

    Techniques: Sequencing, Produced, BAC Assay

    TbUMSBP2 knockdown altered the amount of single stranded telomeric DNA. DNA samples (1 μg) of uninduced cells (−) and cells at day 3 post TbUMSBP2 RNAi induction (+), were digested with HinfI and AluI restriction endonucleases and analyzed by in-gel hybridization to C-probe (AACCCT) 3 or G-probe (AGGGTT) 3 , first under native conditions ( A ) and then re-hybridized again to the same probes after denaturation ( B ), as described under ‘Materials and Methods’. ( C and D ) the histograms represent the relative amounts of native signal (corresponding to single-stranded telomeric DNA) normalized to the denatured (total) signals. The uninduced control samples were set as 1.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Trypanosoma brucei UMSBP2 is a single-stranded telomeric DNA binding protein essential for chromosome end protection

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gky597

    Figure Lengend Snippet: TbUMSBP2 knockdown altered the amount of single stranded telomeric DNA. DNA samples (1 μg) of uninduced cells (−) and cells at day 3 post TbUMSBP2 RNAi induction (+), were digested with HinfI and AluI restriction endonucleases and analyzed by in-gel hybridization to C-probe (AACCCT) 3 or G-probe (AGGGTT) 3 , first under native conditions ( A ) and then re-hybridized again to the same probes after denaturation ( B ), as described under ‘Materials and Methods’. ( C and D ) the histograms represent the relative amounts of native signal (corresponding to single-stranded telomeric DNA) normalized to the denatured (total) signals. The uninduced control samples were set as 1.

    Article Snippet: Genomic DNA samples (1–1.5 μg) were digested with restriction endonucleases HinfI or HinfI and AluI (NEB Inc.) and separated on a 0.7% agarose gel.

    Techniques: Hybridization

    TbUMSBP2 knockdown decreased G-overhangs and increased C-overhangs and telomeric circles. Equal amounts of DNA samples (5 μg), prepared from uninduced cells (−Tet) and cells at 3 days post TbUMSBP2 RNAi induction (+Tet), were digested with HinfI and analyzed in duplicates by neutral-neutral 2D gel electrophoresis. ( A ) The gels were dried and hybridized in-gel under native assay conditions with a radioactively labeled C-probe, (AACCCT) 3 , or G-probe, (AGGGTT) 3 , to detect single-stranded G-rich or C-rich telomeric repeats, respectively. ( B ) The DNA was subsequently denatured in situ and re-hybridized to the same probes to detect both single- and double-stranded telomeric repeats. Note that after denaturation the hybridization signal was stronger; much shorter exposure was sufficient to visualize the dsDNA and thus ssDNA appears weaker or disappeared. ( C ) A shorter exposure of the gels in (B), showing comparable amounts of telomeric DNA. Schemes on the right illustrate the different arches of telomeric DNA observed by hybridization to native or denatured DNA, following ( 62 , 63 ). Indicated are G- and C- overhangs associated with linear dsDNA, ssDNA (SS-G and SS-C), telomere circles (t-circles) and a subset of t-circles containing gaps in the G-strand and single stranded regions of the C-strand (termed here as C-circles).

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Trypanosoma brucei UMSBP2 is a single-stranded telomeric DNA binding protein essential for chromosome end protection

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gky597

    Figure Lengend Snippet: TbUMSBP2 knockdown decreased G-overhangs and increased C-overhangs and telomeric circles. Equal amounts of DNA samples (5 μg), prepared from uninduced cells (−Tet) and cells at 3 days post TbUMSBP2 RNAi induction (+Tet), were digested with HinfI and analyzed in duplicates by neutral-neutral 2D gel electrophoresis. ( A ) The gels were dried and hybridized in-gel under native assay conditions with a radioactively labeled C-probe, (AACCCT) 3 , or G-probe, (AGGGTT) 3 , to detect single-stranded G-rich or C-rich telomeric repeats, respectively. ( B ) The DNA was subsequently denatured in situ and re-hybridized to the same probes to detect both single- and double-stranded telomeric repeats. Note that after denaturation the hybridization signal was stronger; much shorter exposure was sufficient to visualize the dsDNA and thus ssDNA appears weaker or disappeared. ( C ) A shorter exposure of the gels in (B), showing comparable amounts of telomeric DNA. Schemes on the right illustrate the different arches of telomeric DNA observed by hybridization to native or denatured DNA, following ( 62 , 63 ). Indicated are G- and C- overhangs associated with linear dsDNA, ssDNA (SS-G and SS-C), telomere circles (t-circles) and a subset of t-circles containing gaps in the G-strand and single stranded regions of the C-strand (termed here as C-circles).

    Article Snippet: Genomic DNA samples (1–1.5 μg) were digested with restriction endonucleases HinfI or HinfI and AluI (NEB Inc.) and separated on a 0.7% agarose gel.

    Techniques: Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis, Electrophoresis, Labeling, In Situ, Hybridization

    Co-depletion of TRF1 and SAMHD1 does not lead to rapid telomere shortening. (A) TRF analysis of genomic DNA prepared from HeLa cells transfected with indicated pSuper plasmids. Genomic DNA was digested overnight with HinfI and RsaI and fractionated on an agarose gel. (B) Phi29-dependent telomeric circles (T-circles) amplification assay. Genomic DNA prepared from HeLa cells transfected with indicated pSuper plasmids was digested overnight with HinfI and RsaI, and 0.75 μg of DNA was used for phi29-dependent amplification reaction. Genomic DNA from U2OS cell line was used as a positive control. Arrows indicate T-circle amplification products.

    Journal: Life Science Alliance

    Article Title: Transformation-induced stress at telomeres is counteracted through changes in the telomeric proteome including SAMHD1

    doi: 10.26508/lsa.201800121

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Co-depletion of TRF1 and SAMHD1 does not lead to rapid telomere shortening. (A) TRF analysis of genomic DNA prepared from HeLa cells transfected with indicated pSuper plasmids. Genomic DNA was digested overnight with HinfI and RsaI and fractionated on an agarose gel. (B) Phi29-dependent telomeric circles (T-circles) amplification assay. Genomic DNA prepared from HeLa cells transfected with indicated pSuper plasmids was digested overnight with HinfI and RsaI, and 0.75 μg of DNA was used for phi29-dependent amplification reaction. Genomic DNA from U2OS cell line was used as a positive control. Arrows indicate T-circle amplification products.

    Article Snippet: 2 μg of genomic DNA was digested with 10 U/μg (each) HinfI and MboI (New England Biolabs) in CutSmart buffer in the presence of 10 μg/ml RNase A overnight at 37°C.

    Techniques: Transfection, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Amplification, Positive Control

    Representative COBRA on 3 gene promoters ( SST , AUTS2 and SYCP3 ) . A: schematic representation of of the restriction enzyme sites in the virtual hypermethylated BSP nucleotide sequence after bisulfite treatment.(B: BstUI , T: TaqI and H: HinfI ). Bars represent CG site and arrow is TSS (retrieved from Ensembl). B: Result of COBRA analysis of BSP products of tumour samples (T1-T10) and 5 normal cervices (N1-N5), in vitro methylated DNA as a positive control (IV) and leukocyte DNA as a negative (unmethylated) control (L); lane B is water blank.

    Journal: BMC Medical Genomics

    Article Title: Discovery of DNA methylation markers in cervical cancer using relaxation ranking

    doi: 10.1186/1755-8794-1-57

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Representative COBRA on 3 gene promoters ( SST , AUTS2 and SYCP3 ) . A: schematic representation of of the restriction enzyme sites in the virtual hypermethylated BSP nucleotide sequence after bisulfite treatment.(B: BstUI , T: TaqI and H: HinfI ). Bars represent CG site and arrow is TSS (retrieved from Ensembl). B: Result of COBRA analysis of BSP products of tumour samples (T1-T10) and 5 normal cervices (N1-N5), in vitro methylated DNA as a positive control (IV) and leukocyte DNA as a negative (unmethylated) control (L); lane B is water blank.

    Article Snippet: COBRA was performed directly on the BSP products as described by Xiong et al. [ ]. using digestions with BstUI , Taq1 and/or HinfI according the manufacture's protocol (New England Biolabs Inc., Beverly, MA).

    Techniques: Combined Bisulfite Restriction Analysis Assay, Sequencing, In Vitro, Methylation, Positive Control