goat anti mouse igg2a  (SouthernBiotech)

 
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    Name:
    Goat Anti Mouse IgG Fab BIOT
    Description:

    Catalog Number:
    1015-08
    Price:
    None
    Source:
    Pooled antisera from goat hyperimmunized with mouse IgG
    Applications:
    Quality tested applications for relevant formats include -ELISA 1-4FLISA
    Format:
    BIOT (Biotin)
    Isotype:
    Goat IgG
    Buy from Supplier


    Structured Review

    SouthernBiotech goat anti mouse igg2a
    Goat Anti Mouse IgG Fab BIOT

    https://www.bioz.com/result/goat anti mouse igg2a/product/SouthernBiotech
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    goat anti mouse igg2a - by Bioz Stars, 2021-06
    94/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Development and in vitro characterization of canine CD40-Ig"

    Article Title: Development and in vitro characterization of canine CD40-Ig

    Journal: Veterinary immunology and immunopathology

    doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2008.02.005

    Schematic diagram of CD40-Ig expression vector containing the leader and extracellular domain of canine CD40 fused to a Gly4Ser linker and the hinge through CH3 regions of murine IgG2a.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic diagram of CD40-Ig expression vector containing the leader and extracellular domain of canine CD40 fused to a Gly4Ser linker and the hinge through CH3 regions of murine IgG2a.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Plasmid Preparation

    2) Product Images from "Mucosal immunization with PspA (Pneumococcal surface protein A)-adsorbed nanoparticles targeting the lungs for protection against pneumococcal infection"

    Article Title: Mucosal immunization with PspA (Pneumococcal surface protein A)-adsorbed nanoparticles targeting the lungs for protection against pneumococcal infection

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0191692

    Induction of serum anti-PspA4Pro IgG antibodies by mucosal immunization targeting the lungs. The induction of anti-PspA4Pro IgG antibodies in sera from mice inoculated with the indicated formulations was determined by ELISA. Mice were inoculated with 1 (A) or 2 (B and C) doses of the formulations. Control mice were inoculated sc with saline or PspA4Pro. Log 10 anti-PspA4Pro IgG titers (A and B) and log 10 anti-PspA4Pro IgG1 titer/log 10 anti-PspA4Pro IgG2a titer ratios (C) are shown. * indicates statistically significant difference with saline and # indicates statistically significant difference with PspA4Pro sc (One-way ANOVA, Tukey’s Multicomparison Test for A and B; Unpaired t-test for C). Symbols represent each individual. Means±standard errors are shown. Representative of at least two independent experiments.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Induction of serum anti-PspA4Pro IgG antibodies by mucosal immunization targeting the lungs. The induction of anti-PspA4Pro IgG antibodies in sera from mice inoculated with the indicated formulations was determined by ELISA. Mice were inoculated with 1 (A) or 2 (B and C) doses of the formulations. Control mice were inoculated sc with saline or PspA4Pro. Log 10 anti-PspA4Pro IgG titers (A and B) and log 10 anti-PspA4Pro IgG1 titer/log 10 anti-PspA4Pro IgG2a titer ratios (C) are shown. * indicates statistically significant difference with saline and # indicates statistically significant difference with PspA4Pro sc (One-way ANOVA, Tukey’s Multicomparison Test for A and B; Unpaired t-test for C). Symbols represent each individual. Means±standard errors are shown. Representative of at least two independent experiments.

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Binding of serum IgG to intact pneumococci. Sera from mice immunized with two doses of the indicated formulations were tested for the ability to bind to pneumococcal strains expressing PspA from clades 1 (A), 2 (B), 3 (C), 4 (D) and 5 (E). Results are shown as fluorescence intensity histograms and are representative of two experiments using sera from independent immunizations.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Binding of serum IgG to intact pneumococci. Sera from mice immunized with two doses of the indicated formulations were tested for the ability to bind to pneumococcal strains expressing PspA from clades 1 (A), 2 (B), 3 (C), 4 (D) and 5 (E). Results are shown as fluorescence intensity histograms and are representative of two experiments using sera from independent immunizations.

    Techniques Used: Binding Assay, Mouse Assay, Expressing, Fluorescence

    Induction of anti-PspA4Pro antibodies in BALF by mucosal immunization targeting the lungs. The induction of anti-PspA4Pro IgG (A) and IgA (B) antibodies in BALF from mice inoculated with the indicated formulations was determined by ELISA. Mice were inoculated with 2 doses of the formulations. Control mice were inoculated sc with saline or PspA4Pro. A 405 nm of samples diluted 1:2 is shown. * indicates statistically significant difference with saline (One-way ANOVA, Tukey’s Multicomparison Test). Symbols represent each individual. Means±standard errors are shown.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Induction of anti-PspA4Pro antibodies in BALF by mucosal immunization targeting the lungs. The induction of anti-PspA4Pro IgG (A) and IgA (B) antibodies in BALF from mice inoculated with the indicated formulations was determined by ELISA. Mice were inoculated with 2 doses of the formulations. Control mice were inoculated sc with saline or PspA4Pro. A 405 nm of samples diluted 1:2 is shown. * indicates statistically significant difference with saline (One-way ANOVA, Tukey’s Multicomparison Test). Symbols represent each individual. Means±standard errors are shown.

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    3) Product Images from "Toll-like receptor 9 controls anti-DNA autoantibody production in murine lupus"

    Article Title: Toll-like receptor 9 controls anti-DNA autoantibody production in murine lupus

    Journal: The Journal of Experimental Medicine

    doi: 10.1084/jem.20050338

    Glomerular immune deposits do not require anti-DNA antibodies. (A) Glomerular immune deposits were detected by direct immunofluorescence for IgG (top) and complement C3 (bottom) in frozen kidney sections from TLR9 +/+ (left), TLR9 −/− (middle), and nonautoimmune C57BL/6 control mice (right). Representative images are shown. Original magnification, 400. (B) Mean glomerular fluorescence intensity (arbitrary units) was determined for IgG and C3 in TLR9 +/+ ( n = 8) and TLR9 −/− ( n = 8) mice. Horizontal lines represent mean values.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Glomerular immune deposits do not require anti-DNA antibodies. (A) Glomerular immune deposits were detected by direct immunofluorescence for IgG (top) and complement C3 (bottom) in frozen kidney sections from TLR9 +/+ (left), TLR9 −/− (middle), and nonautoimmune C57BL/6 control mice (right). Representative images are shown. Original magnification, 400. (B) Mean glomerular fluorescence intensity (arbitrary units) was determined for IgG and C3 in TLR9 +/+ ( n = 8) and TLR9 −/− ( n = 8) mice. Horizontal lines represent mean values.

    Techniques Used: Immunofluorescence, Mouse Assay, Fluorescence

    Lymphadenopathy, hypergammaglobulinemia, and lymphocyte accumulation in TLR-deficient mice. TLR9 +/+ ( n = 19), TLR9 −/− ( n = 16), TLR3 +/+ ( n = 15), and TLR3 −/− ( n = 17) mice were killed at 20 wk of age and assessed for evidence of aberrant immune activation; nonautoimmune C57BL/6 control mice ( n = 4) were killed at 26 wk of age. (A) Spleens and the two largest axillary lymph nodes were removed and weighed. (B) Total serum IgG and IgG2a were determined. (C) Splenocyte subsets were enumerated by FACS analysis for T cells (Thy1.2 + ), DNTC (CD4 − /CD8 − double-negative T cells), and B cells (CD22 + ). (D) Splenic CD4 + T cells were classified as either naive (CD44 − CD62L + ), activated (CD44 + CD62L + ), or memory (CD44 + CD62L − ) phenotype. The analysis in D was performed on 12 TLR3 +/+ and 12 TLR3 −/− mice. Horizontal lines represent mean values.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Lymphadenopathy, hypergammaglobulinemia, and lymphocyte accumulation in TLR-deficient mice. TLR9 +/+ ( n = 19), TLR9 −/− ( n = 16), TLR3 +/+ ( n = 15), and TLR3 −/− ( n = 17) mice were killed at 20 wk of age and assessed for evidence of aberrant immune activation; nonautoimmune C57BL/6 control mice ( n = 4) were killed at 26 wk of age. (A) Spleens and the two largest axillary lymph nodes were removed and weighed. (B) Total serum IgG and IgG2a were determined. (C) Splenocyte subsets were enumerated by FACS analysis for T cells (Thy1.2 + ), DNTC (CD4 − /CD8 − double-negative T cells), and B cells (CD22 + ). (D) Splenic CD4 + T cells were classified as either naive (CD44 − CD62L + ), activated (CD44 + CD62L + ), or memory (CD44 + CD62L − ) phenotype. The analysis in D was performed on 12 TLR3 +/+ and 12 TLR3 −/− mice. Horizontal lines represent mean values.

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Activation Assay, FACS

    Reduced anti-dsDNA autoantibodies in TLR9 − / − but not TLR3 − / − mice. (A) Anti-dsDNA antibodies were detected by C. luciliae immunofluorescence. IgG antibodies to C. luciliae DNA are shown in green (left), and DAPI staining of DNA is shown in red (middle). White arrows indicate the kinetoplast. Specific anti-dsDNA antibodies are identified by colocalization of IgG and DAPI staining in the kinetoplast and appear in yellow (right). Representative TLR9 +/+ sera are shown in the top two rows (intensity scores of 3 + and 1 + ), and TLR9 −/− sera are shown in the bottom two rows (intensity scores of 1 + and 0). Original magnification, 1,000. (B and C) Specific anti-dsDNA staining of C. luciliae kinetoplasts was scored from 0 to 4 as in A for either TLR9 +/+ ( n = 19) and TLR9 −/− ( n = 16) sera (B), or TLR3 +/+ ( n = 15) and TLR3 −/− ( n = 17) sera (C). *, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Reduced anti-dsDNA autoantibodies in TLR9 − / − but not TLR3 − / − mice. (A) Anti-dsDNA antibodies were detected by C. luciliae immunofluorescence. IgG antibodies to C. luciliae DNA are shown in green (left), and DAPI staining of DNA is shown in red (middle). White arrows indicate the kinetoplast. Specific anti-dsDNA antibodies are identified by colocalization of IgG and DAPI staining in the kinetoplast and appear in yellow (right). Representative TLR9 +/+ sera are shown in the top two rows (intensity scores of 3 + and 1 + ), and TLR9 −/− sera are shown in the bottom two rows (intensity scores of 1 + and 0). Original magnification, 1,000. (B and C) Specific anti-dsDNA staining of C. luciliae kinetoplasts was scored from 0 to 4 as in A for either TLR9 +/+ ( n = 19) and TLR9 −/− ( n = 16) sera (B), or TLR3 +/+ ( n = 15) and TLR3 −/− ( n = 17) sera (C). *, P

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Immunofluorescence, Staining

    4) Product Images from "The Spleen CD4+ T Cell Response to Blood-Stage Plasmodium chabaudi Malaria Develops in Two Phases Characterized by Different Properties"

    Article Title: The Spleen CD4+ T Cell Response to Blood-Stage Plasmodium chabaudi Malaria Develops in Two Phases Characterized by Different Properties

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022434

    Polyclonal and parasite-specific antibody responses in P. chabaudi -infected WT, CD1d -/- and I-A b-/- mice. (A) Total numbers of IgM-, IgG1- and IgG2a-producing cells in the spleen on days 0 and 7 of infection. Each point corresponds to a single mouse. Horizontal lines represent the means of numbers of Ig-producing cells per spleen (n = 6–8). (B) On day 30 p.i., mice were reinfected with 1 × 10 8 iRBC. Non-reinfected mice were used as controls. The serum levels of parasite-specific IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies were measured 15 days after re-infection (on day 45 p.i.). To favour high-affinity Ig binding, serum samples were incubated with plate-bound parasite antigens during a short period of time (90 min). Each point corresponds to a single mouse. Horizontal lines represent the means of O.D. values (n = 5–10). (C) Serum levels of parasite-specific IgM, IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies were measured on days 0, 7, 15 and 30 of infection. To favour low-affinity Ig binding, serum samples were incubated with plate-bound parasite antigens during a long period of time (overnight). Data represents the means ± SD (n = 4–8). In A, *, p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Polyclonal and parasite-specific antibody responses in P. chabaudi -infected WT, CD1d -/- and I-A b-/- mice. (A) Total numbers of IgM-, IgG1- and IgG2a-producing cells in the spleen on days 0 and 7 of infection. Each point corresponds to a single mouse. Horizontal lines represent the means of numbers of Ig-producing cells per spleen (n = 6–8). (B) On day 30 p.i., mice were reinfected with 1 × 10 8 iRBC. Non-reinfected mice were used as controls. The serum levels of parasite-specific IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies were measured 15 days after re-infection (on day 45 p.i.). To favour high-affinity Ig binding, serum samples were incubated with plate-bound parasite antigens during a short period of time (90 min). Each point corresponds to a single mouse. Horizontal lines represent the means of O.D. values (n = 5–10). (C) Serum levels of parasite-specific IgM, IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies were measured on days 0, 7, 15 and 30 of infection. To favour low-affinity Ig binding, serum samples were incubated with plate-bound parasite antigens during a long period of time (overnight). Data represents the means ± SD (n = 4–8). In A, *, p

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay, Binding Assay, Incubation

    5) Product Images from "Vaccination with Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Replicons Encoding Cowpox Virus Structural Proteins Protects Mice from Intranasal Cowpox Virus Challenge"

    Article Title: Vaccination with Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Replicons Encoding Cowpox Virus Structural Proteins Protects Mice from Intranasal Cowpox Virus Challenge

    Journal: Virology

    doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2007.01.001

    B5, A33, and A27-VRP elicit an IgG2a polarized antibody response
    Figure Legend Snippet: B5, A33, and A27-VRP elicit an IgG2a polarized antibody response

    Techniques Used:

    B5-VRP induces long-lasting, high levels of anti-B5 serum IgG
    Figure Legend Snippet: B5-VRP induces long-lasting, high levels of anti-B5 serum IgG

    Techniques Used:

    6) Product Images from "Intradermal active full-length DNA Aβ42 immunization via electroporation leads to high anti-Aβ antibody levels in wild-type mice"

    Article Title: Intradermal active full-length DNA Aβ42 immunization via electroporation leads to high anti-Aβ antibody levels in wild-type mice

    Journal: Journal of neuroimmunology

    doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2018.05.017

    High levels of anti-Aβ42 IgA antibodies in the DNA Aβ42 immunized mice. A ) IgG and IgA antibodies in Balb/c mice following six immunizations, B ) IgG and IgA antibodies in B6/129F2 mice after six immunization time points. ELISAs were performed with plasma dilutions 1:300, and antibody levels are shown as OD450.
    Figure Legend Snippet: High levels of anti-Aβ42 IgA antibodies in the DNA Aβ42 immunized mice. A ) IgG and IgA antibodies in Balb/c mice following six immunizations, B ) IgG and IgA antibodies in B6/129F2 mice after six immunization time points. ELISAs were performed with plasma dilutions 1:300, and antibody levels are shown as OD450.

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

    Dose-Response-Curve for the anti-Aβ42 antibody production after intradermal injection and electroporation. A ) Antibody levels were compared in three groups of Balb/c mice which received different doses of DNA injections (5 μg, 10 μg, and 20 μg, blue bars) prior to electroporation using the optimized parameter settings (1 pulse, 1,125 V/cm, 50 μs + 20 pulses, 125 V/cm, 5 ms) with mouse groups which received DNA delivery via gene gun (4 μg DNA, striped bar) or mice which received Aβ42 peptide immunizations (100 μg peptide, red bar). All mice had received six immunizations, n=5 mice/group. Plasma was used in a 1:1000 dilution. Antibody levels in the groups which had received electroporation for DNA delivery show relation to the amount of DNA which was injected prior to the electropulse Application (dose-response). Statistics shown are for the antibody levels compared to DNA delivery via gene gun (GG). B, C ) Antibody levels in two separate mouse strains which received different doses of DNA injections (30 μg, 15 μg, 3 μg and 0.3 μg) prior to electroporation with parameter settings C3. B ) Antibody responses in Balb/c mice: upper graph shows antibody levels after three immunizations, lower graph presents the antibody levels after six immunizations. C ) Antibody responses in B6/C3F2 mice: upper shows IgG antibody levels following three DΝΑ Aβ42 immunizations, lower graph shows antibody levels after six immunization time points. Antibody concentrations were measured in plasma diluted 1:200 for the three times time points, and 1:1000 for the six times time points. Note: DNA delivery via gene gun is limited to 4 μg of DNA per mouse due to the limited amount of DNA which can be bound onto the gold particles. B, C ) Antibody levels in two separate mouse strains which received different doses of DNA injections (30 μg, 15 μg, 3 μg and 0.3 μg) prior to electroporation with parameter settings C3. B ) Antibody responses in Balb/c mice: upper graph shows antibody levels after three immunizations, lower graph presents the antibody levels after six immunizations. C ) Antibody responses in B6/C3F2 mice: upper shows IgG antibody levels following three DNA Aβ42 immunizations, lower graph shows antibody levels after six immunization time points. Antibody concentrations were measured in plasma diluted 1:200 for the three times time points, and 1:1000 for the six times time points.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-Response-Curve for the anti-Aβ42 antibody production after intradermal injection and electroporation. A ) Antibody levels were compared in three groups of Balb/c mice which received different doses of DNA injections (5 μg, 10 μg, and 20 μg, blue bars) prior to electroporation using the optimized parameter settings (1 pulse, 1,125 V/cm, 50 μs + 20 pulses, 125 V/cm, 5 ms) with mouse groups which received DNA delivery via gene gun (4 μg DNA, striped bar) or mice which received Aβ42 peptide immunizations (100 μg peptide, red bar). All mice had received six immunizations, n=5 mice/group. Plasma was used in a 1:1000 dilution. Antibody levels in the groups which had received electroporation for DNA delivery show relation to the amount of DNA which was injected prior to the electropulse Application (dose-response). Statistics shown are for the antibody levels compared to DNA delivery via gene gun (GG). B, C ) Antibody levels in two separate mouse strains which received different doses of DNA injections (30 μg, 15 μg, 3 μg and 0.3 μg) prior to electroporation with parameter settings C3. B ) Antibody responses in Balb/c mice: upper graph shows antibody levels after three immunizations, lower graph presents the antibody levels after six immunizations. C ) Antibody responses in B6/C3F2 mice: upper shows IgG antibody levels following three DΝΑ Aβ42 immunizations, lower graph shows antibody levels after six immunization time points. Antibody concentrations were measured in plasma diluted 1:200 for the three times time points, and 1:1000 for the six times time points. Note: DNA delivery via gene gun is limited to 4 μg of DNA per mouse due to the limited amount of DNA which can be bound onto the gold particles. B, C ) Antibody levels in two separate mouse strains which received different doses of DNA injections (30 μg, 15 μg, 3 μg and 0.3 μg) prior to electroporation with parameter settings C3. B ) Antibody responses in Balb/c mice: upper graph shows antibody levels after three immunizations, lower graph presents the antibody levels after six immunizations. C ) Antibody responses in B6/C3F2 mice: upper shows IgG antibody levels following three DNA Aβ42 immunizations, lower graph shows antibody levels after six immunization time points. Antibody concentrations were measured in plasma diluted 1:200 for the three times time points, and 1:1000 for the six times time points.

    Techniques Used: Injection, Electroporation, Mouse Assay, Mass Spectrometry

    7) Product Images from "DNA Immunization with Fusion of CTLA-4 to Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Core Protein Enhanced Th2 Type Responses and Cleared HBV with an Accelerated Kinetic"

    Article Title: DNA Immunization with Fusion of CTLA-4 to Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Core Protein Enhanced Th2 Type Responses and Cleared HBV with an Accelerated Kinetic

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022524

    HBcAb and HBsAb responses in mice after HI. At day 30 after HI of pAAV/HBV1.2, the titers of HBcAb and HBsAb IgG2a and IgG1 subtypes in mice sera were determined by ELISA. (A) IgG2a and IgG1 subtypes of HBcAb. (B) The ratios of IgG2a/IgG1 of HBcAb. (C) IgG2a and IgG1 subtypes of HBsAb. (D) The ratios of IgG2a/IgG1 of HBsAb. (E) The kinetics of HBsAb IgG1 response in mice was monitored at days 4, 7, 10, 20, and 30 after HI.
    Figure Legend Snippet: HBcAb and HBsAb responses in mice after HI. At day 30 after HI of pAAV/HBV1.2, the titers of HBcAb and HBsAb IgG2a and IgG1 subtypes in mice sera were determined by ELISA. (A) IgG2a and IgG1 subtypes of HBcAb. (B) The ratios of IgG2a/IgG1 of HBcAb. (C) IgG2a and IgG1 subtypes of HBsAb. (D) The ratios of IgG2a/IgG1 of HBsAb. (E) The kinetics of HBsAb IgG1 response in mice was monitored at days 4, 7, 10, 20, and 30 after HI.

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    8) Product Images from "Immune responses and protection against vaginal infection after nasal or vaginal immunization with attenuated herpes simplex virus type-2"

    Article Title: Immune responses and protection against vaginal infection after nasal or vaginal immunization with attenuated herpes simplex virus type-2

    Journal: Immunology

    doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2567.1999.00909.x

    Vaginal plasma cells of immunized and non‐immunized mice before and 20 hr after vaginal challenge with wild‐type herpes simplex virus type‐2 (HSV‐2). The numbers of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) plasma cells in the vagina were significantly higher in the vaginal‐DP group than in non‐immunized mice, with or without vaginal challenge (IgG: P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Vaginal plasma cells of immunized and non‐immunized mice before and 20 hr after vaginal challenge with wild‐type herpes simplex virus type‐2 (HSV‐2). The numbers of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) plasma cells in the vagina were significantly higher in the vaginal‐DP group than in non‐immunized mice, with or without vaginal challenge (IgG: P

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

    9) Product Images from "Identification of T helper (Th)1- and Th2-associated antigens of Cryptococcus neoformans in a murine model of pulmonary infection"

    Article Title: Identification of T helper (Th)1- and Th2-associated antigens of Cryptococcus neoformans in a murine model of pulmonary infection

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-21039-z

    Total and C. neoformans -specific levels of Th2-dependent IgG1 and IgE predominate in sera from susceptible wild-type (WT) and IL-12-deficient mice with pulmonary cryptococcosis. Total IgG1 ( a ) and IgE ( b ) levels increased significantly after infection with C. neoformans for most genotypes, whereas IgG2a levels ( c ) were not influenced by C. neoformans . Compared to wild-type mice, IL-4Rα-deficient mice had markedly lower levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 ( a ), no production of IgE ( b ) and similar levels of total IgG2a ( c ). Opposite, IL-12-deficient mice showed similar IgG1 and significantly higher IgE levels ( a , b ), while reduced levels of IgG2a ( c ), compared to wild-type mice. Titers of C. neoformans -specific IgG2a ( d ) and IgG1 ( e ) antibodies in infected (infec.) mice reflected the distribution observed for total immunoglobulin levels. C. neoformans -specific IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies were absent in sera of naïve mice. A strong correlation was observed between total and C. neoformans -specific IgG1 levels ( f ) but not between total and C. neoformans -specific IgG2a levels ( g ) in infected mice of all genotypes. Each spot represents a serum sample of an individual mouse (2 to 14 animals per group from at least two independent experiments) with the line indicating the median. Serum samples were obtained from mice intranasally infected with 500 colony forming units of C. neoformans strain 1841 after about 56 days post infection. Statistical significance determined by Mann-Whitney U test is shown as following: * p ≤ 0.05, ** p ≤ 0.01, *** p ≤ 0.001, and **** p ≤ 0.0001. Correlation was determined by nonparametric Spearman’s correlation test.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Total and C. neoformans -specific levels of Th2-dependent IgG1 and IgE predominate in sera from susceptible wild-type (WT) and IL-12-deficient mice with pulmonary cryptococcosis. Total IgG1 ( a ) and IgE ( b ) levels increased significantly after infection with C. neoformans for most genotypes, whereas IgG2a levels ( c ) were not influenced by C. neoformans . Compared to wild-type mice, IL-4Rα-deficient mice had markedly lower levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 ( a ), no production of IgE ( b ) and similar levels of total IgG2a ( c ). Opposite, IL-12-deficient mice showed similar IgG1 and significantly higher IgE levels ( a , b ), while reduced levels of IgG2a ( c ), compared to wild-type mice. Titers of C. neoformans -specific IgG2a ( d ) and IgG1 ( e ) antibodies in infected (infec.) mice reflected the distribution observed for total immunoglobulin levels. C. neoformans -specific IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies were absent in sera of naïve mice. A strong correlation was observed between total and C. neoformans -specific IgG1 levels ( f ) but not between total and C. neoformans -specific IgG2a levels ( g ) in infected mice of all genotypes. Each spot represents a serum sample of an individual mouse (2 to 14 animals per group from at least two independent experiments) with the line indicating the median. Serum samples were obtained from mice intranasally infected with 500 colony forming units of C. neoformans strain 1841 after about 56 days post infection. Statistical significance determined by Mann-Whitney U test is shown as following: * p ≤ 0.05, ** p ≤ 0.01, *** p ≤ 0.001, and **** p ≤ 0.0001. Correlation was determined by nonparametric Spearman’s correlation test.

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Infection, MANN-WHITNEY

    10) Product Images from "Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a recombinant filamentous haemagglutinin from Bordetella pertussis"

    Article Title: Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a recombinant filamentous haemagglutinin from Bordetella pertussis

    Journal: Clinical and Experimental Immunology

    doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2006.03097.x

    Immune responses following immunization with Mal85. (a) Specific anti-Mal85 IgA antibody titres in saliva. (b) Specific anti-Mal85 IgG antibody titres in sera. Results are mean titres (± standard errors, n = 5). In (b), the columns without error bars indicate that the errors bars were very small. Liposome: Mal85–liposomes, Protollin™: Mal85–Protollin™, CpG: Mal85–CpG, Alum: Mal85–alum, Quadracel™: commercial pertussis vaccine and PBS: phosphate buffered saline. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Immune responses following immunization with Mal85. (a) Specific anti-Mal85 IgA antibody titres in saliva. (b) Specific anti-Mal85 IgG antibody titres in sera. Results are mean titres (± standard errors, n = 5). In (b), the columns without error bars indicate that the errors bars were very small. Liposome: Mal85–liposomes, Protollin™: Mal85–Protollin™, CpG: Mal85–CpG, Alum: Mal85–alum, Quadracel™: commercial pertussis vaccine and PBS: phosphate buffered saline. * P

    Techniques Used:

    11) Product Images from "Maternal Transmission of Resistance to Development of Allergic Airway Disease"

    Article Title: Maternal Transmission of Resistance to Development of Allergic Airway Disease

    Journal: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

    doi:

    Pregnancy does not affect serum levels of OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE. C57BL/6J female mice were immunized three times with OVA-Al(OH) 3 (at weekly intervals) and 9 days later were challenged daily, for 7 days, with aerosolized OVA as described in Materials and Methods . Seven weeks later, select females were bred with naive C57BL/6J males and both pregnant and nonpregnant females were re-exposed to aerosolized OVA on days corresponding to E11–17 of pregnancy. Serum was collected 24 h after the last aerosol exposure (E18) and concentrations of OVA-specific IgG1 or IgE in serum were determined by ELISA. Results are from one experiment (three mice per group) and the absence of detectable differences between pregnant and nonpregnant mice was consistent with analyses of eight other mice in separate experiments.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Pregnancy does not affect serum levels of OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE. C57BL/6J female mice were immunized three times with OVA-Al(OH) 3 (at weekly intervals) and 9 days later were challenged daily, for 7 days, with aerosolized OVA as described in Materials and Methods . Seven weeks later, select females were bred with naive C57BL/6J males and both pregnant and nonpregnant females were re-exposed to aerosolized OVA on days corresponding to E11–17 of pregnancy. Serum was collected 24 h after the last aerosol exposure (E18) and concentrations of OVA-specific IgG1 or IgE in serum were determined by ELISA. Results are from one experiment (three mice per group) and the absence of detectable differences between pregnant and nonpregnant mice was consistent with analyses of eight other mice in separate experiments.

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Transmission of Th1- or Th2-biased maternal Abs to offspring was determined by the adjuvant used for immunization. Females were immunized with OVA-Al(OH) 3 or OVA-CFA and challenged for 7 days with 1% aerosolized OVA (daily exposure time 60 min). Six weeks later, females were bred with naive C57BL/6J males and pregnant mice were re-exposed to aerosolized OVA on E11–17 of pregnancy. Serum was collected from naive 2-wk-old pups (1 wk before weaning) and concentrations of OVA-specific Igs were measured by ELISA. OVA-specific Igs were absent from serum of pups born to naive C57BL/6J mothers (data not shown). Bar labels refer to conditions of maternal sensitization. Results represent the mean ± SE from three to four determinations per group. Each determination was made using sera from individual mice for IgG1 and IgG2a or sera combined from two mice for IgE and IgA. Statistical analysis could not be performed for OVA-specific IgE or IgA as analysis of sera from progeny of OVA-Al(OH) 3 immune mothers was a pooled sample from two mice. *, p ≤ 0.05 when compared between groups.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Transmission of Th1- or Th2-biased maternal Abs to offspring was determined by the adjuvant used for immunization. Females were immunized with OVA-Al(OH) 3 or OVA-CFA and challenged for 7 days with 1% aerosolized OVA (daily exposure time 60 min). Six weeks later, females were bred with naive C57BL/6J males and pregnant mice were re-exposed to aerosolized OVA on E11–17 of pregnancy. Serum was collected from naive 2-wk-old pups (1 wk before weaning) and concentrations of OVA-specific Igs were measured by ELISA. OVA-specific Igs were absent from serum of pups born to naive C57BL/6J mothers (data not shown). Bar labels refer to conditions of maternal sensitization. Results represent the mean ± SE from three to four determinations per group. Each determination was made using sera from individual mice for IgG1 and IgG2a or sera combined from two mice for IgE and IgA. Statistical analysis could not be performed for OVA-specific IgE or IgA as analysis of sera from progeny of OVA-Al(OH) 3 immune mothers was a pooled sample from two mice. *, p ≤ 0.05 when compared between groups.

    Techniques Used: Transmission Assay, Mouse Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    12) Product Images from "CXCR3-Dependent Plasma Blast Migration to the Central Nervous System during Viral Encephalomyelitis ▿"

    Article Title: CXCR3-Dependent Plasma Blast Migration to the Central Nervous System during Viral Encephalomyelitis ▿

    Journal: Journal of Virology

    doi: 10.1128/JVI.00202-11

    CXCR3 is required for ASC accumulation in the CNS. (A) ELISPOT assay-derived frequencies of virus-specific and total IgG-ASC in spinal cords of WT and CXCR3 −/− mice at days 21 and 28 p.i. (B) Representative flow cytometry density plots
    Figure Legend Snippet: CXCR3 is required for ASC accumulation in the CNS. (A) ELISPOT assay-derived frequencies of virus-specific and total IgG-ASC in spinal cords of WT and CXCR3 −/− mice at days 21 and 28 p.i. (B) Representative flow cytometry density plots

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunospot, Derivative Assay, Mouse Assay, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry

    Normal peripheral humoral responses in CXCR3 −/− mice. (A) Frequencies of virus-specific and total IgG-secreting ASC in CLN measured by ELISPOT assay. (B) ELISPOT analysis of virus-specific ASC in bone marrow, representative of three experiments
    Figure Legend Snippet: Normal peripheral humoral responses in CXCR3 −/− mice. (A) Frequencies of virus-specific and total IgG-secreting ASC in CLN measured by ELISPOT assay. (B) ELISPOT analysis of virus-specific ASC in bone marrow, representative of three experiments

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunospot

    13) Product Images from "Inhibition of the HCV Core Protein on the Immune Response to HBV Surface Antigen and on HBV Gene Expression and Replication In Vivo"

    Article Title: Inhibition of the HCV Core Protein on the Immune Response to HBV Surface Antigen and on HBV Gene Expression and Replication In Vivo

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045146

    Co-application of pC191 at the different sites cannot prevent the priming of immune responses to HBsAg. BALB/c mice (n = 6 for each group) were immunized three times by in vivo electroporation with different plasmids at different leg. Sera of immunized mice were collected on the 10 th day after second and third immunizations, serially diluted, and testd by ELISA assay. (A) Total HBsAb IgG responses. Splenocytes were collected from mice at day 10 after the third immunization and subjected to ELISPOT assay. (B) Splenocytes were re-stimulated with an HBsAg peptide (H-2L d CTL epitope aa 29–38).HBsAg specific IFN-producing cells were determined by identified by spot formation. The numbers represent the means of spot-forming cells per 2×10 5 splenocytes. The error bars represent the standard deviation. Statistically significant differences between the groups are displayed as *(p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Co-application of pC191 at the different sites cannot prevent the priming of immune responses to HBsAg. BALB/c mice (n = 6 for each group) were immunized three times by in vivo electroporation with different plasmids at different leg. Sera of immunized mice were collected on the 10 th day after second and third immunizations, serially diluted, and testd by ELISA assay. (A) Total HBsAb IgG responses. Splenocytes were collected from mice at day 10 after the third immunization and subjected to ELISPOT assay. (B) Splenocytes were re-stimulated with an HBsAg peptide (H-2L d CTL epitope aa 29–38).HBsAg specific IFN-producing cells were determined by identified by spot formation. The numbers represent the means of spot-forming cells per 2×10 5 splenocytes. The error bars represent the standard deviation. Statistically significant differences between the groups are displayed as *(p

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, In Vivo, Electroporation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunospot, CTL Assay, Standard Deviation

    The co-administration of pC191 with pHBsAg delayed HBsAg and HBV DNA clearance in immunized mice after HI. BALB/c (H-2 d ) mice (n = 6 for each group) were immunized three times by in vivo electroporation with different plasmid combinations and then challenged with pAAV/HBV1.3 by tail vein HI on day 5 after the third immunization. Sera were collected at the indicated time points for HBsAg, HBsAb, and HBV DNA detection. (A) The positive rate of serum HBsAg in mice of each group. (B) The kinetic of the HBsAg titres. (C) The kinetics of the total HBsAb IgG titres. (D) The kinetics of HBV DNA detection in mice. The results shown represent the average of all of the mice.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The co-administration of pC191 with pHBsAg delayed HBsAg and HBV DNA clearance in immunized mice after HI. BALB/c (H-2 d ) mice (n = 6 for each group) were immunized three times by in vivo electroporation with different plasmid combinations and then challenged with pAAV/HBV1.3 by tail vein HI on day 5 after the third immunization. Sera were collected at the indicated time points for HBsAg, HBsAb, and HBV DNA detection. (A) The positive rate of serum HBsAg in mice of each group. (B) The kinetic of the HBsAg titres. (C) The kinetics of the total HBsAb IgG titres. (D) The kinetics of HBV DNA detection in mice. The results shown represent the average of all of the mice.

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, In Vivo, Electroporation, Plasmid Preparation

    Co-administration of pC191 and rHBsAg cannot prevent priming of immune responses to recombinant HBsAg. BALB/c mice (n = 6 for each group) were immunised three times by in vivo electroporation with different combinations of plasmid and/or recombinant HBsAg (rHBsAg). Sera of immunized mice were collected on the 10th day after the first or second immunisation boost and were serially diluted and titred by ELISA. (A) Total HBsAb IgG. (B) HBsAb IgG subclasses IgG1 and IgG2a. (C) Splenocytes were collected from mice at day 10 after the third immunization and subjected to ELISPOT assay. Splenocytes were re-stimulated with an HBsAg peptide (H-2L d CTL epitope aa 29–38). HBsAg specific IFN-producing cells were determined by identified by spot formation. The numbers represent the means of spot-forming cells per 2×10 5 splenocytes. The error bars represent the standard deviation. Statistically significant differences between the boost and the boosts relative to the prime in each group are displayed as *(p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Co-administration of pC191 and rHBsAg cannot prevent priming of immune responses to recombinant HBsAg. BALB/c mice (n = 6 for each group) were immunised three times by in vivo electroporation with different combinations of plasmid and/or recombinant HBsAg (rHBsAg). Sera of immunized mice were collected on the 10th day after the first or second immunisation boost and were serially diluted and titred by ELISA. (A) Total HBsAb IgG. (B) HBsAb IgG subclasses IgG1 and IgG2a. (C) Splenocytes were collected from mice at day 10 after the third immunization and subjected to ELISPOT assay. Splenocytes were re-stimulated with an HBsAg peptide (H-2L d CTL epitope aa 29–38). HBsAg specific IFN-producing cells were determined by identified by spot formation. The numbers represent the means of spot-forming cells per 2×10 5 splenocytes. The error bars represent the standard deviation. Statistically significant differences between the boost and the boosts relative to the prime in each group are displayed as *(p

    Techniques Used: Recombinant, Mouse Assay, In Vivo, Electroporation, Plasmid Preparation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunospot, CTL Assay, Standard Deviation

    Co-application of pC191 inhibited the effective boosting of HBsAg-specific immune response. BALB/c mice (n = 6 for each group) were immunized three times by in vivo electroporation with different doses of the plasmids pCI, pHBsAg, pC191, or combinations as indicated in (A). Sera of immunized mice were collected on 10th days after the third immunization, serially diluted, and tested by ELISA assay. (B) Total HBsAb IgG responses. (C) HBsAb IgG subclasses IgG1 and IgG2a. (D) Ratios of HBsAb IgG2a/IgG1. (E) Splenocytes were collected from mice at day 10 after the third immunization and subjected to ELISPOT assay. Splenocytes were re-stimulated with a HBsAg peptide (H-2L d CTL epitope aa 29–38). HBsAg specific IFN-producing cells were determined by identified by spot formation. The numbers represent the means of spot-forming cells per 2×10 5 splenocytes. The error bars represent the standard deviation. Statistically significant differences between the groups are displayed as *(p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Co-application of pC191 inhibited the effective boosting of HBsAg-specific immune response. BALB/c mice (n = 6 for each group) were immunized three times by in vivo electroporation with different doses of the plasmids pCI, pHBsAg, pC191, or combinations as indicated in (A). Sera of immunized mice were collected on 10th days after the third immunization, serially diluted, and tested by ELISA assay. (B) Total HBsAb IgG responses. (C) HBsAb IgG subclasses IgG1 and IgG2a. (D) Ratios of HBsAb IgG2a/IgG1. (E) Splenocytes were collected from mice at day 10 after the third immunization and subjected to ELISPOT assay. Splenocytes were re-stimulated with a HBsAg peptide (H-2L d CTL epitope aa 29–38). HBsAg specific IFN-producing cells were determined by identified by spot formation. The numbers represent the means of spot-forming cells per 2×10 5 splenocytes. The error bars represent the standard deviation. Statistically significant differences between the groups are displayed as *(p

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, In Vivo, Electroporation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunospot, CTL Assay, Standard Deviation

    Co-administration of pC191 and pAAV/HBV1.3 by HI reduced HBV replication and gene expression in vivo. BALB/c (H-2 d ) mice (n = 12 for each group) were subjected to HI with different plasmids combinations. Sera were collected and subjected to HBsAg and HBV DNA detection at the indicated time points. The kinetics of HBsAb total IgG and IgG subclasse responses after HI in BALB/c (H-2 d ) mice were tested by ELISA assay. (A) Positive rate of serum HBsAg in the mice from each group. (B) The kinetics of the HBsAg titer after HI. (C) The kinetics of HBV DNA detection in the mice. The kinetics of the total HBsAb IgG (D), IgG1 (E) and IgG2a (F) titres after HI. The results shown represent the average of all of the mice. The error bars represent the standard deviations. Statistically significant differences between the groups are displayed as *(p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Co-administration of pC191 and pAAV/HBV1.3 by HI reduced HBV replication and gene expression in vivo. BALB/c (H-2 d ) mice (n = 12 for each group) were subjected to HI with different plasmids combinations. Sera were collected and subjected to HBsAg and HBV DNA detection at the indicated time points. The kinetics of HBsAb total IgG and IgG subclasse responses after HI in BALB/c (H-2 d ) mice were tested by ELISA assay. (A) Positive rate of serum HBsAg in the mice from each group. (B) The kinetics of the HBsAg titer after HI. (C) The kinetics of HBV DNA detection in the mice. The kinetics of the total HBsAb IgG (D), IgG1 (E) and IgG2a (F) titres after HI. The results shown represent the average of all of the mice. The error bars represent the standard deviations. Statistically significant differences between the groups are displayed as *(p

    Techniques Used: Expressing, In Vivo, Mouse Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Hi-C

    The HCV core reduced HBsAg levels and promoted the HBsAb antibody response in a mouse model of persistent HBV replication. C57BL/6 (H-2 b ) mice (n = 12 for each group) were challenged with different plasmids combinations by tail vein HI. Sera were collected at indicated time points, serially diluted, and tested by ELISA assay.(A) Positive rate of serum HBsAg in the mice from each group. (B) The kinetics of the HBsAg titres after HI. (C) Positive rate of serum HBsAb in the mice from each group. (D) The kinetics of the total HBsAb IgG titres after HI. The error bars represent the standard deviation. Statistically significant differences between the groups are displayed as *(p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The HCV core reduced HBsAg levels and promoted the HBsAb antibody response in a mouse model of persistent HBV replication. C57BL/6 (H-2 b ) mice (n = 12 for each group) were challenged with different plasmids combinations by tail vein HI. Sera were collected at indicated time points, serially diluted, and tested by ELISA assay.(A) Positive rate of serum HBsAg in the mice from each group. (B) The kinetics of the HBsAg titres after HI. (C) Positive rate of serum HBsAb in the mice from each group. (D) The kinetics of the total HBsAb IgG titres after HI. The error bars represent the standard deviation. Statistically significant differences between the groups are displayed as *(p

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Hi-C, Standard Deviation

    Co-administration of pC191 and pHBsAg prevented effective priming of immune responses to HBsAg. BALB/c mice (n = 6 for each group) were immunised three times with different concentrations and different combinations of the pHBsAg, pCI-neo (pCI), pC191, or pC145 constructs by in vivo electroporation. Sera from 6 mice per group were collected on the 10 th day after the first or second immunisation boost and were serially diluted and titred by ELISA. (A) Total HBsAb IgG. (B) HBsAb IgG subclasses IgG1 and IgG2a. (C) Ratios of HBsAb IgG2a/IgG1. (D) Splenocytes were collected at day 10 after the third immunization and subjected to ELISPOT assay. Splenocytes were re-stimulated with an HBsAg peptide (H-2L d CTL epitope aa 29–38). HBsAg specific IFN-producing cells were determined by identified by spot formation. The numbers represent the means of spot-forming cells per 2×10 5 splenocytes. The error bars represent the standard deviation. Statistically significant differences between the groups are displayed as *(p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Co-administration of pC191 and pHBsAg prevented effective priming of immune responses to HBsAg. BALB/c mice (n = 6 for each group) were immunised three times with different concentrations and different combinations of the pHBsAg, pCI-neo (pCI), pC191, or pC145 constructs by in vivo electroporation. Sera from 6 mice per group were collected on the 10 th day after the first or second immunisation boost and were serially diluted and titred by ELISA. (A) Total HBsAb IgG. (B) HBsAb IgG subclasses IgG1 and IgG2a. (C) Ratios of HBsAb IgG2a/IgG1. (D) Splenocytes were collected at day 10 after the third immunization and subjected to ELISPOT assay. Splenocytes were re-stimulated with an HBsAg peptide (H-2L d CTL epitope aa 29–38). HBsAg specific IFN-producing cells were determined by identified by spot formation. The numbers represent the means of spot-forming cells per 2×10 5 splenocytes. The error bars represent the standard deviation. Statistically significant differences between the groups are displayed as *(p

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Construct, In Vivo, Electroporation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunospot, CTL Assay, Standard Deviation

    14) Product Images from "Immunisation With Immunodominant Linear B Cell Epitopes Vaccine of Manganese Transport Protein C Confers Protection against Staphylococcus aureus Infection"

    Article Title: Immunisation With Immunodominant Linear B Cell Epitopes Vaccine of Manganese Transport Protein C Confers Protection against Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149638

    The survival rates and antibody titres of rMntC vaccine. The survival rates of rMntC vaccine (with CFA/IFA as adjuvant), CFA/IFA adjuvant alone, and histidine buffer as control, challenged for BALB/c mice ( n = 10) by S . aureus strains MRSA252 (A). The titres were determined by ELISA for IgG (B). The survival analyses and comparison of rMntC vaccine and adjuvant control were calculated separately by a log rank test. The asterisks represent a statistically significant difference (** P
    Figure Legend Snippet: The survival rates and antibody titres of rMntC vaccine. The survival rates of rMntC vaccine (with CFA/IFA as adjuvant), CFA/IFA adjuvant alone, and histidine buffer as control, challenged for BALB/c mice ( n = 10) by S . aureus strains MRSA252 (A). The titres were determined by ELISA for IgG (B). The survival analyses and comparison of rMntC vaccine and adjuvant control were calculated separately by a log rank test. The asterisks represent a statistically significant difference (** P

    Techniques Used: Immunofluorescence, Mouse Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Antibody titres of immunisation with rMntC, peptide vaccine, and controls. The titres were determined by ELISA for IgG (A), IgG1 (B), IgG2a (C), and IgG2b (D). The results represent the means and standard error for a group of mice and the significance was measured by a log rank test (* P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antibody titres of immunisation with rMntC, peptide vaccine, and controls. The titres were determined by ELISA for IgG (A), IgG1 (B), IgG2a (C), and IgG2b (D). The results represent the means and standard error for a group of mice and the significance was measured by a log rank test (* P

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Mouse Assay

    15) Product Images from "Early Enhanced Th1 Response after Leishmania amazonensis Infection of C57BL/6 Interleukin-10-Deficient Mice Does Not Lead to Resolution of Infection "

    Article Title: Early Enhanced Th1 Response after Leishmania amazonensis Infection of C57BL/6 Interleukin-10-Deficient Mice Does Not Lead to Resolution of Infection

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.70.4.2151-2158.2002

    L. amazonensis -specific IgG2a antibody levels are significantly decreased in IL-10-deficient mice. At 15 weeks postinfection serum was collected from IL-10-deficient mice (IL-10 KO) and WT mice, and the relative levels of Leishmania -specific IgG2a antibodies were determined as described in Materials and Methods. The values are means ± standard errors based on three separate experiments performed with five to seven animals per group. P = 0.027. O.D. 405, optical density at 405 nm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: L. amazonensis -specific IgG2a antibody levels are significantly decreased in IL-10-deficient mice. At 15 weeks postinfection serum was collected from IL-10-deficient mice (IL-10 KO) and WT mice, and the relative levels of Leishmania -specific IgG2a antibodies were determined as described in Materials and Methods. The values are means ± standard errors based on three separate experiments performed with five to seven animals per group. P = 0.027. O.D. 405, optical density at 405 nm.

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

    16) Product Images from "Evaluation of DNA-Launched Virus-Like Particle Vaccines in an Immune Competent Mouse Model of Chikungunya Virus Infection"

    Article Title: Evaluation of DNA-Launched Virus-Like Particle Vaccines in an Immune Competent Mouse Model of Chikungunya Virus Infection

    Journal: Vaccines

    doi: 10.3390/vaccines9040345

    CHIKV antibody titers in BALB/c mice following two doses of DNA vaccine 1, DNA vaccine 2 or the CHIKV 181/25 live attenuated vaccine. ( a ) Total IgG antibody titers over the 8-month study period. ( b ) IgG 1 antibody titers over the 8-month study period. ( c ) IgG 2a antibody titers over the 8-month study period.
    Figure Legend Snippet: CHIKV antibody titers in BALB/c mice following two doses of DNA vaccine 1, DNA vaccine 2 or the CHIKV 181/25 live attenuated vaccine. ( a ) Total IgG antibody titers over the 8-month study period. ( b ) IgG 1 antibody titers over the 8-month study period. ( c ) IgG 2a antibody titers over the 8-month study period.

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

    17) Product Images from "An Adenovirus-Vectored Influenza Vaccine Induces Durable Cross-Protective Hemagglutinin Stalk Antibody Responses in Mice"

    Article Title: An Adenovirus-Vectored Influenza Vaccine Induces Durable Cross-Protective Hemagglutinin Stalk Antibody Responses in Mice

    Journal: Viruses

    doi: 10.3390/v9080234

    Adenovirus-vectored influenza vaccine induces a balanced T helper (Th)1/Th2 neutralizing antibody response. Balb/c mice were immunized with formaldehyde-inactivated PR8+CT (FiPR8+CT), live PR8 (H1N1), TIV, FluMist ® or, rAdH5/M2e. Four weeks post-immunization, sera were collected and the hemagglutination inhibiting (HI) titers ( A ), virus neutralization titers ( B ), and vaccine-specific total Ig, IgG, IgG1, IgG2A, IgG2B, and IgA antibodies ( C – H ) were determined. HI and VN titer of FiPR8+CT, TIV, Flu mist, and Live PR8 were tested against H1N1 and rAdH5/M2e was tested against H5N2. The values represent the mean ± SEM (vertical bars) of end point ELISA antibody titers determined from 5 mice per group (*** p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Adenovirus-vectored influenza vaccine induces a balanced T helper (Th)1/Th2 neutralizing antibody response. Balb/c mice were immunized with formaldehyde-inactivated PR8+CT (FiPR8+CT), live PR8 (H1N1), TIV, FluMist ® or, rAdH5/M2e. Four weeks post-immunization, sera were collected and the hemagglutination inhibiting (HI) titers ( A ), virus neutralization titers ( B ), and vaccine-specific total Ig, IgG, IgG1, IgG2A, IgG2B, and IgA antibodies ( C – H ) were determined. HI and VN titer of FiPR8+CT, TIV, Flu mist, and Live PR8 were tested against H1N1 and rAdH5/M2e was tested against H5N2. The values represent the mean ± SEM (vertical bars) of end point ELISA antibody titers determined from 5 mice per group (*** p

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Neutralization, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Adenovirus-vectored influenza vaccine induces a balanced Th1/Th2 antibody response against the HA stalk. Balb/c mice were intranasallyimmunized with formaldehyde-inactivated PR8+CT (FiPR8+CT), live PR8 (H1N1), TIV, FluMist ® , rAdH5/M2e. The levels of serum hemagglutinin (HA) stalk-specific total immunoglobulin (Ig), IgG, IgG1, IgG2A, IgG2B, and IgA Abs were measured 28 days post-immunization by ELISA with baculovirus-expressed cH9/1 protein ( A – F ). The values represent the mean ± SEM (vertical bars) end point ELISA Ab titers determined from five mice per group (*** p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Adenovirus-vectored influenza vaccine induces a balanced Th1/Th2 antibody response against the HA stalk. Balb/c mice were intranasallyimmunized with formaldehyde-inactivated PR8+CT (FiPR8+CT), live PR8 (H1N1), TIV, FluMist ® , rAdH5/M2e. The levels of serum hemagglutinin (HA) stalk-specific total immunoglobulin (Ig), IgG, IgG1, IgG2A, IgG2B, and IgA Abs were measured 28 days post-immunization by ELISA with baculovirus-expressed cH9/1 protein ( A – F ). The values represent the mean ± SEM (vertical bars) end point ELISA Ab titers determined from five mice per group (*** p

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    18) Product Images from "BALB/c Mice Deficient in CD4+ T Cell IL-4R? Expression Control Leishmania mexicana Load although Female but Not Male Mice Develop a Healer Phenotype"

    Article Title: BALB/c Mice Deficient in CD4+ T Cell IL-4R? Expression Control Leishmania mexicana Load although Female but Not Male Mice Develop a Healer Phenotype

    Journal: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000930

    IL-4Rα deficiency in CD4 + T cells results in enhanced Th1 responses after L. mexicana infection. L. mexicana antigen induced (10 µg/ml) splenocyte IFN-γ (Figure 3A and B), and 6 and 12 week serum IgG2a levels (Figure 3C and 3D) produced from female (Figure 3A and C) and male (Figure 3B and D) IL-4Rα intact (IL-4Rα −/lox ), CD4 + T cell specific (Lck cre IL-4Rα −/lox ) IL-4Rα −/− , and global IL-4Rα −/− mice infected sub-cutaneously with 5×10 6 amastigotes of L. mexicana . *p
    Figure Legend Snippet: IL-4Rα deficiency in CD4 + T cells results in enhanced Th1 responses after L. mexicana infection. L. mexicana antigen induced (10 µg/ml) splenocyte IFN-γ (Figure 3A and B), and 6 and 12 week serum IgG2a levels (Figure 3C and 3D) produced from female (Figure 3A and C) and male (Figure 3B and D) IL-4Rα intact (IL-4Rα −/lox ), CD4 + T cell specific (Lck cre IL-4Rα −/lox ) IL-4Rα −/− , and global IL-4Rα −/− mice infected sub-cutaneously with 5×10 6 amastigotes of L. mexicana . *p

    Techniques Used: Infection, Produced, Mouse Assay

    19) Product Images from "Establishment and characterization of murine models of asthma and subcutaneous immunotherapy for Humulus pollen allergy. Establishment and characterization of murine models of asthma and subcutaneous immunotherapy for Humulus pollen allergy"

    Article Title: Establishment and characterization of murine models of asthma and subcutaneous immunotherapy for Humulus pollen allergy. Establishment and characterization of murine models of asthma and subcutaneous immunotherapy for Humulus pollen allergy

    Journal: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease

    doi: 10.1002/iid3.405

    Effects of SCIT on HSE‐induced AHR, airway inflammation and immunological response. Mice were sensitized and challenged as described in Figure 1 B. AHR to Mch(A): Penh dose–response curves to Mch were determined 24 h after the last challenge (on day 50). The mice were killed 1 day later for analysis of inflammatory cell recruitment (B1) and percentages of eosinophils (B2) in BALF, HSE‐specific IgE (C1) and IgG2a (C2) in serum and cytokine production of IL‐4 (D1), IL‐13 (D2), IFN‐γ (D3), and IL‐10 (D4) in BALF and SHS. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM of n = 10 mice per group. ** p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of SCIT on HSE‐induced AHR, airway inflammation and immunological response. Mice were sensitized and challenged as described in Figure 1 B. AHR to Mch(A): Penh dose–response curves to Mch were determined 24 h after the last challenge (on day 50). The mice were killed 1 day later for analysis of inflammatory cell recruitment (B1) and percentages of eosinophils (B2) in BALF, HSE‐specific IgE (C1) and IgG2a (C2) in serum and cytokine production of IL‐4 (D1), IL‐13 (D2), IFN‐γ (D3), and IL‐10 (D4) in BALF and SHS. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM of n = 10 mice per group. ** p

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

    20) Product Images from "Identification of secreted and membrane-bound bat immunoglobulin using a Microchiropteran-specific mouse monoclonal antibody"

    Article Title: Identification of secreted and membrane-bound bat immunoglobulin using a Microchiropteran-specific mouse monoclonal antibody

    Journal: Developmental and Comparative Immunology

    doi: 10.1016/j.dci.2016.06.024

    E. fuscus Ig preferentially use lambda light chains . (Upper) Varying volumes of E. fuscus serum (expressed in μl) and swine IgG (expressed in μg) or (Lower) 0.03 μl of E. fuscus , BALB/c, or horse serum, as indicated, were fractionated using protein L-magnetic microbeads. The unbound ( λ ) and protein-L-binding ( κ ) material was reduced and then resolved using SDS-PAGE, followed by visualization using silver stain. Boxed areas represent individual IgH and IgL chains.
    Figure Legend Snippet: E. fuscus Ig preferentially use lambda light chains . (Upper) Varying volumes of E. fuscus serum (expressed in μl) and swine IgG (expressed in μg) or (Lower) 0.03 μl of E. fuscus , BALB/c, or horse serum, as indicated, were fractionated using protein L-magnetic microbeads. The unbound ( λ ) and protein-L-binding ( κ ) material was reduced and then resolved using SDS-PAGE, followed by visualization using silver stain. Boxed areas represent individual IgH and IgL chains.

    Techniques Used: Binding Assay, SDS Page, Silver Staining

    Serum Ig from different microchiropteran species is identified by Ab BT1-4F10 . Unreduced heart extracts from (1) E. fuscus , (2) M. lucifugus , (3) L. cinereus , (4) L. noctivagans , and (5) L. borealis bats were resolved by SDS-PAGE followed by immunoblotting with mAb BT1-4F10. All samples were assessed in the same experiment; shown are lanes cropped from samples of different volumes and exposures to permit normalized display of similar IgG band intensities. Similar sample volumes showed staining intensities of the order indicated by Table 2 . Data are representative of analysis of at least 5 individual bats per indicated species. All bats of a given species showed the same staining pattern.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Serum Ig from different microchiropteran species is identified by Ab BT1-4F10 . Unreduced heart extracts from (1) E. fuscus , (2) M. lucifugus , (3) L. cinereus , (4) L. noctivagans , and (5) L. borealis bats were resolved by SDS-PAGE followed by immunoblotting with mAb BT1-4F10. All samples were assessed in the same experiment; shown are lanes cropped from samples of different volumes and exposures to permit normalized display of similar IgG band intensities. Similar sample volumes showed staining intensities of the order indicated by Table 2 . Data are representative of analysis of at least 5 individual bats per indicated species. All bats of a given species showed the same staining pattern.

    Techniques Used: SDS Page, Staining

    mAb BT1-4F10 cross-reacts with bat and swine Ig light chain . A 50% SAS precipitate of E. fuscus serum or purified swine IgG were resolved by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotted with mAB 4F10. Reduced and non-reduced samples were run on the same gel; lanes were cropped to remove irrelevant lanes.
    Figure Legend Snippet: mAb BT1-4F10 cross-reacts with bat and swine Ig light chain . A 50% SAS precipitate of E. fuscus serum or purified swine IgG were resolved by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotted with mAB 4F10. Reduced and non-reduced samples were run on the same gel; lanes were cropped to remove irrelevant lanes.

    Techniques Used: Purification, SDS Page

    21) Product Images from "Vaccine-Elicited Mucosal and Systemic Antibody Responses Are Associated with Reduced Simian Immunodeficiency Viremia in Infant Rhesus Macaques"

    Article Title: Vaccine-Elicited Mucosal and Systemic Antibody Responses Are Associated with Reduced Simian Immunodeficiency Viremia in Infant Rhesus Macaques

    Journal: Journal of Virology

    doi: 10.1128/JVI.00481-16

    Vaccine-induced SIV Env-specific plasma IgG responses at week 9. (A) Plasma SIV gp140-specific IgG concentrations at weeks 0, 3, 6, and 9 in naive controls, noncontroller animals, and controller animals. The times of immunization and the vaccine constructs
    Figure Legend Snippet: Vaccine-induced SIV Env-specific plasma IgG responses at week 9. (A) Plasma SIV gp140-specific IgG concentrations at weeks 0, 3, 6, and 9 in naive controls, noncontroller animals, and controller animals. The times of immunization and the vaccine constructs

    Techniques Used: Construct

    22) Product Images from "Identification of T helper (Th)1- and Th2-associated antigens of Cryptococcus neoformans in a murine model of pulmonary infection"

    Article Title: Identification of T helper (Th)1- and Th2-associated antigens of Cryptococcus neoformans in a murine model of pulmonary infection

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-21039-z

    IgG2a-immunoreactive proteins from Cryptococcus neoformans were detected with sera from representative infected and naïve wild-type, IL-4Rα-deficient, and IL-12-deficient mice. Whole cell proteins of C. neoformans strain 1841 separated by 2D electrophoresis were transferred to nitrocellulose membranes, which were thereafter incubated with sera from infected and naïve wild-type and IL-4Rα-deficient mice diluted 1:1,000. IgG2a-immunoreactive proteins were detected using sera from an infected ( a ) and naïve ( b ) wild-type mouse, an infected ( c ) and naïve ( d ) IL-4Rα-deficient mouse, and an infected ( e ) and naïve ( f ) IL-12-deficient mouse. Protein abundance as shown in the Coomassie staining did not correlate with the strength of the immunoreactive signal (Fig. 4 ). Only the spots that could be mapped on Coomassie-stained gels were numbered in the blot images. Bold, underlined numbers mark IgG2a-reactive, C. neoformans -specific spots, while light, underlined numbers indicate IgG2a-reactive but C. neoformans -unspecific spots. Italic numbers mark spots reactive with both IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies. Images were cropped to improve clarity. Full-length blots without numbered protein spots are presented in Supplementary Fig. 3 . Abbreviation: MM = molecular mass.
    Figure Legend Snippet: IgG2a-immunoreactive proteins from Cryptococcus neoformans were detected with sera from representative infected and naïve wild-type, IL-4Rα-deficient, and IL-12-deficient mice. Whole cell proteins of C. neoformans strain 1841 separated by 2D electrophoresis were transferred to nitrocellulose membranes, which were thereafter incubated with sera from infected and naïve wild-type and IL-4Rα-deficient mice diluted 1:1,000. IgG2a-immunoreactive proteins were detected using sera from an infected ( a ) and naïve ( b ) wild-type mouse, an infected ( c ) and naïve ( d ) IL-4Rα-deficient mouse, and an infected ( e ) and naïve ( f ) IL-12-deficient mouse. Protein abundance as shown in the Coomassie staining did not correlate with the strength of the immunoreactive signal (Fig. 4 ). Only the spots that could be mapped on Coomassie-stained gels were numbered in the blot images. Bold, underlined numbers mark IgG2a-reactive, C. neoformans -specific spots, while light, underlined numbers indicate IgG2a-reactive but C. neoformans -unspecific spots. Italic numbers mark spots reactive with both IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies. Images were cropped to improve clarity. Full-length blots without numbered protein spots are presented in Supplementary Fig. 3 . Abbreviation: MM = molecular mass.

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay, Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis, Incubation, Staining

    Frequency of cryptococcal proteins, reactive with IgG1, IgG2a, or with IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies in Cryptococcus neoformans -infected mice of different genotypes. Immunoreactive cryptococcal proteins were identified using sera from infected mice of different genotypes. Proteins were grouped according to their reactivity with IgG1, IgG2a, or with IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies. The isotype which showed reactivity in the individual animal is indicated by plain bars (IgG1) or hatched bars (IgG2a). Three IgG2a-reactive proteins reacted exclusively with sera from infected mice, while one protein also showed reactivity with sera from naïve mice (marked with an asterisk (*), see also Fig. 3 ). Sera from IL-4Rα-deficient mice were not tested by 2D analysis for IgG1-reactive proteins, as no immunoreactive protein bands for this isotype could be detected when investigating these sera in 1D analysis (Supplementary Fig. S1 ). Sera from infected animals were taken from at least three independent experiments in late infection state (at least 56 days post infection). Abbreviations: Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehyd. = Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; Thioredoxin-dependent peroxide reduct. = Thioredoxin-dependent peroxide reductase.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Frequency of cryptococcal proteins, reactive with IgG1, IgG2a, or with IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies in Cryptococcus neoformans -infected mice of different genotypes. Immunoreactive cryptococcal proteins were identified using sera from infected mice of different genotypes. Proteins were grouped according to their reactivity with IgG1, IgG2a, or with IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies. The isotype which showed reactivity in the individual animal is indicated by plain bars (IgG1) or hatched bars (IgG2a). Three IgG2a-reactive proteins reacted exclusively with sera from infected mice, while one protein also showed reactivity with sera from naïve mice (marked with an asterisk (*), see also Fig. 3 ). Sera from IL-4Rα-deficient mice were not tested by 2D analysis for IgG1-reactive proteins, as no immunoreactive protein bands for this isotype could be detected when investigating these sera in 1D analysis (Supplementary Fig. S1 ). Sera from infected animals were taken from at least three independent experiments in late infection state (at least 56 days post infection). Abbreviations: Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehyd. = Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; Thioredoxin-dependent peroxide reduct. = Thioredoxin-dependent peroxide reductase.

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Total and C. neoformans -specific levels of Th2-dependent IgG1 and IgE predominate in sera from susceptible wild-type (WT) and IL-12-deficient mice with pulmonary cryptococcosis. Total IgG1 ( a ) and IgE ( b ) levels increased significantly after infection with C. neoformans for most genotypes, whereas IgG2a levels ( c ) were not influenced by C. neoformans . Compared to wild-type mice, IL-4Rα-deficient mice had markedly lower levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 ( a ), no production of IgE ( b ) and similar levels of total IgG2a ( c ). Opposite, IL-12-deficient mice showed similar IgG1 and significantly higher IgE levels ( a , b ), while reduced levels of IgG2a ( c ), compared to wild-type mice. Titers of C. neoformans -specific IgG2a ( d ) and IgG1 ( e ) antibodies in infected (infec.) mice reflected the distribution observed for total immunoglobulin levels. C. neoformans -specific IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies were absent in sera of naïve mice. A strong correlation was observed between total and C. neoformans -specific IgG1 levels ( f ) but not between total and C. neoformans -specific IgG2a levels ( g ) in infected mice of all genotypes. Each spot represents a serum sample of an individual mouse (2 to 14 animals per group from at least two independent experiments) with the line indicating the median. Serum samples were obtained from mice intranasally infected with 500 colony forming units of C. neoformans strain 1841 after about 56 days post infection. Statistical significance determined by Mann-Whitney U test is shown as following: * p ≤ 0.05, ** p ≤ 0.01, *** p ≤ 0.001, and **** p ≤ 0.0001. Correlation was determined by nonparametric Spearman’s correlation test.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Total and C. neoformans -specific levels of Th2-dependent IgG1 and IgE predominate in sera from susceptible wild-type (WT) and IL-12-deficient mice with pulmonary cryptococcosis. Total IgG1 ( a ) and IgE ( b ) levels increased significantly after infection with C. neoformans for most genotypes, whereas IgG2a levels ( c ) were not influenced by C. neoformans . Compared to wild-type mice, IL-4Rα-deficient mice had markedly lower levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 ( a ), no production of IgE ( b ) and similar levels of total IgG2a ( c ). Opposite, IL-12-deficient mice showed similar IgG1 and significantly higher IgE levels ( a , b ), while reduced levels of IgG2a ( c ), compared to wild-type mice. Titers of C. neoformans -specific IgG2a ( d ) and IgG1 ( e ) antibodies in infected (infec.) mice reflected the distribution observed for total immunoglobulin levels. C. neoformans -specific IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies were absent in sera of naïve mice. A strong correlation was observed between total and C. neoformans -specific IgG1 levels ( f ) but not between total and C. neoformans -specific IgG2a levels ( g ) in infected mice of all genotypes. Each spot represents a serum sample of an individual mouse (2 to 14 animals per group from at least two independent experiments) with the line indicating the median. Serum samples were obtained from mice intranasally infected with 500 colony forming units of C. neoformans strain 1841 after about 56 days post infection. Statistical significance determined by Mann-Whitney U test is shown as following: * p ≤ 0.05, ** p ≤ 0.01, *** p ≤ 0.001, and **** p ≤ 0.0001. Correlation was determined by nonparametric Spearman’s correlation test.

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Infection, MANN-WHITNEY

    Protein profile of Cryptococcus neoformans with indicated immunoreactive protein spots. Whole cell proteins of C. neoformans strain 1841 were separated by isoelectric point and molecular weight. After 2D gel electrophoresis, gels were stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue G250. Numbered spots in the stained gel represent all antigenic proteins that were identified in this study. Bold non-underlined and bold underlined numbers indicate IgG1- and IgG2a-immunoreactive proteins, respectively. The spots in italic were reactive with both isotypes as shown in Figures 2 and 3 . Light underlined numbers indicate IgG2a-immunoreactive proteins, which were not specific for C. neoformans . Abbreviation: MM = molecular mass.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Protein profile of Cryptococcus neoformans with indicated immunoreactive protein spots. Whole cell proteins of C. neoformans strain 1841 were separated by isoelectric point and molecular weight. After 2D gel electrophoresis, gels were stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue G250. Numbered spots in the stained gel represent all antigenic proteins that were identified in this study. Bold non-underlined and bold underlined numbers indicate IgG1- and IgG2a-immunoreactive proteins, respectively. The spots in italic were reactive with both isotypes as shown in Figures 2 and 3 . Light underlined numbers indicate IgG2a-immunoreactive proteins, which were not specific for C. neoformans . Abbreviation: MM = molecular mass.

    Techniques Used: Molecular Weight, Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis, Electrophoresis, Staining

    IgG1-immunoreactive proteins from Cryptococcus neoformans were detected with sera from representative infected but not naïve wild-type and IL-12-deficient mice. Whole cell proteins of C. neoformans strain 1841 separated by 2D electrophoresis were transferred to nitrocellulose membranes, which were thereafter incubated with sera from infected and naïve wild-type and gene-deficient mice diluted 1:1,000. IgG1-immunoreactive proteins were detected using sera from an infected wild-type ( a ), a naïve wild-type ( b ), an infected IL-12-deficient ( c ), and a naïve IL-12-deficient ( d ) mouse. Protein abundance as shown in the Coomassie staining did not correlate with the strength of the immunoreactive signal (Fig. 4 ). Only the spots that could be mapped on Coomassie-stained gels were numbered in the blot images. Bold numbers indicate strictly IgG1-reactive proteins while italic numbers mark proteins reactive with both, IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies. Images were cropped to improve clarity. Full-length blots without numbered protein spots are presented in Supplementary Fig. 2 . Abbreviation: MM = molecular mass.
    Figure Legend Snippet: IgG1-immunoreactive proteins from Cryptococcus neoformans were detected with sera from representative infected but not naïve wild-type and IL-12-deficient mice. Whole cell proteins of C. neoformans strain 1841 separated by 2D electrophoresis were transferred to nitrocellulose membranes, which were thereafter incubated with sera from infected and naïve wild-type and gene-deficient mice diluted 1:1,000. IgG1-immunoreactive proteins were detected using sera from an infected wild-type ( a ), a naïve wild-type ( b ), an infected IL-12-deficient ( c ), and a naïve IL-12-deficient ( d ) mouse. Protein abundance as shown in the Coomassie staining did not correlate with the strength of the immunoreactive signal (Fig. 4 ). Only the spots that could be mapped on Coomassie-stained gels were numbered in the blot images. Bold numbers indicate strictly IgG1-reactive proteins while italic numbers mark proteins reactive with both, IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies. Images were cropped to improve clarity. Full-length blots without numbered protein spots are presented in Supplementary Fig. 2 . Abbreviation: MM = molecular mass.

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay, Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis, Incubation, Staining

    23) Product Images from "Astrocyte-Derived CXCL10 Drives Accumulation of Antibody-Secreting Cells in the Central Nervous System during Viral Encephalomyelitis"

    Article Title: Astrocyte-Derived CXCL10 Drives Accumulation of Antibody-Secreting Cells in the Central Nervous System during Viral Encephalomyelitis

    Journal: Journal of Virology

    doi: 10.1128/JVI.03307-12

    Local CNS Ab production is less impaired in CXCL10 −/− mice than in CXCR3 −/− mice. (A) Virus-specific IgG2a in clarified supernatants from spinal cord homogenates of infected WT, CXCL10 −/− , and CXCR3 −/−
    Figure Legend Snippet: Local CNS Ab production is less impaired in CXCL10 −/− mice than in CXCR3 −/− mice. (A) Virus-specific IgG2a in clarified supernatants from spinal cord homogenates of infected WT, CXCL10 −/− , and CXCR3 −/−

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Infection

    Ab production within the CNS is impaired in the absence of CXCL10. The relative transcript levels of IgG (A), κ-light chain (B), BCMA (C), and TACI (D) in spinal cords of naïve and infected WT, CXCL9 −/− , and CXCL10 −/−
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ab production within the CNS is impaired in the absence of CXCL10. The relative transcript levels of IgG (A), κ-light chain (B), BCMA (C), and TACI (D) in spinal cords of naïve and infected WT, CXCL9 −/− , and CXCL10 −/−

    Techniques Used: Infection

    24) Product Images from "Progression From IgD+ IgM+ to Isotype-Switched B Cells Is Site Specific during Coronavirus-Induced Encephalomyelitis"

    Article Title: Progression From IgD+ IgM+ to Isotype-Switched B Cells Is Site Specific during Coronavirus-Induced Encephalomyelitis

    Journal: Journal of Virology

    doi: 10.1128/JVI.00861-14

    Early-activated B cells are replaced with isotype-switched B mem in the CNS. (A) Representative plots of IgD and IgM expression levels on CLN- and brain-derived CD19 + CD138 − B cells at days 7 and 28 p.i., respectively. Gated populations are indicated as follows: 1, IgD + IgM + ; 2, IgD − IgM + ; 3, IgD − IgM − . The dashed ellipse represents IgD lo IgM + B cells. (B to D) Frequencies of IgD + IgM + (B), IgD − IgM + (C), and IgD − IgM − (D) B cells within total CD19 + CD138 − B cells. Data are expressed as the mean percentages of each B cell subset within total CD19 + CD138 − B cells ± SEM and represent two independent experiments, each using pooled brains or spinal cords from 6 to 8 mice per time point. (E) Representative plots of surface IgG2a/b and intracellular IgG2a/b (icIgG2a/b) expression levels by brain CD19 + CD138 − or CD138 + B cells at day 28 p.i. Gated populations are indicated as follows: squares, surface IgG2a/b + and intracellular IgG2a/b − ; dashed ellipses, surface IgG2a/b + and intracellular IgG2a/b + . Significant differences between brain and spinal cord at a given time point are indicated (*, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Early-activated B cells are replaced with isotype-switched B mem in the CNS. (A) Representative plots of IgD and IgM expression levels on CLN- and brain-derived CD19 + CD138 − B cells at days 7 and 28 p.i., respectively. Gated populations are indicated as follows: 1, IgD + IgM + ; 2, IgD − IgM + ; 3, IgD − IgM − . The dashed ellipse represents IgD lo IgM + B cells. (B to D) Frequencies of IgD + IgM + (B), IgD − IgM + (C), and IgD − IgM − (D) B cells within total CD19 + CD138 − B cells. Data are expressed as the mean percentages of each B cell subset within total CD19 + CD138 − B cells ± SEM and represent two independent experiments, each using pooled brains or spinal cords from 6 to 8 mice per time point. (E) Representative plots of surface IgG2a/b and intracellular IgG2a/b (icIgG2a/b) expression levels by brain CD19 + CD138 − or CD138 + B cells at day 28 p.i. Gated populations are indicated as follows: squares, surface IgG2a/b + and intracellular IgG2a/b − ; dashed ellipses, surface IgG2a/b + and intracellular IgG2a/b + . Significant differences between brain and spinal cord at a given time point are indicated (*, P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Derivative Assay, Mouse Assay

    Preferential accumulation of ASC in the spinal cord versus the brain is associated with increased viral loads. (A and B) Numbers of total CD19 + B cells (A) or CD19 + CD138 + ASC (B) were determined by flow cytometry. Data are expressed as the mean number of CD19 + B cells (A) or CD138 + ASC (B) per mg of tissue ± SEM and represent two independent experiments, each comprising pooled brains or spinal cords of 6 to 8 mice per time point. (C) Percentages of CD138 + ASC within total CD19 + B cells calculated as the means ± SEM from data presented in panels A and B. (D and E) Relative transcript levels of γ heavy chain and κ light chain in brains and spinal cords of naive and infected mice assessed by real-time PCR. Data depict the means ± SEM relative to GAPDH mRNA levels for at least 6 to 7 individual mice derived from two independent experiments with at least 3 mice per time point per experiment. Transcript levels at day 7 p.i. are expressed as means ± SEMs relative to GAPDH mRNA levels and were as follows: 0.17 ± 0.08 in brain and 0.26 ± 0.14 in spinal cord for γ heavy chain (D) and 0.8 ± 0.2 in brain and 0.9 ± 0.4 in spinal cord for κ light chain (E). (F and G) Virus-specific IgG2a and IgM levels in clarified supernatants from brain and spinal cord homogenates at the indicated time points were assessed by an ELISA. Arbitrary units reflect Ab levels converted to mg of tissue from 3 to 4 mice per time point. (H) Virus titers in brain or spinal cord supernatants were determined by a plaque assay and are expressed as mean PFU per mg of tissue ± SEM. Data are from two independent experiments with 5 to 10 total mice per time point. (I) Relative transcript levels of viral RNA in brain or spinal cord assessed by real-time PCR. Data depict the means ± SEM relative to GAPDH mRNA levels for 6 to 7 total mice per time point derived from two independent experiments. Significant differences between naive and infected brain or naive and infected spinal cord are indicated (*, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Preferential accumulation of ASC in the spinal cord versus the brain is associated with increased viral loads. (A and B) Numbers of total CD19 + B cells (A) or CD19 + CD138 + ASC (B) were determined by flow cytometry. Data are expressed as the mean number of CD19 + B cells (A) or CD138 + ASC (B) per mg of tissue ± SEM and represent two independent experiments, each comprising pooled brains or spinal cords of 6 to 8 mice per time point. (C) Percentages of CD138 + ASC within total CD19 + B cells calculated as the means ± SEM from data presented in panels A and B. (D and E) Relative transcript levels of γ heavy chain and κ light chain in brains and spinal cords of naive and infected mice assessed by real-time PCR. Data depict the means ± SEM relative to GAPDH mRNA levels for at least 6 to 7 individual mice derived from two independent experiments with at least 3 mice per time point per experiment. Transcript levels at day 7 p.i. are expressed as means ± SEMs relative to GAPDH mRNA levels and were as follows: 0.17 ± 0.08 in brain and 0.26 ± 0.14 in spinal cord for γ heavy chain (D) and 0.8 ± 0.2 in brain and 0.9 ± 0.4 in spinal cord for κ light chain (E). (F and G) Virus-specific IgG2a and IgM levels in clarified supernatants from brain and spinal cord homogenates at the indicated time points were assessed by an ELISA. Arbitrary units reflect Ab levels converted to mg of tissue from 3 to 4 mice per time point. (H) Virus titers in brain or spinal cord supernatants were determined by a plaque assay and are expressed as mean PFU per mg of tissue ± SEM. Data are from two independent experiments with 5 to 10 total mice per time point. (I) Relative transcript levels of viral RNA in brain or spinal cord assessed by real-time PCR. Data depict the means ± SEM relative to GAPDH mRNA levels for 6 to 7 total mice per time point derived from two independent experiments. Significant differences between naive and infected brain or naive and infected spinal cord are indicated (*, P

    Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Mouse Assay, Infection, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Derivative Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Plaque Assay

    25) Product Images from "Identification of Toxoplasma Gondii Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH) Activity and Molecular Immunoprotection against Toxoplasmosis"

    Article Title: Identification of Toxoplasma Gondii Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH) Activity and Molecular Immunoprotection against Toxoplasmosis

    Journal: Vaccines

    doi: 10.3390/vaccines8020158

    Dynamic humoral immunoreaction of BALB/c mice under the induction of recombined TgTH protein. The BALB/c mice were classified into 4 groups at random and each of which contained 5 mice ( n = 5). In the three experimental groups, mice received the immunization of Freund adjuvant accompanied with the recombined protein TgTH (1:1), Freund adjuvant accompanied with pET-32a protein (1:1), and Freund adjuvant alone, and the fourth group was used as a blank control. The titers of IgG and the subclass IgG2a and IgG1 were detected on weeks 0, 2, 4, and 6. As for the absorption at 450 nm, the expression pattern was mean ± SD. As for the differences with statistical significance between groups in the identical time point, (***) referred to ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Dynamic humoral immunoreaction of BALB/c mice under the induction of recombined TgTH protein. The BALB/c mice were classified into 4 groups at random and each of which contained 5 mice ( n = 5). In the three experimental groups, mice received the immunization of Freund adjuvant accompanied with the recombined protein TgTH (1:1), Freund adjuvant accompanied with pET-32a protein (1:1), and Freund adjuvant alone, and the fourth group was used as a blank control. The titers of IgG and the subclass IgG2a and IgG1 were detected on weeks 0, 2, 4, and 6. As for the absorption at 450 nm, the expression pattern was mean ± SD. As for the differences with statistical significance between groups in the identical time point, (***) referred to ( p

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Positron Emission Tomography, Expressing

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    Incubation:

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    SouthernBiotech anti igg2b
    Impaired B cell responses in TC10 KO animals. ( A ) Serum was collected from naive WT and TC10 KO animals, and baseline titers of IgM, <t>IgG2b,</t> IgG2c, IgG3, and IgA were measured by sandwich ELISA. ( B – E ) WT and TC10 KO animals were infected with 10 4 PFU VACV (B and C) or 2.10 2 Influenza virus (D and E) by intra footpad (B and C) or intranasal injection (D and E), and the draining popliteal (B and C) or mediastinal (D and E) LNs were isolated 7 (B and C) or 9 (D and E) d later. Germinal center B cells (CD95 + GL-7 + (B and D) and plasma cells [CD138 + IgD lo (C and E)] were analyzed by flow cytometry. Quantifications are shown on the panels on the right and show the percentage of B cells in the indicated gates. ( F and G ) WT and TC10 KO mice were immunized with NP-KLH precipitated in Alum, and serum samples collected weekly for 28 d. NP-specific IgM and IgG3 (F) titers were measured, as well as total IgG titers (G). ( H ) ELISA analysis showing affinity maturation (expressed as the ratio of NP3 to NP23 titers) of total IgG in WT and TC10 KO animals. Data are from one representative of two to three independent experiments with at least three animals in each group. Student t test (ns: p > 0.05, * p
    Anti Igg2b, supplied by SouthernBiotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    SouthernBiotech fitc labeled goat anti mouse gam igg1
    Biofilm-derived cryptococcal cells exhibit increased capsular-associated fluorescent intensity. Immunofluorescent images of C. neoformans (A) H99 and (B) B3501 planktonic and biofilm-related cells after incubation with calcofluor white dye (CW; blue) and mAb <t>18B7-FITC-conjugated</t> goat anti-mouse <t>IgG</t> 1 (green) stained to label the cell wall and capsular polysaccharide, respectively. Each yellow arrow indicates magnified yeast cells in the inset. Scale bars, field: 20-μm and inset: 5-μm. (C) CW and (D) FITC fluorescence intensities were determined using the NIH imageJ 1.39u software. Bars represent the means of 100 cells (each symbol represents an individual cell) and error bars denote SDs. Asterisks denote P -value significance (*** P
    Fitc Labeled Goat Anti Mouse Gam Igg1, supplied by SouthernBiotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/fitc labeled goat anti mouse gam igg1/product/SouthernBiotech
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    93
    SouthernBiotech fitc labeled goat anti mouse igg1
    Specific IgM to C. neoformans polysaccharide capsule and complement promote fungal cell aggregation after incubation with METH. (A) Immunofluorescent images of C. neoformans after co-incubation with METH and either PBS, complement, mAb 12A1 (IgM), or combination of complement and IgM, the cells were washed and incubated with mAb <t>18B7-FITC-conjugated</t> goat anti-mouse <t>IgG</t> 1 stained to label the capsular polysaccharide. Scale bar, 10 μm. (B) Number of cell aggregates per field. Only clusters of ≥ 3 cryptococci were considered aggregates. (C) Cells per aggregate. Each aggregate was closely examined and the number of cells clustered was counted and recorded. For panels B and C , the number of cell aggregates per field and cells per aggregate was assessed after co-incubation of fungi with METH alone or METH with complement, IgM, or complement + IgM. Bars represent the means of multiple measurements and error bars denote SDs. Symbols (*, #, ϕ, @) denote P -value significance ( P
    Fitc Labeled Goat Anti Mouse Igg1, supplied by SouthernBiotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/fitc labeled goat anti mouse igg1/product/SouthernBiotech
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    fitc labeled goat anti mouse igg1 - by Bioz Stars, 2021-06
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    93
    SouthernBiotech ap labelled goat anti mouse igg1
    Expression of haemoglobin in Nippostrongylus brasiliensis . A ) N. brasilensis adult worms isolated from mouse guts were formalin fixed and stained with 4E8g (Anti-Hb). Detection was carried out using the anti-mouse <t>IgG</t> detection system with DAB. Haemoglobin is stained in brown. Counterstaining was performed with haemotoxylin. 400× magnification. B ) Small intestines of mice infected with N. brasiliensis (Day 7 post-infection) were formalin fixed, stained with Anti-Hb and counterstained with haemotoxylin. N. brasiliensis worms are indicated by arrows. 40× magnification. C ) N.brasilensis larvae in mouse intestines stained with 4E8g (left) and isotype control antibody (mouse <t>IgG1)(right).</t>
    Ap Labelled Goat Anti Mouse Igg1, supplied by SouthernBiotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/ap labelled goat anti mouse igg1/product/SouthernBiotech
    Average 93 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    ap labelled goat anti mouse igg1 - by Bioz Stars, 2021-06
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    Image Search Results


    Impaired B cell responses in TC10 KO animals. ( A ) Serum was collected from naive WT and TC10 KO animals, and baseline titers of IgM, IgG2b, IgG2c, IgG3, and IgA were measured by sandwich ELISA. ( B – E ) WT and TC10 KO animals were infected with 10 4 PFU VACV (B and C) or 2.10 2 Influenza virus (D and E) by intra footpad (B and C) or intranasal injection (D and E), and the draining popliteal (B and C) or mediastinal (D and E) LNs were isolated 7 (B and C) or 9 (D and E) d later. Germinal center B cells (CD95 + GL-7 + (B and D) and plasma cells [CD138 + IgD lo (C and E)] were analyzed by flow cytometry. Quantifications are shown on the panels on the right and show the percentage of B cells in the indicated gates. ( F and G ) WT and TC10 KO mice were immunized with NP-KLH precipitated in Alum, and serum samples collected weekly for 28 d. NP-specific IgM and IgG3 (F) titers were measured, as well as total IgG titers (G). ( H ) ELISA analysis showing affinity maturation (expressed as the ratio of NP3 to NP23 titers) of total IgG in WT and TC10 KO animals. Data are from one representative of two to three independent experiments with at least three animals in each group. Student t test (ns: p > 0.05, * p

    Journal: The Journal of Immunology Author Choice

    Article Title: The Small Rho GTPase TC10 Modulates B Cell Immune Responses

    doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1602167

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Impaired B cell responses in TC10 KO animals. ( A ) Serum was collected from naive WT and TC10 KO animals, and baseline titers of IgM, IgG2b, IgG2c, IgG3, and IgA were measured by sandwich ELISA. ( B – E ) WT and TC10 KO animals were infected with 10 4 PFU VACV (B and C) or 2.10 2 Influenza virus (D and E) by intra footpad (B and C) or intranasal injection (D and E), and the draining popliteal (B and C) or mediastinal (D and E) LNs were isolated 7 (B and C) or 9 (D and E) d later. Germinal center B cells (CD95 + GL-7 + (B and D) and plasma cells [CD138 + IgD lo (C and E)] were analyzed by flow cytometry. Quantifications are shown on the panels on the right and show the percentage of B cells in the indicated gates. ( F and G ) WT and TC10 KO mice were immunized with NP-KLH precipitated in Alum, and serum samples collected weekly for 28 d. NP-specific IgM and IgG3 (F) titers were measured, as well as total IgG titers (G). ( H ) ELISA analysis showing affinity maturation (expressed as the ratio of NP3 to NP23 titers) of total IgG in WT and TC10 KO animals. Data are from one representative of two to three independent experiments with at least three animals in each group. Student t test (ns: p > 0.05, * p

    Article Snippet: Biotinylated anti-IgM (553406; BD Biosciences), anti-IgG2b (Southern Biotech), IgG2c (Southern Biotech), or anti-IL6 (Clone MP5-32C11; BD Biosciences) Abs were used for detection.

    Techniques: Sandwich ELISA, Infection, Injection, Isolation, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Mouse Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Biofilm-derived cryptococcal cells exhibit increased capsular-associated fluorescent intensity. Immunofluorescent images of C. neoformans (A) H99 and (B) B3501 planktonic and biofilm-related cells after incubation with calcofluor white dye (CW; blue) and mAb 18B7-FITC-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG 1 (green) stained to label the cell wall and capsular polysaccharide, respectively. Each yellow arrow indicates magnified yeast cells in the inset. Scale bars, field: 20-μm and inset: 5-μm. (C) CW and (D) FITC fluorescence intensities were determined using the NIH imageJ 1.39u software. Bars represent the means of 100 cells (each symbol represents an individual cell) and error bars denote SDs. Asterisks denote P -value significance (*** P

    Journal: Fungal genetics and biology : FG & B

    Article Title: Reduced phagocytosis and killing of Cryptococcus neoformans biofilm-derived cells by J774.16 macrophages is associated with fungal capsular production and surface modification

    doi: 10.1016/j.fgb.2019.103258

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Biofilm-derived cryptococcal cells exhibit increased capsular-associated fluorescent intensity. Immunofluorescent images of C. neoformans (A) H99 and (B) B3501 planktonic and biofilm-related cells after incubation with calcofluor white dye (CW; blue) and mAb 18B7-FITC-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG 1 (green) stained to label the cell wall and capsular polysaccharide, respectively. Each yellow arrow indicates magnified yeast cells in the inset. Scale bars, field: 20-μm and inset: 5-μm. (C) CW and (D) FITC fluorescence intensities were determined using the NIH imageJ 1.39u software. Bars represent the means of 100 cells (each symbol represents an individual cell) and error bars denote SDs. Asterisks denote P -value significance (*** P

    Article Snippet: FITC-labeled goat anti-mouse (GAM)-IgG1 (Southern Biotech) was added at 2 μg/mL after application of unconjugated mAb.

    Techniques: Derivative Assay, Incubation, Staining, Fluorescence, Software

    C. neoformans biofilm-related cells display a punctate fluorescence pattern after the binding of GXM-binding mAb 18B7 conjugated to FITC. (A) Immunofluorescent images of C. neoformans planktonic and biofilm-related cells after incubation with mAb 18B7-FITC-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG 1 stained to label the capsular polysaccharide. Each yellow arrow indicates magnified yeast cells in the inset. Scale bars, field: 20-μm and inset: 5-μm. (B) Percentage of cryptococci showing a mAb 18B7-FITC punctate binding pattern. Bars represent the means of multiple fields and error bars denote SDs. Asterisks denote P -value significance (*** P

    Journal: Fungal genetics and biology : FG & B

    Article Title: Reduced phagocytosis and killing of Cryptococcus neoformans biofilm-derived cells by J774.16 macrophages is associated with fungal capsular production and surface modification

    doi: 10.1016/j.fgb.2019.103258

    Figure Lengend Snippet: C. neoformans biofilm-related cells display a punctate fluorescence pattern after the binding of GXM-binding mAb 18B7 conjugated to FITC. (A) Immunofluorescent images of C. neoformans planktonic and biofilm-related cells after incubation with mAb 18B7-FITC-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG 1 stained to label the capsular polysaccharide. Each yellow arrow indicates magnified yeast cells in the inset. Scale bars, field: 20-μm and inset: 5-μm. (B) Percentage of cryptococci showing a mAb 18B7-FITC punctate binding pattern. Bars represent the means of multiple fields and error bars denote SDs. Asterisks denote P -value significance (*** P

    Article Snippet: FITC-labeled goat anti-mouse (GAM)-IgG1 (Southern Biotech) was added at 2 μg/mL after application of unconjugated mAb.

    Techniques: Fluorescence, Binding Assay, Incubation, Staining

    Biofilm formation by C. neoformans strains H99 (serotype A) and B3501 (serotype D). (A) The kinetics of biofilm formation by C. neoformans strains H99 and B3501 was compared and determined using XTT reduction assay. Each time point denotes the average of four independent measurements per strain and error bars indicate standard deviations (SDs). (B) Confocal microscopic images of C. neoformans H99 and B3501 strain biofilms after 48 h. Representative images of mature fungal biofilms showed metabolically active (red; FUN-1-stained) cells embedded in the polysaccharide extracellular material (green; stained with mAb 18B7-FITC-conjugated GAM IgG1). The pictures were taken at a magnification of ×63. Scale bar, 20-μm. (C) The thickness of the cryptococcal biofilms was determined using Z-stack reconstruction. Bars are the averages of the results for five independent measurements (each symbol represents an individual measurement) per strain, and error bars denote SDs. Asterisk denotes P -value significance ( P

    Journal: Fungal genetics and biology : FG & B

    Article Title: Reduced phagocytosis and killing of Cryptococcus neoformans biofilm-derived cells by J774.16 macrophages is associated with fungal capsular production and surface modification

    doi: 10.1016/j.fgb.2019.103258

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Biofilm formation by C. neoformans strains H99 (serotype A) and B3501 (serotype D). (A) The kinetics of biofilm formation by C. neoformans strains H99 and B3501 was compared and determined using XTT reduction assay. Each time point denotes the average of four independent measurements per strain and error bars indicate standard deviations (SDs). (B) Confocal microscopic images of C. neoformans H99 and B3501 strain biofilms after 48 h. Representative images of mature fungal biofilms showed metabolically active (red; FUN-1-stained) cells embedded in the polysaccharide extracellular material (green; stained with mAb 18B7-FITC-conjugated GAM IgG1). The pictures were taken at a magnification of ×63. Scale bar, 20-μm. (C) The thickness of the cryptococcal biofilms was determined using Z-stack reconstruction. Bars are the averages of the results for five independent measurements (each symbol represents an individual measurement) per strain, and error bars denote SDs. Asterisk denotes P -value significance ( P

    Article Snippet: FITC-labeled goat anti-mouse (GAM)-IgG1 (Southern Biotech) was added at 2 μg/mL after application of unconjugated mAb.

    Techniques: Metabolic Labelling, Staining

    Specific IgM to C. neoformans polysaccharide capsule and complement promote fungal cell aggregation after incubation with METH. (A) Immunofluorescent images of C. neoformans after co-incubation with METH and either PBS, complement, mAb 12A1 (IgM), or combination of complement and IgM, the cells were washed and incubated with mAb 18B7-FITC-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG 1 stained to label the capsular polysaccharide. Scale bar, 10 μm. (B) Number of cell aggregates per field. Only clusters of ≥ 3 cryptococci were considered aggregates. (C) Cells per aggregate. Each aggregate was closely examined and the number of cells clustered was counted and recorded. For panels B and C , the number of cell aggregates per field and cells per aggregate was assessed after co-incubation of fungi with METH alone or METH with complement, IgM, or complement + IgM. Bars represent the means of multiple measurements and error bars denote SDs. Symbols (*, #, ϕ, @) denote P -value significance ( P

    Journal: International immunopharmacology

    Article Title: Capsular specific IgM enhances complement-mediated phagocytosis and killing of Cryptococcus neoformans by methamphetamine-treated J774.16 macrophage-like cells

    doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2017.05.024

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Specific IgM to C. neoformans polysaccharide capsule and complement promote fungal cell aggregation after incubation with METH. (A) Immunofluorescent images of C. neoformans after co-incubation with METH and either PBS, complement, mAb 12A1 (IgM), or combination of complement and IgM, the cells were washed and incubated with mAb 18B7-FITC-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG 1 stained to label the capsular polysaccharide. Scale bar, 10 μm. (B) Number of cell aggregates per field. Only clusters of ≥ 3 cryptococci were considered aggregates. (C) Cells per aggregate. Each aggregate was closely examined and the number of cells clustered was counted and recorded. For panels B and C , the number of cell aggregates per field and cells per aggregate was assessed after co-incubation of fungi with METH alone or METH with complement, IgM, or complement + IgM. Bars represent the means of multiple measurements and error bars denote SDs. Symbols (*, #, ϕ, @) denote P -value significance ( P

    Article Snippet: FITC-labeled goat anti-mouse-IgG1 (Southern Biotech) was added at 2 μg/mL after application of unconjugated mAb.

    Techniques: Incubation, Staining

    Expression of haemoglobin in Nippostrongylus brasiliensis . A ) N. brasilensis adult worms isolated from mouse guts were formalin fixed and stained with 4E8g (Anti-Hb). Detection was carried out using the anti-mouse IgG detection system with DAB. Haemoglobin is stained in brown. Counterstaining was performed with haemotoxylin. 400× magnification. B ) Small intestines of mice infected with N. brasiliensis (Day 7 post-infection) were formalin fixed, stained with Anti-Hb and counterstained with haemotoxylin. N. brasiliensis worms are indicated by arrows. 40× magnification. C ) N.brasilensis larvae in mouse intestines stained with 4E8g (left) and isotype control antibody (mouse IgG1)(right).

    Journal: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Article Title: A Cross-Reactive Monoclonal Antibody to Nematode Haemoglobin Enhances Protective Immune Responses to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002395

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Expression of haemoglobin in Nippostrongylus brasiliensis . A ) N. brasilensis adult worms isolated from mouse guts were formalin fixed and stained with 4E8g (Anti-Hb). Detection was carried out using the anti-mouse IgG detection system with DAB. Haemoglobin is stained in brown. Counterstaining was performed with haemotoxylin. 400× magnification. B ) Small intestines of mice infected with N. brasiliensis (Day 7 post-infection) were formalin fixed, stained with Anti-Hb and counterstained with haemotoxylin. N. brasiliensis worms are indicated by arrows. 40× magnification. C ) N.brasilensis larvae in mouse intestines stained with 4E8g (left) and isotype control antibody (mouse IgG1)(right).

    Article Snippet: For the detection of haemoglobin-specific mouse IgG and IgE, serum collected from Anisakis -infected mice in a previous study was used with AP-labelled goat anti-mouse IgG1 (Southern Biotech, USA) and goat anti-mouse IgE (Southern Biotech, USA) as secondary antibodies.

    Techniques: Expressing, Isolation, Staining, Mouse Assay, Infection

    Expression of haemoglobin in Ascaris lumbricoides . A ) Longitudinal sections and B ) cross sections of a formalin-fixed A. lumbricodes adult worm was stained with 4E8g (Anti-Hb) and detected with the anti-mouse IgG detection system with DAB. C ) A.lumbricoides section stained with isotype control antibody (mouse IgG1). Haemoglobin is stained in brown. Counterstaining was performed with haemotoxylin. All photos taken at 40× magnification.

    Journal: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Article Title: A Cross-Reactive Monoclonal Antibody to Nematode Haemoglobin Enhances Protective Immune Responses to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002395

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Expression of haemoglobin in Ascaris lumbricoides . A ) Longitudinal sections and B ) cross sections of a formalin-fixed A. lumbricodes adult worm was stained with 4E8g (Anti-Hb) and detected with the anti-mouse IgG detection system with DAB. C ) A.lumbricoides section stained with isotype control antibody (mouse IgG1). Haemoglobin is stained in brown. Counterstaining was performed with haemotoxylin. All photos taken at 40× magnification.

    Article Snippet: For the detection of haemoglobin-specific mouse IgG and IgE, serum collected from Anisakis -infected mice in a previous study was used with AP-labelled goat anti-mouse IgG1 (Southern Biotech, USA) and goat anti-mouse IgE (Southern Biotech, USA) as secondary antibodies.

    Techniques: Expressing, Staining

    Immunoblotting with purified haemoglobin. A ) Specific IgG1 against purified Anisakis haemoglobin in serum from mice infected at week 0 with two live A. pegreffii L3 and re-infected at week 8 with 2 L3. Serum was collected at week 11. Each lane represents one individual mouse. B ) Specific IgE against purified Anisakis haemoglobin in mouse serum, collected as in (A). Each lane represents one individual mouse. C ) Specific IgG against purified Ascaris haemoglobin in human serum samples that were negative (0 kU/L specific IgE, CAP-RAST) or positive (0.9–17.9 kU/L specific IgE, CAP-RAST) for Ascaris specific antibodies. Each lane represents one individual.

    Journal: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Article Title: A Cross-Reactive Monoclonal Antibody to Nematode Haemoglobin Enhances Protective Immune Responses to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002395

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Immunoblotting with purified haemoglobin. A ) Specific IgG1 against purified Anisakis haemoglobin in serum from mice infected at week 0 with two live A. pegreffii L3 and re-infected at week 8 with 2 L3. Serum was collected at week 11. Each lane represents one individual mouse. B ) Specific IgE against purified Anisakis haemoglobin in mouse serum, collected as in (A). Each lane represents one individual mouse. C ) Specific IgG against purified Ascaris haemoglobin in human serum samples that were negative (0 kU/L specific IgE, CAP-RAST) or positive (0.9–17.9 kU/L specific IgE, CAP-RAST) for Ascaris specific antibodies. Each lane represents one individual.

    Article Snippet: For the detection of haemoglobin-specific mouse IgG and IgE, serum collected from Anisakis -infected mice in a previous study was used with AP-labelled goat anti-mouse IgG1 (Southern Biotech, USA) and goat anti-mouse IgE (Southern Biotech, USA) as secondary antibodies.

    Techniques: Purification, Mouse Assay, Infection, RAST Test

    Expression of haemoglobin in Anisakis pegreffii . A–D ) A. pegreffii L3 collected from Thyrsites atun were formalin fixed and stained with 4E8g (Anti-Hb). E–F ) A. pegreffii L3 sections were stained with isotype control antibody (mouse IgG1). Detection was carried out using the anti-mouse IgG detection system with DAB. Haemoglobin is stained in brown. Counterstaining was performed with haemotoxylin. All photos taken at 200× magnification.

    Journal: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Article Title: A Cross-Reactive Monoclonal Antibody to Nematode Haemoglobin Enhances Protective Immune Responses to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002395

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Expression of haemoglobin in Anisakis pegreffii . A–D ) A. pegreffii L3 collected from Thyrsites atun were formalin fixed and stained with 4E8g (Anti-Hb). E–F ) A. pegreffii L3 sections were stained with isotype control antibody (mouse IgG1). Detection was carried out using the anti-mouse IgG detection system with DAB. Haemoglobin is stained in brown. Counterstaining was performed with haemotoxylin. All photos taken at 200× magnification.

    Article Snippet: For the detection of haemoglobin-specific mouse IgG and IgE, serum collected from Anisakis -infected mice in a previous study was used with AP-labelled goat anti-mouse IgG1 (Southern Biotech, USA) and goat anti-mouse IgE (Southern Biotech, USA) as secondary antibodies.

    Techniques: Expressing, Staining